TITLE:                    Posttraumatic Stress and Mental Health Functioning of Sexually Abused Children.

 

AUTHOR:               Avery, L.;  Massat, C. R.;  Lundy, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                17(1): pp. 19-34;  Kluwer Academic-Human Sciences Press, Inc., Dordrecht (The Netherlands)., February 2000;  p. 31

 

ABSTRACT:           The authors explored the relationships between the mental health functioning of sexual abuse victims and post traumatic stress disorder, using data collected from the Non-Offending Parents project, a four-year project funded by the National Center for Child Abuse and Neglect. Longitudinal data were collected from 53 sexually abused children; unlike numerous previous studies, standardized instruments such as the Child Assessment Schedule and the Child Post-traumatic Stress Reaction Index were used for data collection. Data analysis supported the hypothesis that the post traumatic stress level of children who had been sexually abused is associated with level of child mental health functioning. Nearly all the children experienced a clinical level of posttraumatic stress and were diagnosed as having posttraumatic stress disorder. Results suggest that clinicians intervening with children who have been sexually abused should assess and treat posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Theauthors recommend use of standardized instruments to facilitate comparison across studies and additional longitudinal studies to add further depth to the knowledge base. Four tables, numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         post traumatic stress disorder;  mental health;  sexual abuse;  research;  longitudinal studies;  data collection;  data analysis;  psychopathology

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wkap.nl

 

 

TITLE:                    Medicolegal Aspects of Child Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:               Myers, J. E. B.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Pacific Univ., Sacramento, CA. McGeorge School of Law.

 

SOURCE:                In: Reece, R. M. (Editor). Treatment of Child Abuse: Common Mental Health, Medical, and Legal Practitioners. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD., 2000;  p. 36

 

ABSTRACT:           Children s statements during examinations and interviews have forensic as well as medical significance. Under certain circumstances, the child s statements are inadmissible as evidence, due to the hearsay rules of evidence. There are, however, important exceptions. They include the excited utterance exception, disclosure under the doctrine of fresh complaint, statements made during diagnostic or treatment services, and the residual and child hearsay exceptions. Interviewing techniquesmust include the avoidance of suggestive or leading questions. Confidentiality and privileged communication have well-defined boundaries, and child abuse reporting laws override confidentiality and privilege. A professional called upon to appear in court as an expert witness should review only those portions of the record needed for the testimony and should document the parts of the record reviewed. Privileged and nonprivileged materials should be separated in the record. If one takes the record tocourt, limit what is taken to the intended testimony. If possible, do not take the record to the witness stand, and if it is taken, refer to it only if necessary. Expert testimony usually takes one of three forms: an opinion, an answer to a hypotheticalquestion, or a lecture providing information to the judge or jury. Be prepared for cross-examination, understanding that the defense attorney will try to raise doubts about the expert testimony. This is done by trying to limit the expert s ability to explain, by undermining the expert s assumptions, by impeaching the expert with a learned treatise, or by raising the issue of the expert s bias toward the prosecution. 33 references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         medical aspects of child abuse;  physicians role;  legal processes;  expert testimony;  expert witnesses;  rules of evidence;  hearsay rule;  confidentiality

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.press.jhu.edu

 

 

TITLE:                    No Ordinary Life: Parenting the Sexually Abused Child and Adolescent.

 

AUTHOR:               Knauer, S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

SOURCE:                Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Ltd., Springfield, IL., February 2000;  p. 75

 

ABSTRACT:           This book for survivors of sexual abuse and their caregivers explains the impact of sexual abuse on child behavior and suggests parenting strategies for supporting the healing process. It reviews the signs of sexual abuse and describes how to respond to a disclosure of abuse. Legal aspects and court processes are addressed, as well as discipline and managing behaviors such as eating disorders, self-mutilation, anger, and shame. Other topics include survivors in foster care and group homes, intimacy and sexuality among survivors, survivors as parents, and how to start a survivor s group. Suggestions for breaking the cycle of abuse are also presented. The book is intended to provide a sense of kinship for survivors and understanding for nonsurvivors.

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  sequelae;  parenting skills;  symptoms;  disclosure;  child behavior;  discipline;  group

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

INTERNET URL:   www.ccthomas.com

 

 

TITLE:                    A Theory of Children's Services: Reflections on Epstein's Indictment.

 

AUTHOR:               Stoesz, D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Children and Youth Services Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                22(1): pp. 1-11;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., January 2000;  p. 130

 

ABSTRACT:           This article reviews criticisms of the current child welfare system and suggests policy changes that will improve services for abused children and their families. Some of the remarks depict the child welfare system as perpetuating inferior practices without the desire to assess the outcomes of its services. The public child welfare system serves primarily poor, minority families, while wealthier families are treated by private and sometimes commercial service providers. Workers inthe public sector tend to be less qualified than those in private services and are expected to care for children who are more traumatized with multiple risk factors. Recommendations for child welfare reform include: national certification for children'sservices workers, focusing on competency in forensic procedures, social policy, child and family development, research, and finance; tax on alcoholic beverages to be used for a wide variety of proven child abuse prevention initiatives; tax on commercialchild and family service providers to fund locally integrated categorical programs; federal funding based on child morbidity and mortality; open cases of children with serious injuries or deaths while in care; establish a child research institute in each federal region; require philanthropies that are funding children and family issues to allocate 25 percent of their resources to programs that utilize best practices; and create a tax credit for children's mentors. 14 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         child welfare reform;  service delivery;  program models;  public policy;  policy formation;  funding;  advocacy;  research needs

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Social Support and the Relationship Between Family and Community Violence Exposure and Psychopathology Among High Risk Adolescents.

 

AUTHOR:               Muller, R. T.;  Goebel-Fabbri, A. E.;  Diamond, T.;  Dinklage, D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                24(4): pp. 449-464;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., April 2000;  p. 170

 

ABSTRACT:           The objective of this study was to examine the protective effect of social support in the relationship between exposure to violence and psychopathology. Exposure to violence in the family and exposure to violence in the community were examined separately. Exposure to violence was further divided according to whether violence was experienced as a victim or as a witness. Internalizing and externalizing forms of psychopathology, as well as post-traumatic stress symptomatology were measured. Participants consisted of 65 high-risk adolescents admitted consecutively to psychiatric inpatient units. Data were collected by means of individual interviews, self-report questionnaires, and hospital charts. Social support emerged as a protective factor with respect to the maladaptive effects of family violence, experienced as either a victim or as a witness. In contrast, social support did not appear to buffer the maladaptive effects of community violence, regardless of whether violence was experienced as a victim or as a witness. In fact, the relationship between community violence and psychopathology was found to be generally nonsignificant regardless of social support status. These findings suggest that exposure to family violence may affect development differently than exposure to community violence, allowing social support to effectively buffer the effects of family, but not community, violence. This finding highlights the importance of examining violence exposure that occurs within the family separately from violence exposure that occurs within the community. 58 references and 10 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         adolescents;  psychopathology;  sequelae;  community violence;  family violence;  social isolation;  resilience;  child witnesses of family violence

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Children in Foster Care: Factors Influencing Outpatient Mental Health Service Use.

 

AUTHOR:               Leslie, L. K.;  Landsverk, J.;  Ezzet-Lofstrom, R.;  Tschann, J. M..;  et al.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    California Univ., San Diego. Children's Hospital.

 

SOURCE:                24(4): pp. 465-476;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., April 2000;  p. 172

 

ABSTRACT:           Detailed survey and administrative data were collected on 480 children who entered long-term foster care in San Diego County to determine factors influencing the utilization of outpatient mental health services by children in foster care. Data were linked with claims data from Medicaid and San Diego County Mental Health Services information systems. A Poisson regression model was used to determine whether the following factors influenced outpatient mental health service use: age; race-ethnicity; gender; maltreatment history; placement pattern; and behavioral problems as measured by the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist. Except for maltreatment history, all independent variables included in the multivariate regression model were statistically significant. The total number of outpatient mental health visits increased with age, male gender, and non-relative foster placements. Relative to Caucasians, visits were lower for Latinos, and Asian-Others, but comparable for African-Americans. Concerning maltreatment history, differences were only found in one category: children experiencing caretaker absence received fewer visits compared to children who did not experience caretaker absence. Children with CBCL Total ProblemScale T-scores of 60 or greater had significantly more visits than those with a score less than 60. Both clinical and non-clinical factors influence outpatient mental health service use by foster children. Limitations imposed by gender, race-ethnicity, and placement setting need to be addressed by child welfare policies. These findings suggest that guidelines are needed to systematically link children in foster care with behavioral problems to appropriate services. 44 references and 2 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         utilization;  mental health services;  foster children;  outpatient treatment;  predictor variables;  age factors;  racial factors;  child behavior

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    From Maltreatment Report to Juvenile Incarceration: The Role of Child Welfare Services.

 

AUTHOR:               Jonson-Reid, M.;  Barth, R. P.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO. George Warren Brown School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                24(4): pp. 505-520;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., April 2000;  p. 188

 

ABSTRACT:           This study examined whether children who received child welfare services (e.g., in-home or out-of-home placement) were more or less likely to become incarcerated as serious and violent youthful offenders than those children who were investigated as victims of abuse and neglect but received no further child welfare intervention. Administrative data on child abuse reporting, foster care, birth records, and juvenile corrections (CYA) were liked to prospectively examine the risk of incarceration as an adolescent following an investigation of abuse or neglect after age 6. The 10 county California sample included 159,549 school-aged children reported for abuse and neglect after 1990. About 8 per 1,000 children in the sample were later incarcerated in CYA. African American and Hispanic children who received in-home or foster care services after the index investigation event had a lower risk of incarceration than those whose cases were closed after the investigation. Among females, the rate of incarceration was highest for those who experienced foster or group care placements. Children initially reported for neglect were more likely to be incarcerated than those reported for physical or sexual abuse. Public child welfare services have rarely been assessed in terms of future negative child outcomes. This study finds that one serious negative outcome, CYA involvement, can only be understood when a number of factors are considered. The importance of understanding the differences between how different subpopulations respond to services is highlighted. Specifically, the findings suggest that more attention should be focused on children who are now receiving no services after an investigated child abuse and neglect report, on females, and on victims of child neglect. 39 references, 3 figures, and 2 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         child welfare research;  risk factors;  sequelae;  delinquent behavior;  juvenile delinquency;  child abuse history;  child abuse reporting;  outcomes

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Coping Strategies and Burnout Among Veteran Child Protection Workers.

 

AUTHOR:               Anderson, D. G.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Kentucky Univ., Lexington. Coll. of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                24(6): pp. 839-848;  Elsevier Science, Ltd., New York, NY., June 2000;  p. 200

 

ABSTRACT:           This study examined how veteran child protective service investigations workers cope with job stress and the relationship between coping strategies and levels of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and sense of reduced personal accomplishment (burnout syndrome). Cross-sectional, self-report methodology was used to measure coping strategies and the burnout syndrome. The voluntary subjects were 151 front-line child protective service workers with at least 2 years experience in a southeastern Department of Social Services. They attended one of nine stress management workshops provided in various locations around the state. Quantitative analyses were run on the data. These workers perceived themselves to use Engaged (active) coping strategies more than Disengaged (avoidant) strategies. Sixty-two percent of participants scored in the high range on Emotional Exhaustion, the aspect some researchers consider to be the heart of Burnout. Those who used Engaged coping were less likely to feel depersonalized and more likely to feel a sense of personal accomplishment. Neither the use of active nor avoidant coping strategies saved these workers from Emotional Exhaustion. The problem-focused strategies they are taught and use most do not help deal with the emotional content and context of their work, suggesting the use of emotion-focused coping to prevent and remediate burnout. 39 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         child welfare workers;  coping skills;  well being;  child protective services;  psychological characteristics;  stress management;  investigations;  child welfare research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    State Child Well-Being Ranking: Alternative Approaches.

 

AUTHOR:               Engel, S. M.;  Field, C.;  Finkelhor, D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    New Hampshire Univ., Durham. Family Research Lab.

 

SOURCE:                New Hampshire Univ., Durham. Family Research Lab., May 2000;  p. 202

 

ABSTRACT:           This paper suggests a method for controlling for race when ranking states in order of child well being. Data from the Kids Count Data Book were analyzed to measure the amount of change in well being, as well as to take into account the proportion of children in the state who are black. Both methods changed the order of the states in the ranking of well being. When states are listed according to the amount of change in indicators, Utah, Alaska, and Maine received the highest scores. Massachusetts and Connecticut s rankings decreased from the top 25 percent to the lowest 25 percent. When controlled for the percentage of black children in the state, Maryland was ranked the best for child well being. These findings illustrate the nature of rankings systems. Policymakers are advised to apply different statistical methods for measuring the well being of children and their families. 2 figures and 20 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         well being;  state surveys;  indicators;  measures;  research methodology;  statistical data;  statistical analysis;  racial factors

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Technical Report

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.unh.edu/frl

 

 

TITLE:                    Posttraumatic Response and Children Exposed to Parental Violence.

 

AUTHOR:               Rossman, B. B. R.;  Ho, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma

 

SOURCE:                3(1): pp. 85-106;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 2000;  p. 248

 

ABSTRACT:           Using a factor analytic procedure, this study attempted to examine how the DSM-IV symptoms clusters for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder come together for a sample of 285 children living in shelters for battered women and the community. The mothers of the subjects completed instruments about family background, their relationship with their partner, and child behavior. Children were assessed for vocabulary, cognitive skills, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress syndrome. The findings revealed that children exposed to violence reported higher scores for posttraumatic stress symptoms than non-exposed children. Although the clusters of children s symptoms were somewhat similar to the DSM-IV clusters of re-experiencing-intrusion; arousal-avoidance, and dysphoria, the study should be replicated to collect further evidence of the pattern. The results demonstrate the complex nature of diagnosing posttraumatic stress disorder in children because the symptoms are similar to other conditions, such as depression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. General suggestions are made regarding possible intervention with exposed children experiencing posttraumatic symptoms. 49 references and 7 tables. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         child witnesses of family violence;  posttraumatic stress disorder;  sequelae;  trauma;  symptoms;  intervention strategies;  child abuse research;  self report

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Consider the Children: Research Informing Interventions for Children Exposed to Domestic

 

AUTHOR:               Pepler, D. J.;  Catallo, R.;  Moore, T. E.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    York Univ., North York, ON (Canada). La Marsh Centre for Research on Violence and Conflict Resolution.

 

SOURCE:                3(1): pp. 37-57;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 2000;  p. 250

 

ABSTRACT:           This article considers interventions for children exposed to family violence in light of the research on children s problems associated with witnessing family violence. Risk and protective factors related to these children s adjustment are identified, emphasizing that all children are not similarly affected by exposure to family violence. A systemic perspective of intervention is proposed to address children s relationships with their mother, father, and siblings, as well as within broader systems such as the peer group, the school, and the community. The article summarizes the findings of an evaluation of an intervention that incorporates some of the elements identified by a systemic perspective. The evaluation revealed a significant improvement in children s self-reports of depression and anxiety over the course of the program. Mothers rated their children as significantly improved in emotional and hyperactive behavior problems. There was no relation between mothers involvement in counseling and children s improvement. Overall, the results suggest that the Peer Group Counseling Program effectively provided support to children exposed to family violence. Finally, the steps necessary to support children and families in moving toward violence-free lives are described. 33 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         child witnesses of family violence;  intervention strategies;  risk factors;  resilience;  program evaluation;  therapeutic effectiveness;  group therapy;  peer groups

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Witnessing Parental Violence as a Traumatic Experience Shaping the Abusive Personality.

 

AUTHOR:               Dutton, D. G.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada). Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                3(1): pp. 59-67;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 2000;  p. 251

 

ABSTRACT:           This article reviews research about childhood trauma to explain the development of abusive behaviors perpetrated by batterers. It proposes that a combination of insecure attachment, exposure to physical abuse, and being shamed by a parent magnifies trauma and contributes to the imitation of aggressive behavior. Research has found that exposure to interparental violence can result in imitative behavior, a weakening of attachment relationships which would otherwise protect the child from the effects of violence, and high levels of stress. Previous work by Dutton and his colleagues established a clinical profile on intimately abusive adult men that is quite similar to profiles of trauma victims in many essential clinical respects. Dutton showed that arousal modulation problems, affective monitoring, cognitive problem solving deficits, externalizing attributional styles, aggression and dissociative states are common to both groups. Furthermore, intimately abusive men demonstrate similar profiles as men diagnosed independently with posttraumatic stress disorder. The trauma was attributed to early assaults on the self through parental shaming, accompanied by insecure attachment and physical abuse victimization. Although most of the research has examined the contribution of childhood physical abuse to the personality development of spouse abusers, some evidence suggests that observation of interparental attacks is an equally important risk factor. 48 references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         child witnesses of family violence;  trauma;  child development;  characteristics of abuser;  child abuse history;  research reviews;  generational cycle of family violence;  sequelae

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Helping Children Who Reside at Shelters for Battered Women: Lessons Learned.

 

AUTHOR:               Stephens, N.;  McDonald, R.;  Jouriles, E. N.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Houston Univ., Texas. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                3(1): pp. 147-160;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 2000;  p. 255

 

ABSTRACT:           The need for mental health-psychoeducational services for children in battered women s shelters is discussed in this article. In addition to questions of types, targets, and timing of services, the need for a careful evaluation of all shelter-based services for children is emphasized. Considerations include the diverse range of needs of children residing in the shelter, causes of sources of the children s problems, resources available to the shelter, duration of shelter stays, and readiness for counseling. Suggestions and guidelines are provided in the article for designing, implementing, and evaluating services for children in battered women s shelters. In general, shelters should have a well-trained staff that is knowledgeable about community resources, as well as an array of activities and programs for helping women and their children feel comfortable in the shelter. All programs should be evaluated for effectiveness. 25 references and 1 table. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         child witnesses of family violence;  battered women;  shelters;  children in shelters;  shelter management;  mental health services;  program planning;  program evaluation

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Custody and Visitation Trends in the United States in Domestic Violence Cases.

 

AUTHOR:               Lemon, N. K. D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    California Univ., Berkeley. School of Law.

 

SOURCE:                3(1): pp. 329-343;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 2000;  p. 263

 

ABSTRACT:           This article addresses custody and visitation trends in domestic violence cases in the United States. It defines domestic violence behaviorally, looks briefly at its prevalence, and discusses national policy statements and studies. It also examines statutory trends concerning the role of domestic violence in custody and visitation cases, including the O.J. Simpson guardianship case. Practical suggestions for litigants and judges are included. The article concludes that the way domestic violence issues are treated in custody and visitation cases is often problematic, and calls for specific reforms. 4 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         child custody;  visitation;  spouse abuse;  prevalence;  public policy;  state statutory law;  courts role;  court reform

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Tips for Investigating Child Fatalities.

 

AUTHOR:               Lee, D.;  May, J.;  O'Keefe, E.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Update

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    American Prosecutors Research Institute, Alexandria, VA. National Center for Prosecution of Child Abuse.

 

SOURCE:                13(1): pp. 1-2;  American Prosecutors Research Institute, Alexandria, VA. National Center for Prosecution of Child Abuse., 2000;  p. 268

 

ABSTRACT:           This article provides checklists for the investigation of child fatalities. Suggestions are presented for identifying and interviewing witnesses, examining the suspected crime scene, creating a timeline of the child s last hours or days, and analyzing data. Potential witnesses include the medical professionals who treated the child, emergency personnel, patrol officers, parents, caregivers, and neighbors. After hearing the parents explanation of the child s death, investigators should specifically seize the object involved in the child s death, clothes and diapers of the child, the caretakers clothes, bottles and food containers, poisons and medicines, home videos and photographs, and medical records. The timeline will clarify the progression of the events that lead to the child s death and the veracity of the caretaker s explanation.

 

KEY TERMS:         investigations;  child fatalities;  interviews;  protocols;  guidelines;  police operating procedures;  police responsibility;  police role

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Counseling Sexually Abused Girls: The Impact of Sex of the Counselor.

 

AUTHOR:               Moon, L. T.;  Wagner, W. G.;  Kazelskis, R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Virginia State Univ., Petersburg. Dept. of Education Leadership.

 

SOURCE:                24(6): pp. 753-765;  Elsevier Science, Ltd., New York, NY., June 2000;  p. 277

 

ABSTRACT:           This study was conducted to assess the impact of sex of counselor on the therapeutic process for sexually abused girls in individual counseling. Raters evaluated videotapes of counseling sessions recorded for 35 sexually abused girls who had been systematically assigned to brief-term psychoeducationally oriented treatment with either a male or female counselor. Clients' in-session behavior was rated using accepted therapeutic process measures, while statistically controlling for the effect of girls' pretreatment comfort level with male and female counselors. Overall, MANCOVA results revealed that girls' participation in counseling was not significantly related to session number, the child's age (i.e., preadolescent vs. adolescent), or the sex of counselor who provided treatment services. However, univariate results and graphic representations of girls' behavior suggest that adolescent clients, when compared with their preadolescent counterparts, seemed to be more reluctant to discuss certain child sexual abuse topics. The findings suggest that caution is warranted regarding categorical recommendations on the assignment of young female survivors to male counselors. Delimitations and limitations of the study and directions for future research are discussed. 54 references, 2 figures, and 1 table. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  female victim;  therapeutic effectiveness;  sex factors;  counselors;  therapists;  child abuse research;  individual therapy

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    What Children Learn From Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: Difficult Concepts and Developmental Issues.

 

AUTHOR:               Tutty, L. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Research on Social Work Practice

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Calgary Univ., AL (Canada).

