Title:                                      A Study of Clerics Who Commit Sexual Offenses: Are They Different From Other Sex Offenders?

 Author:                                 Langevin, R.;  Curnoe, S.;  Bain, J.

 Author Affiliation:                Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Psychiatry.

 Source:                                 Child Abuse and Neglect; 24(4): pp. 535-545;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., April 2000;  p. 190

 Distributor:                           R. Langevin;  5468 Dundas St. W., Suite 402, Etobicoke

 Index Terms:
sex offenders;  characteristics of abuser;  clergy;  risk factors;  psychological characteristics;  child abuse research;  assessment;  diagnoses

 Abstract:
Twenty-four male clerics accused of sexual offenses were compared to 24 male sex offender controls to determine if cleric sex offenders differed significantly from other sex offenders when assessed with standard instruments that examinethe major factors important in sexual offenses. Both groups were compared to a general sample of sex offenders matched only for offense type. The three groups were compared on sexual history and preference, substance abuse, mental illness and personality, history of crime and violence, neuropsychological impairment, and endocrine abnormalities using
reliable and valid measures. The clerics in this study formed a statistically significant highly educated, older, and predominantly single subgroup of sex offenders. The majority of cleric-sex offenders suffered from a sexual disorder (70.8 percent), predominantly homosexual pedophilia, as measured by phallometric testing, but did not differ from the control group in this respect. The clerics were comparable to the other two groups in most respects, but tended to show less antisocial personality disorders and somewhat more endocrine disorders. The most noteworthy features differentiating the clerics from highly educated matched controls were that clerics had a longer delay before criminal charges were laid, or lacked criminal charges altogether, and they tended to use force more often in their offenses. In spite of differences in age, education, and occupation between cleric-sex offenders and sex offenders in general, the same procedures should be used in the assessment of this group as for the sex offender population in general. Hypotheses about reduced sexual outlet and the increased sexual abuse of clerics during childhood were not supported. Assessment and treatment of cleric-sex offenders should focus especially on sexual deviance, substance abuse, and endocrine disorders. 30 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract)

 Document Number:              CD-33653

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Making the Invisible Victims of Violence Against Women Visible Through University-Community Partnerships.

 Author:                                 Fantuzzo, J. W.;  Mohr, W. K.;  Noone, M. J.

 Author Affiliation:                Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia. Graduate School of Education.

 Sponsor:                               Head Start Bureau (DHHS), Washington, DC.

 Source:                                 Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma; 3(1): pp. 9-23;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 2000;  p. 247

 Internet URL: http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 Distributor:                           Haworth Press, Inc.;  10 Alice St., Binghamton NY 13904-1580;  Tel: (800) 342-9678;  Fax: (800) 895-0582;  E-mail: getinfo@haworthpressinc.com

 Index Terms:
child witnesses of family violence;  research needs;  research methodology;  policy formation;  social problems;  interagency collaboration;  assessment;  community intervention projects

 Abstract:
The absence of scientifically credible information about the nature and extent of children exposed to abuse of their mothers is an impediment to effective intervention and prevention efforts. This article proposes a research agenda based upon guiding principles of a public health surveillance model. Three major principles are presented and applied to this social problem: the definition and identification of the problem in the community; the selection of an accurate sample to be monitored; and cooperation between service agencies and researchers. A concrete example of the application of these principles is drawn from an ongoing university-community partnership in Philadelphia. Researchers from the University of Pennsylvania reviewed existing datasets and worked with the city Police Department and the Office of Early Childhood Education to identify child witness of family violence and assess need for services.
Reliability checks were integrated into the system to ensure thatthe tracking system was accurate. 26 references and 3 figures. (Author abstract modified)

 Document Number:              CD-33818

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Families for Teens.

 Author:                                 Thomas, V.;  Franz, K.

 Author Affiliation:                Northeast Ohio Adoption Services, Warren.

 Sponsor:                               Children's Bureau (DHHS), Washington, DC.

 Grant Number:                     90CO0740

 Source:                                 Northeast Ohio Adoption Services, Warren., March 31, 2000;  p. 341

 Distributor:                           Northeast Ohio Adoption Services;  8029 E. Market St., Warren OH 44484;  Tel: (216) 856-5582

 Index Terms:
ohio;  program models;  permanency planning;  adoption;  adopted adolescents;  post adoption services;  professional training;  interagency collaboration

 Abstract:
The Families For Teens demonstration project was designed to place teens who are in the care of two county child welfare agencies in permanent homes. Teens identified by the agencies received special project and advocacy services to help them achieve family relationships and stability. The goals of the program were to complete a comprehensive permanency assessment for each teen participating in the project; utilize innovative models to work with teens to achieve permanence; recruit families to adopt or serve as permanency resources for teens; provide support services to newly created families; and provide cross systems training to improve permanency outcomes. The two public agencies collaborated with Northern Ohio Adoption Serviceson the program to review goals and resolve problems. An evaluation of the program revealed that permanency assessments were only completed for 60 percent of the teens and only 20 percent of the participants had Circles of Support. Approximately 60 percent of the teens received a family connection as a result of the program. The placement rate differed significantly between the two counties because one of the sites had prepared participants before the program. Barriers to the implementation of the project included
reliance on sequential planning, acceptance of the teens reluctance to seek adoption, resistance of teens to recruitment activities conducted without their involvement, and geographic distances. Program managers learned that adoption planning must happen concurrently with other planning and that permanence enhances therapeutic effectiveness. Teens should be involved in recruitment activities and can advocate for themselves and others who are waiting for a permanent family.

 Document Number:              CD-33911

 Publication Type:                 Final Report

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Factitious Disorder by Proxy in Which the Presenting Problem is Behavioral or Psychiatric.

 Author:                                 Schreier, H. A.

 Author Affiliation:                Children's Hospital, Oakland, CA.

 Source:                                 Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; 39(5): pp. 668-670;  Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Hagerstown, MD., May 2000;  p. 347

 Internet URL: http://services.lww.com/services

 Distributor:                           Lippincott Williams and Wilkins;  P. O. Box 1600, Hagerstown MD 21741;  Tel: (800) 796-0646 x2326;  Fax: (973) 644-2339;  E-mail: custserv@wwilkins.com

 Index Terms:
munchausen disorder by proxy;  behavior problems;  psychiatric diagnoses;  physicians role;  therapists role;  parents;  detection;  best interests of the child

 Abstract:
While much of the professional discussion regarding Munchausen Disorder by Proxy has centered on the falsification of medical conditions, few have focused on psychiatric presentation of the disorder. This article examines these psychiatric presentations, noting the reports of adults who have made false accusations of sexual abuse in which the usual dynamics of Munchausen Disorder by Proxy were noted. This presents unique problems for psychiatrists and other professionals who are targeted by an adult with the disorder, most who are ill-prepared to handle the intense interpersonal dynamic involved; often the unsuspecting therapist increases therapeutic and diagnostic interventions or subtly drives the patient to seek help elsewhere. The author discusses problems particular to these psychiatric presentations, including the
reliance of the report of the parent/caretaker in making a diagnosis, and the fact that discrepancies between the parent's description of the symptoms and the child's behavior are not unusual. With older children, coaching is noted as not unusual, and the author also notes that medications unsuspectingly prescribed by physicians can produce symptoms. Detection of Munchausen Disorder by Proxy can bea time-consuming process, the author says, sometimes uncovered only after tragic outcomes. The importance of diagnosis is stressed, focusing on a questioning stance, careful observation, and gathering of information from other sources familiar with the child. Approaches toward the parent must focus on the best interests of the child. Seven references.

 Document Number:              CD-33747

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      An Actuarial Procedure for Assessing Risk With Juvenile Sex Offenders.

 Author:                                 Prentky, R.;  Harris, B.;  Frizzell, K.;  Righthand, S.

 Author Affiliation:                Justice Resource Institute, Bridgewater, MA.

 Source:                                 Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment; 13(2): pp. 71-93;  Kluwer Academic-Plenum Publishers, Dordrecht (The Netherlands0., April 2000;  p. 531

 Internet URL: http://www.wkap.nl

 Distributor:                           Kluwer Academic Publishers;  Journals Dept.; 101 Philip Dr., Assinippi Park, Norwell MA 02061;  Tel: (781) 871-6600;  Fax: (781) 681-9045;  E-mail: kluwer@wkap.com

 Index Terms:
risk assessment;  adolescent sex offenders;  protocols;  recidivism;  measures;  evaluation methods;  validity;  decision making

 Abstract:
Assessments of juvenile sexual offenders that are intended to aid in dispositional decisions occur at a multitude of decision points within the juvenile justice system. This article describes the development and validation of an actuarial risk assessment protocol designed specifically for juvenile sex offenders. The protocol was based on a review of the etiological studies, risk assessment research with juvenile and adult sexual offenders, and juvenile delinquency studies. It includes four scales to measure sexual drive and sexual preoccupation; impulsive, antisocial behavior; clinical/treatment factors; and community adjustment. A test of the instrument conducted with a sample of 96 adolescents who had been admitted, treated, and discharged from the Joseph J. Peters Institute indicated that the majority of items had good to excellent
reliability. However, the sexual drive/sexual preoccuational scale was found to be weak. Problems associated with evaluating risk in this population are identified, and deficiencies and revision requirements in the protocol are noted. 46 references and 4 tables. (Author abstract modified)

 Document Number:              CD-34169

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Thought Disorder Index of Finnish Adoptees and Communication Deviance of Their Adoptive

 Author:                                 Wahlberg, K. E.;  Wynne, L. C.;  Oja, H.;  Keskitalo, P.;  et al.

 Author Affiliation:                Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Psychiatry.

 Sponsor:                               Public Health Service (DHHS), Washington, DC.

 Grant Number:                     MH39663

 Source:                                 Psychological Medicine; 30(1): pp. 127-136;  Cambridge Univ. Press, Oxford (United Kingdom)., January 2000;  p. 750

 Internet URL: http://www.cup.org

 Distributor:                           Cambridge University Press;  110 Midland Ave., Port Chester NY 10573-4930;  Tel: (800) 872-7423; (914) 937-9600;  Fax: (914) 937-4712;  E-mail: orders@cup.org

 Index Terms:
finland;  child development;  adopted children;  cognitive processes;  schizophrenia;  risk factors;  adoptive parents;  communication techniques Parents.

