TITLE:                    Attitudes Toward Victims of Child Sexual Abuse Among Adults From Four Ethnic-Cultural Groups.


AUTHOR:               Rodriguez-Srednicki, O.;  Twaite, J. A.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Sexual Abuse


SOURCE:                8(3): pp. 1-24;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 1999


ABSTRACT:           Attitudes toward a teen victim of sexual abuse were assessed among adults living in New York City representing four ethnic- cultural groups: 40 were Cuban Americans; 46 were Puerto Ricans; 40 were African Americans; and 91 were Anglo-Americans. Respondents read a vignette describing the teenage female victim, the perpetrator, and the nature of the abuse. Then they completed on a semantic-differential consisting of 10 bipolar adjective rating scales. Factor analysis of the ratings indicated that the respondents conceptualized the victim in terms of a negative evaluation dimension and an assertiveness dimension. A multivariate analysis of variance indicated that the Cuban American group evaluated the victim more negatively than the Puerto Rican group. The ratings assigned to the victim on the assertiveness factor were significantly lower among female respondents than among male respondents. Results were interpreted as supporting the position that victims of child sexual abuse may be stigmatized as a result of their experience, and that the likelihood that this will occur may vary from one cultural group to another. Clinicians working with victims should routinely assess the culturally related attitudes of a victim's family toward the victim, the perpetrator, and the meaning of the sexual abuse. 57 references and 6 tables. (Author abstract)


KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  child abuse research;  public opinion;  social attitudes;  cultural differences;  victim blaming;  parental reactions;  parental attitudes


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com



TITLE:                    Incarcerated Child Molestors' Perceptions of Themselves and Others.


AUTHOR:               Horley, J.;  Quinsey, W. L.;  Jones, S.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Millbrook Correctional Center, ON (Canada). Dept. of Psychology.


SOURCE:                9(1): pp. 43-55;  New York, NY, Plenum Publishing Corp., January 1997


ABSTRACT:           This study was conducted to replicate and to expand earlier findings concerning child molesters' perceptions of themselves, children, and adults. Sixty-eight men incarcerated in the Ontario correctional system for sexual offenses against children and 70 men with person-related' but nonsexual offenses participated in the research. In accord with previous results, differences between molesters and nonmolesters in terms of their actual and ideal self-descriptions on the semantic differential were found. Molesters described themselves in less positive sexual terms than did nonmolesters. Women were seen by molesters more negatively with respect to sexual and physical characteristics than by nonmolesters, although, somewhat paradoxically, molesters described women as more trusting and mature than nonmolesters did. Molesters also reported a more positive view of women on the Attitudes Toward Women Scale than comparison participants. Molesters and nonmolesters also differed in terms of their responses to the Criminal Sentiments Scale, with child molesters reporting a more favorable view of the police, courts, and legal process than comparison participants. A similar finding was revealed in ratings of authority figures: Child molesters described authorities as kinder and less repulsive, deceitful, and unpleasant than comparison participants. All scales employed revealed a moderate to high temporal consistency. Some clinical implications and applications of the work are discussed briefly. 33 references and 2 tables. (Author abstract)


KEY TERMS:         sex offenders;  pedophiles;  canada;  sex offenders therapy;  self concept;  characteristics of abuser


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.plenum.com



TITLE:                    Assessing the Cognitions of Child Molesters: Use of the Semantic Differential With Incarcerated Offenders.


AUTHOR:               Horley, J.;  Quinsey, V. L.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Sex Research


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Millbrook Correctional Centre, ON (Canada).


SOURCE:                31(3): pp. 171-179;  Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality, Mount Vernon, IA., 1994;  p. 674


ABSTRACT:           Although the importance of examining child molesters' thoughts about themselves and others is recognized, approaches to the assessment of molesters' cognitions have yet to be examined in detail. This study compared the responses of 57 incarcerated child molesters, 50 incarcerated offenders without sexual offenses, and 30 nonincarcerated men recruited from the community on a specially constructed version of the Semantic Differential. The Semantic Differential data showed a reasonable factor structure and, when repeated on subgroups of respondents after roughly eight weeks, acceptable temporal reliability. Differences emerged between molesters and nonmolesters in their actual and ideal self-description (e.g., nonmolesters described themselves as cleaner, harder, more erotic, and more seductive). Women were seen as less erotic by molesters than nonmolesters. Within the child molester group, offenders who had killed their young victims described males as more deceitful but more seductive than did those with less violent offenses. Modifications to the Semantic Differential and implications for further forensic research and clinical work are discussed. 29 references and 6 tables. (Author abstract)


KEY TERMS:         sex offenders;  assessment;  psychological evaluation;  characteristics of abuser;  self concept;  self evaluation;  cognitive measurement;  cognitive processes


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article



TITLE:                    Strengthening Decision-Making: A Handbook for Indian Child Welfare Program Staff.