 

SOURCE:                10(3): pp. 275-300;  Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA., May 2000;  p. 279

 

ABSTRACT:           This study evaluated the effectiveness of a school-based sexual abuse prevention program. The secondary analysis compared 231 elementary school children who were randomly assigned and matched for age to participate in the Who Do You Tell sexual abuse prevention program or in a wait list control condition. Chi-square analyses compared changes on each item of the Children's Knowledge of Abuse Questionnaire-Revised based on treatment versus control condition and developmental level (ages 5 to 7 compared to ages 8 to 13). Three items significantly improved for children in the program as compared to those in the control condition across ages, including secrets, permission to tell, and permission to say no to an adult. The report suggests several changes in teaching prevention concepts to improve children's retention of the lessons and their understanding of appropriate and inappropriate touch. 41 references, 2 figures, and 4 tables. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         primary prevention;  prevention programs;  sexual abuse;  program evaluation;  child development;  age factors;  outcomes;  school linked services

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    Family Skills Training for Parents and Children.

 

AUTHOR:               Kumpfer, K. L.;  Tait, C. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

 

SOURCE:                Office of Justice Programs (DOJ), Washington, DC. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention., April 2000;  p. 299

 

ABSTRACT:           The Strengthening Families Program was designed to improve the parenting skills of substance abusing parents and to prevent drug use by their children. The intervention consists of separate training programs for parents and children to enhance interpersonal family relationships. Children s sessions focus on behavior and social skills, while parents sessions address parenting, communication, rules, and family conflict. Two versions were created to respond to the needs of families of elementary school children and for children ages 10 to 14 years old. Each of the 14 sessions also includes family skills training time for parents and children to meet together. Emphasis is placed on communication and problem-solving. Evaluations of the program have found reductions in drug use among participating children, less family conflict, and improvements in youth behavior and family communication. Replications of the program have also reported success among African American and Hispanic families. The article describes implementation of the program in Utah, Hawaii, and Iowa, and provides suggestions for recruiting and retaining families and for training facilitators. 28 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         program models;  prevention programs;  juvenile delinquency;  family relationships;  parent education;  parenting skills;  substance abusing parents;  childrens therapy

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Technical Report

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.ncjrs.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Power Through Choices: The Development of a Sexuality Education Curriculum for Youths in Out-of-Home Care.

 

AUTHOR:               Becker, M. G.;  Barth, R. P.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Welfare

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Youth ALIVE!, Oakland, CA.

 

SOURCE:                79(3): pp. 269-282;  Child Welfare League of America, Inc., Washington, DC., May-June 2000;  p. 300

 

ABSTRACT:           This article profiles the development and characteristics of an innovative pregnancy-HIV-sexually transmitted disease prevention curriculum tailored to the needs of youths in out-of-home care. The Power Through Choices program focuses on self-improvement and the consequences of choice on a person s future. Participants attend 10 interactive 90-minute sessions that address choices regarding sexual behavior, utilizing local resources, communication skills, contraceptive use, risk reduction strategies, and goals. Promising results from an implementation study suggest the need for further dissemination and rigorous testing. 20 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         foster children;  sex education;  educational programs;  prevention programs;  pregnancy;  venereal diseases;  program evaluation;  outcomes

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.cwla.org

 

 

TITLE:                    How Sexual Abuse Interviews Go Astray: Implications for Prosecutors, Police, and Child Protection Services.

 

AUTHOR:               Wood, J. M.;  Garven, S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Maltreatment

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Texas Univ., El Paso. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                5(2): pp. 109-118;  Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA., May 2000;  p. 304

 

ABSTRACT:           This article argues that child sexual abuse interviews can go astray in two different ways: improper interviewing has the potential to elicit false allegations from children and clumsy interviewing does not typically produce false allegations, but may have other negative consequences, particularly for child victims. The article clarifies the distinction between the two kinds of bad interviewing and suggests that clumsy interviewing is the more common of the two. The potential negative consequences of both improper and clumsy interviewing are described, along with implications for prosecutors, police, and child protection services. Improper interviewing can probably be eliminated rather easily, but clumsy interviewing may be considerably more resistant to change. 65 references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  interviews;  investigations;  child witnesses;  sequelae;  leading questions;  methods;  false allegations

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Fifteen Years of Dissociation in Maltreated Children: Where Do We Go From Here.

 

AUTHOR:               Silberg, J. L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Maltreatment

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Sheppard Pratt Health System, Baltimore, MD.

 

SOURCE:                5(2): pp. 119-136;  Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA., May 2000;  p. 305

 

ABSTRACT:           Controversies have centered on the prevalence of dissociative symptoms and disorders in children and adolescents, recommended treatment approaches, and the potential effects of suggestive interpersonal influences. Convergence among diverse practitioners describing dissociative children and adolescents with similar symptoms and maltreatment histories supports the occurrence of these symptom patterns. Although prevalence information has not been well studied, dissociative symptoms may be found in children from a variety of settings across a continuum of severity. There is not yet agreement on exact treatment protocols, but successful treatment outcomes have been reported. A challenge for future research is to develop assessment protocols that are derived from multiple sources of data, and to incorporate the latest developmental research findings into theory development that addresses psychobiological, family, and cultural factors. The study of dissociation in children and adolescents has the potential to clarify some puzzling child and adolescent presentations and to identify a process by which some children respond and adapt to traumatic environments. Numerous references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         dissociation;  prevalence;  symptoms;  etiology;  intervention strategies;  research needs;  resilience;  child abuse research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    Childhood Sexual Abuse History and Role Reversal in Parenting.

 

AUTHOR:               Alexander, P. C.;  Teti, L.;  Anderson, C. L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Maryland Univ., College Park. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                24(6): pp. 829-838;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., June 2000;  p. 340

 

ABSTRACT:           This study explored the main and interactive effects of sexual abuse history and relationship satisfaction on self-reported parenting, controlling for histories of physical abuse and parental alcoholism. The community sample consisted of 90 mothers of 5- to 8-year old children. The sample was limited to those mothers currently in an intimate relationship, 19 of whom reported a history of childhood sexual abuse. Participants completed the Child Behavior Checklist, the Parenting Stress Inventory, the Family Cohesion Index, and questions assessing parent-child role reversal, history of abuse and parental alcoholism, and current relationship satisfaction. Results of analyses and multivariate analyses of covariance suggested that sexual abuse survivors with an unsatisfactory intimate relationship were more likely than either sexual abuse survivors with a satisfactory relationship or nonabused women to endorse items on a questionnaire of role reversal (defined as emotional overdependenceupon one s child). Role reversal was not significantly predicted by histories of physical abuse or parental alcoholism or child s gender. While parenting stress was inversely predicted by the significant main effect of relationship satisfaction, neitherparenting stress nor child behavior problems were predicted by the main effect of sexual abuse history or by the interaction between sexual abuse history and relationship satisfaction. These results suggest the unique relevance of sexual abuse history and relationship satisfaction in the prediction of a specific type of parent-child role reversal namely, a mother s emotional overdependence upon her child. 35 references and 1 table. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  child abuse history;  adults abused as children;  role reversal;  parental behavior;  alcoholism;  substance abusing parents;  child abuse research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    The Relationship of Social Support to Physically Abused Children's Adjustment.

 

AUTHOR:               Ezzell, C. E.;  Swenson, C. C.;  Brondino, M. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Medical Univ. of South Carolina, Charleston. Dept. of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences.

 

SOURCE:                24(5): pp. 641-651;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., May 2000;  p. 356

 

ABSTRACT:           With a growing body of research linking increased levels of social support with reduced adjustment difficulties in children experiencing chronic stressors, this study used data from a sample of physically abused children and their primary caretakers to address fundamental questions regarding the relationship between social support and child adjustment. Specifically, the study had three goals: to assess physically abused children's perceptions of teacher, peer, and family support; to determine whether the levels of perceived support differ according to the person's social role; and to assess which sources of social support show stronger associations with adjustment in a physically abused sample. Participants included 37 Medicaid-eligible physically abused children and their self-identified primary parent or caregiver. Methodology included a shortened version of the Survey of Children's Social Support, and answers were indexed by child and parent reports of child depression, anxiety, and anger. Results showed that children reported receiving a high level of support from all three sources, with families rated as providing significantly greater levels of support than teachers, while family and peer, and teacher andpeer support levels did not differ significantly. In regression analyses, perceived peer support was significantly negatively related to children's and parent's reports of children's depression and anxiety. Perceived family support was significantly negatively associated with child-reported depression. Results suggest that peer and family support are particularly important for physically abused children's psychological functioning, particularly for internalizing problems. Thirty-two references. (Author abstract modified.)

 

KEY TERMS:         child abuse;  perceptions;  support systems;  family relationships;  adjustment problems;  research;  data analysis;  therapists role

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Dissociation as a Mediator Between Child Abuse History and Adult Abuse Potential.

 

AUTHOR:               Narang, D. S.;  Contreras, J. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Kent State Univ., OH. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                24(4): pp. 653-665;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., May 2000;  p. 357

 

ABSTRACT:           It has been commonly found that abused children are at risk for later becoming abusive parents and observational learning has been discussed as a mechanism that perpetuates this integrational cycle of abuse. However, two-thirds of abused children do not become abusive. This study examines whether dissociation functions as a possible intervening variable explaining the relation between a history of physical child abuse and physically abusive tendencies. A cross-sectional design wasused to examine physical abuse history, dissociation, and physical abuse potential, using a sample of 190 college students who responded to a questionnaire. Findings indicated that the three constructs were intercorrelated. Specifically, a newly established association was found between disassociation and physical abuse potential. The primary finding was that the relation between physical abuse history and physical abuse potential was significantly mediated by level of dissociation, with dissociation accounting for nearly half of the observed relation between history of abuse and abuse potential. Results suggested that dissociation might be one mechanism that helps to perpetuate the intergenerational cycle of abuse. Although dissociationpromotes psychological survival during children's abuse experiences, it may result in the development of abusive tendencies later in life. Recommendations suggest that reducing parental dissociation may assist clinicians in preventing or ending physicalchild abuse. One table; one figure; numerous references. (Author abstract modified.)

 

KEY TERMS:         child abuse history;  dissociation;  abusive parents;  research;  data collection;  data analysis;  mental health;  models

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Criminal Investigation of Child Sexual Abuse: A Comparison of Cases Referred to the Prosecutor to Those Not Referred.

 

AUTHOR:               Stroud, D. D.;  Martens, S. L.;  Barker, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                24(5): pp. 689-700;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., May 2000;  p. 359

 

ABSTRACT:           This study sought to identify characteristics of child sexual abuse cases that differentiate cases referred for criminal prosecution from those not referred. Related research had indicated that sexually abused children not involved in the criminal court process had experienced much greater distress, depression, and anxiety and were more likely to have a family member as the alleged perpetrator. The authors conducted an exploratory analysis of children who completed a forensic interview to determine the differentiation in cases that were referred to prosecution and those who were not. The study sample consisted of 1,043 children, of which 587, or 56 percent, had cases referred for criminal prosecution and 45, or 44 percent, did not. Differences between criminal action and dropped cases were found in relation to the children (age, sex, and ethnicity), the alleged offenders (age, sex, and relationship to child), and the case characteristics (disclosure and injury to the child). Conclusions suggest that due to the adversarial nature of the U.S. criminal justice system, problems still exist when criminally prosecuting sexual abuse charges, particularly when the offender involved is related to the victim. Recommendations include that regular notification of criminal investigation status be required to the children and families involved, in support of all children involved in sexual abuse receiving a forensic interview. Three tables, one figure, 19 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         investigations;  sexual abuse;  criminal justice system;  sampling studies;  data analysis;  courts;  child protective services;  families

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    A History of Abuse and Negative Life Events in Patients With a Sexually Transmitted Disease in a Community Sample.

 

AUTHOR:               Pitzner, J. K.;  McGarry-Long, J.;  Drummond, P. D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Murdoch Univ., Perth, WA (Australia). School of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                24(5): pp. 715-731;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., May 2000;  p. 361

 

ABSTRACT:           This study investigated the psychological impact of abuse and negative life events during childhood, adolescence and adulthood in-patients at a sexual health clinic. Data were obtained from 62 patients with a sexually transmitted disease, which were matched on age and sex with a community sample. Forty-two patients without a sexually transmitted disease formed another control group. Subjects self-reported their trauma histories and current psychological distress. Results showed that compared to controls, categories of abuse and negative life events were more prevalent in patients with sexually transmitted diseases, particularly physical/sexual abuse in adolescence and adulthood. Both within the STD and community samples, a negative life event category that measured illness/death of loved ones during childhood and adolescence predicted current psychological distress. In addition, control abuse, a form of psychological abuse involving selfish manipulation and deprivation, was noted in childhood and adolescence that strongly predicted current psychological stress in STD patients. In general, effects were stronger in females than in males. Psychological/verbal abuse did not independently predict current psychological distress, but accompanied other abuse types and possibly amplified their adverse effects. Conclusions suggest that multiple types of abuse and negative life events increase the risk of STD infection, perhaps by increasing the likelihood of multiple sexual partners. These patients may ignore social conventions of sexual behavior because they are bitter about past life experiences. Alternatively, they may persistently search for affection to compensate for a lack of affection in the past. Four tables; three figures; numerous references. (Author abstract modified.)

 

KEY TERMS:         child abuse history;  sexually transmitted diseases;  sexual behavior;  sexual abuse;  psychological abuse;  data collection;  data analysis;  trauma

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Woman Abuse and Child Protection: A Tumultuous Marriage.

 

AUTHOR:               Mills, L. G.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Children and Youth Services Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    New York Univ., NY. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                22(3-4): pp. 199-205;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., March-April 2000;  p. 362

 

ABSTRACT:           Protecting children and their mothers from spouse abuse in the context of child welfare practice constitutes the focus of this article, the first of several volumes exploring these issues. The author explores the conflicting demands facing mothers and child welfare workers in sorting out how to best protect children at risk. She describes the issues involved, including cultural differences, intergenerational transmission of abuse, and the specific clinical needs of abused women and their children, and provides a context for moving the woman abuse/child protection conflict beyond whether the abused mother deserves custody of her children at a particular point. The volumes described in this article reflect a growing awareness of the experiences of abused mothers and their children and the importance of presenting options to women that recognize their dilemmas. The findings suggest that while there is the usual urgency to interrupt patterns of intimate violence, the state's child welfare agency has a heightened responsibility to respond to abused women in ways that serve the combined interests of mothers and their children. Nineteen references.

 

KEY TERMS:         spouse abuse;  child protection;  child welfare services;  professional training;  intervention strategies;  children at risk;  child custody;  state role

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    When Moms Are Incarcerated: The Needs of Children, Mothers, and Caregivers.

 

AUTHOR:               Young, D. S.;  Smith, C. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Families in Society

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Syracuse Univ., NY. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                81(2): pp. 130-141;  Families International, Inc., Milwaukee, WI., March-April 2000;  p. 364

 

ABSTRACT:           Women in prison, their children, and the children's caretakers present a special population with unique life experiences that warrant the attention of practitioners from a number of fields. The members of this triad experience a varietyof behavioral, emotional, health-related, and practical difficulties related to the mother-child separation. This paper examines the needs within this triad from an ecological theoretical perspective, shifting attention away from the cause-effect relationships to mutual influence, and suggests rehabilitative interventions when mothers go to prison. Key findings from evaluation studies of programs designed to strengthen families affected by maternal imprisonment are presented, noting that while few in number, nonetheless provide evidence that services targeted toward imprisoned women for the purpose of enhancing their relationship with their children and strengthening their parenting skills produce positive results. It also focuses on interventions that seek to enhance adaptive exchanges among imprisoned women, their families, and their communities, with the goal of challenging practitioners to think creatively and collaboratively about ways to positively assist these families. One table; numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         imprisoned women;  kinship care;  caretakers;  african americans;  ecological

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.manticore.ca

 

 

TITLE:                    Developmental, Familial, and Peer Determinants to Adoption Placement.

 

AUTHOR:               Weir, K. N.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Adoption Quarterly

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University of Southern California, Los Angeles. Marriage and Family Therapy Program.

 

SOURCE:                3(3): pp. 25-50;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 2000;  p. 404

 

ABSTRACT:           This article focuses on the developmental, familial, and peer deterrents that form barriers to adoption placement among teen mothers in a residential facility. An Eriksonian developmental model is used to explore developmental issues ofidentity, projective identification, and industry among teens. The findings suggest that family cutoffs and re-admissions also serve as deterrents to adoption placement. Additionally, peer pressure from residents of the facility form barriers to adoption placement. The teen mothers interviewed for the study expressed how they were deterred from adoption placement and constrained into child-rearing as pregnancy resolution strategies. This qualitative study suggests that family therapy interventions can facilitate adoption placement by addressing the constraints teen mothers face. 40 references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         barriers;  adoption research;  adoption;  adolescent child bearing;  adolescent parents;  pregnancy counseling;  family therapy;  intervention strategies

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    SB 2030 Child Welfare Services Workload Study.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    American Humane Association, Englewood, CO;  Walter R. McDonald and Associates, Inc., Rockville, MD.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

SOURCE:                American Humane Association, Englewood, CO., April 2000;  p. 409

 

ABSTRACT:           California state law, SB 2030, required an evaluation of the methodology used by the California State Department of Social Services to allocate funds statewide and to local child welfare programs. Currently, the state agency calculates +; caseload standards and average monthly case counts to determine the number of workers needed to serve children and families. The state Senate mandated the review of the methodology to clarify the duties of child welfare workers and the time needed to +; complete those activities, as well as to determine the time required to implement best practices and related budgeting methods. An advisory group of caseworkers, administrators, and stakeholders provided input into the evaluation process. Information for+; the assessment was obtained from workload study data from all 58 counties, a review of laws and policies, and focus groups. Significant differences were found between the current standard/expectation of time required and number of cases per month, to +; the actual reported by caseworkers, and the minimum and optimum requirements identified by laws and policies. The evaluation suggests that the minimum recommended standards be implemented for at least some programs with the optimum standard prioritized +; for future application. In addition, the state should consider training and staff development time in available staff hours, implement a recruitment plan, and continue the current budgeting methodology, substituting minimum standards for the older +; standards. However, the cost-sharing ratios with the counties should be evaluated. The program evaluation also reviewed specific considerations for kinship home assessment, health and education passports, multilingual services, independent living, and +; response to domestic violence. 66 references, 7 figures, and 23 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         child welfare services;  program evaluation;  california;  program costs;  funding;  caseload;  case management;  budgeting

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Final Report

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.americanhumane.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Children Don't Do Sex With Adults for Pleasure: Sri Lankan Children's Views on Sex and Sexual Exploitation.

 

AUTHOR:               Miles, G. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Tearfund, Middlesex (United Kingdom).

 

SOURCE:                24(7): pp. 995-1003;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., July 2000;  p. 415

 

ABSTRACT:           A sample of 145 Sri Lankan school children aged 13 to 17 years were surveyed to ascertain the prevalence, attitudes and practice of sexual behavior in young adolescent school children at risk of sexual exploitation. Ten percent of children said they had participated in sexual acts, 8 percent with other children their age, 5 percent with adults, and 6 percent with adults for money. Most children felt that it was not acceptable for children to do sexual things with adults. Children appeared to be strongly against the damage they felt it could do to children and their communities. Only a small proportion of children said they learned about sex from school or their parents. They had a number of misconceptions on AIDS and although a third had been taught about the disease, nearly half said they wanted to be learn about it. Children had creative ideas on intervention, but most of their suggestions focused on what adults could do to address police attitudes that place the blame on thechild rather than the adult. 12 references and 2 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         sri lanka;  sexual exploitation;  sex education;  child abuse research;  sexual abuse;  prevention;  childs attitudes;  public opinion

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Perinatal Complications and Child Abuse in a Poverty Sample.

 

AUTHOR:               Zelenko, M.;  Lock, J.;  Kraemer, H. C.;  Steiner, H.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA. Div. of Child Psychiatry and Human Development.

 

SOURCE:                24(7): pp. 939-950;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., July 2000;  p. 422

 

ABSTRACT:           Perinatal medical illness has been associated with child maltreatment. Using a Child Protective Service (CPS) report as the defining event, this study explores to what extent perinatal morbidity is a risk factor for maltreatment. Medical charts of 206 children ages 0-3 years old were reviewed. Data regarding birth history were collected and analyzed in three groups of children: children whose medical record indicated a report to CPS based on prenatal findings (Early Maternal Inadequacy group- EMI), children whose medical record indicated a report to CPS based only on postnatal findings (Child Maltreatment group-CM), and a control group without CPS report (NM). Compared to the CM and the NM groups, children in the EMI group showed significantly lower birth weight and higher neonatal morbidity as measured by Apgar scores, frequency of oxygen requirement and intubation at birth, frequency of admission to Neonatal Intensive Care unit, and frequency of neonatal medical problems. There was no significant difference between the CM and the NM groups in birth weight, gestational age, and other measures of morbidity. The results of the study suggest that perinatal complications are associated with prenatal maltreatment. Previously reported strong associations between neonatal morbidity and child abuse are more likely a result of antecedent prenatal maternal behaviors (early maternal inadequacy). Early maternal inadequacy, a clinically and demographically distinct phenomenon, is important due to serious health, development, and financial implications and deserves further exploration. 51 references and 6 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         risk factors;  perinatal period;  poverty;  health status;  medical history;  newborn infants;  child abuse research;  maternal behavior

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Sexual Abuse Characteristics Associated With Survivor Psychopathology.