 Abstract:
Data from the Finnish Adoptive Study of Schizophrenia were analyzed for this study to examine whether forms of thought disorder qualify as trait indicators of vulnerability to schizophrenia in persons who are not clinically ill, and whether these features could be linked to genetic or environmental risk or to genotype-environment interactions. Rorschach records of 56 Finnish adoptees at genetic risk but without schizophrenia-related clinical diagnoses and 95 control adoptees at low genetic risk were blindly and
reliably scored for the Thought Disorder Index (TDI). Communication deviance (CD), a measure of the rearing environment, was independently obtained from the adoptive parents. The differences in total TDI between high-risk and control adoptees were not statistically significant. However, TDI subscales for Fluid Thinking and Idosyncratic Verbalization were more frequent in high-risk adoptees. When Rorschach CD of the adoptive rearing parents was introduced as a continuous predictor variable, the odds ratio for the Idiosyncratic Verbalization component of the TDI of the high-risk adoptees was significantly higher than for the control adoptees. Specific categories of subsyndromal thought disorder appear to qualify as vulnerability indicators for schizophrenia. Genetic risk and rearing-parent communication patterns significantly interact as a joint effect that differentiates adopted-away offspring of schizophrenic mothers from control adopted-away offspring. 39 references and 4 tables. (Author abstract)

 Document Number:              CD-34317

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      The Stability of Child Abuse Reports: A Longitudinal Study of the Reporting Behaviour of Young Adults.

 Author:                                 Fergusson, D. M.;  Horwood, L. J.;  Woodward, L. J.

 Author Affiliation:                Christchurch School of Medicine (New Zealand). Health and Development Study.

 Sponsor:                               New Zealand Health Research Council, Aotearoa.

 Source:                                 Psychological Medicine; 30(3): pp. 529-544;  Cambridge Univ. Press, Oxford (United Kingdom)., 2000;  p. 752

 Internet URL: http://www.cup.org

 Distributor:                           Cambridge University Press;  110 Midland Ave., Port Chester NY 10573-4930;  Tel: (800) 872-7423; (914) 937-9600;  Fax: (914) 937-4712;  E-mail: orders@cup.org

 Index Terms:
child abuse research;  disclosure;  longitudinal studies;  child abuse reporting; 
reliability;  prevalence;  sequelae;  mental disorders

 Abstract:
The aims of this study were to use longitudinal report data on physical and sexual abuse to examine the stability and consistency of abuse reports. The study was based on the birth cohort of young people studied in the Christchurch Health and Development Study. At ages 18 and 21 years, these young people were questioned about their childhood exposure to physical punishment and sexual abuse. Concurrent with these assessments, sample members were also assessed on measures of psychiatric disorder and suicidal behavior. Reports of childhood sexual abuse and physical punishment were relatively unstable and the values of kappa for test-retests of abuse reporting were in the region of .45. Inconsistencies in reporting were unrelated to the subject's psychiatric state. Latent class analyses suggested that those who were not abused did not falsely report being abused; and that those who were abused provided unreliable reports in which the probability of a false negative response was approximately 50 percent. Different approaches to classifying subjects as abused led to wide variations in the estimated prevalence of abuse but estimates of the relative risk of psychiatric adjustment problems conditional on abuse exposure remained relatively stable. These findings suggest that estimates of abuse prevalence based on a single report are likely to seriously underestimate the true prevalence of abuse, while estimates of the relative risk of psychiatric adjustment problems conditional on abuse appear to be robust to the effects of reporting errors. 49 references and 6 tables. (Author abstract)

 Document Number:              CD-34318

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      A Preliminary Study of a Cartoon Measure for Children's Reactions to Chronic Trauma.

 Author:                                 Praver, F.;  DiGiuseppe, R.;  Pelcovitz, D.;  Mandel, F. S.;  Gaines, R.

 Author Affiliation:                St. John's Univ., Jamaica, NY.

 Sponsor:                               National Institute of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

 Grant Number:                     5P30MH43878

 Source:                                 Child Maltreatment; 5(3): pp. 273-285;  Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA., August 2000;  p. 799

 Distributor:                           Frances Praver;  5 Marseilles Dr., Locust Valley NY 11560

 Index Terms:
trauma;  chronic neglect;  psychometrics;  data collection;  data analysis;  posttraumatic stress disorder;  community violence;  rating scales

 Abstract:
Assessment of trauma-related sequelae of young children exposed to repeated, prolonged trauma has been hampered by a dearth of
reliable and valid instruments. Preliminary psychometric properties of a new instrument, Angie/Andy Cartoon Trauma Scales, also known as ACTS, are presented in this article. The scale features a cartoon-based methodology, measuring trauma-related sequelae of prolonged, repeated abuse. A sample of 208 children, ages 6-12, with a median age of 8, comprised intrafamilial trauma, extrafamilial trauma, combined trauma, and non-trauma groups. ACTS demonstrated high internal consistency, with coefficient alphas from 0.7 to 0.95. The three trauma groups scored significantly higher than the non-trauma group on all scales. Generally, the most severely traumatized group scored significantly higher than the less severely traumatized groups. The number of types of violence exposures correlated with ACTS scores from 0.55 to 0.74; the frequency and severity of trauma exposure correlated with ACTS scores from 0.44 to 0.56; the ACTS parent version correlated with a standardized parent scale from 0.71 to 0.81. Parent/child agreement was significant. ACTS is recommended as a promising tool in facilitating assessment, direction, and focused treatment of traumatized children involved in situations of chronic abuse. Three tables; six figures; numerous references. (Author abstract modified.)

 Document Number:              CD-34191

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Substantiation and Early Decision Points in Public Child Welfare: A Conceptual Reconsideration.

 Author:                                 Drake, B.;  Jonson-Reid, M.

 Author Affiliation:                Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO. Dept. of Social Work.

 Source:                                 Child Maltreatment; 5(3): pp. 227-235;  Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA., August 2000;  p. 805

 Internet URL: http://www.sagepub.com/

 Distributor:                           Sage Publications, Inc.;  2455 Teller Rd., Thousand Oaks CA 91320;  Tel: (805) 499-9774;  Fax: (805) 499-0871;  E-mail: order@sagepub.com

 Index Terms:
early intervention programs;  child welfare system;  child protective services;  decision making;  validity;  policies;  family courts

 Abstract:
This article describes the concept of substantiation, a means of officially validating the occurrence of prior events in accordance with agency standards in the larger context of early decision-making in state child protective services.The authors note that substantiation has been misunderstood and misapplied by policy makers and researchers, stemming from the fact that substantiation of child welfare cases is past-oriented and reminiscent of a criminal justice system model, which causes the substantiation construct to be mismatched with public child welfare services and goals, which are future-oriented and follow a preventative model. Specific attention is given to the voluntary or involuntary nature of services, the availabilityof evidence, and the past or future orientation of the decision-making process. The conceptual consistency of recent child welfare policies is explored. Based on the review, the authors make recommendations with regard to the desirability of replacing the substantiation characterization with more practice-relevant characterizations more consistent with the nature of child welfare services. Conclusions suggest that the
reliance of substantiation in child protective services overshadows the more important determination of whether a family requires services to prevent further harm to a child. Substantiation is described as a useful, preliminary step toward family court involvement, but researchers must discontinue the reliance on substantiation as a proxy for risk or severity. Two figures, 16 references. (Author abstract modified)

 Document Number:              CD-34200

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      The Kempe Family Stress Inventory: A Review.

 Author:                                 Korfmacher, J.

 Author Affiliation:                Colorado Univ. School of Medicine, Denver. Kempe Children's Center.

 Source:                                 Child Abuse and Neglect; 24(1): pp. 129-140;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., January 2000

 Distributor:                           Jon Korfmacher;  Erikson Institute 420 N. Wabash Ave., Chicago, IL 60611

 Index Terms:
assessment;  measures;  parental stress;  parental behavior;  validity;  adults abused as children;  substance abuse;  mental health

 Abstract:
This article reviews research about the validity of the Kempe Family Stress Inventory (KFSI), a 10-item scale that measures risk for parenting difficulties based upon responses to a thorough psychosocial interview. Research and documentation regarding the assessment instrument were gathered from journals, book chapters, presentations, workshops, and intervention evaluation reports. The KFSI has been used to predict parents' future risk of maltreating their children. The scale covers a variety of domains, including psychiatric history, criminal and substance abuse history, childhood history of care, emotional functioning, attitudes towards and perception of child, discipline of child, and level of stress in the parent's life. Although construct validity has been demonstrated with the KFSI, questions remain about its specificity and sensitivity. In addition, there has been minimal
reliability and work done on the measure. It is concluded that the KFSI may have clinical utility, but should be used as part of a more comprehensive risk assessment that includes multiple measures. Acceptable accuracy in predicting child abuse and neglect when used by itself has not been demonstrated. There is a need for more demonstration of reliability and validity. Suggestions for future research are noted. 21 references and 2 tables. (Author abstract)

 Document Number:              CD-32820

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      CHILD WELFARE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING: Selected Articles.

 Sponsor:                               Maternal and Child Health Bureau (DHHS), Washington, DC;  National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (DHHS), Washington, DC. (90CA1561);  Children's Bureau (DHHS), Washington, DC;  Children's Bureau (DHHS), Washington, DC. (90CW1037)

 Source:                                 NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  2000

 Internet URL: http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 Index Terms:
kinship care;  professional training;  child welfare workers;  curricula;  competency based training;  assessment;  intervention strategies;  service delivery;  social workers;  social workers role;  personnel needs;  child protective services;  child welfare services;  personnel management;  competency;  children with disabilities;  developmental disabilities;  foster care;  foster parents training;  program models;  interagency collaboration;  evaluation methods;  validity;  testing;  outcomes;  longitudinal studies;  program evaluation;  family preservation;  cultural competency;  schools of social work;  resource materials;  child welfare research;  risk factors;  prevention;  child welfare research;  child welfare agencies;  substance abuse;  multidisciplinary teams;  child welfare reform;  pennsylvania;  interdisciplinary approach;  new york;  social workers attitudes;  caseload;  staff development;  florida;  investigations;  supervisors;  foster care workers;  california;  measures

 Full Text:
Document No.: CD-27439
Paradigm Shift: Training Staff to Provide Services to the Kinship Triad.
Jackson, S. M.
Chapter in Book
pp. 93-111
Copyright 1999
In: Hegar, R. L. and Scannapieco, M. (Editors). Kinship Foster Care:
Policy, Practice, and Research. New York, NY, Oxford Univ. Press
Distributed by:
Order Dept., Oxford Univ. Press
2001 Evans Rd.
Cary, NC 27513
(800) 451-7556
custserv@oup-usa.org
http://www.oup-usa.org

This chapter outlines the components of training programs for kinship care
staff. The differences between the regular foster care paradigm and the
kinship care paradigm are highlighted. While the traditional paradigm is
child-centered and adversarial, the new paradigm is family-centered and
emphasizes court-based mediation. The new philosophy also favors custody
and guardianship rather than foster care maintenance, and therapy instead
of case management. Training should examine these differences and focus on
the philosophies of permanency planning, cultural considerations, the
extended family meeting, resource provision, and the strengths
perspective. The curriculum should address the definition of kinship,
history of kinship care, specialized competencies for kinship care, value
of appropriate placements, legal foundation, and the permanency planning
hierarchy. An assessment component is also necessary to train workers in
the specifics of evaluating the kinship triad and its relationships,
strengths and problems, structure, and functioning. Finally, the
curriculum should include a section on making decisions about termination
and transition from care. 22 references and 4 figures.