AUTHOR:               Mannes, M.;  McDonald, W. R.;  Ying-Ying, Y.




SOURCE:                American Law Center Inc., Albuquerque, NM. Diffusion Center, 1988;  43 pp.


ABSTRACT:           This handbook offers ideas and suggestions to improve decision making while remaining sensitive to the environments in which Indian child welfare programs operate. A framework for understanding the process is presented, with identification of major milestones and critical decisions. Decision making tools are presented and the concept of decision support instruments is introduced. Several such instruments are described and samples are presented. Guidelines for management practice in the context of agency work are included. Figures illustrate semantic networks of decision making. 15 references and numerous figures.


KEY TERMS:         decision making;  american indians;  child welfare services;  program improvement;  guidelines;  supervisors role;  case management


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Technical Report



TITLE:                    Psychologists' Attitudes Toward Children Having Various Disabilities.


AUTHOR:               Tolor, A.;  Geller, D.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Psychological Reports


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Fairfield Univ., CT. School of Graduate and Continuing Education.


SOURCE:                60(3): pp. 1177-1178;  Southern Universities Press, Missoula, MT., 1987


ABSTRACT:           Psychologists' attitudes toward various disabling conditions in children were assessed on three different measures: an Adoption Scale, a Semantic Differential Measure, and a Social Distance Scale. Respondents were 61 members of two state psychological associations. Disability-specific and measure-specific attitudes differed from those attitudes reported in the literature for other groups. (Author abstract)


KEY TERMS:         disabilities;  adopted children;  psychologists;  waiting children;  special needs;  evaluation


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article



TITLE:                    Characteristics of a Helpful Relationship: A Study of Empathic Understanding and Positive Regard Between Runaways and Their Parents.


AUTHOR:               Spillane-Grieco, E.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Adolescence


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Rutgers Univ., Graduate School of Social Work, New Brunswick, NJ.


SOURCE:                19(73): pp. 63-75;  San Diego, CA, Libra Publishers, Inc., Spring 1984


ABSTRACT:           Runaways were randomly matched to a group of adolescent nonrunaways to assess the interpersonal relationship between runaways and their respective parents in terms of empathic understanding and positive regard. Each group consisted of 30 teenagers matched for age, sex, family structure, and ethnicity. The parents of the runaways numbered 43 (29 mothers and 14 fathers). Four different measures were used: the Barrett-Lennard Relationship Inventory (BLRI), which contains 2 separate scales for the measurement of empathic understanding and positive regard; the Semantic Differential; and a semistructured interview used with the runaways and their parents only. Scores of the runaways in each category -- empathy from mother, from father, and from parents -- were significantly lower than the scores of nonrunaways. There were no significant differences in parents' BLRI scores. Runaways scored significantly lower than the nonrunaways in each positive regard category -positive regard felt from mother, from father, and from both parents. The runaways' parents revealed extensive histories of problem-related incidents associated with their children who eventually ran away. The findings confirmed the assumption that the interpersonal relationship between the runaway adolescent and his or her parents was influential in the decision to run away. 6 tables and 10 references.


KEY TERMS:         runaway children;  father child relationships;  mother child relationships;  family problems


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article



TITLE:                    Women Who Abuse Their Children.


AUTHOR:               Rosen, B.;  Stein, M. T.




JOURNAL TITLE:    American Journal of Diseases of Children


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    California Univ., San Diego. Dept. of Pediatrics.


SOURCE:                134(10): pp. 947-950;  American Medical Association, Chicago, IL, October 1980


ABSTRACT:           A comparative study involving 30 abusive and 30 nonabusive mothers was designed to determine self-concepts typical of each group. The abusive mothers were recruited from a counseling group at the Family Stress Center in Chula Vista, California; the control group consisted of mothers attending the Pediatric Primary Care Center at University Hospital in San Diego. Questionnaires administered to both groups contained a demographic assessment form; Weedman's Self-Concept Incongruence Scale, a 16-scale semantic differential test designed to assess positive self-concept, self-concept congruence, and self-concept inconsistency; and Gordon's Survey of Interpersonal Values, a 6-scale forced-choice questionnaire that measures the most salient values involved in a person's relationships with others. Results indicated that the abusive mothers had lower self-concepts and higher self-concept incongruence and inconsistency than the nonabusive mothers. Abusers also were found to value authority more and conformity and benevolence less than nonabusers. Practically applied, the data suggest that pediatricians assume an educative and supportive role to enhance parents' self-concepts and lower unrealistic expectations. In addition, there is a need to develop access to support groups, day care, and other avenues for the mother's personal growth. 16 references.