 

AUTHOR:               Ruggiero, K. J.;  McLeer, S. V.;  Dixon, J. F.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    West Virginia Univ., Morgantown. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                24(7): pp. 951-964;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., July 2000;  p. 423

 

ABSTRACT:           Eighty sexually abused children were administered a structured diagnostic interview and a variety of rating-scale instruments designed to examine predictors of psychopathology in non-clinically referred, sexually abused children, ages 6-16 years, 30-60 days following abuse disclosure and termination. Several forms of psychopathology were assessed, including posttraumatic stress, global functioning, anxiety, depression, and externalizing behavior. Abuse interviews also were used to guide the collection of demographic (victim age, gender) and abuse-related information (e.g., frequency of abuse). Abuse-related factors and demographic variables accounted for greater than half of the variance predicting global functioning, and accurately predicted posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) status for 86 percent of the participants. Also, analyses yielded significant predictors of parent-reported attention problems and sexual behavior. Of additional importance, none of the abuse-related and demographic variables predicted scores on measures of general anxiety, depression, and externalizing behavior. Specific demographic and sexual abuse information may, to some extent, be used to identify children who are at increased riskfor short-term post-abuse psychopathology. Although the present findings suggest that such information may not be useful in the prediction of general anxiety, depression, and externalizing behavior, demographic and abuse-related variables importantly appear to account for significant variance in the prediction of global functioning, posttraumatic stress, attentiveness, and sexual behavior. Additional research is needed to improve mental health professionals' ability to identify sexually abused children who are at high risk for psychopathology. 61 references and 1 table. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  psychopathology;  predictor variables;  sequelae;  posttraumatic stress disorder;  depression;  child behavior;  child abuse research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Sexual Offenders' Implicit Planning: A Conceptual Model.

 

AUTHOR:               Ward, T.;  Hudson, S. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment.

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). Dept. of Criminology.

 

SOURCE:                12(3): pp. 189-201;  Kluwer Academic-Plenum Publishers, Dordrecht (The Netherlands)., 2000;  p. 437

 

ABSTRACT:           In recent years, empirical research, clinical observation, and theoretical models about sexual offending have emphasized the importance of problem solving and decision making throughout different phases in the offense chain. This work suggests that sometimes offense planning is explicit, systematic, and analytical, while at other times it appears to be implicit and intuitive. This article attempts to provide an explanation of offenders' implicit decision making and suggests two socialcognitive mechanisms capable of generating these types of decisions. It is believed that implicit decision making in offenders has the appearance of automaticity, that is, decision making that is implicit, fast, relatively autonomous, frequently associated with a lack of control, effortless, and occurring without conscious awareness. Drawing from diverse theoretical sources, the article hypothesizes that these types of decisions are generated by underlying automatic goal dependent action plans. More specifically, it suggests that there are at least two types of automatic goal-dependent plans evident in offenders' decision making: offense scripts and mental simulations. Implications for generating future hypotheses and suggestions for future research are outlined. 25 references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         sex offenders;  characteristics of abuser;  decision making;  cognitive processes;  cognitive abilities;  biosocial theories;  psychological theories;  sexual abuse

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wkap.nl

 

 

TITLE:                    Developmental Antecedents of Sexual Coercion in Juvenile Sexual Offenders.

 

AUTHOR:               Johnson, G. M.;  Knight, R. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                12(3): pp. 165-178;  Kluwer Academic-Plenum Publishers, Dordrecht (The Netherlands)., 2000;  p. 441

 

ABSTRACT:           Previous research has linked adult sex offending behavior to a multiplicity of variables, including juvenile delinquency and the experience of childhood abuse. The purpose of this study was to explore developmental pathways among childhood abuse, juvenile delinquency, and personality dimensions possibly conducive to adolescent sexual coercion. Using a retrospective self-report inventory, the extent to which juvenile sexual offenders experienced childhood trauma, engaged in adolescent delinquency, and exhibited particular dispositions and cognitive biases was measured. The effects of childhood and adolescent antecedents on sexual coerciveness were then analyzed through simultaneous multiple regression path analyses. Resultssuggest that sexual compulsivity and hypermasculinity, through misogynistic fantasy behavior, significantly discriminate verbally and physically coercive juvenile offenders from those offenders who do not report using force in their offenses. Results also suggest that alcohol abuse may play a more salient role in the expression of coercive juvenile sexual coercion than previously hypothesized. 30 references, 2 figures, and 2 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         adolescent sex offenders;  sex offenses;  predictor variables;  child development;  child abuse history;  juvenile delinquency;  alcohol abuse;  psychological characteristics

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wkap.nl

 

 

TITLE:                    General Practitioners and Child Protection Case Conference Participation: Reasons for Non-Attendance and Proposals For a Way Forward.

 

AUTHOR:               Polnay, J. C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Nottingham City Hospital (United Kingdom).

 

SOURCE:                9(2): pp. 108-123;  John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex (United Kingdom)., 2000;  p. 448

 

ABSTRACT:           General practitioners' (GPs) attitudes about child protection case conferences were explored in the belief that commonly cited practical reasons, such as inconvenient timing, fail to provide a complete explanation for poor participation. Twelve GPs took part in a preliminary investigation by telephone interview and a postal questionnaire was then sent to 112 GPs in the Nottingham area. The response rate was 100 percent for the preliminary study and 82 percent for the questionnaire. The postal survey showed that nearly half the respondents agreed there were too many other tasks of higher priority than case conference attendance, confirming that previously mentioned constraints alone did not account for poor participation. Contrary to previous research, issues such as confidentiality and parental attendance do not stop the majority of GPs from contributing. Suggestions that might improve participation, such as facility to stay for the first half hour of a conference and guidance on content of reports, had favorable responses. It was concluded that it may be more fruitful to concentrate on improving report submission rate and content because of GPs' priorities. Improved education of GPs and social workers with respect to each other's role and responsibilities would facilitate communication in case conferences. 25 references and 8 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         physicians role;  child protection;  multidisciplinary teams;  physicians attitudes;  case plans;  great britain;  child welfare research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wiley.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Identification and Care of HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Infants, Children, and Adolescents in Foster Care.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village, IL. Committee on Pediatric AIDS.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Pediatrics

 

SOURCE:                106(1): pp. 149-153;  American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village, IL., July 2000;  p. 451

 

ABSTRACT:           As a consequence of the expanding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic and major advances in medical management of HIV-exposed and HIV-infected persons, the American Academy of Pediatrics revised its recommendations for HIV testing of infants, children, and adolescents in foster care. In general, the association of pediatricians and other professional organizations suggest that all pregnant women be tested for HIV. In addition, all foster children with symptoms of HIV or who have been sexually abused should also be tested. Updated recommendations are provided for the care of HIV-exposed and HIV-infected persons who are in foster care. 38 references. (Author

 

KEY TERMS:         hiv infection;  identification;  diagnostic tests;  foster children;  foster care;  protocols;  medical treatment;  medical societies

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.pediatrics.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Questioning the Child Witness: What Can We Conclude From the Research Thus Far?

 

AUTHOR:               Quas, J. A.;  Goodman, G. S.;  Ghetti, S.;  Redlich, A. D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Trauma, Violence, and Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    California Univ., Irvine. Dept. of Psychology and Social Behavior.

 

SOURCE:                1(3): pp. 223-249;  Sage Publications Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA., July 2000;  p. 461

 

ABSTRACT:           In recent years increasing numbers of studies have investigated children's memory, suggestibility, and false event reports. This article highlights key findings from and implications of this research for interviewing child witnesses. First, developmental changes in children s memory and suggestibility are discussed, spanning from the early childhood years through middle childhood, suggesting that the most consistent and robust predictor of differences in children's performance is age. Second, theory and research concerning relations between emotional distress and children's memory are reviewed, with an emphasis on methodological differences that have led to varied results across studies and sheds light on the degree to which emotional distress helps versus hinders children ' memory and suggestibility. Third is a description of factors associated with the context of an interview that may influence children's susceptibility to false suggestions, in particular discussing the implications of questioning tactics and contextual features of forensic interviews. Fourth, recent studies are discussed concerning individual differences in children's mnemonic capabilities, suggestibility, and false memories. Finally, recommendations are provided about what can and cannot be concluded from research on questioning child witnesses, with an eye on aiding professionals in understanding the research and its capabilities and limitations. Numerous references. (Author abstract modified.)

 

KEY TERMS:         child witnesses;  research;  false allegations;  memory;  suggestibility;  stress;  risk factors;  literature review

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    Improving the Effectiveness of Sexual Offender Treatment.

 

AUTHOR:               Marshall, W. L.;  Serran, G. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Trauma, Violence, and Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Queen's Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Bath Institution Sexual Offender's Program.

 

SOURCE:                1(3): pp. 203-222;  Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA., July 2000;  p. 462

 

ABSTRACT:           The development of cognitive behavioral treatment programs for sexual offenders is outlined in this article, with an appraisal of various issues concerning these treatments. The authors operate on the premise that while the sensible goal of the treatment of sexual offenders is harm reduction rather than complete elimination of offending, and the complete abstinence by all treated offenders remains a desirable, if unrealistic, target, anything that can be done to improve the efficacyof treatment of sexual offenders is laudable. The authors make suggestions for modifying the extent of such treatment and question certain assumptions underlying present treatments. For example, the authors consider the need to address all instances of offending and the relevance of planning and deviant fantasizing, and examine the empirical bases for these issues. Suggestions are made concerning several components and targets of treatment, and additional targets are identified. In particular, the process of treatment, rather than simply the procedures, is emphasized, and proposals are offered for maximizing the value of these influences. Numerous references. (Author abstract modified.)

 

KEY TERMS:         treatment programs;  sex offenders;  cognitive abilities;  risk factors;  denial;  self esteem;  coping skills;  prevention

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    An Evaluation of a Biopsychosocial Treatment Model For Drug Dependent Pregnant and Parenting Women.

 

AUTHOR:               Simons, L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Source

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Diagnostic Rehabilitation Center.

 

SOURCE:                10(1): pp. 6-10;  National Abandoned Infants Assistance Resource Center, Berkeley, CA., Spring 2000;  p. 465

 

ABSTRACT:           The author states that few programs are designed specifically for drug-dependent pregnant and/or parenting women, and evaluations of these programs are even rarer. As a result, women face barriers in addiction treatment that are exacerbated when they are pregnant or parents of dependent children. The author proposes a biopsychosocial model treatment program that may be more suitable for these women. The program was developed from focus groups with drug-dependent women with children and previous research investigations; the majority of participants were African-American women, average age 35, with at least two dependent children with them in treatment. Treatment consisted of assessment and evaluation; individual, group, family, and psychoeducational modalities within a nine-month period, and aftercare and follow-up services after program completion. Findings suggest that factors from biological, psychological, and social paradigms should be addressed in treatment in order to understand the coping progress of drug-dependent women with histories of childhood abuse. Program development and evaluation should focus on treating drug-dependent women with children from a multi-system point of view. Future investigations should incorporate rigorous evaluation methods for biopsychosocial and gender-specific models. One figure; one table; 15 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         treatment programs;  models;  substance abusing mothers;  drug addiction;  incest;  child abuse;  barriers;  coping skills

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~aiarc

 

 

TITLE:                    Characteristics of Crimes Against Juveniles.

 

AUTHOR:               Finkelhor, D.;  Ormrod, R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Juvenile Justice Bulletin

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    New Hampshire Univ., Durham. Crimes Against Children Research Center.

 

SOURCE:                (NCJ179034): pp. 1-11;  Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (DOJ), Washington, DC., June 2000;  p. 469

 

ABSTRACT:           This report from the U.S. Department of Justice reviews data from the Federal Bureau of Investigation's National Incident-Based Reporting System data file that pertain to adolescent victims. That report revealed that while adolescents made up 26 percent in the population of the 12 states participating in the study, they accounted for only 12 percent of the reported crime victims, while 71 percent of all sex crime victims and 38 percent of all kidnapping victims reported to NIBRS were adolescents. Conclusions of the review suggest that if patterns of crime against adolescents in the rest of the country parallel the patterns from the reporting jurisdictions, it would appear that crimes against adolescents constitute about one-eighth ofall crimes currently reported to law enforcement officials. However, these crimes carry special burdens. Crimes against children involve special investigatory and prosecutorial challenges. Some of these relate to the ages of the victims, and some relateto the intimate character of the perpetrators, 20 percent of who are family and 61 percent of who are acquaintances. The database offers opportunities for analyzing and tracking these categories of crime victims, such as in analyzing changes in crime victimization patterns across the state of childhood. It may also be able to highlight some needs for law enforcement attention or training, and in improving public policies toward adolescent victims. Thirteen figures; three tables; seven references.

 

KEY TERMS:         crimes;  child abuse;  victimization;  adolescents;  generational cycle of child abuse;  federal government;  statistical data;  interdisciplinary approach

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.ncjrs.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Cultural Strengths and Challenges in Implementing a System of Care Model in American Indian Communities.

 

AUTHOR:               Cross, T. L.;  Earle, K.;  Solie, H. E. H.;  Manness, K.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    National Indian Child Welfare Association, Portland, OR.

 

SOURCE:                Volume 1. American Institutes for Research, Washington, DC. Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice., 2000;  p. 470

 

ABSTRACT:           Reports show that mental health services for American Indian children are inadequate even though Indian children are known to have more serious mental health problems than all other ethnic groups in the United States. This monograph examines five American Indian children's mental health projects funded by the Center for Mental Health Services. The goal of the projects was to examine promising practice that implements traditional American Indian helping and healing methods that are rooted in their culture, and represents the strength and challenges of community-based service designs that draw on culture as a primary resource. Pertinent literature is reviewed, suggesting that the American Indian sites described here are not alone intheir pursuit of culturally based mental health methods. As a framework, the authors use the relational model often associated with the medicine wheel based on the traditional American Indian worldview. It describes mental health as a balance among context, mind, body, and spirit. Data from four of the five sites were obtained from focus groups and key informant interviews; data from the other site were gathered from written materials. In reviewing the responses of each site, several recurring themes were identified; those themes revealed 18 identifiable promising practices that address the integration of culture as a resource for helping children and their families. Conclusions suggest that these community based, culturally rooted programs, with 24-hour wraparound service availability, result in substantial cost savings by preventing more costly out-of-home services. Numerous references; two appendixes.

 

KEY TERMS:         american indians;  cultural values;  barriers;  program models;  grants;  mental health;  wraparound services;  community based services

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Technical Report

 

INTERNET URL:   http://cecp.air.org/

 

 

TITLE:                    Keeping Foster Children Connected to Their Biological Parents: The Impact of Foster Parent Training and Support.

 

AUTHOR:               Sanchirico, A.;  Jablonka, K.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    New York State Univ., Albany. Professional Development Program.

 

SOURCE:                17(3): pp. 185-203;  Kluwer Academic-Human Sciences Press, Dordrecht (The Netherlands)., June 2000;  p. 478

 

ABSTRACT:           The primary objective of this study is to test a hypothesis that specialized training and agency support increases foster care parent involvement in the parent-child connection. It focuses on the primary goal of the foster care system to reunite foster children with their birth parents. The authors suggest that although the hypothesized relationship appears to be both logical and intuitive, the actual impact of training and support on foster parent involvement remains unexamined and unknown. The study is essentially exploratory in nature and represents a first step toward achieving greater understanding. The data used in the study were drawn from a survey of New York State foster parents conducted in 1993, involving 650 respondents.The findings supported the hypothesis. Respondents who received both specialized training and ongoing support performed significantly more visitation, non-visitation, and total activities than those who received neither training nor support. The analysis also indicated that the combined effects of training and support were far greater than those of any other variable in the model, including being birth family-oriented and being related to the foster child. The results suggest that agencies should require specialized training for all foster parents who are responsible for keeping foster children connected to their biological parents. The authors also assert that agencies do not view training and support as either necessary or complementary.Five tables; two notes; 28 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         foster children;  reunification;  birth parents;  out of home care;  foster parent training;  foster parent support groups;  parent child relationships;  data analysis

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wkap.nl

 

 

TITLE:                    Thinking Clearly About Evaluations of Suspected Child Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:               Leventhal, J. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Yale Univ., New Haven, CT. Dept. of Pediatrics.

 

SOURCE:                5(1): pp. 139-147;  Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA., 2000;  p. 481

 

ABSTRACT:           Challenges face professionals who determine whether an injury in a young child is due to child abuse. Although much has been written about the types of injuries that are due to abuse, little information is available about the processes of gathering data and making clinical decisions. This article describes an approach to providing effective evaluations and offers 14 suggestions focused on the process of conducting an evaluation and eight focused on decision-making. The 14 suggestions for conducting an evaluation are as follows: 1. Clarify who you are (so that parents understand why you are conducting the evaluation. 2. Arrange to have another clinician present at the interview of the parents. 3. Consider separate interviews of the parents, to get the parents' views of each other. 4. Listen to the parents' whole story. 5. Determine who was actually present at the time of the injury. 6. Ask helpful questions designed to provide answers about the parents' relationship. 7. Observe theeffect of the questions on the behavior of parents. 8. Do not ignore the parent-child relationship. 9. A single history can be repeated five times in the record. 10. Review the x-rays with the attending radiologist. 11. Talk to the primary care clinician, who may know the family well. 12. Meet with the clinicians caring for the child and other consultants. 13. Keep the parents informed. 14. Do not ignore your own feelings or those of your colleagues or staff. The eight suggestions for decision-making are as follows: 1. Minor injuries in children are common, and not necessarily indications of abuse. 2. Unusual events do happen to children, so automatically disbelieving a story because it seems strange may not be the correct path. 3. Others are often present when an accident occurs. 4. Be worried about abuse when others are being blamed for causing the injuries. 5. Be worried about abuse when the father cares for the child alone. 6. Be cautious when there is an underlying medical problem, noting that pediatricians often make a single diagnosis whenever possible. 7. Pay attention to the history so that the details are understood and to the injuries because sometimes the words lie. 8. You cannot be right every time. Eight references.

 

KEY TERMS:         child abuse;  evaluation methods;  decision making;  injuries;  clinical methods training;  guidelines;  child protective services;  professionals role

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    Harsh Physical Discipline in Childhood and Violence in Later Romantic Involvements: The Mediating Role of Problem Behaviors.

 

AUTHOR:               Swinford, S. P.;  DeMaris, A.;  Scernkovich, S. A.;  Giordano, P. C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Marriage and Family

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Dept. of Sociology and Anthropology.

 

SOURCE:                62(2): pp. 508-519;  Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, KS. Alliance Communications Group., May 2000;  p. 498

 

ABSTRACT:           This study examines the impact that experiencing harsh physical discipline in childhood and engaging in problem behaviors during adolescence and young adulthood have on experiencing and perpetrating violence. Testing involved a model +; based on social learning theory, Freudian theory, and theories of deviance. Analysis involved 608 cases from a longitudinal study of adolescents conducted in 1982 and in 1992-1993. Results suggest that harsh physical punishment in childhood is directly +; related to greater perpetration of violence against an intimate partner later in life. The enactment of problem behaviors in adolescence and young adulthood was also found to increase the level of perpetration of violence against an intimate partner. +; Additionally, harsh physical punishment in childhood was found to be indirectly but significantly related to increased perpetration via the intervening variables of adolescent and young adult problem behavior. The authors hypothesize that perpetration +; and victimization are significantly related to one another bi-directionally, but the results only support that greater levels of perpetration lead to increased levels of victimization. One figure; one table; numerous references. (Author abstract +; modified.)

 

KEY TERMS:         child abuse;  discipline;  deviant behavior;  spouse abuse;  longitudinal studies;  data analysis;  victimization;  social values

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://ncfr.allenpress.com

 

 

TITLE:                    The Impact of Prenatal Substance Exposure: Research Findings and Their Implications for

 

AUTHOR:               Freundlich, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Evan B. Donaldson Adoption Institute, New York, NY.

 

SOURCE:                In: Barth, R. P.; Freundlich, M.; and Brodzinsky, D. (Editors). Adoption and Prenatal Alcohol and Drug Exposure: Research, Policy, and Practice. Child Welfare League of America,, 2000;  p. 503

 

ABSTRACT:           Significant increases in the number of pregnant women abusing drugs and alcohol have prompted researchers to examine the short- and long-term effects of prenatal exposure to substances. Early research in the 1970s and 1980s investigatedthe prenatal and perinatal effects of alcohol and heroin use. Several conditions related to substance exposure were identified, including fetal alcohol syndrome, fetal alcohol effects, and neonatal withdrawal syndrome. Research conducted after 1993 found variations in the impact of prenatal exposure that depend on the type of substance used, the stage of fetal development, the duration of exposure, other maternal characteristics, and characteristics of the fetus. Typical short-term effects include small head size at birth and oversensitivity to stimuli. However, long-term studies suggest that the effects decrease with time and that many children can achieve normal levels of development in certain skills. Early intervention, especially in a nurturing environment, can help children achieve their academic and social potential. Originally considered to be unadoptable because of their difficult behavior, prenatally-exposed children who have been adopted have been able to establish close relationships and improve their functioning using adoptive social skill techniques. Longitudinal studies demonstrate the important role of postnatal environmental factors in the healthy development of substance-exposed adopted children. 49 references and1 table.

 

KEY TERMS:         prenatal drug exposure;  research reviews;  sequelae;  child development;  adoption process;  adoption preparation;  counseling;  adoption support

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.cwla.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Evaluating Child Abuse Prevention Programs.

 

AUTHOR:               Tomison, A. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Australian Institute of Family Studies, Melbourne, VIC. National Child Protection Clearinghouse.

 

SOURCE:                Paper Number 12. Australian Institute of Family Studies, Melbourne, VIC. National Child Protection Clearinghouse., Autumn 2000;  p. 508

 

ABSTRACT:           This paper provides an overview of the current state of program evaluation as it is applied to the field of child abuse prevention, the extent to which empirical evidence has been used, and the degree to which programs have been shown +; to be effective. Some of the problems that hamper the rigorous evaluation of real world applied social programs are discussed. A developmental framework for the comprehensive evaluation prevention programs is described, as are some alternative approaches+; that are capable of providing a more flexible response to the demands of evaluation. The author suggests that in spite of the general acceptance that the evaluation of programs should be a core element of service provision, and that rigorous, scientific+; evaluation is essential for the determination of casual relationship, the difficulties associated with applying such methods in situ have meant that very few gold standard evaluations have been done in Australia, or internationally. He also states that +; the majority of evaluations will be modest, internally focused studies that assess client satisfaction, document the services delivered, describe program implementation and if possible, the immediate effects of service provision. Finally, the author +; notes the importance of adequately grounding evaluation by ensuring the documentation of program activity. Three notes; numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         child abuse;  prevention programs;  program evaluation;  barriers;  outcomes;  australia;  theories;  social policies

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Technical Report

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.aifs.org.au/

 

 

TITLE:                    Ethnicity and Placement: Beginning the Debate.