Descriptors:
kinship care; professional training; child welfare workers; curricula;
competency based training; assessment; intervention strategies; service
delivery

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27788
Differential Uses for BSW and MSW Educated Social Workers in Child Welfare
Services.
Rittner, B.; Wodarski, J. S.
Journal Article
Copyright March 1999
Children and Youth Services Review.
21(3):217-238.
Barbara Rittner, School of Social Work, Tucker Hall, Georgia Univ.,
Athens, GA 30602
brittner@arches.uga.edu

This article offers a rationale for deciding how to use BSW and MSW
educated social workers in child welfare services. Generalist skills
taught in BSW programs prepare students for work as hot-line screeners,
foster care case managers, and case workers with low-to-moderate risk
families, and to recruit, screen, and train foster and adoptive parents.
Skills taught in MSW programs are needed for conducting initial
investigations, working with high risk families, terminating parental
rights, placing children with adoptive families, and for administrative
and supervisory functions. Educational requirements for each function are
described. 49 references. (Author abstract)

Descriptors:
social workers; professional training; social workers role; personnel
needs; child protective services; child welfare services; personnel
management; competency

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27965
Training Professionals to Work With Young Children With Developmental
Disabilities.
Vig, S.; Kaminer, R.
Chapter in Book
pp. 455-471
Copyright 1999
In: Silver, J. A.; Amster, B. J.; Haecker, T. Young Children and Foster
Care: A Guide for Professionals. Baltimore, MD, Paul H. Brookes Publishing
Co.
Distributed by:
Brookes Publishing Co.
P. O. Box 10624
Baltimore, MD 21285-0624
(800) 638-3775
custserv@pbrookes.com
http://www.pbrookes.com
Sponsored by:
Maternal and Child Health Bureau (DHHS), Washington, DC.

This chapter explains the need for professional training to help child
welfare workers and foster parents identify developmental disabilities and
respond appropriately to the needs and behaviors of children in their
care. Early identification of problems can promote intervention and
acceptance of the functioning of the child, as well as support for the
caregiver. Foster families and birth families need information about
developmentally appropriate expectations, behavior management, and
community support. In addition to child welfare workers and foster
parents, agency supervisors and legal systems representatives can benefit
from training that explains the types of problems presented by foster
children and the need for parent education. Training topics should include
the indicators of developmental disabilities, assessment techniques,
referral procedures, financial assistance, and service planning.
Cross-systems training is especially effective in promoting collaboration
between agencies. 35 references.

Descriptors:
children with disabilities; developmental disabilities; professional
training; foster care; child welfare workers; foster parents training;
program models; interagency collaboration

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27043
Determining Readiness for Child Protective Services Practice: Development
of a Testing Program.
Biggerstaff, M. A.; Wood, L.; Fountain, S.
Journal Article
Copyright October 1998
Children and Youth Services Review.
20(8):697-713.
Marilyn Biggerstaff, School of Social Work, Virginia Commonwealth Univ.,
P. O. Box 842027, Richmond, VA 23284-2027
biggers@saturn.vcu.edu

This article describes the process of developing a testing program for use
in competency-based training for public child welfare employees. The
Readiness for Practice in Child Protective Services Model was developed to
assure the job-relatedness of the tests. Readiness for practice includes
both the situation type (child protective services) and the employee's
background resources (e.g., personal characteristics, professional
education, experience, competency-based training, etc.). In the case
example illustrating the process, the tests were used to determine whether
local agency staff would be exempt from any of three required training
courses based on knowledge necessary at the entry-level. Three separate
50-item multiple-choice tests were developed to assess knowledge of intake
and investigation in child abuse and neglect situations, child sexual
abuse, and sexual abuse investigations. The Readiness for Practice Model
and the procedures used to test development including content validity,
item writing, test administration and standard setting are detailed. 37
references, 1 figure, and 1 table. (Author abstract)

Descriptors:
child welfare workers; competency based training; professional training;
evaluation methods; validity; testing

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27424
The Impact of Child Protective Service Training: A Longitudinal Study of
Workers' Job Performance, Knowledge, and Attitudes.
Leung, P.; Cheung, K. M.
Journal Article
Copyright November 1998
Research on Social Work Practice.
8(6):668-684.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-0721
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com

A longitudinal study was conducted to evaluate the impact of an
entry-level training program on caseworkers' performance, knowledge, and
attitudes. The skill competencies of 152 trainees were compared to a
random sample of 51 caseworkers who did not participate in such training.
Pre- and post-training results of knowledge tests and attitudinal measures
were analyzed. Improved skill levels were found within both training and
nontraining groups across time. Trainees did better on knowledge tests,
and their perceived knowledge levels were significantly higher after
training. Significant improvements were found in trainees' perceptions of
ethnic awareness and value of family preservation. The 3-month training
with a field practice component has been perceived as helpful in preparing
caseworkers for child protective service tasks. Caseworkers' knowledge,
skills, and attitudes improved after training, but there still is no
statistical evidence to indicate that the trained workers performed better
than the untrained ones. Entry-level training and on-the-job training are
recommended. 17 references and 4 tables. (Author abstract)

Descriptors:
child protective services; professional training; outcomes; longitudinal
studies; competency based training; program evaluation; family
preservation; cultural competency

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27459
Educating for Child Welfare Practice: A Compendium of Exemplary Syllabi.
Zlotnik, J. L. (Editor); Rome, S. H. (Editor); DePanfilis, D. (Editor)
Book
177 pp.
Copyright 1998
Council on Social Work Education, Alexandria, VA
Distributed by:
Council on Social Work Education
1600 Duke St., Suite 300
Alexandria, VA 22314-3421
(703) 519-2057
FAX: (703) 683-8099
rpons@cswe.org
http://www.cswe.org

Social work education programs and public child welfare agencies have
entered into partnerships to enhance child welfare curricula or add course
offerings in order to prepare students to work in the child welfare field.
A range of academic approaches addresses child welfare competencies. This
compendium provides syllabi for child welfare courses at the Baccalaureate
and Masters levels. Part I covers Baccalaureate-level courses on child
welfare services, child welfare, family and child welfare services, and an
integrative seminar. Part II focuses on Master's level practice courses,
such as psychosocial development of vulnerable children, family practice,
child abuse and neglect, the application of social work practice
principles to child welfare, and an integrative seminar on public child
welfare. The third section includes Master's level policy courses. Syllabi
for child welfare research and the legal aspects of social work are
presented in the final section. Each syllabus provides an overview of the
course and its objectives, lists of required texts and assignments, and
outlines of units of study. Appendixes include a set of child welfare
competencies, materials used to evaluate students' child welfare field
experiences, and a list of child welfare resources. Numerous references.

Descriptors:
child welfare workers; social workers; schools of social work;
professional training; curricula; resource materials; child welfare
research

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27678
Responding to Maltreatment of Children With Disabilities: A Trainer's
Guide.
Steinberg, M. A.; Hylton, J. R.; Wheeler, C. E. (Editor)
Training Material
464 pp.
Copyright September 1998
Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland. Oregon Institute on Disability and
DevelopmentOregon Health Sciences Univ., Oregon Institute on Disability and
Development
P. O. Box 574
Portland, OR 97207-0574
(503) 494-8699
Sponsored by:
National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (DHHS), Washington, DC.
(90CA1561).

This NCCAN-funded training curriculum was designed to provide trainers
with a framework for teaching about the maltreatment of children with
disabilities. Potential trainees include both child protective service
workers who respond to the needs of children with disabilities and those
who work in the field of disabilities. The five modules provide an
introduction to disabilities and examine the relationship between
maltreatment and disabilities, considerations for assessment, child
protective service practices for children with disabilities, and risk
reduction. Myths about disabilities, the impact of disability on
communication and culture, incidence and prevalence of abuse and neglect,
signs of abuse and neglect, medical examination practices, and
consultation with disability experts are specifically discussed. The
curriculum manual provides a lecture guide, participant guides, trainers'
texts, transparencies, and videotapes for each module. A Power Point slide
presentation is available as an alternative to the transparencies
provided.

children with disabilities; child protective services; professional
training; competency based training; curricula; assessment; risk factors;
prevention

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27748
Child Welfare Fellow Report 1997-98: Training and Research for the
Lancaster County, Pennsylvania Children and Youth Agency (pro-gen).
Gregoire, K. A.
Technical Report
55 pp.
Copyright 1998
Millersville Univ., PA. Dept. of Social Work
Kathryn Gregoire, Millersville Univ. Dept. of Social Work, P. O. Box 1002,
Millersville, PA 17551
(717) 871-2475
kgregoir@marauder.millersv.edu
Sponsored by:
Children's Bureau (DHHS), Washington, DC.

This report details the results of a Child Welfare Fellow project to
conduct training and research for the Lancaster County (Pennsylvania)
Children and Youth Agency. Activities included training on the link
between substance abuse and child abuse, the development of a Substance
Abuse Resource Center for the agency, consultation on placements, and
participation on the Commissioners' Multi-Disciplinary Review Team. The
report of the multidisciplinary review team is included in the packet.
Written primarily by the Fellow, the report describes the findings and
recommendations of the Multidisciplinary Review Team to improve agency
coordination for the protection of children. Based on a review of 91 cases
over two four-day periods, the multidisciplinary team recommended changes
in legislation, decision-making standards, and agency procedures to
emphasize child protection rather than family preservation.
Recommendations included guidelines for family courts, interagency
collaboration, improved case tracking, increased reimbursement for medical
assistance providers, increased enforcement of mandatory reporting laws,
drug testing for clients of Children and Youth agencies, the provision of
mental health and mental retardation services, support for kinship care
providers, early intervention, and the timely implementation of
court-ordered treatment. An attachment to the report compares the county
recommendations to those of the state review team and the Pennsylvania
Legislative Committee. 1 table.

Descriptors:
child welfare research; child welfare agencies; substance abuse;
multidisciplinary teams; child welfare reform; professional training;
program evaluation; pennsylvania

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27822
A Final Report of the Interdisciplinary Child Welfare Curriculum and
Training.
Rudolph, C.
Final Report
96 pp.
Copyright March 18, 1998
Syracuse Univ., NY. School of Social Work
Distributed by:
School of Social Work, Syracuse Univ.
Sims Hall
Syracuse, NY 13244-1230
(315) 443-5550
FAX: (315) 443-5576
Sponsored by:
Children's Bureau (DHHS), Washington, DC. (90CW1037).