KEY TERMS:         comparative testing;  maternal abuse;  maternal behavior;  self concept;  rating scales;  pediatricians role;  individual characteristics


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.ama-assn.org



TITLE:                    Public Opinion and Intervention in Child Neglect.


AUTHOR:               Polansky, N. A.;  Doroff, C.;  Kramer, E.;  Hess, D. S.;  Pollane, L. P.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Social Work Research and Abstracts


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Georgia Univ., Athens. School of Social Work.


SOURCE:                14(3): pp. 11-15;  Washington, DC, National Association of Social Workers, 1978


ABSTRACT:           A method for exploring social values relevant to social work interventions is described, and public opinion data concerning interventions in cases of child neglect are presented. Results from 3 disparate samples show that assignment of a social worker to a family, either to try to help improve child care or at least to stay in touch, is regarded as both humane and likely to be effective, and referral to a mental health practitioner is also well regarded. Respondents were not in favor of society's refusal to take responsibility for action, nor were they in favor of permanent removal of the children from the parents. Punitive action, such as jailing the parents, also was not favored. Results obtained from undergraduate students using the semantic differential technique appear generalizable to other populations. 16 references.


KEY TERMS:         child neglect;  social work;  social workers role;  attitudes;  questionnaires;  social values;  public opinion;  intervention


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.naswpress.org



TITLE:                    Child Abuse on Main Street: Semantics in the Suburbs.


AUTHOR:               Guthrie, A. D.




SOURCE:                In: Ebeling, N. B.; Hill, D. A. (Editors). Child Abuse: Intervention and Treatment. Acton, MA, Publishing Sciences Group, Inc., 1975;  pp. 23-28


ABSTRACT:           Incidence data regarding child abuse seem to indicate a preponderance of cases in urban areas and a paucity of reports from suburban areas, but this is probably not a valid demographic indication for a number of reasons. A number of factors contributes to the lack of identification of cases in suburban areas: large centers for detection and treatment tend to be situated in large cities and their medical schools; health care providers are generally reluctant to report cases; services for other than the poor lack coordination; and private medical care tends to be specialized in nature. The relatively small volume of reported cases of neglect and abuse from the private sector suggests that the integrity of the family takes precedence. Recent change in the Massachusetts reporting statute expanding the number of professionals required to report is expected to increase the efficiency of reporting. Educational programs for medical personnel, improved communications among community-based service agencies, and improved knowledge of and experience in family development and childrearing practices are recommended. 4 references.


KEY TERMS:         child abuse reporting;  massachusetts;  child abuse laws;  failure to report abuse;  educational programs;  physicians responsibility;  interagency cooperation;  detection


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book



TITLE:                    The MMPI: A Descriptive Measure of Psychopathology in Abusive Parents.


AUTHOR:               Paulson, M. J.;  Afifi, A. A.;  Thomason, M. L.;  Chaleff, A.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Clinical Psychology


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    California Univ., Los Angeles. Dept. of Psychiatry.


SOURCE:                30(3): pp. 387-390;  New York, NY, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., July 1974


ABSTRACT:           The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) was administered to 33 mothers and 27 fathers referred to the UCLA Child Trauma Intervention Program because of child abuse or neglect in the family. Their scores were compared to those of 63 mothers and 37 fathers selected at random from the UCLA child psychiatric outpatient clinic to discover which personality traits distinguished maltreating parents from others. Maltreating parents were divided into 3 groups: abusers (AB), passive abusers (those who had done nothing to prevent a spouse's maltreatment (PA)), and absolute nonabusers (ANA); the other subjects were controls (CO). PA mothers showed high interpersonal isolation, paranoid-like thinking, antiestablishment conflicts, and depression. Anxiety, obsessional thinking, ambivalence, self-doubt, introversiveness, and impulse potential were also high. AB mothers showed low neurotic anxiety and minimal somatizing, self-doubts, depression, or expressed insecurity. They also showed high projection, antiestablishment conflict, and impulse potential. Their dominant profile was 4-9-6. ANA mothers demonstrated the least psychopathology; their profile was 9-4-2. AB fathers displayed a 9-4-2-6 profile with low defensiveness and high psychotic-like measures. ANA fathers had low depression and high sematic, hysterical-like denial. PA fathers showed somewhat elevated defensiveness scores. CO fathers showed high neurotic symptoms and interpersonal and authority conflicts but low idiosyncratic thinking and psychotic-like symptoms. These findings indicate that MMPI scores are useful in discovering high risk families and distinguishing different types of maltreating parents. 12 references.


KEY TERMS:         personality tests;  abusive parents;  personality problems


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.interscience.wiley.com