 

AUTHOR:               Small, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Adoption and Fostering

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    West Indies Univ., Jamaica.

 

SOURCE:                24(1): pp. 9-14;  British Agencies for Adoption and Fostering, London (England)., Spring 2000;  p. 520

 

ABSTRACT:           This article is based on an interview with John Small, a lecturer in social work at the University of the West Indies, Jamaica, on the importance of racial identity and the value of placements with black caretakers. The interview +; examines racial identity issues, discussing psychological research that shows what constitutes self and how self-image is derivative of the messages obtained from others. Identity issues in Jamaica are discussed, noting that there, unlike the United +; Kingdom, the population has generally overcome psychological messages based on colonial rule that tout the superiority of whites and the inferiority of blacks. The merits of placements with black caretakers and white caretakers are discussed, noting that+; white families are generally not equipped to understand the history and conditions of blacks in the United Kingdom. The reluctance in the U.K. to place black children with black caretakers is examined, suggesting that racism, personal agendas, and fear +; and guilt play major roles. Small suggests that the way forward is multifaceted, requiring recruitment of black workers, panel members, and caretakers, with black and white social workers working together for institutional and political change, both to +; improve placement practice and to eliminate racism. The restating of the original concepts that fueled the placement of some black children with black caretakers both sets the record straight and provides a basis for widening the debate. Ten +; references.

 

KEY TERMS:         ethnic identity;  child placement;  transracial adoption;  social worker role;  united kingdom;  jamaica;  racism;  recruitment

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.baaf.org.uk

 

 

TITLE:                    Why Black Carers Are Deterred From Adoption.

 

AUTHOR:               Sunmonu, Y.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Adoption and Fostering

 

SOURCE:                24(1): pp. 59-60;  British Agencies for Adoption and Fostering, London (England)., Spring 2000;  p. 530

 

ABSTRACT:           Within the black community in the United Kingdom there are a disproportionate number of mixed-race and black children waiting for adoptive families. The situation becomes more urgent, the authors assert, when reports suggest that blacksare not coming forward to adopt. The United Kingdom's national black newspaper conducted a mini-survey to obtain readers opinions on adoption. The survey generated 150 responses. The results reinforced key issues found in previously covered research andthrow light on additional topics that need to be addressed if more black people are to come forward to adopt or foster black children. The underlying factor is that black people are not receiving enough information on the process and that few respondents take the opportunity to ask about it because they feel deterred from doing so. Some respondents still believed that to have any chance of success, they must have a high income, own their own home and be married. Ten percent asked for further information about adoption and fostering. Overall, the survey shows the strength and importance of the extended black family within black communities and highlights the need for comparative research to assess whether long-term fostering is successful. Italso shows that there is much to be done to convince blacks that local authorities can be accessible and that adoption is a viable option. One reference.

 

KEY TERMS:         minority adoption;  caretakers;  minority recruitment;  united kingdom;  surveys;  barriers;  foster care;  cultural issues

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.baaf.org.uk

 

 

TITLE:                    Workplace Violence: Perceptions and Experiences of Local Public Assistance and Child Support Enforcement Staff and Managers.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC. Office Evalulation and Inspections.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

SOURCE:                Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC. Office of Evaluation and Inspections., March 2000;  p. 534

 

ABSTRACT:           The Office of the Inspector General of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services submitted this final report on worker safety. The report summarizes information the department gathered about workplace violence from local welfare +; and child support enforcement staff. Interestingly, worker safety was not the original objective of the collection of data; instead the topic was raised during a pre-inspection process as the department gathered information about how local offices deal +; with clients who might experience spouse abuse. Staff from 99 local child support offices and 103 local welfare offices in California, Georgia, Illinois, New Jersey, Texas, and Virginia provided information. Seventy-eight percent of local child support +; enforcement and 61 percent of local welfare managers reported that they have had reason to fear for the safety of workers in their office. However, they also reported that the actual incidences of violence in their offices have been rare. Staff reported +; that the nature of their work often contributes to stress levels of the individuals they serve, potentially leading to threats of violence or actual violence. Conclusions suggest that while local office safety is primarily the responsibility of the +; states, the federal Administration for Children and Families should discuss the extent and severity of worker safety with its state partners with a view to promoting the development and sharing of strategies that effectively address the issue. One +; appendix.

 

KEY TERMS:         us department of health and human services;  data analysis;  worker safety;  spouse abuse;  child welfare workers;  child support;  prevention;  welfare

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Final Report

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.hhs.gov/oig/oei/

 

 

TITLE:                    PTSD Scale of the Child Behavior Checklist: Concurrent and Discriminant Validity With Non-Clinic-Referred Sexually Abused Children.

 

AUTHOR:               Ruggiero, K. J.;  McLeer, S. V.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Traumatic Stress

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    West Virginia Univ., Morgantown. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                13(2): pp. 287-299;  Kluwer Academic-Plenum Publishers, Dordrecht (The Netherlands)., 2000;  p. 537

 

ABSTRACT:           Several assessment instruments include measures that are purported to assess characteristics of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although these measures are used often by researchers and clinicians, few are supported by extensive validity data. The PTSD scale of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is one that has not yet encountered significant challenges to its validity. This study examined the concurrent and discriminant validity of the CBCL-PTSD scale. Participants included 63non-clinic-referred sexually abused children, 60 non-sexually abused psychiatric outpatient children, and 61 non-sexually abused, non-clinic-referred schoolchildren. Results revealed questionable concurrent validity for this scale, and suggest poor discriminant validity between sexually abused children and non-sexually abused psychiatric outpatients. 21 references and 6 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         posttraumatic stress disorder;  child behavior;  assessment;  measures;  validity;  behavior rating scales;  sexual abuse;  sequelae

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wkap.nl

 

 

TITLE:                    Grandparent Caregivers' Perception of the Stress of Surrogate Parenting.

 

AUTHOR:               Sands, R. G.;  Goldberg-Glen, R. S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Social Service Research

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Pennsylvania Univ., Phildelphia. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                26(3): pp. 77-95;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 2000;  p. 558

 

ABSTRACT:           This paper examined the relationship between sociodemographic factors, stressors, and resources, and the perception of stress by grandparents caring for their grandchildren. A sample of 129 grandparents had face-to-face interviews. A +; hierarchical block regression analysis produced a model that accounted for 49 percent of the variance. For the first block (sociodemographic factors) younger age and being white were significant, but in the context of the second block, these variables +; disappeared and being employed, having conflict with the children's parent, and grandchild problems were significant. The final block, in which resources were added, found that being employed, having conflict with the children's parent, grandchild +; problems, and lack of family resources were associated with high perception of stress. These findings suggest strategies for social work intervention. 37 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         grandparents;  kinship care;  parental stress;  family characteristics;  child welfare research;  parental surrogates;  stress;  demography

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Sexual Abuse Litigation: A Practical Resource for Attorneys, Clinicians, and Advocates.

 

AUTHOR:               Rix, R. (Editor)

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

SOURCE:                Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 2000;  p. 607

 

ABSTRACT:           The articles in this reference provide an overview of considerations in the legal representation of adults who were sexually abused in childhood. The majority of the text focuses on lawsuits filed by adults who have repressed memories of abuse. Chapters present a history of trauma research and delayed discovery statutes and review sexual abuse litigation, the admissibility of scientific evidence regarding delayed memories, and accessing insurance for payment of damages. The role of expert witnesses and the importance of collaboration with clinicians are also described. Appendices include a state by state analysis of requirements regarding statutes of limitations in cases of child sexual abuse; questions for plaintiff forensic experts; and selections of the testimony of Elizabeth Loftus, PhD about memory and suggestibility.

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  lawsuits;  adults abused as children;  lawyers responsibility;  memory;  expert witnesses;  false memory syndrome;  evidence presentation

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Intergenerational Continuity: Transmission of Beliefs and Culture.

 

AUTHOR:               Kopera-Frye, K.;  Wiscott, R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Akron Univ., OH. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                In: Hayslip, B.; Goldberg-Glen, R. (Editors). Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: Theoretical, Empirical and Clinical Perspectives. Springer Publishing Co., Inc., New York, NY., 2000;  p. 617

 

ABSTRACT:           Undergraduate psychology students were surveyed for this study of the influence of grandparents on belief and value formation, relationship quality, and intergenerational sharing of culture. The sample included 246 students, 78 percent Caucasian, 16 percent African American, and 6 percent other. Measures included the Grandparenting Shared Activities Scale, the Belief Development Scale, and the Bengston Positive Affect Scale, as well as three scales created specifically for the study toassess shared cultural activities, attitudes about grandparenting, and attitudes about the transmission of culture. Overall, the participants reported moderately strong relationships with their grandparents and the shared activities schedule was positively related to shared beliefs and relationship quality. Shared cultural activities typically included cultural customs, listening to stories about the grandparent's life, and looking at family photographs. Although race had no correlation to relationship quality, African American grandchildren had significantly more positive responses to shared everyday activities and cultural activities. Women were more likely to have been influenced by their grandparents than men. Grandparents had the greatest impact on religious beliefs and values regarding family, education, work, and personal identity. These findings suggest that custodial grandparents who have more opportunities for sharing than non-custodial grandparents may have even greater influence on the values and beliefs of their grandchildren. 49 references and 1 table.

 

KEY TERMS:         kinship care;  grandparents;  parental role;  child custody;  cultural values;  cultural identity;  identity development;  child welfare research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.uakron.edu/

 

 

TITLE:                    A Comparison of Low-Income Caregivers in Public Housing: Differences in Grandparent and Nongrandparent Needs and Problems.

 

AUTHOR:               Kauffman, S.;  Goldberg-Glen, R. S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Widener Univ., Chester, PA. Center for Social Work Education.

 

SOURCE:                In: Hayslip, B.; Goldberg-Glen, R. (Editors). Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: Theoretical, Empirical and Clinical Perspectives. Springer Publishing Co., Inc., New York, NY., 2000;  p. 634

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter describes the public housing service system and presents the findings of an assessment of the needs of 82 public housing residents in Chester, Pennsylvania. The needs of grandparent caregivers, parent caregivers, and non-child households are compared. Each study participant was interviewed about the composition of the family, economic issues, attitudes, service needs, and barriers to service. Grandparent caregivers reported fewer problems with transportation, unemployment, juvenile crime, family violence, financial stress, and mental illness, but they indicated that they had more health problems and conflicts among children. Teenage children were more difficult for grandparents to manage and more grandparent caregivers reported the arrest of a family member. The findings suggest that grandparent caregivers may be better off financially than other public housing residents, but need assistance with managing child behavior and coping with the arrest of a child and sudden caregiving responsibilities. 9 references and 2 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         grandparents;  public housing;  low income groups;  needs assessment;  kinship care;  child custody;  social services;  service delivery

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.springerpub.com

 

 

TITLE:                    The Ultimate Search Book: Worldwide Adoption, Genealogy, and Other Search Secrets.

 

AUTHOR:               Carangelo, L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Americans for Open Records, Palm Desert, CA.

 

SOURCE:                2001 Edition. Access Press, Palm Desert, CA., 2000;  p. 648

 

ABSTRACT:           This guide describes strategies for searching for any individual, from birth relatives to former classmates. The first chapter offers 40 simple search tips and resource suggestions for beginners, such as Internet and telephone directories, department of motor vehicle records, the Social Security Administration locator service, courthouse records, voter registrations, the national census, and the Freedom of Information Act and the Privacy Act. The remaining chapters address specific search strategies for missing and runaway children, genealogical research, separations related to adoption or divorce, and computerized searches. The second part of the book provides information about search resources in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, United States possessions, and numerous other countries. Each profile includes contact information for vital records offices and adoption search and support groups, as well a summary of adoption disclosure laws and excerpts from letters from searchers in that jurisdiction.

 

KEY TERMS:         adoption records access;  search for birth parents;  search for birth children;  runaway children;  family structure;  intercountry adoption;  search guides;  search support

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.accesspressbooks.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Community-Based Sex Offender Management: Combining Parole Supervision and Treatment to Reduce Recidivism.

 

AUTHOR:               Wilson, R. J.;  Stewart, L.;  Stirpe, T.;  Barrett, M.;  Cripps, J. E.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Canadian Journal of Criminology

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Correctional Service of Canada, Toronto, ON. Central Ontario District.

 

SOURCE:                42(2): pp. 177-188;  Canadian Criminal Justice Association, Ottawa, ON (Canada)., April 2000;  p. 669

 

ABSTRACT:           This article describes a community-based sexual offender management protocol implemented by the Central Ontario District (Toronto) over an eight year period. The program combines parole supervision and relapse prevention treatment at two levels depending on the risk of reoffense. High risk offenders received individual and group counseling from the forensic division of a psychiatric hospital, and low-risk offenders were treated and supervised within a maintenance program. A review of107 sexual offenders revealed overall rates of 21.0 percent for general reoffending, 10.2 percent for violence reoffending, and 3.7 percent for sexual reoffending. Recidivism rates were lower among offenders in the maintenance program than the high riskprogram. These results are compared with outcomes found in other treatment sites. The study suggests that valid risk assessment, in combination with a well-defined supervision strategy (i.e., collaboration of community-based relapse prevention treatmentand knowledgeable parole supervision) is an effective method for the management of sexual recidivism in the community. 11 references and 2 tables. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         sex offenders therapy;  intervention strategies;  recidivism;  model programs;  community based services;  protocols;  laws enforcement;  outcomes

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://home.istar.ca/~ccja/angl/index.shtml

 

 

TITLE:                    Loss and Grief in Adoption: The Impact of Contact.

 

AUTHOR:               Courtney, A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Adoption and Fostering

 

SOURCE:                24(2): pp. 33-44;  British Agencies for Adoption and Fostering, London (United Kingdom)., 2000;  p. 732

 

ABSTRACT:           Adopted children experience the loss of significant attachment relationships, based on the internal working models of their parents that were formed from birth. Their memories of their relationship with their parents can strongly affectthem throughout childhood. This article suggests that before children can move on to the next stage of mourning their losses, those original models have to be understood. One method for resolving the birth parent-child relationship is to incorporate thebirth parent in some way into the daily life and relationships of the child after he or she is adopted. The likely effect of contact is discussed in the article, as is the role of the adoptive parent and possible therapeutic intervention. 45 references.(Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         attachment;  adjustment problems;  post adoption contact;  birth families;  visitation;  loss;  therapeutic intervention;  sequelae

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.baaf.org.uk

 

 

TITLE:                    Adoption With Contact: A Study of Adoptive Parents and the Impact of Continuing Contact With Families of Origin.

 

AUTHOR:               Sykes, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Adoption and Fostering

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Wiltshire Mental Health Care NHS Trust (United Kingdom).

 

SOURCE:                24(2): pp. 20-32;  British Agencies for Adoption and Fostering, London (United Kingdom)., 2000;  p. 735

 

ABSTRACT:           Adoption practice in the 1990s has seen a substantial increase in adoptive families where there continues to be contact with families of origin. This study examines the impact of contact experiences for adoptive parents at least two years after placement. Thirty adoptive parents in 17 families completed a written questionnaire about their experience and about half of the respondents were interviewed for more information. The analysis of the narratives from the interviews considered the impact on parenthood, specifically themes of control, entitlement to parent, communication, bonding, and ownership, as well as the relationships between adoptive and birth parents. The findings suggest that the passage of time and a greater sense of control assist in establishing confidence, while adopters develop a more empathic view towards birth mothers. This has emotional costs to the adoptive mother. The study suggests that contact is more likely to be sustained where adoptive parents are able to develop a coherence in their understanding of their own past experiences. The implications for practice are discussed. 43 references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         adoption research;  post adoption contact;  open adoption;  sequelae;  birth mothers;  visitation;  emotional response;  parental attitudes

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.baaf.org.uk

 

 

TITLE:                    Pituitary-Adrenal and Autonomic Responses to Stress in Women After Sexual and Physical Abuse in Childhood.

 

AUTHOR:               Heim, C.;  Newport, D. J.;  Heit, S.;  Graham, Y. P.;  et al.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of the American Medical Association

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Trier Univ. (Germany). Center for Psychobiological and Psychosomatic Research.

 

SOURCE:                284(5): pp. 592-597;  American Medical Association, Chicago, IL., August 2, 2000;  p. 740

 

ABSTRACT:           This study was conducted to determine whether early-life stress in the form of childhood sexual abuse results in a persistent sensitization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to mild stress in adulthood, thereby contributing to vulnerability to psychopathological conditions. Forty-nine healthy women aged 18 to 45 years participated in a prospective controlled study from May 1997 to July 1999 at the General Clinical Research Center of Emory University Hospital. Four study groupswere formed: 12 women with no history of childhood abuse or psychiatric disorder (controls); 13 women with diagnosis of current major depression who were sexually or physically abused as children; 14 women without current major depression who were sexually or physically abused as children; and 10 women with a diagnosis of current major depression and no history of childhood abuse. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels and heart rate responses to a standardized psychosocial laboratory stressor were compared among the four study groups. Women with a history of childhood abuse exhibited increased pituitary-adrenal and autonomic responses to stress compared with controls. This effect was particularly robust in women witn current symptoms of depression and anxiety. Women with a history of childhood abuse and a current major depression diagnosis exhibited a more than 6-fold greater ACTH response to stress than age-matched controls. These findings suggest that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system hyperreactivity, presumably due to CRF hypersecretion, is a persistent consequence of childhood abuse that may contribute to the diathesis for adulthood psychopathological conditions related to early-life stress. 46 references, 1 figure, and 1 table. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  adults abused as children;  female victims;  sequelae;  stress;  psychopathology;  neurology;  neurological impairments

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    The Stability of Child Abuse Reports: A Longitudinal Study of the Reporting Behaviour of Young Adults.

 

AUTHOR:               Fergusson, D. M.;  Horwood, L. J.;  Woodward, L. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Psychological Medicine

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Christchurch School of Medicine (New Zealand). Health and Development Study.

 

SOURCE:                30(3): pp. 529-544;  Cambridge Univ. Press, Oxford (United Kingdom)., 2000;  p. 752

 

ABSTRACT:           The aims of this study were to use longitudinal report data on physical and sexual abuse to examine the stability and consistency of abuse reports. The study was based on the birth cohort of young people studied in the Christchurch Health and Development Study. At ages 18 and 21 years, these young people were questioned about their childhood exposure to physical punishment and sexual abuse. Concurrent with these assessments, sample members were also assessed on measures of psychiatric disorder and suicidal behavior. Reports of childhood sexual abuse and physical punishment were relatively unstable and the values of kappa for test-retests of abuse reporting were in the region of .45. Inconsistencies in reporting were unrelated to the subject's psychiatric state. Latent class analyses suggested that those who were not abused did not falsely report being abused; and that those who were abused provided unreliable reports in which the probability of a false negative response was approximately 50 percent. Different approaches to classifying subjects as abused led to wide variations in the estimated prevalence of abuse but estimates of the relative risk of psychiatric adjustment problems conditional on abuse exposure remained relatively stable. These findings suggest that estimates of abuse prevalence based on a single report are likely to seriously underestimate the true prevalence of abuse, while estimates of the relative risk of psychiatric adjustment problems conditional on abuse appear to be robust to the effects of reporting errors. 49 references and 6 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         child abuse research;  disclosure;  longitudinal studies;  child abuse reporting;  reliability;  prevalence;  sequelae;  mental disorders

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.cup.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Reconsidering the Recent History of Child Sexual Abuse, 1910-1960.

 

AUTHOR:               Smart, C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Social Policy

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Leeds, Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Sociology and Social Policy.

 

SOURCE:                29(1): pp. 55-71;  Cambridge Univ. Press, Oxford (United Kingdom)., 2000;  p. 771

 

ABSTRACT:           This paper explores how different discursive sites have sought to define and/or deny the actuality and harm of child sexual abuse in the first half of the twentieth century in England and Wales. Primary data from journal and archival sources suggest that there were a range of competing accounts of sexual abuse (usually referred to as sexual assaults or even just as outrages). It is argued that there was not a monolithic silencing of this abuse but a context over the meaning of childhood, over the sexual innocence of girls, and even over the significance of discovering venereal diseases in babies and in children's homes. The paper suggests that there has been an overemphasis on the silencing potential of psychoanalytic discourses during this period, and insufficient attention paid to the role of the legal establishment and the practices of the criminal justice system in the persistent, but multifaceted, inability to define adult/child sexual contact as abusive or harmful. 39 references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  child abuse research;  historical perspective;  great britain;  social policies;  public policy;  social values;  literature reviews

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.cup.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Mass Media and Disclosures of Child Abuse in the Perspective of Secondary Prevention: Putting Ideas Into Practice.

 

AUTHOR:               Hoefnagels, C.;  Mudde, A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Free Univ., Amsterdam (The Netherlands).

 

SOURCE:                24(8): pp. 1091-1101;  Elsevier Science, Inc., New York, NY., 2000;  p. 792

 

ABSTRACT:           Most strategies intended to lower the prevalence of child abuse are based on the exchange of information and communication within an interpersonal setting. These strategies are limited, though, because of the reduced chance of reaching at-risk populations and the tendency of families at risk to refuse to cooperate. This article attempts to provide insight into the developmental process of a mass-media campaign aimed at the enhancement of children's disclosure of abuse by describing thevarious phases in development and implementation, summarizing the different goals and means, and discussing the shortcomings of the process and campaign. A case study is presented which describes and analyzes the organization and program development of a Dutch mass-media intervention aimed at the enhancement of disclosure of abuse by 8- to 15-year-old children. Results showed that in the developmental process, several shortcomings were observed with respect to problem analysis, goal setting, and the assessment of unplanned effects. The authors criticize the program's intervention density, and the input and output of financial and human resources. Conclusions suggest that the program described could serve as an example of an ecological approach that goes beyond the micro-system, extending the potential in preventing ongoing abuse. One table; two figures; 44 references. (Author abstract modified.)