This final report details the process and achievements of an
interdisciplinary child welfare training grant awarded to the Syracuse
University School of Social Work. The School of Social Work used the grant
to develop a child welfare concentration within the social work
curriculum, with the assistance of the Onondaga County Children's
Division. An Interdisciplinary Advisory Committee comprised of faculty
from the University Law School, the School of Public Affairs, the School
of Education, and the School of Social Work cooperated with public and
private child welfare administrators to identify competencies and skills
to be addressed in the child welfare curriculum. In addition to the
development of the curriculum, the goals of the project were to expand on
the interdisciplinary Bachelor of Social Work program and to recruit
current social service workers into the Master's program. The project
successfully enrolled 16 students from the Onondaga County Children's
Division, as well as three other rural counties. These students were
required to commit to four years of employment with the agency after
graduation as payback for the graduate program. Partnerships with public
agencies provided opportunities for field work experiences, such as
planning for follow-up services, training for intensive family
preservation services, coordination of the foster care program, and the
development of an intake assessment program. An evaluation of the academic
achievements of the child welfare trainees found the experienced workers
to be excellent students. The trainees earned high grades and contributed
to class discussions. Focus groups with the students revealed that the
curriculum helped to improve the confidence-levels of child welfare
workers, gave them a theoretical basis for their work, increased practice
skills, and improved cultural competency.

Descriptors:
schools of social work; interdisciplinary approach; child welfare workers;
professional training; curricula; new york; interagency collaboration;
program evaluation

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-28493
Research Finds Suggest Why Child Welfare Workers Stay on Job.
Cicero-Reese, B.; Black, P. N.
Technical Report
4 pp.
Copyright February 1998
Council on Social Work Education, Alexandria, VA
Distributed by:
Council on Social Work Education
1600 Duke St., Suite 300
Alexandria, VA 22314
(703) 683-8080
FAX: (703) 683-8099
http://www.oswe.org

This article discusses findings from a study of why child welfare workers
stay on the job. The annual turnover of child welfare workers has been
estimated at between 30 percent and 40 percent. This ongoing drain of
staff results in uncovered caseloads, discontinuity of service to
families, and increased administrative costs. It is also detrimental to
staff morale and discouraging to potential recruits to the filed. In
recognition of the deleterious impact of high staff turnover, it is
important to identify factors that might promote personnel recruitment and
retention. Insight into the turnover issue can be gained by examining both
the "leavers" and the "stayers" in the child welfare workplace. To date,
research attention has focused primarily on employee reasons for
resignation. Minimal attention, however, has been directed to those
practitioners who remain on staff. Participants in this study included
child welfare workers from one public child welfare agency that have
remained on the job for more than 2 years. An anonymous, self- report
questionnaire was used to determine the demographics, educational
background, and work history of these employees. Items in the
questionnaire also tapped worker perceptions of factors that influenced
them to remain on the job. In addition, an individual interview was
conducted with a small group of staff who volunteered to participate in
this in-depth exploration of reasons motivating their continued
employment. Some results of the study include the mean age of the
respondents was just under 42 years and females comprised 74 percent. The
majority of the staff were married (63 percent) and had children of their
own (68 percent). Respondents identified the factors most important to
their continuing employment as "commitment to the well-being of children"
and "desire to help children." In-service training and support from
supervisors and peers were also considered important factors. 8
references, 3 tables and 1 figure. (Author abstract modified)

Descriptors:
child welfare workers; social workers attitudes; caseload; staff
development

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-28689
Handbook for Protective Investigations, Protective Supervision, and Foster
Care Counselors.
Florida State Dept. of Children and Families, Tallahassee. Professional
Development Centres.
Training Material
79 pp.
Copyright April 28, 1998
Florida State Dept. of Children and Families, Tallahassee. Professional
Development Centres
Distributed by:
Florida State Dept. of Children and Families, Professional Development
Centres
1317 Winewood Blvd.
Tallahassee, FL 32399
http://www.state.fl.us/pdc

This guide explains the field-based performance assessment for protective
investigations, protective supervision, and foster care counselors
employed by the Florida Department of Children and Families. Supervisors
and counselors are evaluated in five competency areas: assessment of child
safety and well- being; planning; documenting and organizing written
records; referring and coordinating services; and possessing professional
interpersonal skills. Evaluations consist of both written work products,
as well as observation of interpersonal skills. The handbook outlines the
parameters of the assessment, case selection procedures, candidate
directions, immediate supervisor directions, and independent evaluator
directions. Forms are included.

Descriptors:
child protective services; florida; investigations; supervisors; foster
care workers; professional training; competency based training; evaluation
methods

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-28752
An Evaluation of Training Classes Provided to County Child Welfare
Workers.
Baenziger, B. B.
Dissertation
55 pp.
Copyright Spring 1998
San Diego State Univ., CA. School of Social Work
Distributed by:
San Diego State Univ., School of Social Work
5500 Campanile Dr.
San Diego, CA 92182-4119
(619) 594-6865
FAX: (619) 594-5991
bbziger@cts.com
http://www.rohan.sdsu.edu/dept/chhs/sw/sw.html

This study evaluated four training classes for child welfare workers
conducted by the Public Child Welfare Training Academy in the southern
region of California. The training program was based on a set of core
competencies identified by the California Social Work Education Center.
Classes in child development, crisis intervention, case management, and
placement planning were evaluated. An instrument designed to test the
trainees' knowledge on the subject matter of the classes was administered
to three groups of trainees: a group that did not take the classes
(control group); a group that had just completed the classes
(post-training group); and a group that had completed the classes three
months prior to the study (three-month follow- up group). In addition, an
observer noted whether the trainers covered the core competencies required
for those classes. Due to low internal
reliability of the instrument, a
comparison of mean scores among sample groups was not conducted. Rather,
the study examined the percentage of correct responses on individual
questions and look for differences among the sample groups. The findings
seemed to suggest that learning did not occur through the classes.
However, several confounding variables may be responsible for the results,
such as limitations in the instrument, differences in testing environment,
variations in trainers and course content, and small sample groups.
Recommendations for improving future evaluations are provided. 29
references and 21 tables. (Author abstract)

Descriptors:
program evaluation; professional training; child welfare workers;
california; competency based training; outcomes; evaluation methods;
measures

 Publication Type:                 Annotated Bibliography

 Availability:
This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 Database:                             Annotated Bibliographies

 

 

Title:                                      Legislation Authorizing HIV Testing of Sex Offenders (Current through December 31, 1999): Iowa.

 Institutional Author:            U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE

 Author Affiliation:                U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES  Administration for Children and Families  Administration on Children, Youth and Families  Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION  330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565  Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE  99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321

 Source:                                 Investigations Number 16; In: HIV Testing of Sex Offenders

 Internet URL: http://www.ndaa-apri.org

 Series:                                  Child Abuse and Neglect State Statutes Elements

 Index Terms:
Statute;  Iowa;  conduct;  HIV Testing;  Legislation;  Sex Offender;  sexual assault

 Full Text:
IOWA

 Iowa Code Section 915.42 (West Supp. 2000)

Unless a petitioner chooses to be represented by private counsel, the
county attorney shall represent the victim's interest in all proceedings
under this section.

If a person is convicted of sexual assault or adjudicated delinquent for
an act of sexual assault, the county attorney, if requested by the
petitioner, shall petition the court for an order requiring the convicted
offender to submit to an HIV-related test, provided that all of the
following conditions are met:

  * The sexual assault for which the offender was convicted or
    adjudicated delinquent included sufficient contact between the victim
    and the convicted offender to be deemed a significant exposure.
  * The authorized representative of the petitioner, the county attorney,
    or the court sought to obtain written informed consent from the
    convicted offender to the testing.

Upon receipt of the petition, the court shall:

  * Prior to the scheduling of a hearing, refer the victim for counseling
    by a victim counselor or a person requested by the victim to provide
    counseling regarding the nature,
reliability, and significance of the
    HIV-related test and of the serologic status of the convicted or
    alleged offender.

  * Schedule a hearing to be held as soon as is practicable.

  * Cause written notice to be served on the convicted offender who is
    the subject of the proceeding, in accordance with the rules of civil
    procedure relating to the service of original notice, or if the
    convicted offender is represented by legal counsel, provide written
    notice to the convicted offender and the convicted offender's legal
    counsel.

  * Provide for the appointment of legal counsel for a convicted offender
    if the convicted offender desires but is financially unable to employ
    counsel.

  * Furnish legal counsel with copies of the petition or application,
    written informed consent, if obtained, and copies of all other
    documents related to the petition or application, including, but not
    limited to, the charges and orders.

A hearing under this section shall be conducted in an informal manner
consistent with orderly procedure and in accordance with the Iowa rules
of evidence. The hearing shall be limited in scope to the review of
questions of fact only as to the issue of whether the sexual assault for
which the offender was convicted or adjudicated delinquent provided
sufficient contact between the victim and the convicted offender to be
deemed a significant exposure and to questions of law.

In determining whether the contact should be deemed a significant
exposure, the court shall base the determination on the testimony
presented during the proceedings on the sexual assault charge, the
minutes of the testimony or other evidence included in the court record,
or if a plea of guilty was entered, based upon the complaint or upon
testimony provided during the hearing.

The victim may testify at the hearing, but shall not be compelled to
testify. The court shall not consider the refusal of a victim to testify
at the hearing as material to the court's decision regarding issuance of
an order requiring testing.

The hearing shall be in camera unless the convicted offender and the
petitioner agree to a hearing in open court and the court approves. The
report of the hearing proceedings shall be sealed and no report of the
proceedings shall be released to the public, except with the permission
of all parties and the approval of the court.

Following the hearing, the court shall require a convicted offender to
undergo an HIV-related test only if the petitioner proves all of the
following by a preponderance of the evidence:

  * The sexual assault constituted a significant exposure.

  * An authorized representative of the petitioner, the county attorney,
    or the court sought to obtain written informed consent from the
    convicted offender.

  * Written informed consent was not provided by the convicted offender.

A convicted offender who is required to undergo an HIV-related test may
appeal to the court for review of questions of law only, but may appeal
questions of fact if the findings of fact are clearly erroneous.

 Document Number:             CS-0000763

 Publication Type:                 Statutes

 Database:                              US State Statute Series

 

 

Title:                                      Legislation Requiring Sex Offenders to Register With a Government Agency (Current through December 31, 1999): California.

 Institutional Author:            U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE

 Author Affiliation:                U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES  Administration for Children and Families  Administration on Children, Youth and Families  Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION  330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565  Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE  99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321

 Source:                                 Investigations Number 17; In: Sex Offender Registration

 Internet URL: http://www.ndaa-apri.org

 Series:                                  Child Abuse and Neglect State Statutes Elements

 Index Terms:
Statute;  California;  Agency;  circumstances;  Department;  employment;  Government Agency;  Information;  jurisdiction;  juvenile;  Legislation;  offense;  Register;  Sex Offender;  subdivision

 Full Text:
CALIFORNIA

 Cal. Penal Code Section 290 (West Supp. 2000)

Registration Mandate and Duration of Registration Requirement

Every person described herein for the rest of his or her life while
residing in California, shall be required to register with the chief of
police of the city in which he or she is domiciled, or the sheriff of the
county if he or she is domiciled in an unincorporated area, and,
additionally, with the chief of police of a campus of the University of
California or the California State University if he or she is domiciled
upon the campus or in any of its facilities, within five working days of
coming into any county, city, or city and county, or campus in which he
or she temporarily resides or is domiciled for that length of time.

The following persons shall be required to register: persons convicted of
the commission or attempt to commit enumerated sexual offenses; persons
determined to be mentally disordered sex offenders; persons convicted in
any other court of any offense which, if committed or attempted in
California, would have been punishable as one or more of the enumerated
sexual offenses; persons ordered by any court to register for any offense
not included specifically in this section if the court finds at the time
of conviction or sentencing that the person committed the offense as a
result of sexual compulsion or for purposes of sexual gratification;
persons discharged from the Department of the Youth Authority (or from a
facility in another state that is equivalent to the Department of the
Youth Authority) to the custody of which he or she was committed after
having been adjudicated a ward of the court because of the commission or
attempted commission of an enumerated offense.

Information Included in Registration

The registration shall consist of all of the following: a statement in
writing signed by the person, giving information as shall be required by
the Department of Justice and giving the name and address of the person's
employer, and the address of the person's place of employment if that is
different from the employer's main address; the fingerprints and
photograph of the person; the license plate number of any vehicle owned
by regularly driven by, or registered in the name of the person; copies
of adequate proof of residence, which shall be limited to a California
driver's license, California identification card, recent rent or utility
receipt, printed personalized checks or other recent banking documents
showing the person's name and address, or any other information that the
registering official believes is
reliable.   If any person who is
required to register pursuant to this section changes his or her
residence address or location, whether within the jurisdiction in which
he or she is currently registered or to a new jurisdiction inside or
outside the state, the person shall inform, in writing within 10 days,
the law enforcement agency or agencies with whom he or she last
registered of the new address or location.

Penalty for Failing to Register

Any person who is required to register based on a misdemeanor conviction
or juvenile adjucation who willfully violates any requirement of this
section is guilty of a misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment in a county
jail not exceeding one year.

Any person who is required to register based on a felony conviction or
juvenile adjudication who willfully violates any requirement of this
section or who has a prior conviction or juvenile adjudication for the
offense of failing to register and who subsequently and willfully
violates any requirement of this section is guilty of a felony and shall
be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for 16 months, or two or
three years.

If probation is granted or if the imposition or execution of sentence is
suspended, it shall be a condition of the probation or suspension that
the person serve at least 90 days in a county jail. The penalty described
in this paragraph shall apply whether or not the person has been released
on parole or has been discharged from parole.

Any person determined to be a mentally disordered sex offender or who has
been found guilty in the guilt phase of trial for an offense for which
registration is required under this section, but who has been found not
guilty by reason of insanity in the sanity phase of the trial, who
willfully violates any requirement of this section is guilty of a
misdemeanor and shall be punished by imprisonment in a county jail not
exceeding one year. For any second or subsequent willful violation of any
requirement of this section, the person is guilty of a felony and shall
be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for 16 months, or two or
three years.

If, after discharge from parole, the person is convicted of a felony, or
suffers a juvenile adjudication as specified in this subdivision, he or
she shall be required to complete parole of at least one year, in
addition to any other punishment imposed under this subdivision. A person
convicted of a felony as specified in this subdivision may be granted
probation only in the unusual case where the interests of justice would
best be served. When probation is granted under this paragraph, the court
shall specify on the record and shall enter into the minutes the
circumstances indicating that the interests of justice would best be
served by the disposition.

Any person who is required to register under this section who willfully
violates any requirement of this section is guilty of a continuing
offense.

 Document Number:             CS-0000801

 Publication Type:                 Statutes

 Database:                              US State Statute Series

 

 

Title:                                      Legislation Regarding the Admissibility Of Videotaped Interviews/Statements In Criminal Child Abuse Proceedings (Current through December 31, 1999): Louisiana.

 Institutional Author:            U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE

 Author Affiliation:                U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES  Administration for Children and Families  Administration on Children, Youth and Families  Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION  330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565  Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE  99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321

 Source:                                 Child Witnesses Number 22; In: Admissibility of Videotaped Interviews or Statements

 Internet URL: http://www.ndaa-apri.org

 Series:                                  Child Abuse and Neglect State Statutes Elements

 Index Terms:
Statute;  Louisiana;  Abuse;  Admissibility;  Child;  Child Abuse;  child's testimony;  Children;  conduct;  Criminal Child Abuse;  Criminal;  defendant;  Department;  Legislation;  Proceedings;  Statement;  Videotaped Interviews

 Full Text:
LOUISIANA

 La. Children's Code art. 324 et seq. (West Supp. 2000)

Crimes: rape; physical or sexual abuse of a child.

Age: 14 years of age or younger.

Applicability: victim.

Criteria for admissibility: the electronic recording was voluntarily made
by the child; no relative of the child was present in the room in which
the recording was made; no attorney for either party was present when the
statement was made; the recording was not made of answers to questions
calculated to lead the child to make a particular statement; the
recording is both visual and oral and is recorded on film or videotape or
by other electronic means; the recording is accurate, has not been
altered, and reflects what the child said; the taking of the child's
statement was supervised by a physician, a social worker, a law
enforcement officer, a licensed psychologist, or an authorized
representative of the Department of Social Services; every voice on the
recording is identified; the parties to the proceeding are afforded an
opportunity to view the recording; the person conducting the interview is
present at the proceeding and available to testify or be cross-examined
by either party; the child is available to testify.

Special issues: If the videotape is admitted into evidence, it becomes
part of the court record and shall be preserved under a protective order
of the court.

The court shall order destruction of the tape after five years from the
date of entry of the judgment or, if an appeal is filed, after a final
judgment on appeal is rendered.

The admission into evidence of the videotape as authorized herein shall
not preclude the state from calling the child as a witness or taking the
child's testimony outside the courtroom as otherwise authorized by law.

Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to prohibit the right of
confrontation of a defendant in a criminal proceeding before the court.

Held constitutional in Interest of R.C. Jr., 514 So.2d 759 (La. Ct. App.
1987). The court determined that Louisiana's videotaping statute provides
sufficient measures of
reliability since it prohibits the use of leading
questions, requires an accurate recording of the statement and prescribes
that the statement be voluntary. The court further stressed that even
though the statement is to be taped without cross-examination, it is not
devoid of indicia of
reliability.

 Document Number:             CS-0001003

 Publication Type:                 Statutes

 Database:                              US State Statute Series

 

 

Title:                                      Legislation Regarding the Admissibility Of Videotaped Interviews/Statements In Criminal Child Abuse Proceedings (Current through December 31, 1999): Minnesota.

 Institutional Author:            U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE

 Author Affiliation:                U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES  Administration for Children and Families  Administration on Children, Youth and Families  Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION  330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565  Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE  99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321

 Source:                                 Child Witnesses Number 22; In: Admissibility of Videotaped Interviews or Statements

 Internet URL: http://www.ndaa-apri.org

 Series:                                  Child Abuse and Neglect State Statutes Elements

 Index Terms:
Statute;  Minnesota;  Abuse;  Admissibility;  Child;  Child Abuse;  circumstances;  Criminal Child Abuse;  Criminal;  Legislation;  penetration;  Proceedings;  relationship;  Statement;  Videotaped Interviews

 Full Text:
MINNESOTA

 Minn. Stat. Ann. Section 595.02(3) (West Supp. 2000)

Crimes: sexual contact or penetration; physical abuse.

Age: under 10 years of age.

Applicability: victim.

Criteria for admissibility: The out-of-court statement is recorded by
video, audio, or other recording means.

The court or person authorized to receive evidence finds, in a hearing
outside the presence of the jury, that the time, content and
circumstances of statement and the relationship of the person to whom the
statement is made provide sufficient indicia of
reliability.

The child either:
    (1) testifies at the proceeding;
    (2) is unavailable to testify and there is corroborative evidence of
        the act (note: an unavailable witness includes one who is
        incompetent).

The proponent of the statement notifies the adverse party of the
proponent's intention to offer the statement and the particulars of the
statement sufficiently in advance of the proceeding to provide the
adverse party with a fair opportunity to prepare to meet the statement.

 Document Number:             CS-0001005

 Publication Type:                 Statutes

 Database:                              US State Statute Series

 

 

Title:                                      Legislation Regarding the Use of Special Hearsay Exceptions for Criminal Child Abuse Cases (Current through December 31, 1999): Florida.

 Institutional Author:            U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE

 Author Affiliation:                U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES  Administration for Children and Families  Administration on Children, Youth and Families  Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION  330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565  Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE  99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321

 Source:                                 Child Witnesses Number 23; In: Special Child Hearsay Exceptions

 Internet URL: http://www.ndaa-apri.org

 Series:                                  Child Abuse and Neglect State Statutes Elements

 Index Terms:
Statute;  Florida;  Abuse;  Child;  Child Abuse;  Child Abuse Cases;  circumstances;  Criminal Child Abuse;  Criminal;  defendant;  Legislation;  neglect;  offense;  penetration;  relationship;  Special Hearsay Exceptions

 Full Text:
FLORIDA

 Fla. Stat. Ann. ch.  90.803(23) (Harrison Supp. 2000)

Crimes: sexual abuse; physical abuse; neglect; any offense involving an
unlawful sexual act, contact, intrusion, or penetration.

Age: physical, mental, emotional or developmental age of 11 or younger.

Applicability: victim or witness.

Criteria for admissibility: the court must determine, in a hearing
outside the presence of the jury, that the time, content and
circumstances surrounding the statement are sufficient to safeguard
reliability; the child-declarant either:
    (1) testifies at the proceeding;
    (2) is unavailable to testify and there is other corroborative
        evidence (in addition to other statutory definitions of
        unavailability, unavailability under this statute shall include a
        finding that there is a substantial likelihood that testifying
        may result in severe emotional or mental harm to the
        child-declarant).

Factors to consider in determining trustworthiness: mental and physical
age of the child-declarant; maturity of the child-declarant; nature and
duration of the abuse; relationship of the child-declarant to the
offender;
reliability of the assertion; reliability of the
child-declarant victim; any other factor deemed appropriate.

Special issues: the defendant must be notified no later than ten days
before the trial that the statement will be offered; notice shall include
a statement indicating
reliability, content, circumstances when made,
time at which statement made, and other particulars necessary to provide
full disclosure of statement; the court shall make specific findings of
fact as a basis for its ruling.

Held constitutional in Glendening v. State, 536 So. 2d 212 (Fla. 1988),
cert. denied, 492 U.S. 907 (1989).

 Document Number:             CS-0001021

 Publication Type:                 Statutes

 Database:                              US State Statute Series

 

 

Title:                                      Legislation Regarding the Use of Special Hearsay Exceptions for Criminal Child Abuse Cases (Current through December 31, 1999): Minnesota.