 

KEY TERMS:         child abuse;  disclosure;  mass media;  secondary prevention;  intervention;  strategic planning;  program development;  netherlands

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Is Sexual Abuse of Children With Disabilities Disclosed? A Retrospective Analysis of Child Disability and the Likelihood of Sexual Abuse Among Those Attending Norwegian Hospitals.

 

AUTHOR:               Kvam, M. H.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    SINTEF Unimed, Oslo (Norway).

 

SOURCE:                24(8): pp. 1073-1084;  Elsevier Science Inc., New York, NY., 2000;  p. 794

 

ABSTRACT:           According to North American studies, disabled children are two-to-three times more likely to be sexually abused than non-disabled children. The authors hypothesize that if the risk ratio for disabled children in Norway is similar, and the disclosure of sexual abuse is the same for disabled as for non-disabled, one should expect disabled children to constitute 2-3 times the 11 percent they constitute in the general population. The research aimed to investigate if this is the case for Norwegian children, and to find characteristics within the handicapped group suspected of being sexually abused. A questionnaire was distributed to all Norwegian pediatric hospitals. Of interest were numbers of children having a medical examination for possible sexual assault in the years 1994-1996, the number with a smaller or severe disability, a description of the disability, age and sex, and the conclusion of the examination as to the likelihood of sexual abuse. Results showed that severely disabled children constituted only 1.7 percent of the 1,293 children. Altogether, 6.4 percent of the children had a smaller or severe disability. These children were more often assessed as probably assaulted then the non-disabled, and the disabled group had more boys than the non-disabled group. Conclusions suggest that children with disabilities make up a smaller part of children coming to pediatric hospitals with the suspicion of being sexually abused than expected. The results indicate that when a child has a severe disability, the caretakers do not seem to recognize sexual abuse before it is obvious. Six tables; 29 references. (Author abstract modified.)

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  children with disabilities;  retrospective studies;  norway;  diagnoses;  medical treatment;  pediatric hospitals;  sexual assault

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Treatment Outcome for a Maltreated Population: Benefits, Procedural Decisions, and Challenges.

 

AUTHOR:               Gothard, S.;  Ryan, B.;  Heinrich, T.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    San Diego Children's Hospital and Health Center, CA. Trauma Counseling Program.

 

SOURCE:                24(8): pp. 1037-1045;  Elsevier Science Inc., New York, NY., 2000;  p. 796

 

ABSTRACT:           The Center for Child Protection of San Diego Children's Hospital and Health Center implemented a treatment outcome program to demonstrate the effectiveness of its managed care program for child abuse victims. To date, the center has collected data on more than 2,000 victims of child abuse. This article reviews the benefits, challenges, and procedural decisions to consider when implementing and managing such a treatment program. The authors reviewed reasons for implementing a treatment outcome program, decisions regarding procedures, and challenges likely to be encountered based on literature in the field and the experiences in developing the program. The primary goals in establishing an outcome program involved providing an objective means of assessing whether clients demonstrate changes in symptoms over the course of treatment, to help direct treatment planning, and to examine consumer satisfaction with services. The authors also used information derived from the outcome program for educational and research opportunities, to help prevent premature terminations from therapy, to provide documentation for funding sources, and to equip clinicians and administrators with a greater understanding of the population served. Development of such programs require careful measurement selection, early and ongoing staff involvement, support from higher management, a well-developed database and client tracking system, a coordinator and support staff, clinical utility, planning forfiscal impact, and flexibility to contend with challenges. Conclusions suggest that the information derived from the outcome program far outweigh the challenges and costs of establishing and maintaining the program. Sixteen references. (Author abstract modified.)

 

KEY TERMS:         child abuse;  mental health;  treatment;  outcomes;  staff development;  data collection;  data

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Changing Public Attitudes Towards Corporal Punishment: The Effects of Statutory Reform in

 

AUTHOR:               Roberts, J. V.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Criminology.

 

SOURCE:                24(8): pp. 1027-1035;  Elsevier Science Inc., New York, NY., 2000;  p. 797

 

ABSTRACT:           In 1979 Sweden passed legislation effectively abolishing corporal punishment as a legitimate child-rearing practice. One justification for a statutory ban on physical punishment is that passage of such legislation changes public attitudes towards the use of this form of parental discipline. The experience in Sweden is often cited as an example of legislation that changes public opinion. The aim of this article is to review the public opinion findings to evaluate in greater detail the impact of changing the law. A search was conducted to generate all published and publicly available quantitative surveys of the public in Sweden and elsewhere. The results show that the 1979 law did not reduce the level of public support for parental use of corporal punishment as a means of disciplining children. Support for physical punishment began declining years before the reform was passed and the decline was in no way accelerated by the law. Changes in public opinion might have generated the legal reform, but the reverse is not true. Data from other jurisdictions also support the view that there is no relationship between the status of the law and the nature of public views with regard to corporal punishment. This result is consistent with analyses of the effects of legal reforms in other areas. The author suggests that changing public views require other initiatives. One table; one figure; 24 references. (Author abstract modified.)

 

KEY TERMS:         corporal punishment;  legislation;  sweden;  public opinion;  data analysis;  legal processes;  behavior

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Factors Related to Mothers' Perceptions of Parenting Following Their Children's Disclosures of Sexual Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:               Hiebert-Murphy, D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Maltreatment

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg (Canada).

 

SOURCE:                5(3): pp. 251-260;  Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA., August 2000;  p. 801

 

ABSTRACT:           The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to parenting satisfaction and efficacy in non-offending mothers. Parenting satisfaction and efficacy was of particular interest, given previous findings suggesting that satisfaction and efficacy are associated with child behavior and parental functioning. The study was based on a stress-coping model in which the relationship between a sexual abuse disclosure by a child and the mother's parenting satisfaction and efficacy was expected to be affected by risk factors as well as stress-resistance factors. Two main questions were considered in the study: 1. Do risk factors and stress-resistance factors predict parenting satisfaction and efficacy among mothers whose children have disclosed sexual abuse? and 2. Do the hypothesized stress-resistance factors predict parenting satisfaction and efficacy after controlling the risk factors as predicted by a stress-coping model? Participants were 102 women recruited througha sexual assault clinic at a children's hospital and a community-based service for families affected by third-party sexual abuse. Findings suggest that understanding the parenting satisfaction of mothers following a disclosure of sexual abuse requires consideration of at least several factors. Abuse characteristics and demographic variables do not seem central to predicting satisfaction; rather, attention must be given to the behavior of the child and to social and personal resources the women can usein dealing with the situation. The author suggests that more research is needed to understand the relationship between social support and coping strategies and parenting efficacy among mothers of children who have been sexually abused. Three tables; numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  parenting skills;  disclosure;  mother child relationships;  behavior problems;  coping skills;  data collection;  data analysis

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    Substantiation and Early Decision Points in Public Child Welfare: A Conceptual Reconsideration.

 

AUTHOR:               Drake, B.;  Jonson-Reid, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Maltreatment

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO. Dept. of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                5(3): pp. 227-235;  Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA., August 2000;  p. 805

 

ABSTRACT:           This article describes the concept of substantiation, a means of officially validating the occurrence of prior events in accordance with agency standards in the larger context of early decision-making in state child protective services.The authors note that substantiation has been misunderstood and misapplied by policy makers and researchers, stemming from the fact that substantiation of child welfare cases is past-oriented and reminiscent of a criminal justice system model, which causes the substantiation construct to be mismatched with public child welfare services and goals, which are future-oriented and follow a preventative model. Specific attention is given to the voluntary or involuntary nature of services, the availabilityof evidence, and the past or future orientation of the decision-making process. The conceptual consistency of recent child welfare policies is explored. Based on the review, the authors make recommendations with regard to the desirability of replacing the substantiation characterization with more practice-relevant characterizations more consistent with the nature of child welfare services. Conclusions suggest that the reliance of substantiation in child protective services overshadows the more important determination of whether a family requires services to prevent further harm to a child. Substantiation is described as a useful, preliminary step toward family court involvement, but researchers must discontinue the reliance on substantiation as a proxy for risk or severity. Two figures, 16 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         early intervention programs;  child welfare system;  child protective services;  decision making;  validity;  policies;  family courts

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    Finding Your Way: What Happens When You Tell About Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:               Pucci, L. M.;  Copen, L. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

SOURCE:                Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA., 2000;  p. 807

 

ABSTRACT:           This book is written for adolescents who believe they might have been victims of physical, sexual, or emotional abuse, with a primary focus on sexual abuse. The intent of the book is to assist adolescents, following the incidence or incidences of abuse, in understanding the ways that the community can respond to their abuse; in other words, to help them understand what might happen when abuse is reported. The book is presented in a question/answer format, with questions based on what the authors most frequently encounter as victim-witness coordinators and therapists. They also reflect the many different feelings that adolescents have about their abuse, the abuser, and the professionals they meet. Answers reflect the typical responses adolescents might encounter, and are presented in ways that are consistent with the philosophical intent of the agencies or roles of the professionals described. The authors suggest that the book can be used as an introduction to community, agency, and individual responses to an adolescent's abuse disclosure, but not as a substitute for information or counseling by professionals. Numerous illustrations.

 

KEY TERMS:         adolescents;  sexual abuse;  child abuse;  sexual abuse reporting;  criminal justice system;  family role;  lawyers role

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Training Material

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    Ataque de Nervios and History of Childhood Trauma.

 

AUTHOR:               Schechter, D. S.;  Marshall, R.;  Salman, E.;  Goetz, D.;  et al.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Traumatic Stress

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. Div. of Developmental Psychobiology.

 

SOURCE:                13(3): pp. 529-534;  Kluwer Academic-Plenum Publishers, Dordrecht (The Netherlands)., 2000;  p. 808

 

ABSTRACT:           The authors present a description of ataque de nervios, a common, self-labeled folk diagnosis among Hispanics. It typically describes episodic, dramatic outbursts of negative emotion in response to a stressor, sometimes involving destructive behavior. Dissociation and affective dysregulation during such episodes suggested a link to childhood trauma. The authors conducted a pilot study to examine the hypothesis that individuals with ataque would be more likely to report experiencing childhood traumatic events theoretically linked to affective dysregulation than individuals with psychiatric disorder with no history of ataque. They assessed psychiatric diagnoses, history of ataque, and childhood trauma in 70 treatment-seeking Hispanic outpatients. Significantly more subjects with an anxiety or affective disorder plus ataque reported a history of physical abuse, sexual abuse, and/or a substance-abusing caretaker than those with psychiatric disorder but no ataque. In some Hispanic individuals, ataque might represent a culturally sanctioned expression of extreme affect dysregulation associated with childhood trauma. Conclusions suggest that patients with ataque de nervios should receive a thorough traumatichistory assessment. Seventeen references. (Author abstract modified.)

 

KEY TERMS:         childhood trauma;  hispanics;  anxiety;  assessment;  dissociation;  cross cultural studies;  panic disorders;  pilot programs

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wkap.nl

 

 

TITLE:                    The Kempe Family Stress Inventory: A Review.

 

AUTHOR:               Korfmacher, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Colorado Univ. School of Medicine, Denver. Kempe Children's Center.

 

SOURCE:                24(1): pp. 129-140;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., January 2000

 

ABSTRACT:           This article reviews research about the validity of the Kempe Family Stress Inventory (KFSI), a 10-item scale that measures risk for parenting difficulties based upon responses to a thorough psychosocial interview. Research and documentation regarding the assessment instrument were gathered from journals, book chapters, presentations, workshops, and intervention evaluation reports. The KFSI has been used to predict parents' future risk of maltreating their children. The scale covers a variety of domains, including psychiatric history, criminal and substance abuse history, childhood history of care, emotional functioning, attitudes towards and perception of child, discipline of child, and level of stress in the parent's life. Although construct validity has been demonstrated with the KFSI, questions remain about its specificity and sensitivity. In addition, there has been minimal reliability and work done on the measure. It is concluded that the KFSI may have clinical utility, but should be used as part of a more comprehensive risk assessment that includes multiple measures. Acceptable accuracy in predicting child abuse and neglect when used by itself has not been demonstrated. There is a need for more demonstration of reliability and validity. Suggestions for future research are noted. 21 references and 2 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         assessment;  measures;  parental stress;  parental behavior;  validity;  adults abused as children;  substance abuse;  mental health

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Characteristics of Volunteers and Families in a Neonatal Home Visitation Project: The Kempe Community Caring Program.

 

AUTHOR:               Hiatt, S. W.;  Michalek, P.;  Younge, P.;  Miyoshi, T.;  Fryer, E.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Colorado Univ. School of Medicine, Denver. Kempe Children's Center.

 

SOURCE:                24(1): pp. 85-97;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., January 2000

 

ABSTRACT:           The purpose of this paper is to review literature related to home visitation support for new families using volunteer visitors and to describe characteristics of volunteers of the Kempe Community Caring Program, a home visitor support program for first time parents. Suggestions for effectively utilizing volunteers in family support programs are made. Program data was collected and reviewed on 592 volunteer home visitors and the 1,144 families they served. Several evaluations and assessments were performed in order to attempt to measure the success of the intervention. Motivation for volunteering, longevity with program, and the extent of sociodemographic match between visitor and client were reviewed and discussed. Information on matched volunteer-client pairs was limited; however, speculations were made that neither motivation to participate nor sociodemographic match were critical factors in determining success of the intervention. Duration of volunteer participation was influenced by marital status, but not by age. Married volunteers stayed with the program significantly longer than unmarried volunteers. Low risk families demonstrated slightly improved confidence in parental function after receiving home visitation by a volunteer. This program suggests that new mothers may benefit from receiving the services of a volunteer home visitor; specifically, their confidence as parents and ability to establish positive relationships show slight improvement. Likewise, volunteers and families felt satisfied with the supportive relationships generated. In addition, a volunteer profile emerged which may be beneficial to similar programs' recruiting efforts. 29 references, 3 figures, and 4 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         home visitation programs;  home visitors;  family characteristics;  individual characteristics;  volunteers;  therapeutic effectiveness;  predictor variables;  program evaluation

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Supervised Visitation: The Families and Their Experiences.

 

AUTHOR:               Pearson, J.;  Thoennes, N.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Family and Conciliation Courts Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Center for Policy Research, Denver, CO.

 

SOURCE:                38(1): pp. 123-142;  Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA., January 2000

 

ABSTRACT:           Data were collected from reviews of 676 case files and interviews with 201 participating parents to provide a profile of families receiving supervised visitation services, their experiences, and the outcomes from one of four programs. Findings indicate that the visitation programs successfully serve a wide variety of families and garner high ratings of user satisfaction, but half of the families exit without formal closure. Families that drop out receive fewer court hearings and evaluations for the problems that brought them into the programs in the first place, suggesting that they may feel neglected. In most cases that formally exit the program, the visitation situation improves over time, although interviewed parents give mixed reports about their visitation situations after they leave the programs. 13 references and 11 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         visitation;  family services;  family characteristics;  outcomes;  program evaluation;  model programs;  foster care;  family reunification

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    From Child Victim to Adult Victim: A Model for Predicting Sexual Revictimization.

 

AUTHOR:               Arata, C. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Maltreatment

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University of South Alabama, Mobile. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                5(1): pp. 28-38;  Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA., February 2000

 

ABSTRACT:           A sample of 221 women with histories of child sexual abuse participated in a study designed to test a model for predicting adult-adolescent sexual revictimization and post-assault functioning. Participants completed anonymous questionnaires regarding their sexual victimization history, post sexual assault symptoms and attributions, and consensual sexual behavior. Repeated victimization was defined as having experienced child sexual abuse and a separate incident of adolescent-adult victimization. Repeated victimization was associated with having experienced child sexual abuse involving physical contact, including intercourse and-or penetration. Women with repeated victimization engaged in more self-blame, reported higher levels of post-traumatic symptoms, and reported more high-risk sexual behavior. A path model was developed that indicated that the relationship between revictimization and child sexual abuse was mediated by self-blame, post-traumatic symptoms, and consensual sexual activity. The results suggest the need for further research on revictimization as well as suggesting areas for intervention to prevent sexual revictimization. 46 references, 2 figures, and 3 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         adults abused as children;  sexual abuse;  revictimization;  models;  predictor variables;  sequelae;  posttraumatic stress disorder;  prevention

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    Adult Sexual Revictimization Among Black Women Sexually Abused in Childhood: A Prospective Examination of Serious Consequences of Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:               West, C. M.;  Williams, L. M.;  Siegel, J. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Maltreatment

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Washington Univ., Tacoma.

 

SOURCE:                5(1): pp. 49-57;  Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA., February 2000

 

ABSTRACT:           This study is a prospective investigation of adult sexual revictimization among 113 Black women with documented histories of childhood sexual abuse. The purpose was to obtain information about the frequency of sexual abuse in both childhood and adulthood and to determine which characteristics of child sexual abuse were predictive of revictimization. Thirty percent of the participants were revictimized and physical force predicted subsequent victimization. The study also investigated possible sexual behavioral correlates of revictimization. Revictimized women reported more involvement in prostitution and partner violence. Finally, the study considered the reproductive and sexual health correlates of revictimization. When compared to women abused in childhood only, revictimized women experienced more problems conceiving, repeated vaginal infections, sexually transmitted diseases, and painful intercourse. Suggestions for intervention are discussed. 37 references and 4 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         adults abused as children;  sexual abuse;  revictimization;  female victims;  african americans;  sequelae;  child abuse research;  predictor variables

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    Enhancing Law Enforcement Identification and Investigation of Child Maltreatment.

 

AUTHOR:               Portwood, S. G.;  Grady, M. T.;  Dutton, S. E.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Missouri Univ., Kansas City.

 

SOURCE:                24(2): pp. 195-207;  Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY., February 2000

 

ABSTRACT:           Data from 2 independent studies is presented, representing the investigators' ongoing work with faculty from a state criminal justice academy to analyze existing knowledge and skills among veteran law enforcement officers and recruits, as well as to enhance future training. Through an anonymous questionnaire, the first of these studies examined officers' perceptions of maltreatment, including those factors that do and do not influence a determination of whether a particular act constitutes child maltreatment and assessments of whether particular acts constitute abuse or neglect. The second study also utilized an anonymous questionnaire to examine officers' knowledge of the developmental strengths and limitations of children relative to their ability to provide accurate information in suspected cases of child maltreatment. As hypothesized, several gaps both in law enforcement officers' knowledge of certain characteristics that can serve to denote a case of maltreatment and their knowledge of fundamental developmental issues and interview techniques that could assist them in the performance of their professional duties are identified. Suggestions for enhanced law enforcement training programs are presented and discussed. 4 tables and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         investigations;  law enforcement;  questionnaires;  identification;  assessment;  professional training

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    The Effects of Daily Stressors on Physical Health in Women With and Without a Childhood History of Sexual Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:               Thakkar, R. R.;  McCanne, T. R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                24(2): pp. 209-221;  Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY., February 2000

 

ABSTRACT:           This study examined the relationship between daily stressors and physical symptoms in college-age women with a childhood history of sexual abuse and women without a history of childhood sexual abuse. The authors hypothesized that women with a history of sexual abuse would be particularly susceptible to the effects of daily stressors on physical symptoms, and would show more covariation between daily stressors and physical symptoms, compared to women without a history of childhood sexual abuse. A total of 491 female college students were screened for histories of childhood (before age 15) and adulthood (after age 15) contact sexual abuse. Of these participants, 18 women with only a history of childhood sexual abuse were assigned to the sexually abused group, and 27 with no history of childhood or adulthood sexual abuse were assigned to the not abused group. These women filled out self-report measures of daily hassles and physical symptoms for 28 consecutive days. During the 5 days preceding a highly stressful day, women in the sexually abused group reported significantly more physical symptoms than during the 5 days preceding a day of low stress. For the not abused group, there were no significant differences in reported physical symptoms between high- and low-stress days. The pattern of results for physical symptoms suggests that women with a history of childhood sexual abuse may be particularly susceptible to the effects of heightened daily stress, and may display this susceptibility in the report of physical symptoms. Possible explanations for these findings are discussed. 2 tables, 2 figures, and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         adults abused as children;  sexual abuse;  child abuse history;  symptoms;  stress

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Child Characteristics Which Impact Accuracy of Recall and Suggestibility in Preschoolers: Is Age the Best Predictor?

 

AUTHOR:               Geddie, L.;  Fradin, S.;  Beer, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    East Carolina Univ., Greenville, NC. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                24(2): pp. 223-235;  Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY., February 2000

 

ABSTRACT:           This study determined whether individual difference factors of metamemory, intelligence, and temperament can improve the ability to predict accuracy of recall and suggestibility in preschoolers. Fifty-six children ranging in age from 43 months to 83 months were recruited from 13 child care centers in a rural southwestern town. Children participated in a circus day event conducted by 2 female undergraduate psychology students dressed as clowns. About 10 days after the event, children were interviewed regarding their experiences. Bivariate correlations and multiple regression analyses were performed in order to determine which factors were related and unique contributors to accuracy of memory and suggestibility. Of principal importance is the finding that child characteristics such as metamemory ability, intellectual functioning, and temperament may indeed be helpful in determining a child's capacity to accurately recall information in an interview, although for the most part age is the best predictor. Findings also underscore the importance of considering a child's socioeconomic status and race when planning and conducting interviews with young children. Possible explanations for these findings as well as implications for future research and clinical application are discussed. 2 tables and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         preschool children;  memory;  suggestibility;  individual characteristics;  predictor variables;  interviews;  intelligence

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Delay in Disclosure of Childhood Rape: Results From a National Survey.