 Institutional Author:            U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE

 Author Affiliation:                U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES  Administration for Children and Families  Administration on Children, Youth and Families  Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION  330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565  Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE  99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321

 Source:                                 Child Witnesses Number 23; In: Special Child Hearsay Exceptions

 Internet URL: http://www.ndaa-apri.org

 Series:                                  Child Abuse and Neglect State Statutes Elements

 Index Terms:
Statute;  Minnesota;  Abuse;  Child;  Child Abuse;  Child Abuse Cases;  circumstances;  conduct;  Criminal Child Abuse;  Criminal;  impairment;  Legislation;  penetration;  Special Hearsay Exceptions

 Full Text:
MINNESOTA

 Minn. Stat. Ann. Section 595.02(3) (West Supp. 2000)

Crimes: sexual contact or penetration; physical abuse; mental
impairment.

Age: under 10 years of age.

Applicability: victim.

Criteria for admissibility: The child-declarant's statement alleges,
explains, denies, or describes an act of sexual contact or penetration
performed with or on the child-declarant or any act of physical abuse of
the child-declarant.

The court or person authorized to receive evidence finds, in a hearing
conducted outside of the presence of the jury, that the time, content,
and circumstances of the statement and the
reliability of the person to
whom the statement was made provide sufficient indicia of
reliability.

The child-declarant either:
    (1) testifies at the proceeding;
    (2) is unavailable to testify and there is corroborative evidence of
        the act.

Special issues: the proponent of the statement must notify the adverse
party of his or her intention to offer the statement and the particulars
of the statement sufficiently in advance of the proceeding to provide the
adverse party with a fair opportunity to prepare to meet the statement;
out-of-court statements include video, audio, and other recorded
statements.

 Document Number:             CS-0001032

 Publication Type:                 Statutes

 Database:                              US State Statute Series

 

 

Title:                                      Legislation Regarding the Use of Special Hearsay Exceptions for Criminal Child Abuse Cases (Current through December 31, 1999): Oklahoma.

 Institutional Author:            U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE

 Author Affiliation:                U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES  Administration for Children and Families  Administration on Children, Youth and Families  Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION  330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565  Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE  99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321

 Source:                                 Child Witnesses Number 23; In: Special Child Hearsay Exceptions

 Internet URL: http://www.ndaa-apri.org

 Series:                                  Child Abuse and Neglect State Statutes Elements

 Index Terms:
Statute;  Oklahoma;  Abuse;  Child;  Child Abuse;  Child Abuse Cases;  circumstances;  conduct;  Criminal Child Abuse;  Criminal;  Legislation;  Special Hearsay Exceptions

 Full Text:
OKLAHOMA

 Okla. Stat. Ann. tit. 12, Section 2803.1 (West  Supp. 2000)

Crimes: sexual contact; physical abuse.

Age: not yet attained 13 years of age.

Applicability: victim.

Criteria for admissibility: The court finds, in a hearing conducted
outside the presence of the jury, that the time, content and
circumstances provide sufficient indicia of
reliability so to render it
inherently trustworthy.  In  determining such trustworthiness the court
may consider, among other things, the following factors: the spontaneity
and consistent repetition of the statement, the mental state of the
declarant, whether the terminology used is unexpected of a child of
similar age, and whether a lack of motive to fabricate exists; and the
child-declarant either:
    (1) testifies or is available to testify at the proceedings;
    (2) is unavailable as a witness and there is corroborative evidence
        of the act.

Special issue: The proponent of the statement must make known to the
adverse party his or her intention to offer the statement and the
particulars of the statement at least ten days in advance of the
proceedings to provide the adverse party with an opportunity to prepare
to answer the statement.

Held constitutional in Jones v. State, 781 P.2d 326 (Okla. Crim. App.
1989).

 Document Number:             CS-0001039

 Publication Type:                 Statutes

 Database:                              US State Statute Series

 

 

Title:                                      Legislation Regarding the Use of Special Hearsay Exceptions for Criminal Child Abuse Cases (Current through December 31, 1999): Pennsylvania.

 Institutional Author:            U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE

 Author Affiliation:                U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES  Administration for Children and Families  Administration on Children, Youth and Families  Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION  330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565  Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE  99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321

 Source:                                 Child Witnesses Number 23; In: Special Child Hearsay Exceptions

 Internet URL: http://www.ndaa-apri.org

 Series:                                  Child Abuse and Neglect State Statutes Elements

 Index Terms:
Statute;  Pennsylvania;  Abuse;  Child;  Child Abuse;  Child Abuse Cases;  circumstances;  Criminal Child Abuse;  Criminal;  Legislation;  offense;  Special Hearsay Exceptions

 Full Text:
PENNSYLVANIA

 42 Pa. Cons. Stat. Ann. Section 5985.1  (Supp. 2000)

Crimes: physical abuse, indecent contact, sexual offenses.

Age: 12 years of age or younger at the time the statement was made.

Applicability: victim or witness.

Criteria for admissibility: The court finds, in an in camera hearing,
that the evidence is relevant and the time, content and circumstances of
the statement provide sufficient indicia of
reliability.

The child either:
    (1) testifies at the proceeding;
    (2) is unavailable as a witness.

Before the court makes a finding that the child is unavailable, the court
must determine, based on evidence presented to it, that testimony by the
child as a witness will result in the child suffering serious emotional
distress such that the child cannot reasonably communicate.

Special issue: The proponent of the statement must notify the adverse
party of his or her intention to offer the statement and the particulars
of the statement sufficiently in advance of the proceeding to provide the
adverse party with a fair opportunity to prepare to meet the statement.

 Document Number:             CS-0001041

 Publication Type:                 Statutes

 Database:                              US State Statute Series

 

 

Title:                                      Legislation Regarding the Use of Special Hearsay Exceptions for Criminal Child Abuse Cases (Current through December 31, 1999): Texas.

 Institutional Author:            U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE

 Author Affiliation:                U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES  Administration for Children and Families  Administration on Children, Youth and Families  Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION  330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565  Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE  99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321

 Source:                                 Child Witnesses Number 23; In: Special Child Hearsay Exceptions

 Internet URL: http://www.ndaa-apri.org

 Series:                                  Child Abuse and Neglect State Statutes Elements

 Index Terms:
Statute;  Texas;  Abuse;  Child;  Child Abuse;  Child Abuse Cases;  circumstances;  conduct;  Criminal Child Abuse;  Criminal;  defendant;  Legislation;  offense;  sexual conduct;  Special Hearsay Exceptions

 Full Text:
TEXAS

 Tex. Code Crim. P. Ann. Section 38.072 (West Supp. 2000)

Crimes: sexual offenses; assaultive offenses; prohibited sexual conduct;
sexual performance by a child.

Age: 12 years of age or younger.

Applicability: victim.

Criteria for admissibility: Only to statements that describe the alleged
offense that:

Were made by the child against whom the offense was allegedly committed
and where made to the first person, 18 years or older, other than the
defendant, to whom the child made a statement about the offense.

The court finds, in a hearing conducted outside the presence of the jury,
that the statement is
reliable based on the time, content and
circumstances of the statement.

The child testifies or is available to testify at the proceeding in court
or in any other manner provided by law.

Special issue: On or before the 14th day before the date the proceeding
begins, the party intending to offer the statement must notify the
adverse party of its intention to do so, or provides the adverse party
with the name of the witness through whom it intends to offer the
statement and provides the adverse party with a written summary of the
statement.

Held constitutional in Holland v. State, 802 S.W.2d 696 (Tex. Crim. App.
1991).

 Document Number:             CS-0001043

 Publication Type:                 Statutes

 Database:                              US State Statute Series

 

 

Title:                                      The Internet and Technology for the Human Services.

 Author:                                 Karger, H. J.;  Levine, J.

 Author Affiliation:                Houston Univ., TX. Dept. of Social Work.

 Source:                                 New York, NY, Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., 1999;  p. 14

 Distributor:                           Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.;  1185 Avenue of the Americas, New York NY 10036;  Tel: (212) 782-3300

 Index Terms:
communication;  mass media;  social services;  social workers;  child welfare workers;  confidentiality;  computer programs;  research

 Abstract:
This guide provides a comprehensive overview of the use of the Internet in human services. Part One outlines a brief history of the Internet and examines the ethical and legal implications of information policy. Part Two describes the practical application of the Internet for human service professionals, specifically for promoting informational and therapeutic resources, professional networking, on-line counseling and support groups, and research. Techniques for evaluating the
reliability of Internet sources and World Wide Web sites are provided. Parts Three and Four focus on the steps for getting connected to the Internet and conducting searches, downloading files, and using electronic mail. The selection of an Internet Service Provider, operating systems and dialup software, and setting up a web browser are explained. The final section describes features such as plug-ins and add-ons, and web site design. A list of human service-related Internet sites is provided in theAppendix. Numerous references and figures.

 Document Number:              CD-33724

 Publication Type:                 Book

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Recent Data on the Number of Adoptions of Foster Children.

 Author:                                 Maza, P. L

 Author Affiliation:                Children's Bureau (DHHS), Washington, DC.

 Source:                                 Adoption Quarterly; 3(2): pp. 71-81;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 1999;  p. 19

 Internet URL: http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 Distributor:                           Haworth Press, Inc.;  10 Alice St., Binghamton NY 13904-1580;  Tel: (800) 342-9678;  Fax: (800) 895-0582;  E-mail: getinfo@haworthpressinc.com

 Index Terms:
data collection;  data analysis;  vcis;  foster care;  statistics;  trend analysis;  public agency adoption;  afcars

 Abstract:
Based on earlier reports to the Voluntary Cooperative Information System, the Children's Bureau in the Department of Health and Human Services estimated that 20,000 final adoptions from public agencies would take place in fiscal year 1997. In fact, there were more than 31,000 finalized adoptions--50 percent higher than the estimate. This paper explores the reasons for the discrepancy. The methodology used to find the discrepancy involves data from the public foster care system reported by each state, noting that in the desire to create a relevant variable for base distribution, the actual number of foster care children in the system might vary substantially from the actual distribution of the variable. A second error was notedin the number of states reporting and the proportion they represented in the total number of adoptions. The initial hypothesis was that the differences could be accounted for primarily by under-reporting in recent years and to an actual increase in the number of adoptions. The authors suggest a third factor, utilizing a distribution as a basis for the estimate that did not reflect the current distribution of finalized adoptions. Conclusions suggest that as AFCARS data becomes more complete and of higher quality, the information about both foster care and adoption should become more useful and
reliable. Three tables, two figures, 19 references.

 Document Number:              CD-33728

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Trends in the Well-Being of America's Children and Youth: 1999.

 Institutional Author:            Child Trends, Inc., Washington, DC;  Urban Institute, Washington, DC.

 Sponsor:                               Part 1 was produced by B. Brown and S. Vandivere, Child Trends, Inc., Washington, DC. Parts 2 and 3 were produced by L. D. Lindberg, S. Boggess, L. Porter, and S. Williams, Urban Institute, Washington, DC.

 Source:                                 Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (DHHS), Washington, DC., 1999;  p. 30

 Internet URL: http://aspe.os.dhhs.gov

 Distributor:                           Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation;  200 Independence Ave. SW, Room 450G, Washington DC 20201;  Tel: (202) 690-5938;  Fax: (202) 690-5514

 Index Terms:
u.s. department of health and human services;  trends;  well being;  children;  indicators;  violence;  data collection;  data analysis

 Abstract:
This is the fourth edition of an annual report from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services on trends in the well being of the nation's children and youth from the 1970s through the 1990s. It presents the most recent and
reliable estimates on more than 90 indicators of well being, with the intention of providing the policy community, the media, and other interested parties with an overview of data. The indicators have been organized into five broad areas: population, family and neighborhood; economic security; health conditions and health care; social development, behavioral health, and teen fertility; and education and achievement. Graphics for each indicator highlights trends and important population subgroup differences. The final list of indicators was modified, and new indicators were added based on recommendations from staff of participating statistical agencies. Highlights of the report note a decrease in youth violence; a continued downward trend in adolescent pregnancies; an increase of median income for families with children; a decrease in the number of families with children receiving welfare payments; and an increase of single mothers in the workforce. The report notes that while available datahave increased, there remains major gaps in the federal statistical system that must be filled before a complete picture is presented. Numerous tables, figures, and references.

 Document Number:              CD-33738

 Publication Type:                 Technical Report

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Adult Survivors of Sexual Abuse.

 Author:                                 Gold, S. N.;  Brown, L. S.

 Author Affiliation:                Nova Southeastern Univ., Fort Lauderdale, FL. Trauma Resolution Integration Program.

 Source:                                 In: Ammerman, R. T.; Hersen, M. (Editors). Assessment of Family Violence: A Clinical and Legal Sourcebook, Second Edition. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA., 1999;  p. 181

 Internet URL: http://www.josseybass.com

 Distributor:                           Jossey-Bass;  350 Sansome St., San Francisco CA 94104;  Tel: (800) 956-7739; (415) 433-1740;  Fax: (800) 605-2665; (415) 433-0499;  E-mail: webperson@jbp.com

 Index Terms:
adults abused as children;  sexual abuse;  assessment;  measures;  sequelae;  child abuse history;  forensic psychiatry;  legal processes

 Abstract:
This chapter provides an introduction to considerations for assessing adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Evaluators are cautioned that the assessment of this population requires extensive specialized knowledge about psychological trauma, interpersonal violence and abuse, posttraumatic stress, and dissociative symptomatology. The chapter reviews general aspects of assessment of adult survivors, including establishing rapport and maintaining conceptual clarity. Strategies for assessing current difficulties, dysfunctional coping strategies, abuse history, the context of the childhood sexual abuse, and the strengths and resources of survivors are also discussed. In addition to these areas addressed by clinical assessors, forensic evaluators must also investigate groups for civil liability and the
reliability of the survivor's testimony. They must find evidence to confirm or refute the survivor's report from reports of covictims, autobiographical material by the survivor during the time of the abuse, school and childhood medical records, reports of peers of the survivor, and sexual history of the alleged perpetrator. Sources of possible contamination of the survivor's memory must also be identified, including the circumstances of delayed recall. A case study is presented in the chapter to illustrate assessment issues.

 Document Number:              CD-33644

 Publication Type:                 Chapter in Book

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Risk Assessment in Child Protective Services: Consensus and Actuarial Model Reliability.

 Author:                                 Baird, C.;  Wagner, D.;  Healy, T.;  Johnson, K.

 Author Affiliation:                National Council on Crime and Delinquency, Madison, WI. Children's Research Center.

 Sponsor:                               National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (DHHS), Washington, DC.

 Grant Number:                     90CA1550

 Source:                                 Child Welfare; 78(6): pp. 723-748;  Child Welfare League of America, Inc., Washington, DC., November-December 1999;  p. 328

 Distributor:                           Christopher Baird;  National Council on Crime and Delinquency; Children's Research Center; 426 S. Yellowstone Dr., Suite 250, Madison WI 53719

 Index Terms:
child protective services;  risk assessment;  models; 
reliability;  child welfare research;  decision making;  measures;  risk factors

 Abstract:
This NCCAN-funded study examined the
reliability of three widely used child protective service risk assessment models (two consensus based, one actuarial). Trained case readers reviewed a sample of 80 cases and completed a risk assessment for each one. The risk assessment instruments were compared for interrater reliability using percent agreement and Cohen s kappa, which adjusted agreement rates for chance. Although no system approached 100 percent interrater reliability, raters employing the actuarial model made consistent estimates of risk for a high percentage of the cases they assessed, and interrater reliability for the actuarial model was much higher than that of the other systems. 30 references and 4 figures. (Author abstract modified)

 Document Number:              CD-33898

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Research Productivity in the Areas of Child Abuse and Domestic Violence.

 Author:                                 Gordon, R. A.;  Holmes, M.;  Maly, C.

 Author Affiliation:                Minnesota Univ., Duluth. Dept. of Psychology.

 Source:                                 Psychological Reports; 84(3): pp. 887-898;  Psycholgocial Reports, Missoula, MT., June 1999;  p. 564

 Distributor:                           Randall A. Gordon;  Department of Psychology; Minnesota Univ.; 336 Bohannon Hall; 10 University Dr., Duluth MN 55812-2496;  E-mail: rgordon@d.umn.edu

 Index Terms:
research needs;  child abuse research;  research reviews;  spouse abuse;  research methodology;  validity; 
reliability;  measures

 Abstract:
Research productivity in the areas of child abuse and domestic violence was reviewed for the years 1990-1996 by examining articles published in Child Abuse and Neglect, the Journal of Family Violence, and the Journal of Interpersonal +; Violence. To examine productivity across institutions, quantification of productivity was based on ordinal position of authorship as previously used. Productivity across these three journals was also summed based on the 1987 composite productivity index +; formula of Howard, et al., and the data were compared with a productivity assessment based on a search process on the PsycLIT database. Rand order correlations between the raw productivity total, the composite measure, and productivity based on +; first-authored publications in PsycLIT were all significant. The findings suggest that the composite measure represents a good estimate of productivity across the three journals and that publication in these three journals provides a good representation +; of research in the general areas of child abuse and domestic and interpersonal violence. The findings, along with implications regarding the relative utility of such information for selection of graduate programs that have a strong research focus on +; child abuse or domestic violence, are discussed. 19 references and 4 tables. (Author abstract)

 Document Number:              CD-33959

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Workaholic Children: One Method of Fulfilling the Parentification Role.

 Author:                                 Robinson, B. E.

 Author Affiliation:                North Carolina Univ., Charlotte. Coll. of Education.

 Source:                                 In: Chase, N. D. (Editor). Burdened Children: Theory, Research, and Treatment of Parentification. Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA., June 1999;  p. 638

 Internet URL: http://www.sagepub.com/

 Distributor:                           Sage Publications, Inc.;  2455 Teller Rd., Thousand Oaks CA 91320;  Tel: 805-499-9774;  Fax: 805-499-0871;  E-mail: order@sagepub.com

 Index Terms:
child behavior;  role reversal;  etiology;  personality development;  personality patterns;  parents role;  stress;  psychological theories

 Abstract:
Parentification, or the assumption of adult responsibilities by children, can lead to workaholism in children and adults. Workaholism is considered in the research literature to be one type of overly functioning child behavior. Typical characteristics of workaholic children include: more time spent on school work than recreation; greater preference for adult friends than peer relationships; stress-related health problems; adult responsibilities for household tasks; perfectionism; serious attitude; above average leadership skills; compulsive overachievement in all activities; intolerance for mistakes; and resists requesting assistance. This chapter proposes a family systems approach for understanding how family dysfunction leads to addictive behaviors, including workaholism, as well as drug addiction and co-dependency. Children who are forced by family circumstances to take on adult responsibilities turn to the security of work (household, school, church) to cope with their emotional stress. Workaholism is passed onto subsequent generations as the children of work addicted parents take over their parents' responsibilities in the home while they work. Practitioners should be aware that a child's appearance of resiliency and self-
reliance may be covering up feelings of anxiety and depression. Over-functioning behaviors can be mitigated by unconditional support from parents, teachers, and other adults, non-competitive activities, and stress management techniques. Areas for further research are suggested in the chapter. 68 references, 3 figures, and 1 table.

 Document Number:              CD-34100

 Publication Type:                 Chapter in Book

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      The Home Inventory of Dangers and Safety Precautions-2: Addressing Critical Needs for Prescriptive Assessment Devices in Child Maltreatment and Healthcare.

 Author:                                 Tymchuk, A. J.;  Lang, C. M.;  Dolyniuk, C. A.;  Berney-Ficklin, K.;  Spitz, R.

 Author Affiliation:                California Univ. School of Medicine, Los Angeles. Dept. of Psychiatry.

 Source:                                 Child Abuse and Neglect; 23(1): pp. 1-14;  Oxford (Great Britain), Elsevier Science, Ltd., January 1999

 Distributor:                           Alexander J. Tymchuk;  Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, UCLA 760 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1759

 Index Terms:
measures;  assessment;  validity;  research;  home environment;  home evaluation

 Abstract:
This paper describes the development and preliminary validation of a prescriptive home danger and safety precaution instrument containing 14 epidemiological categories to be used in the design and evaluation of family-tailored injury prevention and safety interventions. The Home Inventory of Dangers and Safety Precautions-2 (HIDSP-2) evolved from application and revision of the previous home danger and safety precaution recognition and observation instruments. As part of this process, the suitability of the HIDSP-2 for use in a broad-based trial was evaluated with 29 low income parents exhibiting individual learning needs. Inter rater
reliability and stability of scores were examined. Internal consistency was examined for total dangers and precautions and for those categories in which there were sufficient items to do so. Administrative time was reduced while continuing usefulness in the identification and remediation of dangers and implementation of precautions was demonstrated. Stability of observation was high. Alphas as a measure of internal consistency was satisfactory for total danger and precautions separately; however, scores for most individual categories were low. There was significant reduction in the number of dangers identified initially and significant improvement in the safety precautions implemented. The HIDSP-2 can assist healthcare, education, disability, and child protective service workers in the development of home safety plans for remediating home dangers and implementing precautions. While this instrument is eminently suitable for use in broad-based interventions and in epidemiological studies, further research must continue to examine the psychometric characteristics of the individual danger and precaution categories. 61 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract)

 Document Number:              CD-27504

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      A New Measure for Distress During Child Sexual Abuse Examinatons: The Genital Examination Distress Scale.

 Author:                                 Gully, K. J.;  Britton, H.;  Hansen, K.;  Goodwill, K.;  Nope, J. L.

 Author Affiliation:                Primary Children's Medical Center, Salt Lake City, UT.