 

AUTHOR:               Smith, D. W.;  Letourneau, E. J.;  Saunders, B. E.;  Kilpatrick, D. G. et al.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                24(2): pp. 273-287;  Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY., February 2000

 

ABSTRACT:           This study gathered representative data regarding the length of time women who were raped before age 18 delayed prior to disclosing such rapes, whom they disclosed to, and variables that predicted disclosure within 1 month. Data were gathered from 3,220 wave 2 respondents from the National Women's Study, a nationally representative telephone survey of women's experiences with trauma and mental health. Of these, 288 retrospectively reported at least 1 rape prior to their eighteenth birthday. Details of rape experiences were analyzed to identify predictors of disclosure within 1 month. Fully 28 percent of child rape victims reported that they had never told anyone about their child rape prior to the research interview; 47 percent did not disclose for over 5 years post-rape. Close friends were the most common confidants. Younger age at the time of rape, family relationship with the perpetrator, and experiencing a series of rapes were associated with disclosure latencies longer than 1 month; shorter delays were associated with stranger rapes. Logistic regression revealed that age at rape and knowing the perpetrator were independently predictive of delayed disclosure. Delayed disclosure of childhood rape was very common, and long delays were typical. Few variables were identified that successfully predicted disclosure behavior, but older age and rape by a stranger were associated with more rapid disclosure. This suggests that the likelihood of disclosure in a given case is difficult to estimate, and predictions based on single variables are unwarranted. 6 tables and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         national surveys;  rape;  disclosure;  predictor variables;  adults abused as children

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    ANTI-SOCIAL BEHAVIOR AS A RESULT OF ABUSE: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

SOURCE:                NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  2000

 

KEY TERMS:         kinship care;  drug exposed infants;  sequelae;  child placement;  outcomes;  prevalence;  behavior problems;  child welfare research;  longitudinal studies;  violence;  symptoms;  adolescents;  school surveys;  ethnicity;  urban environment;  risk factors;  physical abuse;  corporal punishment;  child abuse research;  china;  sexual behavior;  child behavior;  predictor variables;  spouse abuse;  child witnesses of family violence;  child development;  research methodology;  data collection;  measures;  sexual abuse;  etiology;  sexually abusive children;  differential diagnoses;  case studies;  adolescent;  adults abused as children;  attachment behavior;  nonmarital violence;  aggressive behavior;  juvenile delinquency;  homicide;  psychological characteristics;  family violence;  suicide;  antisocial behavior;  impulsive behavior;  mothers;  posttraumatic stress disorder;  battered women;  community violence;  emotional problems;  child abuse history;  adoption;  foster care;  school children;  family relationships;  family support systems

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:                    CHILD WELFARE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

SOURCE:                NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  2000

 

KEY TERMS:         kinship care;  professional training;  child welfare workers;  curricula;  competency based training;  assessment;  intervention strategies;  service delivery;  social workers;  social workers role;  personnel needs;  child protective services;  child welfare services;  personnel management;  competency;  children with disabilities;  developmental disabilities;  foster care;  foster parents training;  program models;  interagency collaboration;  evaluation methods;  validity;  testing;  outcomes;  longitudinal studies;  program evaluation;  family preservation;  cultural competency;  schools of social work;  resource materials;  child welfare research;  risk factors;  prevention;  child welfare research;  child welfare agencies;  substance abuse;  multidisciplinary teams;  child welfare reform;  pennsylvania;  interdisciplinary approach;  new york;  social workers attitudes;  caseload;  staff development;  florida;  investigations;  supervisors;  foster care workers;  california;  measures

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:                    OUT OF HOME CARE: RESIDENTIAL CARE AND GROUP HOMES: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

SOURCE:                NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  2000

 

KEY TERMS:         orphanages;  orphans;  social policies;  policy formation;  child welfare reform;  family preservation;  outcomes;  adoption;  funding;  child welfare services;  institutional abuse and neglect;  foster care drift;  judicial role;  permanency planning;  florida;  historical perspective;  deinstitutionalization;  model programs;  program descriptions;  program development;  residential care institutions;  welfare reform;  political factors;  private sector;  poverty;  therapeutic effectiveness;  child placement;  economic disadvantage;  attitudes;  child development;  research reviews;  psychological characteristics;  research methodology;  maternal deprivation;  foster care;  incidence;  statistical data;  predictor variables;  social workers attitudes;  public opinion;  government role;  discipline;  state statutory law;  federal statutory law;  vocational training;  state laws;  licensing;  standards;  state surveys;  personnel;  treatment programs;  program models;  federal aid;  grants;  religious organizations;  family characteristics;  family life;  program costs;  cost effectiveness;  costs;  operating expenses;  program planning;  federal laws;  sequelae;  residential care;  michigan;  child welfare research;  managed care;  residential treatment;  program administration;  out of home care;  foster children;  direct service providers;  emotionally disturbed children;  behavior modification;  therapeutic intervention;  intervention strategies;  service delivery;  program evaluation;  family programs;  shared family care;  adolescent sex offenders;  sex offenders therapy;  hispanics;  american indians;  african americans;  models;  parenting;  group dynamics;  control;  interviews;  adolescents;  focus groups;  family therapy;  canada;  cultural conflicts;  residential schools;  environmental stress;  trauma;  counselors;  disclosure;  mental health services;  social services;  mental disorders;  institutions

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:                    Grandparent Care and Welfare: Assessing the Impact of Public Policy on Split and Three Generation Families.

 

AUTHOR:               Cox, A. G.;  Pebley, A. R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    RAND, Santa Monica, CA. Population Research Center.

 

SOURCE:                RAND, Santa Monica, CA., September 1999;  p. 1

 

ABSTRACT:           The authors address the increased attention grandparent caretaking has received in recent years, as well as the public policy concerns generated by grandparent-grandchild families and whether grandparent-led families face barriers to obtaining public assistance. The paper addresses how this gap can be filled by asking whether grandparent-grandchild families are more or less likely to use public assistance programs prior to welfare reform compared to other families. It investigates AFDC, food stamp, and Medicaid use of grandparent-grandchild families and analyzes the determinants of program use to see which families are most likely to receive government assistance. Data were analyzed from the 1992 Survey of Income and Program Participation. Results suggest that a majority of children in needy grandparent-grandchild families did, in fact, receive AFDC, food stamps, and Medicaid, and that except for split generation families' receipt of AFDC, needy grandparent-led families wereactually more likely to receive these benefits than needy nuclear families. Taken as a whole, the results indicate that prior to welfare reform, grandparent-led households meeting eligibility criteria ere as likely, and in some cases more likely, to be recipients of public assistance. The authors discuss four provisions of new federal welfare reform that are potentially important for children in grandparent-led households: 1) the law imposes new work requirements for all families participating in TANF and food stamp programs; 2) split-generation families might be adversely affected by the time limits provision of the new welfare law; 3) the new law requires parents who are unmarried minors to live with an adult or in an adult-supervised setting; and 4) the new law also affects Medicaid. Four tables; eight notes; bibliography.

 

KEY TERMS:         grandparents;  child welfare;  caretakers;  medicaid;  child welfare reform;  public policy;  afdc;  surveys

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Technical Report

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.rand.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Foster Care and Pathways to Mental Health Services.

 

AUTHOR:               Landsverk, J.;  Garland, A. F.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Children's Hospital, San Diego, CA. Center for Child Protection.

 

SOURCE:                In: Curtis, P. A.; Dale, G.; Kendall, J. C. (Editors). The Foster Care Crisis: Translating Research Into Policy and Practice. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln., 1999;  p. 4

 

ABSTRACT:           This book chapter addresses three topics: the type of needs shown by children in foster care that warrant mental health services; the overall use of mental health services by children in foster care; and the factors that predict mental health referral and service utilization patterns. Research literature based on studies across several states suggest that between one-half and two-thirds of the children entering foster care exhibit behavior or social competency problems warranting mental health services--a rate higher that what would be expected in community populations. The implications suggest that full assessment protocols, rather than screening protocols, might constitute the appropriate strategy for identifying children with maladaptive problems and linking them to specific interventions. Findings from four studies in California, Tennessee, and Washington provide estimates of use in those states, compared to rates found in community samples. The high rate of mental health services use observed for children in foster care suggests that the child welfare system and the mental health system might be more strongly linked than commonly thought. The final section considers what is known about the pathways into mental health services for children who experience an episode of placement in foster care. Conclusions support the need for further research to examine the available service systems for children and to address implicit and explicit policies that might result in inequitable distribution of service resources based on factors other than need; the need for development of explicit guidelines in systematically linking children who show need with clinically effective and appropriate services; and development of modelsfor family participation in mental health treatment for children in foster care within the context of dual families. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         foster care;  mental health services;  predictor variables;  research;  outcomes;  studies;  data

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.nebraskapress.unl.edu

 

 

TITLE:                    Recent Trends in Kinship Care: Public Policy, Payments, and Outcomes for Children.

 

AUTHOR:               Berrick, J. D.;  Needell, B.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    California Univ. School of Social Welfare, Berkeley. Center for Social Services Research.

 

SOURCE:                In: Curtis, P. A.; Dale, G.; Kendall, J. C. (Editors). The Foster Care Crisis: Translating Research Into Policy and Practice. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln., 1999;  p. 6

 

ABSTRACT:           This study examines recent trends in kinship care, noting the dramatic shifts resulting from such trends in child welfare practice over the past 15 years. The authors review what is known about the benefits afforded through kinship foster care, placing the discussion within the concept of benefits through the greater use of kin as childrens' foster caretakers. They discuss the government's responsibility in developing policy for children and families to enhance their well being andthe need for states to devise kinship care policies that acknowledge and promote the benefits of kinship care. They acknowledge that much remains unknown about this form of caretaking and that while information about childrens' outcomes is emerging, much remains to be studied. After reviewing the literature on kinship care, the authors next examine data from California's foster care system to illustrate the association between benefit levels and outcomes for children. Conclusions include an analysisof the possible consequences that may result from various policy choices regarding kinship care and suggest an approach to kinship policy and funding that reflects the principal values of child welfare practice. Five tables, four figures, four notes, numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         kinship care;  public policy;  title iv-e;  afdc;  outcomes;  data analysis;  reunification;  permanence

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.nebraskapress.unl.edu

 

 

TITLE:                    Foster Care and the Costs of Welfare Reform.

 

AUTHOR:               Courtney, M. E.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                In: Curtis, P. A.; Dale, G.; Kendall, J. C. (Editors). The Foster Care Crisis: Translating Research Into Policy and Practice. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln., 1999;  p. 7

 

ABSTRACT:           Foster care, the author asserts, remains a poorly studied and poorly understood social service program despite highly publicized cases. This lack of attention to foster care is serious and a potentially costly oversight. Historical background on the AFDC foster care program is provided, with the author suggesting that the program has taken over primary child-rearing responsibilities from poor parents based on the assumption that it can and must do better. The federal government, bydesign and lack of enforcement of existing child welfare regulation, grants states latitude at a time when the child welfare system is being overwhelmed by more clients who are increasingly troubled. The growth in the number of children in foster care, their numerous difficulties, and the rapidly rising cost of their care should have already drawn attention to the crisis in the child welfare system, the author says. Instead, the cost of the program bears little relationship to the public or political attention it garners. Conclusions and recommendations support the ongoing development of workfare alternatives to AFDC that must include a serious consideration of the impact of such policies and program changes on the foster care system and its clients.Evaluation efforts should be required to take into account the impact of welfare reform on child well being and foster care caseloads and weigh these costs against possible benefits, lest public policy be dealt a rude awakening at a later date. Three figures, one note, numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         foster care;  child welfare reform;  afdc;  title iv-e;  permanency planning;  pl 96-272;  title iv-b;  kinship care

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.nebraskapress.unl.edu

 

 

TITLE:                    Incorporating the Perspectives of Youth Placed in Family Foster Care: Selected Research Findings and Methodological Challenges.

 

AUTHOR:               Curran, M. C.;  Pecora, P. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Northwest Immigrant Rights Project, Seattle, WA.

 

SOURCE:                In: Curtis, P. A.; Dale, G.; Kendall, J. C. (Editors). The Foster Care Crisis: Translating Research Into Policy and Practice. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln., 1999;  p. 8

 

ABSTRACT:           The premise of this book chapter focuses on direct research of youth and adolescents' experiences in the foster care delivery system--the primary stakeholders in the system and an important source of information for use in refining services to them and to their birth and foster families. It emphasizes the importance of consumer feedback in foster care, reviews the major research that has involved foster children, and presents recommendations for further research. The authors note that obtaining the child or parent's perspective in assessing service effectiveness has been emphasized by a number of program evaluation experts in child welfare and other fields, which has highlighted benefits associated with consumer evaluation data. Challenges to gathering and using consumer satisfaction data are presented, noting that historically, data related to client satisfaction or self-reports of improvement have not been included in more evaluations of social services such as family foster care. The authors present selected studies of children currently in foster care and alumni of foster care, supporting the contention that foster care research frequently ignores children and families--those who would know the system best--but also suggesting that consumer feedback has become increasingly important as foster care agencies become more concerned with service effectiveness. Major themes emerged, such a lack of sharing information and a lack of planning and preparation. Recommendationsinclude the need to ask more specific questions in data collection approaches; observing cultural factors; organizing groups of foster children; use of varied data collection techniques; and the need to talk with younger children about their needs. Fournotes, numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         foster care;  families;  research;  data collection;  permanency planning;  placement;  evaluation methods;  data analysis

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.nebraskapress.unl.edu

 

 

TITLE:                    Foster Care Dynamics.

 

AUTHOR:               Goerge, R. M.;  Wulczyn, F.;  Harden, A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Chicago Univ., IL. Chapin Hall Center for Children.

 

SOURCE:                In: Curtis, P. A.; Dale, G.; Kendall, J. C. (Editors). The Foster Care Crisis: Translating Research Into Policy and Practice. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln., 1999;  p. 12

 

ABSTRACT:           With the contention that foster care populations are dynamic and have been a stumbling block for policymakers and other professionals concerned with their fate, the authors assert that detailed statistical information about foster care trends can help remedy the conditions that cause or accompany caseload increases and how services needs might shift as a result. They present a series of statistical measures that offer a detailed and sophisticated view of change in the foster care population, employing familiar measurements such as caseload counts but also a variety of longitudinal trends that could influence caseload size. Those factors would include the duration of childrens' stays in care, the relation of admissions to discharges, and the prevalence of foster care in relation to the general child population. The authors identify a number of specific conditions that have coexisted with, and help to explain, increases in the size of the foster care population. They also call attention to how widely foster care dynamics vary from state to state, underscoring the importance of comparative and state-level statistical analysis. Dramatic differences among state statistical data not only imply that the implementation and effect of federal principles and mandates are profoundly affected by local conditions; but also suggest that an adequate system of statistical reporting on foster care must combine an analysis of national trends with detailed analysis and comparison of individual states. Six tables, 11 figures, eight notes.

 

KEY TERMS:         foster care;  statistical data;  professionals role;  precipitating factors;  state programs;  longitudinal studies;  trends;  federal programs

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.nebraskapress.unl.edu

 

 

TITLE:                    A Review and Reformulation of Adoptive Relationships From an Attachment Perspective.

 

AUTHOR:               Edens, J. F.;  Cavell, T. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Adoption Quarterly

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Sam Houston State Univ., Huntsville, TX. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                3(2): pp. 43-69;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 1999;  p. 17

 

ABSTRACT:           The authors provide a conceptualization of several unique aspects of adoptive relationships from an attachment perspective, focusing specifically on recent advances in the conceptualization and assessment of attachment status in adulthood. Noting a lack of empirical data directly examining these issues, they review existing data through the lens of attachment theory to better understand the process of establishing a relationship with an adopted child, as well as explain clinicalor individual differences seen among adopted persons in adolescence and adulthood. They limit the scope of discussion primarily to that of adoptions wherein a child is placed in early infancy with non-biological relatives and has no further contact withbiological family members. The authors describe Bowlby's attachment theory and hypothesize that attachment styles that adoptive parents bring to their relationships play a significant role in the formation and function of adoptive families. Their findings suggest that while secure caretakers can comfortably manage the parent-child relationship without being threatened by the fact of adoption, dismissing caretakers, who may encounter greater difficulty in bonding with their adopted child, may engage in coping strategies that focus, or insist upon, perceived differences between biological and adoptive relationships. They also examine attachment and adopted persons' functioning in later life, noting that while children who form attachment bondswith adopted parents that are similar to those seen in biological-related families, many questions remain unanswered as to how attachment theory plays a role in predicting the interpersonal functioning of adopted children as they move toward adolescenceand adulthood. Until more empirical work is done, the authors state that generalizations from the current body of research to specific issues involving adoptive families remains premature. Two tables, numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         attachment;  interpersonal relationships;  literature reviews;  coping skills;  attachment theory;  adoptive families;  special needs

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Recent Data on the Number of Adoptions of Foster Children.

 

AUTHOR:               Maza, P. L

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Adoption Quarterly

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Children's Bureau (DHHS), Washington, DC.

 

SOURCE:                3(2): pp. 71-81;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 1999;  p. 19

 

ABSTRACT:           Based on earlier reports to the Voluntary Cooperative Information System, the Children's Bureau in the Department of Health and Human Services estimated that 20,000 final adoptions from public agencies would take place in fiscal year 1997. In fact, there were more than 31,000 finalized adoptions--50 percent higher than the estimate. This paper explores the reasons for the discrepancy. The methodology used to find the discrepancy involves data from the public foster care system reported by each state, noting that in the desire to create a relevant variable for base distribution, the actual number of foster care children in the system might vary substantially from the actual distribution of the variable. A second error was notedin the number of states reporting and the proportion they represented in the total number of adoptions. The initial hypothesis was that the differences could be accounted for primarily by under-reporting in recent years and to an actual increase in the number of adoptions. The authors suggest a third factor, utilizing a distribution as a basis for the estimate that did not reflect the current distribution of finalized adoptions. Conclusions suggest that as AFCARS data becomes more complete and of higher quality, the information about both foster care and adoption should become more useful and reliable. Three tables, two figures, 19 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         data collection;  data analysis;  vcis;  foster care;  statistics;  trend analysis;  public agency adoption;  afcars

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Adoptive Family Adjustment and Its Relation to Perceived Family Environment.

 

AUTHOR:               Martin, B.;  Kelly, M. M.;  Towner-Thyrum, E.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Adoption Quarterly

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Millersville Univ., PA. Dept. of Psyschology.

 

SOURCE:                3(1): pp. 49-60;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 1999;  p. 21

 

ABSTRACT:           Fifty-one adopted college students from three mid-sized East Coast universities participated in interviews structured to gather information regarding adoptees' perceptions of adoptive family life. They were asked for their perspective of the overall environment that characterized their family life as well as their perceptions of how their families dealt with the tasks unique to their adoption. Additionally, subjects completed a scale that measured their perceptions of general characteristics of family environment. Multiple regression analysis revealed that of ten adoption-specific factors derived from interview data, overall satisfaction with one's adoptive status and family life was the strongest predictor of perceived general family environment. Adoptee satisfaction predicted high levels of family expressiveness, ethical focus, and involvement in shared activities as well as low levels of family conflict. Adoptees' perception of adoptive fathers' and mothers' communication styles predicted different aspects of family environment. Adoptees' acknowledgement of life differences due to their adoptive status did not relate to family expressiveness. The latter finding lends support to recent research suggesting that acknowledgement and expressiveness are independent aspects of adoptive family functioning. Three tables, 13 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         adoptive families;  adjustment problems;  family environment;  data collection;  data analysis;  communication;  surveys;  adolescents

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Adoption and Children Affected by HIV and AIDS.

 

AUTHOR:               Haugaard, J. J.;  Dorman, K.;  Schustack, A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Adoption Quarterly

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Dept. of Human Development.

 

SOURCE:                2(3): pp. 71-80;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 1999;  p. 26

 

ABSTRACT:           The adoption of infants and children who are at risk for developing HIV or who have been infected with HIV poses many problems above those presented in other adoption cases. This article outlines legal, medical, and childcare issues distinguishing adoptions and other out-of-home placements for children who are HIV positive and whose parents have died of AIDS. The authors note the small amount of research with families providing adoptive or foster care to these children suggest some of the difficulties they face, as well as their motivations for providing information. Several research articles are reviewed; such information could be helpful to agencies searching for adoptive or foster placements for these children. But at this time,very little is known about the experiences of these families and how their experiences might be different from other adoptive or foster families. Additionally, no work has examined the factors that might contribute to the success of some adoptive or foster placements for children with HIV; thus further research is needed. Eight references.

 

KEY TERMS:         adoption;  children;  hiv infection;  aids;  out of home placement;  medical aspects of adoption;  legal issues;  research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Adopted Children's Behavior Problems: A Review of Five Explanatory Models.

 

AUTHOR:               Peters, B. R.;  Atkins, M. S.;  McKay, M. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Clinical Psychology Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Houston Univ., TX.

 

SOURCE:                19(3): pp. 297-328;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., 1999;  p. 33

 

ABSTRACT:           Although the majority of adopted children are well adjusted, adopted children show proportionately more behavior problems when compared to non-adopted children in both clinic and non-clinic populations. An extensive literature examiningbehavioral, diagnostic, and demographic characteristics of adopted children has provided several plausible explanations for the high rate of behavior problems among adopted children. In this review, the existing literature is organized into five explanatory models: 1) genetic or biosocial factors; 2) pathogenesis of the adoption process; 3) long-term effects of impaired pre-adoption child rearing; 4) referral bias in adoptive parents; and 5) impaired adoptive parent-adoptee relations. Conclusions suggest that evidence for each model is mixed at best. The authors said that noteworthy among the conclusions is the mixed results for genetic or biosocial studies and the relative absence of studies focused on identifying factors associated with disruptions in the adoptive parent-adoptee relationship. Recommendations include a psychosocial model to explain the high rate of behavior problems among adopted children. Five tables; one footnote; numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         adopted children;  behavior problems;  genetic factors;  adoption process;  adoptive parents;  child rearing;  adoption outcomes;  program models

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.elsevier.com

 

 

TITLE:                    First Steps in Parenting the Child Who Hurts: Tiddlers and Toddlers.

 

AUTHOR:               Archer, C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Adoption UK, Northamptonshire (United Kingdom)

 

SOURCE:                Second Edition. Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London (United Kingdom)., April 1999;  p. 58

 

ABSTRACT:           This guide for adoptive and foster parents suggests strategies for parenting young children who have been hurt by previous caregivers or by frequent moves within the child welfare system. The first section explains how to prepare to bring an adopted child home. Comparisons are made between birth parenthood and adopted parenthood. The remainder of the book identifies the stages of early childhood development and the indications that the new family is having problems adjusting. The effects of trauma on attachment and development and approaches for mending the relationship between adopted parents and adopted children are also discussed. Specific topics include encouraging a sense of self, encouraging touch and eye contact, encouraging body awareness and movement, grounding, safe holding, sleep disturbances, aggression, disability, and moving on. Special issues that might arise within the family are reviewed, such as life-story work, contact with birth families, siblings, and disability. The final chapter examines the spiritual dimension of adoption and the value of community and creativity for affirming and empowering individuals. A glossary of adoption terms is included.

 

KEY TERMS:         adoption preparation;  adoptive parents;  child development;  attachment disorder;  foster parents;  parenting skills;  behavior problems;  trauma

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.jkp.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Next Steps in Parenting the Child Who Hurts: Tykes and Teens.

 

AUTHOR:               Archer, C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Adoption UK, Northamptonshire (United Kingdom)

 

SOURCE:                Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London (United Kingdom)., April 1999;  p. 60

 

ABSTRACT:           This guide for foster and adoptive parents of older children reviews aspects of child development and suggests strategies for resolving problems resulting from traumatic childhood experiences. Emphasis is place on intervening in destructive behavior patterns and promoting the necessary stages of healthy development. Ten principles for parenting are recommended: positive parenting power; taking care of the whole family; taking time to cool off before reacting in explosive situations, taking responsibility; dealing with challenges in a loving and respectful manner; positive nonverbal communication; positive reinforcement; recognizing feelings; seeking support; and considering alternative strategies. The guide also providesspecific recommendations for coping with sensitive situations such as bedwetting, sleep problems, aggression and violence, lying and stealing, running away, and addictive behaviors. A glossary and reading list for more information are included.

 

KEY TERMS:         adoption preparation;  adoptive parents;  child development;  attachment disorder;  foster parents;  parenting skills;  behavior problems;  trauma

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.jkp.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Materials for Interviewing-Questioning Children.

 

AUTHOR:               Walker, A. G.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

SOURCE:                Presented at: ABA Ninth National Conference on Children and the Law, Washington, DC, April 8-10, 1999. American Bar Association, Washington, DC. Center on Children and the Law.;  p. 85

 

ABSTRACT:           This document contains several papers prepared to help interviewers ask children about alleged child abuse and neglect experiences. The materials include a checklist, facts about children's language skills, guidelines for interviews, and a bibliography about the preparation and interviewing of child witnesses and testimonial aspects of child witnesses. Emphasis is placed on assessing the development and language skills of the child and forming questions that are clear and understandable. Interviewers are advised to ask simple questions, avoid legal terminology and abstract concepts, and be clear about the meanings of pronouns and literal language. 16 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         child witnesses;  interviews;  leading questions;  suggestibility;  testimony;  child development;  language development;  best practices

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Technical Report

 

 

TITLE:                    Materials for Advocacy for Foster Parents and Kinship Care Providers.

 

AUTHOR:               Hemrich, V.;  Seldin, S. F.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    ABA Center on Children and the Law, Washington, DC.

 

SOURCE:                Presented at: ABA Ninth National Conference on Children and the Law, Washington, DC, April 8-10, 1999. American Bar Association, Washington, DC. Center on Children and the Law.;  p. 86

 

ABSTRACT:           The American Bar Association resolved in February 1999 to promote the establishment of guidelines for courts and attorneys handling cases involving the placement of children in kinship care and the representation of kinship providers. The resolution stated that legal professionals should advocate for an active search for kinship providers during the placement process, adequate screening of potential kinship providers, information provided to kinship providers about social and custodial expectations and permanency options, financial support and health care coverage for kinship providers, and the creation of medical consent and guardianship legislation. This paper outlines justifications for each of these duties and suggests specific strategies for legal representation. Appendices summarize typical and alternative permanency planning options and outline considerations for state statutes regarding permanent guardianships.

 

KEY TERMS:         foster parents;  kinship care;  parental advocacy;  parental rights;  lawyers role;  lawyers responsibility;  permanency planning;  best practices

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Proceedings Paper

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.abanet.org/child/home.html

 

 

TITLE:                    The Media.

 

AUTHOR:               Levey, B.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Washington Post, Washington, DC.

 

SOURCE:                23(10): pp. 995-1001;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., October 1999;  p. 119

 

ABSTRACT:           This article outlines strategies for promoting the child maltreatment prevention movement in the media. The tactics emphasize the importance of forming partnerships with the media, especially local newspapers and television stations, tocreate in-depth, multi-dimensional stories about the impact of maltreatment and the effectiveness of treatment and funding methods. Suggestions include having board members of advocacy organizations contact newspaper publishers and presidents, providinga community focus to the story idea, gaining extended coverage on network magazine shows and local cable news channels, obtaining segments on community-forum shows on radio stations, and establishing chat programs on the Internet.

 

KEY TERMS:         prevention;  child abuse;  mass media;  publicity;  public awareness;  public relations;  public opinion;  advocacy

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    The Politics.

 

AUTHOR:               Krugman, R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Colorado Univ., Denver. School of Medicine.

 

SOURCE:                23(10): pp. 963-967;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., October 1999;  p. 122

 

ABSTRACT:           This article reviews the history of child abuse policy in the United States and suggests that a new approach be implemented to address the problem. Four factors are identified as essential for effective political action: a clear agenda presented by a professional constituency; a knowledgeable media that can influence public opinion about an issue; support from leadership in the executive or legislative branches of government; and a bipartisan coalition to advocate legislative action. Historically, policy makers have not had a defined agenda for policy regarding physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse or neglect. Efforts in the 1970s focused primarily on rescuing battered children, and later the criminal justice system became involved in responding to cases of sexual abuse. Recent policy activity has addressed investigation procedures and court processes for dealing with child witnesses and criminal prosecution. However, none of these actions have effectively reduced the incidence of child abuse. A National Call to Action should be implemented to obtain political support, by coordinating professional constituencies and testing different approaches to child protection before advocating use of one particular model. Policy consensus conferences should be held throughout the country to examine which forms of maltreatment are best addressed by a public health approach, by a civil child welfare system, and by the courts. Experimental approaches should then be encouraged amonglarge cities and small states to evaluate different approaches to child protection and obtain empirical data to support widespread reform. 11 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         prevention;  child abuse;  political factors;  policy formation;  historical perspective;  advocacy;  social policies;  public health services

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Domestic Violence Perpetrators: Recent Research Findings and Their Implications for Child

 

AUTHOR:               Saunders, D. G.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Michigan Child Welfare Law Journal

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                3(3): pp. 3-10;  Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. Michigan Child Welfare Law Resource Center., Fall 1999;  p. 131

 

ABSTRACT:           Written for child welfare and family law attorneys, this article provides an overview of the risk factors for woman abuse and the implications of domestic violence for child welfare practice. Patterns of violence have been identified for different risk factors. For example, men who were physically abused as children can develop an anti-social personality, behaving violently within and outside the home, showing a lack of remorse, while men who experienced severe loss or emotional rejection as children can display borderline personality traits, jealousy, and severe psychological abuse. Child welfare workers should understand that woman abuse is a form of emotional abuse for children. Consequences of witnessing the abuse of a mother are severe depression, anxiety, and aggressive behavior. In addition, battering men are likely to physically abuse their children but are often able to cover their behavior. Most interventions for batterers use a variety of approaches, including awareness of control strategies, skills training and behavioral management, cognitive restructuring, and gender role resocialization. Programs can also focus on trauma or family systems. Little evidence is available about the impact of these programs. However, the article suggests that coordinated, community-based services may be the most effective. 44 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         woman abuse;  child witnesses of family violence;  risk factors;  intervention strategies;  child welfare services;  batterers therapy;  intervention strategies;  community based services

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    The Abuse of Children in Public Care.

 

AUTHOR:               Gallagher, B.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Huddersfield Univ., Queensgate (United Kingdom). Centre for Applied Childhood Studies.

 

SOURCE:                8(6): pp. 357-365;  John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY., November-December 1999;  p. 168

 

ABSTRACT:           Literature about the abuse of children in foster care and residential care focuses primarily on four issues: the prevalence of abuse; the nature of the abuse; investigations; and prevention. Studies have found varying rates of abuse, ranging from 31 to 158 reported allegations for everyone 1000 children in care. However, child protection agencies suggest that abuse may be underreported in this population. The degree of risk for boys and girls depends on the characteristics of the child and the institution. For example, girls and older children are more likely to be abused in foster homes, while boys are at greater risk for abuse in residential schools. The abuse is usually planned very carefully by the perpetrator, who uses different types of inducements to gain access to abuse children and guarantee their silence. The literature also indicates that different procedures are used when investigating allegations in institutions and in families, because of the number of children and witnesses that might be involved. Cover-ups and inappropriate staff responses to allegations have been noted in the research. Finally, most of the literature has addressed the prevention of institutional abuse. Prevention measures for children, staff, and organizational operation have been suggested, such as raising the self-esteem of children, conducting background checks and training staff, and rules about physical contact between staff and children. 38 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         literature reviews;  foster care;  residential care;  child abuse;  prevalence;  investigations;  prevention;  great britain

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wiley.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Effective Interviewing of Children: A Comprehensive Guide for Counselors and Human Service Workers.

 

AUTHOR:               Zwiers, M.;  Morrissette, P.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Markham-Stouffville Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada). Mental Health Services.

 

SOURCE:                Taylor and Francis, Philadelphia, PA., 1999;  p. 175

 

ABSTRACT:           This book provides guidelines for conducting child-focused interviews for assessment, research, or legal purposes. The first two chapters outline child and professional variables that influence the quality of interviews. Emphasis is placed on understanding child development and the rapport between the child and the professional. The remaining chapters discuss practical considerations for interviews with children, the use of language, issues for special circumstances, and the ethics of interviewing. Recommendations for the research interview and diagnostic clinical interviews are also presented. Specific topics include: establishing rapport; timing of the interview; recording; pacing; types of questions; working with challenging children; aggression and withdrawal; data collection and analysis; informed consent; custody evaluation; child abuse; and psychopharmacology. Numerous references and 1 table.

 

KEY TERMS:         interviews;  evaluation methods;  assessment;  suggestibility;  credibility;  social workers role;  communication techniques;  leading questions

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

 

TITLE:                    Epidemiology of Family Violence Involving Children.

 

AUTHOR:               Haugaard, J. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Dept. of Human Development.

 

SOURCE:                In: Ammerman, R. T.; Hersen, M. (Editors). Assessment of Family Violence: A Clinical and Legal Sourcebook, Second Edition. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA., 1999;  p. 185

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter summarizes the data from epidemiological studies of family violence involving children as victims and as aggressors. The studies of children as victims of physical and sexual abuse are categorized as community or national samples of households; cases reported to child protective services or other agencies; and research using college students as subjects. Although comparisons between studies are difficult because of differences in methodology and definitions, data from national or community samples indicate that 2 percent to 3 percent of all children are seriously physically abused by a parent. Data about sexual abuse is less consistent in these types of studies. Research with samples of identified victims suggests that reports of child abuse increased significantly from 1970 to 1992. Young children and children from low-income families are at greatest risk of maltreatment. Studies of college students are limited by the selectiveness of the sample and concerns about its representativeness to the general population. However, three studies indicate that 6 percent to 8 percent of undergraduates had been sexually abused by a father or father-figure. Finally, two nationally-based studies collected data about violence inflicted on parents by their children. In both studies, 9 percent of parents or children interviewed reported some type of parental abuse. 45 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         epidemiology;  family violence;  child witnesses of family violence;  statistical data;  prevalence;  incidence;  literature reviews;  research reviews

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.josseybass.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Memories of Childhood Abuse: Dissociation, Amnesia, and Corroboration.

 

AUTHOR:               Chu, J. A.;  Frey, L. M.;  Ganzel, B. L.;  Matthews, J. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    American Journal of Psychiatry

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA. Dissociative Disorders and Trauma Program.

 

SOURCE:                165(5): pp. 749-755;  American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC., May 1999;  p. 217

 

ABSTRACT:           This study investigated the relationship between self-reported childhood abuse and dissociative symptoms and amnesia. The presence or absence of corroboration of recovered memories of childhood abuse was also studied. Ninety female patients admitted to a unit specializing in the treatment of trauma-related disorders completed instruments that measured dissociative symptoms and elicited details concerning childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, and witnessing abuse. They also underwent a structured interview that asked about amnesia for traumatic experiences, the circumstances of recovered memory, the role of suggestion in recovered memories, and independent corroboration of the memories. Participants reporting any type of childhood abuse demonstrated elevated levels of dissociative symptoms that were significantly higher than those in subjects not reporting abuse. Higher dissociative symptoms were correlated with early age at onset of physical and sexual abuse and more frequent sexual abuse. A substantial proportion of participants with all types of abuse reported partial or complete amnesia for abuse memories. For physical and sexual abuse, early age at onset was correlated with greater levels of amnesia. Participantswho reported recovering memories of abuse generally recalled these experiences while at home, alone, or with family or friends. Although some participants were in treatment at the time, very few were in therapy sessions during their first memory recovery. Suggestion was generally denied as a factor in memory recovery. A majority of participants were able to find strong corroboration of their recovered memories. Childhood abuse, particularly chronic abuse beginning at early ages, is related to the development of high levels of dissociative symptoms, including amnesia for abuse memories. This study strongly suggests that psychotherapy usually is not associated with memory recovery and that independent corroboration of recovered memories of abuse is often present. 39 references and 6 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  adults abused as children;  sequelae;  dissociation;  amnesia;  corroboration;  child abuse research;  trauma

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Coping With Rape: The Roles of Prior Sexual Abuse and Attributions of Blame.

 

AUTHOR:               Arata, C. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Interpersonal Violence

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University of South Alabama, Mobile. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                14(1): pp. 62-78;  Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA., January 1999;  p. 228

 

ABSTRACT:           One hundred, nineteen undergraduate females participated in a study examining the roles of child sexual assault, attributions, and coping on adjustment to rape. Participants completed anonymous questionnaires that assessed for child sexual abuse history, adult victimization history, attributions of blame for the adult assault, coping strategies for the adult rape, and trauma symptoms. Rape victims with a history of child sexual abuse were found to have higher levels of trauma symptoms, made greater use of nervous and cognitive coping strategies, and were more likely to make attributions of blame towards themselves or society. Current symptoms were related to types of coping and attributions of blame, with history of child sexual abuse having an indirect relationship to these variables. The results suggest the importance of attributional and coping variables, as well as child sexual abuse history, as mediators of postrape adjustment. 33 references, 1 figure, and 4 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  sequelae;  coping skills;  rape;  predictor variables;  adults abused as children;  child abuse history;  child abuse research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Questioning Children Who May Have Been Sexually Abused: An Integration of Research Into

 

AUTHOR:               Faller, K. C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                2(2): pp. 37-59;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 1999;  p. 320

 

ABSTRACT:           This article derives from an Open Forum on Leading Questions sponsored by the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children. It represents the thoughts of participants in the Open Forum, and the article attempts to integrate analogue research that relates to questioning children about past events into questioning practice with children who may have been sexually abused. It proposes a continuum of questions that includes four categories: most preferred; preferred; less preferred; and least preferred. General and invitational questions are most preferred, while presumptive questions and use of coercion are least preferred methods of interviewing. 37 references and 1 table. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         interviews;  sexual abuse;  child abuse research;  leading questions;  assessment;  child witnesses;  suggestibility;  best practices

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Statement Validity Analysis: Its Application to a Sample of Dutch Children Who May Have Been Sexually Abused.

 

AUTHOR:               Lamers-Winkelman, F.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma

 

SOURCE:                2(2): pp. 59-81;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 1999;  p. 321

 

ABSTRACT:           All information regarding 103 Dutch sexual abuse cases was analyzed using the Validity Checklist (VC), the second part of the Statement Validity Analysis procedure. The fulfillment of the VC items was compared for four different age groups. Only two VC items differed significantly between the age groups. The systematic summarization of content analysis and validity checks revealed only a weak relationship between the fulfillment of the Criteria-Based Content Analysis (CBCA) and the VC items together and the outcome of the cases. The results suggest that the Statement Validity Analysis cannot yet be used as a scientifically validated instrument for judging the truthfulness of allegations of child sexual abuse. 39 references and 5 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  interviews;  child witnesses;  testimony;  validity;  assessment;  measures;  netherlands

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Overcoming Obstacles to Just Evaluation and Successful Prosecution of Multivictim Cases.

 

AUTHOR:               Dalenberg, C. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Trauma Research Institute, San Diego, CA.

 

SOURCE:                2(2): pp. 141-163;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 1999;  p. 324

 

ABSTRACT:           The multivictim case presents special difficulties for the child protection system, including enhanced probability of multiple interviews and potential contamination of children s narratives by a variety of sources. Further, multivictimcases have been empirically shown to be more likely to involve severely abused children, fantastic claims, and other complicating factors. This paper presents several complications likely to arise in such cases and a number of potential routes to mitigate the problems that occur. The complications include the impact of repeated interviews and delayed interviews, the use of leading questions, bizarre detail disclosed by the child, allegations of extreme trauma or abuse, contamination of testimony,the involvement of the child s therapist, advocacy groups and the media, and accusations against the interviewer. 46 references and 6 tables. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         multivictim cases;  investigations;  barriers;  memory;  interviews;  protocols;  testimony;  suggestibility

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Child Abuse and Divorce: Competing Priorities and Agendas and Practical Suggestions.

 

AUTHOR:               Faller, K. C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                2(2): pp. 165-194;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 1999;  p. 325

 

ABSTRACT:           This article addresses the evaluation of allegations of abuse made during divorce proceedings. It describes the challenges peculiar to cases where divorce and abuse allegations coexist, relevant research findings, and potential sources of bias. The article suggests a multidisciplinary approach that may be the optimal strategy for evaluating these cases. Specific guidelines for evaluation and decision-making are provided. 36 references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         assessment;  guidelines;  multiproblem families;  child abuse;  divorce;  case management;  best practices;  investigations

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Risking Connection: A Training Curriculum for Working With Survivors of Childhood Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:               Saakvitne, K. W.;  Pearlman, L. A.;  Gamble, S.;  Lev, B. T.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Trauma Research, Education, and Training Institute, South Windsor, CT.

 

SOURCE:                Sidran Press, Lutherville, MD., October 1999;  p. 427

 

ABSTRACT:           State mental health systems, addiction services, and developmental disabilities agencies recognize the need for more specialized training to help them work effectively with clients who have histories of severe abuse and trauma. This +; trauma-training curriculum is based on a theory of psychological trauma centering on self development theory that emphasizes the healing power of the relationship between the therapist and the survivor. The curriculum has five models to be used in +; collaboration with other learners who can share their experiences and engage together in exercises. Each module is designed to be taught in a four-hour session, with the time divided among instructive presentation, discussion, and experiential learning +; exercises. The first session, Understanding Trauma, suggests that working from a trauma framework and understanding clients and their symptoms in the context of their life experiences, their cultures, and their society is the most helpful, respectful, +; and empowering clinical model for helping child abuse survivor clients. The second module offers practical guidelines for initial contacts with clients who are or may be survivors of trauma. The third module focuses specifically on some of the most +; common clinical crises and symptoms that occur with trauma survivors. The fourth module focuses on understanding and helping clients with dissociation and flashbacks. The final module addresses the role and needs of the professional.

 

KEY TERMS:         professional training;  curricula;  child abuse;  sexual abuse;  intervention strategies;  trauma;  treatment;  barriers

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sidran.org

 

 

TITLE:                    The Supply of Infants Relinquished For Adoption: Did Access to Abortion Make a Difference?

 

AUTHOR:               Gennetian, L. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Economic Inquiry

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY.

 

SOURCE:                37(3): pp. 412-431;  Western Economic Association International, Huntington Beach, CA., July 1999;  p. 466

 

ABSTRACT:           After examining three years worth of aggregate state data, the author suggests that the number of abortions in the United States has had an impact on the availability of infants relinquished for adoption. The premise of the model is that a woman with an unintended pregnancy faces three options: to abort the pregnancy; to relinquish the infant for adoption; or to keep the infant. The study attempts to fill the gap in previous empirical work on pregnancy resolution by taking advantageof available state-level data on the number of infants relinquished for adoption to examine the effect of abortion access over time. Results of the study show that abortion access affected the availability of infants relinquished during the 1980s in twodifferent ways. First, consistent with a theory of desired fertility, the availability of abortion providers has had the expected effect of reducing the availability of infants relinquished, particularly relative to the demand for abortion. Second, abortion law has had an unexpected negative effect, suggesting that as abortion laws have become more restrictive, the total number of unwanted births may decrease. The empirical results also suggest that omitted variable bias may confound the effect of some types of abortion law. Finally, to the extent that AFDC payments affect the incidence of single parenthood, the incidence of single parenthood is not correlated with the availability of infants relinquished. Two figures; four tables; 19 notes; threeappendixes; numerous references. (Author abstract modified.)

 

KEY TERMS:         abortion;  unplanned pregnancy;  adoption;  fertility;  data analysis;  federal laws;  state laws;  afdc

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.mdrc.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder-Disorders of Extreme Stress (CP-DES) in Sexually Abused Children: An Exploratory Study.

 

AUTHOR:               Hall, D. K.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Sexual Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Atkinson Coll., North York, ON (Canada). School of Nursing.

 

SOURCE:                8(4): pp. 51-71;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 1999;  p. 516

 

ABSTRACT:           The author proposes the syndrome of Complex Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Disorders of Extreme Stress to describe symptoms reported by adult survivors of repeated personal trauma for which post traumatic stress syndrome is +; characterized as an inadequate description. The article explores whether CP/DES characterizes the responses of sexually abused children, some of whom have sustained multiple interpersonal traumas. Three groups of sexually abused children were compared on+; seven child CP/DES indices: 1) alteration in regulation of affect/impulses; 2) alteration in regulation of attention and consciousness; 3) alteration in self-perception; 4) alteration in perception of the perpetrator; 5) alteration in relationships with+; others; 6) somatization; and 7) alteration in systems of meaning. Results indicated that children with post traumatic stress disorder exhibited more CP/DES symptoms within a greater number of CP/DES categories than did partial or non-PTSD groups. The +; relationship between cumulative trauma and total number of CP/DES symptoms revealed that as the cumulative number of types of trauma increases, the number of CP/DES symptoms rose. The results suggest that CP/DES also characterizes sexually abused +; children, especially those who have been multiply abused, and offers a more developmentally appropriate framework for assessment and treatment than PTSD. Five tables; numerous references. (Author abstract modified.)

 

KEY TERMS:         post traumatic stress disorder;  sexual abuse;  child abuse;  adults abused as children;  multi problem children;  studies;  comparative analysis;  pilot programs

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Survey of Adoptive Parents Regarding Post-Adoption Services.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. School of Social Work.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

SOURCE:                Michigan State Federation of Private Child and Family Agencies, Lansing., Summer/Fall 1999;  p. 552

 

ABSTRACT:           The Michigan Federation of Private Child and Family Agencies, in a joint effort with the Michigan State University School of Social Work, completed the first statewide survey regarding the post-adoption service needs of families who adopted children through private agencies. The survey, completed in the fall of 1999, was designed to learn about adoptive parents' satisfaction with services provided to them since adopting and to identify what types of services should be developed to support adoptive families in Michigan. Survey questions were based on a questionnaire developed by the Michigan Family Independence Agency. Thirty-eight member adoption agencies mailed the survey to a sample of their adoptive families from the past five years. Results of the survey suggest that while many adoptive families were very satisfied with their experience, a significant number would have benefited from support services. Lack of post-adoption services, lack of information about existing services, the inaccessibility of services, and the need for a range of services were concerns of the responding families. Several other families expressed frustration with a number of service providers not being sensitive to adoption issues and the family's adoption experience. The report notes that lessons learned from the survey will guide program and policy development to improve services systems for adoptive families. Four figures.

 

KEY TERMS:         surveys;  adoptive parents;  post adoptive services;  michigan;  adopted children;  special needs;  adoption disruption;  private agencies

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Final Report

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.michfed.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Risk Factor for Depression in Women: Psychosocial and Neurobiological Correlates.

 

AUTHOR:               Weiss, E. L.;  Longhurst, J. G.;  Mazure, C. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    American Journal of Psychiatry

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT. Dept. of Psychiatry.

 

SOURCE:                156(6): pp. 816-828;  American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC., June 1999;  p. 560

 

ABSTRACT:           Depression is twice as common in women as in men, but the reason for this sexual dimorphism is unknown. This article reviews recent studies of the role of childhood sexual abuse in the subsequent development of major depressive +; disorder, and the biological and psychosocial mechanisms by which early stressors may contribute to adult-onset depression in women. Particular attention is paid to investigations of the long-term effects of early stress on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal+; (HPA) axis function. Studies were identified by means of computerized and manual searches; further references were obtained from the bibliographies of reviewed articles. The research indicated that childhood sexual abuse is associated with adult-onset +; depression in both men and women, and occurrence of such abuse is more common in girls than in boys. There is evidence from both animal and human studies that early stressors produce long-term dysregulation of the HPA axis similar to that seen in +; depressed patients and that such dysregulation results in a differential response to stressors in adulthood. In addition, it appears that the HPA axis in females may be more susceptible to stress-induced dysregulation, which might contribute to an +; increased vulnerability to depression in adulthood. These findings suggest that childhood sexual abuse is an important early stressor that may predispose individuals to adult-onset depression by means of dysregulation of the HPA axis. Investigation of +; the mechanisms mediating the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and adult-onset depression, and the study of gender differences in exposure to this and other stressors, may improve the understanding of the etiology of depressive illness in +; general. 90 references and 4 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  adults abused as children;  risk factors;  depression;  female victims;  personality development;  neurology;  literature reviews

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Research Productivity in the Areas of Child Abuse and Domestic Violence.

 

AUTHOR:               Gordon, R. A.;  Holmes, M.;  Maly, C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Psychological Reports

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Minnesota Univ., Duluth. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                84(3): pp. 887-898;  Psycholgocial Reports, Missoula, MT., June 1999;  p. 564

 

ABSTRACT:           Research productivity in the areas of child abuse and domestic violence was reviewed for the years 1990-1996 by examining articles published in Child Abuse and Neglect, the Journal of Family Violence, and the Journal of Interpersonal +; Violence. To examine productivity across institutions, quantification of productivity was based on ordinal position of authorship as previously used. Productivity across these three journals was also summed based on the 1987 composite productivity index +; formula of Howard, et al., and the data were compared with a productivity assessment based on a search process on the PsycLIT database. Rand order correlations between the raw productivity total, the composite measure, and productivity based on +; first-authored publications in PsycLIT were all significant. The findings suggest that the composite measure represents a good estimate of productivity across the three journals and that publication in these three journals provides a good representation +; of research in the general areas of child abuse and domestic and interpersonal violence. The findings, along with implications regarding the relative utility of such information for selection of graduate programs that have a strong research focus on +; child abuse or domestic violence, are discussed. 19 references and 4 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         research needs;  child abuse research;  research reviews;  spouse abuse;  research methodology;  validity;  reliability;  measures

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Media Impact on Biased Perceptual Processing of Threat-Relevant Imagery Among Patients Who Recovered Memory of Childhood Sexual Abuse Prior to the Onset of Treatment.

 

AUTHOR:               Leavitt, F.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Sexual Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Rush Medical Coll., Chicago, IL. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                8(4): pp. 91-102;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 1999;  p. 570

 

ABSTRACT:           Several recent studies have indicated that patients who report a history of sexual abuse on the basis of recovered or delayed recall of memory process Rorschach stimuli in ways that substantially deviate from non-abused patients. They +; exhibited sensitivity to threat-relevant imagery that was highly similar to the biased perceptual processing found among patients with continuously held memories of sexual abuse. In the present study, perceptual processing of threat-relevant imagery was +; examined as an artifact of media exposure in 40 patients who recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse as adults and in 40 patients who were not sexually abused. The two patient samples were divided into high and low media groups on the basis of a +; composite measure of media exposure. The results indicated that information gained from media exposure was unrelated to patients responses to Rorschach stimuli. Recovered memory patients produced threat-relevant imagery that is reminiscent of trauma +; irrespective of the level of media exposure; non-abused patients did not. That this imagery remained essentially unnoticed by even the most active consumers of the sexual abuse media among non-abused patients suggests that the popular media does not play+; a contagious role in the perceptual process of threat-relevant imagery. 23 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  repression;  adults abused as children;  sexual abuse;  sequelae;  psychological evaluation;  mass media;  child abuse research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Drawing Out the Messages for Policy and Practice.

 

AUTHOR:               Mullender, A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom). Dept. of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                In: Mullender, A. (Editor). We Are Family: Sibling Relationships in Placement and Beyond. British Agencies for Adoption and Fostering, London (United Kingdom)., 1999;  p. 606

 

ABSTRACT:           The concluding chapter of a book about the placement of sibling groups summarizes the concepts presented in the text. The highlights review the definition of siblings; the prevalence of separation among foster and adopted children; quasi-sibling relationships with other children in care; contact between separated children; children's perceptions of their relationships; and the negative effects of separation. The implications of research findings for policy and practice are also outlined and recommendations for reform are provided. The chapter suggests that policymakers and social workers recognize the long-term effects of separation and emphasize the value of child-to-child relationships in practice. Records should be kept about family structures and the child's view of significant others. Agencies should also recruit more homes for the placement of sibling groups and conduct assessments on a regular basis. 5 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         siblings;  sibling relationships;  separation;  visitation;  policy formation;  public policy on adoption;  great britain;  adoption research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.baaf.org.uk

 

 

TITLE:                    Cross-Sex and Same-Sex Family Alliances: Immediate and Long-Term Effects on Sons and

 

AUTHOR:               Jacobvitz, D.;  Riggs, S.;  Johnson, E.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Texas Univ., Austin. Dept. of Human Ecology.

 

SOURCE:                In: Chase, N. D. (Editor). Burdened Children: Theory, Research, and Treatment of Parentification. Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA., June 1999;  p. 637

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter summarizes research about the origins of parentification and the impact of boundary breakdown on family relationships. Although some flexibility in boundaries between generations is healthy, role reversal can become problematic when it significantly affects the dynamics of the family, when it is persistent, and when the parent transfers responsibilities for protection to the child. Boundary disturbances can also occur when parents are too controlling, or when they form peer-like relationships with their children instead of providing parental guidance. Although family theory suggests that dyadic relationships must be considered in the context of relationships with other family members, few studies of parentification have investigated the impact of boundary distortions on marital relationships, parent-child alliances, and sibling relationships. The chapter examines these contexts and explores gender differences in reactions to parentification. 80 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         role reversal;  sequelae;  childs role;  parent child relationships;  boundaries;  family relationships;  siblings;  sex roles

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    A Genetic Study of the Family Enviornment in the Transition to Early Adolescence.

 

AUTHOR:               Deater-Deckard, K.;  Fulker, D. W.;  Plomin, R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Institute of Psychiatry, London (United Kingdom).

 

SOURCE:                40(5): pp. 769-775;  Cambridge Univ. Press, Oxford (United Kingdom)., July 1999;  p. 714

 

ABSTRACT:           The aim of this longitudinal sibling adoption study was to estimate genetic and environmental components of variance in parent- and child-reported measures of the family environment (parental negative affect, negative control, and achievement orientation). Participants included 85 adoptive and 106 nonadoptive sibling pairs from the Colorado Adoption Project. Parents and children completed annual assessments of the family environment when the children were 10, 11, and 12 years old,and genetic and environmental parameter estimates were derived. Genetic influences were found for parent-reported negativity and warmth and child-reported achievement orientation, suggesting child genetic effects on these measures of the family environment. Shared environmental influences were found for parent-reported negativity, inconsistent discipline, warmth, and child-reported positivity. Nonshared environmental variance was substantial for children's ratings, but modest for parents' ratings. 35 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         adoption research;  siblings;  separation;  family environment;  longitudinal studies;  adjustment problems;  adolescence;  child development

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse: A Corrective Metanalysis.

 

AUTHOR:               Bolen, R. M.;  Scannapieco, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Social Service Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Boston Univ., MA.

 

SOURCE:                73(3): pp. 281-313;  University of Chicago Press, IL., September 1999;  p. 719

 

ABSTRACT:           Prevalence estimates for child sexual abuse range from 2 percent to 62 percent. Reviews of these prevalence studies recognize that methodological differences among studies affect their stated prevalence yet disagree as to how they do so. This article describes a metanalysis of all random prevalence studies using North American populations. The results suggest that child sexual abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions. The number of screen questions, the size of the sample, and the year in which the prevalence study was done significantly affect the stated prevalence and account for the wide variance among previous studies' results. 6 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  prevalence;  child abuse research;  research reviews;  research methodology;  statistical analysis;  statistical studies;  statistical data

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/

 

 

TITLE:                    The Relationship Between Parental Anger and Behavior Problems in Children and Adolescents.

 

AUTHOR:               Renk, K.;  Phares, V.;  Epps, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Family Psychology

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                13(2): pp. 209-227;  American Psychological Association, Washington, DC., June 1999;  p. 766

 

ABSTRACT:           Two studies examined the relationship between parental trait anger, parental symptomatology, and children's and adolescents' emotional/behavioral problems. Results of Study 1 suggested that parental trait anger did not serve as a mediator between parental symptoms and children's emotional/behavior problems. Study 2, however, suggested that parental trait anger did serve as a mediator between parental depression and adolescents' emotional/behavioral problems. For internalizing behaviors, inward anger expression and trait anger were mediators in father-son dyads, and outward anger expression was a mediator in mother-daughter dyads. For externalizing behavior, inward anger expression was a mediator in father-son dyads, and outward anger expression was a mediator in mother-son dyads. These results suggest the important of examining parental dispositions toward anger in relation to the psychological symptoms family members may experience. 42 references, 1 figure, and 6 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         child behavior;  behavior problems;  parental behavior;  parental attitudes;  anger;  depression;  emotional problems;  sequelae

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.apa.org/

 

 

TITLE:                    Indiscriminate Friendliness and Terror of Strangers in Infancy: Contributions From the Study of Infants in Foster Care.

 

AUTHOR:               Albus, K. E.;  Dozier, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Infant Mental Health Journal

 

SOURCE:                20(1): pp. 30-41;  John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY., Spring 1999;  p. 787

 

ABSTRACT:           Indiscriminate friendliness toward strangers and severe stranger anxiety have been described in the diagnostic literature as disorders of attachment. Infants in foster care have endured attachment-related traumas well beyond the experience of most babies, including emotionally unavailable caretaking, physical and sexual abuse, and the inevitable disruption in caretaking inherent in foster care placement. The authors assert that in some cases foster infants develop anomalous coping mechanisms, particularly in situations that threaten the attachment system, like the approach of a stranger. The case studies presented here provide an opportunity to address questions of how disorders of attachment develop. The authors suggest possible explanations for the related phenomena of indiscriminate friendliness and terror of strangers, such as etiological factors common to such behaviors and factors that differentiate. They also suggest that these reactions to strangers might be precipitated by traumatic disruptions in caretaking after the age of 12 months. 26 references. (Author abstract modified.)

 

KEY TERMS:         attachment disorder;  attachment theory;  infants;  foster care;  caretakers;  coping skills;  fear;  child development

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wiley.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Final 1998-1999 Outcome Evaluation Report on Florida's Continuing Community-Based Child Welfare Programs.

 

AUTHOR:               Peacock, B.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

SOURCE:                Florida State Dept. of Children and Families, Tallahassee. Office of Standards and Evaluation., March 1999;  p. 813

 

ABSTRACT:           The 1998-1999 outcome evaluation of three continuing community-based pilot sites is the subject of this report by the Florida Department of Children and Families, Office of Standards and Evaluation. Florida's current community-based child welfare projects represent a substantial step toward determining ways to improve the state's child welfare system. The outcome evaluation is a continuing step toward learning from the experiences of these projects. The programs came about from legislation passed during the 1998 legislative session. The evaluation attempts to address the broad question of whether community-based programs are doing a better job of meeting the needs of children and families than the Department of Children and Families. A secondary question involves whether community-based systems of care can effectively perform the child welfare function more efficiently than the department. Conclusions suggest that community-based child welfare is effective. The report makesa number of conclusions, identifies transition issues from government-run services to community-based services, and makes a series of recommendations related to such transitions. Thirteen figures; 20 tables; 3 references; 6 appendixes.

 

KEY TERMS:         florida;  child welfare programs;  state government;  community based services;  legislation;  outcomes;  sampling studies;  data analysis

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Final Report

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.state.fl.us/cf_web/news/

 

 

TITLE:                    Memory, Research, and the Law: Future Directions.

 

AUTHOR:               Conte, J. R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Washington Univ., Seattle. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                In: Williams, L. M. and Banyard, V. L. (Editors). Trauma and Memory. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., 1999;  pp. 77-92

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter reviews the evidence presented in a hearing on two court cases involving recovered memories of childhood trauma. The arguments presented in State of New Hampshire v. Joel Hungerford and State of New Hampshire v. John Morahan focused on the legitimacy of repressed memories. Three expert witnesses for the defense testified in a joint hearing about suggestibility, creation of pseudomemories, the lack of proof of repression, and therapy as suggestion. The chapter compares the nature of the testimony against standards established in Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals in 1993 for expert witnesses. It concludes that the evidence refuting the existence of repression fails to meet guidelines for scientific testing and peer review, methodological standards, and acceptance in the scientific community. Recommendations for improved research methodologies are discussed. 29 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         trauma;  memory;  repression;  adults abused as children;  false memory syndrome;  research methodology;  research needs;  expert testimony

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    Remembering Trauma: A Characterological Perspective.

 

AUTHOR:               Piers, C. C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Austen Riggs Center, Stockbridge, MA.

 

SOURCE:                In: Williams, L. M. and Banyard, V. L. (Editors). Trauma and Memory. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., 1999;  pp. 57-65

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter criticizes the current focus on dissociation and trauma in therapy and suggests that therapists also consider the character of the patient. It asserts that character, or the individual's perceptions and mannerisms, affects the way a person reacts and responds to trauma. While dissociation theory proposes that symptomatic behaviors are caused by reminders of past trauma that are stored in the patient's mind, the characterological framework attributes maladaptive symptoms to a conflicted character. Although trauma has an impact on development, specific responses to trauma depend on other factors, including the child's system for organizing experiences, as well as the developmental, family, and social environment. The chapter reviews the memory process and describes the typical presentations of patients with a history of trauma. Implications for therapeutic intervention are discussed. 36 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  trauma;  dissociation;  psychotherapy;  therapists role;  psychopathology;  psychological characteristics;  personality

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    Emotionally Abused Children Presenting to Child Psychiatry Clinics.

 

AUTHOR:               Thompson, A. E.;  Kaplan, C. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Queens Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

 

SOURCE:                23(2): pp. 191-196;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science, February 1999

 

ABSTRACT:           Nine psychiatrists were surveyed about the prevalence of emotional abuse among their child patients. The British clinicians were asked about their concerns about child abuse in their current cases, reports made to Social Services, substantiation of abuse, and whether their diagnoses included any of four dimensions of emotional abuse as proposed by Glaser (1995). The dimensions included: constant negative descriptions of the child; emotional unresponsiveness or neglect; disrespect for the child's individuality; and lack of understanding about child development. Of the 76 cases reported by the clinicians, 12 were identified as involving emotional abuse. Two of the children were on the Child Protection Registry for emotional abuse. The clinicians had consulted Social Services about eight of the other cases. Common diagnoses of the children suspected of emotional abuse included attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and disruptive behavior disorders, depressive disorders, and pervasive developmental disorders. Treatment for these children involved supportive psychotherapy, play therapy, parent training, and family work. The findings suggest that the operational definition of emotional abuse helped clinicians to identify cases of emotional abuse among their patients that may not have been identified through standard diagnostic practice. Limitations of the study are described. 17 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         emotional abuse;  sequelae;  child psychiatry;  psychiatric diagnoses;  prevalence;  definitions;  child abuse reporting;  psychiatrists role

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Cognitive Distortions and Blame Attribution in Sex Offenders Against Adults and Children.

 

AUTHOR:               Blumenthal, S.;  Gudjonsson, G.;  Burns, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Bexley Hospital, Kent (United Kingdom). Bracton Centre.

 

SOURCE:                23(2): pp. 129-143;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science, February 1999

 

ABSTRACT:           Sexual offenders against children and adults were compared for this study to examine the differences in distorted thinking and blame attribution. Thirty-six sex offenders against children and 30 sex offenders against adults completed measures of cognitive distortions relating to sex with children and rape, and a measure of blame attribution which assesses external, mental element, and guilt feeling attributions. Child sexual offenders endorsed more cognitive distortions relating to sex with children, but there were no group differences in cognitive distortions relating to rape. Those who offended against adults reported more external attributions and child offenders reported more guilt feeling attributions. Mental element attribution was related to alcohol intoxication and use of violence in the offense, but was not related to group differences. Results are interpreted as suggesting that child sex offenders support their offending by more enduring distorted cognitions, while those who offend against adults use blame attributions associated with the particular offense. 65 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         sex offenders;  sex offenders therapy;  characteristics of abuser;  psychological characteristics;  cognitive development;  victim blaming;  sexual abuse;  rape

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Sequential Analyses in Coercive Mother-Child Interaction: The Predictability Hypothesis in Abusive Versus Nonabusive Dyads.

 

AUTHOR:               Cerezo, M. A.;  D'Ocon, A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Basic Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                23(2): pp. 99-113;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science, February 1999

 

ABSTRACT:           This study tested the sequential relationship between the child's aversive behavior and both the predictability and the compliance episodes, as well as the sequential relationship between these two mothering episodes proposed by the new predictability hypothesis (Wahler, Williams, and Cerezo, 1990). The compliance hypothesis explains that instructional behaviors by the mother precipitate oppositional and aversive behavior by the child, which the mother avoids by conceding to the child. The predictability hypotheses attributes a child's deviant behavior to the mother's erratic behavior as a way of achieving a predictable response from the mother. The new predictability hypothesis proposed by Wahler, et al suggests that inconsistent behavior by the mother to enforce her demand leads to a pattern of interpersonal conflict between the mother and child. The study also explored whether or not these patterns are specific to dysfunctional dyads by using a nonabusive comparison group. Fifty mother child dyads, including 25 abusive and 25 nonabusive pairs, participated in the study. Lag sequential analyses were carried out on 302 hours of direct observation, 178 on the abusive group, and 124 in the nonabusive group. Results of the sequential analyses showed that the predictions derived from the compliance and predictability hypotheses were supported in both groups. The only difference between the groups lies in the new predictability hypothesis, so the two mothering reactions are not sequentially related in the nonabusive group. 35 references, 4 figures and 5 tables. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         predictor variables;  mother child relationships;  interpersonal relationships;  etiology;  child behavior;  behavior problems;  discipline;  sequelae

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Age and Gender Differences in Children's and Adolescents' Adaptation to Sexual Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:               Feiring, C.;  Taska, L.;  Lewis, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ. Institute for the Study of Child Development.

 

SOURCE:                23(2): pp. 115-128;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science, February 1999