 Source:                                 Child Abuse and Neglect; 23(1): pp. 61-70;  Oxford (Great Britain), Elsevier Science, Ltd., January 1999

 Distributor:                           Kevin J. Gully;  Child Protection Team Primary Children's Medical Center at Wasatch Canyons Campus Building C, 5770 S. 1500 W., Salt Lake City, UT 84123

 Index Terms:
sexual abuse;  measures;  child abuse research;  rating scales;  validity;  physical examinations;  genital injuries

 Abstract:
The primary aim of this study was to develop a simple scale to quantify indices of emotional distress during the rectal- genital (anogenital) phase of a child sexual abuse examination. A scale developed to measure reactions of children to painful procedures, in particular bone marrow aspirations, was used as a model (Elliot, Jay, & Woody, 1987). This new scale was designed to have a simplified rating format, more relevant operational definitions and possibly a different set of behavioral categories. Three hundred children being examined for possible child sexual abuse were used as a test group for the Genital Examination Scale. Intraclass correlation coefficients identified
reliable items to use. Factor analysis and Cronbach alpha were employed to understand the internal structure of the scale. Paired t-tests, Pearson correlations, and hierarchical regression were used to explore validity. A simple 7-item scale was developed along with two subscales representing agitated and verbally meditated distress. Ratings of distress were significantly greater during the anogenital phase than the general physical part of the examination. Increased distress was associated with positive physical findings. Ratings by the children that they disliked the physician looking at their bodies provided discriminant validity by correlating with increased scores for emotional distress during the anogenital segment of the examination. 20 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract)

 Document Number:              CD-27512

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      The Child Molester Empathy Measure: Description and Examination of Its Reliability and Validity.

 Author:                                 Fernandez, Y. M.;  Marshall, W. L.;  Lightbody, S.;  O'Sullivan, C.

 Author Affiliation:                Queen's Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Psychology.

 Source:                                 Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment; 11(1): pp. 17-31;  New York, NY, Plenum Publishing Corp., January 1999

 Internet URL: http://www.plenum.com

 Distributor:                           Plenum Publishing Corp.;  233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013;  Tel: (800) 221-9369;  Fax: (212) 807-1047;  E-mail: info@plenum.com

 Index Terms:
sex offenders;  child abuse research;  assessment;  measures; 
reliability

 Abstract:
The purpose of the two studies presented in this article was to develop and refine a measure of victim empathy for the assessment of child molesters. In the first study, 61 nonfamilial child molesters completed the Child Molester Empathy Measure (CMEM), a questionnaire designed for this study. The measure assessed empathy in three contexts: a child who was in a motor vehicle accident and was disfigured; a child who had been sexually molested by an unknown assailant over a period of time; and the offender's own victim(s). Results indicated that the measure was both internally
reliable and produced stable responses over time (test-retest reliability). The results also indicated a relative deficit in empathy toward the offender's own victim(s). The goal of the second study was to replicate the data obtained in the first study and compare child molesters' responses with the responses of a group of nonoffenders. Twenty-nine child molesters and 36 community males (nonoffenders) completed the questionnaire. This study also confirmed the internal reliability and test-retest reliability of the CMEM. The discriminant validity of the measure was supported by the child molesters' demonstrated relative deficiency in empathy toward an unknown offender's victim of sexual abuse. However, the child molesters displayed equal empathy toward the accident victim relative to nonoffenders. Additionally, the child molesters displayed significantly less empathy toward their own victims than toward the general sexual abuse victim. The results are discussed in terms of their theoretical and practical implications. 13 references and 2 tables. (Author abstract modified)

 Document Number:              CD-27540

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Validation of the Trauma Symptom Inventory in a Canadian Sample of University Women.

 Author:                                 Runtz, M. G.;  Roche, D. N.

 Author Affiliation:                Vitoria Univ., British Columbia (Canada). Dept. of Psychology.

 Source:                                 Child Maltreatment; 4(1): pp. 69-80;  Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., February 1999

 Distributor:                           Marsha G. Runtz;  Department of Psychology P. O. Box 3050 University of Victoria;  E-mail: runtz@uvic.ca

 Index Terms:
child abuse history;  research;  trauma;  canada

 Abstract:
This study uses as sample of 775 women from a medium-sized Canadian university to assess the
reliability and validity of the Trauma Symptom Inventory. It assesses the relationship between two forms of child abuse and scores on the inventory and also presents reliability and validity data of the inventory for this sample. Participants completed the inventory along with assessments of childhood sexual abuse and physical abuse and a number of other psychological and behavioral measures. Multivariate analyses determined that women with a history of either sexual abuse or child abuse had significantly higher scores on the inventory than did non- abused women. Similarly, indicators of greater severity of abuse were predictive of higher symptom scores. Normative data derived from this sample are provided, and evidence of the reliability and validity of the inventory for the assessment of trauma-related difficulties in these students are described. 5 tables, 8 notes, 19 references. (Author abstract modified.)

 Document Number:              CD-27553

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Child Neglect in the Family Context: Challenges and Opportunities for Management in Pediatric Settings.

 Author:                                 Drotar, D.

 Author Affiliation:                Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH. School of Medicine.

 Source:                                 Children's Health Care; 28(2): pp. 109-121;  Mahwah, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Spring 1999

 Distributor:                           Dennis Drotar;  Department of Pediatrics Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital 11100 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, OH 44106-6038

 Index Terms:
child neglect;  medical treatment;  pediatricians responsibility;  pediatricians role;  assessment;  intervention strategies;  prevention;  research needs

 Abstract:
Pediatric populations who have experienced deficient parental care are at significant risk for various psychological and health problems. Practitioners' abilities to institute effective assessments and interventions for these children and their families are limited by the difficulties of defining child neglect, lack of
reliable and valid assessment methods, and limited empirical data concerning intervention, especially prevention. Research and practice for neglected children and their families would be enhanced by developing methods to identify and describe deficient care using clear guidelines and normative standards, conceptual models to guide assessment and intervention, new models of intervention involving partnerships between hospital and community-based agencies, and advocacy for services and research. 60 references. (Author abstract)

 Document Number:              CD-27972

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      The Psychological Assessment of Abused and Traumatized Children.

 Author:                                 Kelly, F. D.

 Author Affiliation:                Franklin Medical Center, Greenfield, MA.

 Source:                                 Mahwah, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers, 1999;  276 pp.

 Internet URL: http://www.erlbaum.com

 Distributor:                           Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.;  10 Industrial Dr., Mahwah, NJ 07430-2262;  Tel: (800) 926-6579; (201) 236-9500;  E-mail: orders@erlbaum.com

 Index Terms:
sequelae;  personality assessment;  trauma;  clinical intervention;  diagnostic tests;  psychological tests

 Abstract:
This book provides a clinical paradigm for the personality assessment of abused or traumatized children via projective instruments--the TAT and Rorschach--and shows how various projective measures and indices can be utilized as barometers of changes in self, object, and ego functioning following therapeutic interventions and other corrective experiences. By integrating the tenets of trauma theory with those of psychoanalytic theory, the author draws on both theory and clinical experience to develop a comprehensive psychological composite of the child who has been maltreated. The first part of the text gives an overview of theoretical models relevant to the assessment and diagnosis of the maltreated child. The second part of the text reviews relevant research. The Mutuality of Autonomy scale (MOA) and the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale (SCORS) are introduced as examples of
reliable and valid instruments readily employed to assess the impact of abuse or trauma on a child's object relations functioning. The final part of the text includes a variety of clinical illustrations including 7 cases of children subjected to varying degrees of abuse and trauma and 2 cases of adult women who were abused as children. The book is composed of 9 chapters and the author states that his intent is to offer clinicians new theoretical and clinical perspectives and lead them to a greater appreciation of the role that projective assessment, particularly object relations measures, can play in the understanding of abused and traumatized latency age children and the treatment planning for them. Numerous tables and references.

 Document Number:              CD-28136

 Publication Type:                 Book

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      A Child Interviewer's Guidebook.

 Author:                                 Bourg, W.;  Broderick, R.;  Flagor, R.;  Kelly, D. M. et al.

 Author Affiliation:                C.A.R.E.S. Northwest Program, OR.

 Source:                                 Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., February 1999;  267 pp.

 Internet URL: http://www.sagepub.com/

 Distributor:                           Sage Publications, Inc.;  2455 Teller Rd., Thousand Oaks, CA 91320;  Tel: (805) 499-0721;  Fax: (805) 499-0871;  E-mail: order@sagepub.com

 Index Terms:
interviews;  evaluation;  oregon;  documentation;  sexual abuse;  guidelines

 Abstract:
This guidebook was originally developed in Oregon at the request of the Health Advisory Council on Child Abuse. The Health Advisory Council requested that the guidelines be written to provide interviewers with a clear, accessible summary of accumulated knowledge in the field of child interviewing. The guidebook promotes consistency in the quality of care provided to children when they are evaluated for possible abuse. The guidelines are part of a training package designed to provide child abuse evaluators with essential educational resources and are intended for use among professionals working in child abuse assessment centers. The recommendations are tailored to child evaluations that concentrate on eliciting
reliable statements about possible abuse and maximizing the amount of information gained from the child, given the chid's age, circumstances, and readiness to talk. Although the guidelines focus on child sexual abuse, the principles are applicable to conversing and interviewing children about physical abuse as well as exposure to any risk factor, including domestic violence, parental drug and alcohol abuse, neglect, and witnessing a crime. The guidebook is divided into 19 chapters with 3 sections: getting ready for the child interview, basic interviewing skills, and specialty issues. Appendices contain the following information: core literature for child interviewers; C.A.R.E.S. (Child Abuse Response and Evaluation Services) Northwest Program social history questionnaire; sources for dolls and drawings; and C.A.R.E.S. protective order. Numerous references.

 Document Number:              CD-28169

 Publication Type:                 Book

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Decision Making in Child Protective Services.

 Author:                                 Grayson, J. (Editor).;  McNulty, C. (Editor).

 Author Affiliation:                James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA. Dept. of Psychology.

 Sponsor:                               Virginia State Dept. of Social Services, Richmond. Child Protective Services Unit.

 Source:                                 Virginia Child Protection Newsletter; 55: pp. 1-7, 11-13;  James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA. Dept. of Psychology, Spring 1999

 Internet URL: http://cep.jmu.edu/graysojh/vcpn_home.htm

 Distributor:                           Joann Grayson;  James Madison Univ. Department of Psychology MSC 7401 800 S. Main St., Harrisonburg, VA 22807;  Tel: (540) 568-6482;  E-mail: graysojh@jmu.edu

 Index Terms:
decision making;  child protective services;  child abuse reporting;  child welfare;  risk assessment;  safety assessment

 Abstract:
This newsletter article reviews decision making in child protective services. The process of decision making in the child welfare system is of great interest because inappropriate decisions can be costly. Ignoring the need for child protection can result in death or permanent injury for a child. However, separating a child from his or her family unnecessarily can be traumatic. Decision making is evaluated by consistency (
reliability) and accuracy (validity). Both are necessary in case decision making. The article reviews both these aspects in decision making. One of the more important decision making points occurs at the time that a report has been made. Several factors influence whether a report of maltreatment is investigated. These include: the amount of information available, the presence of an observable injury, the number of prior reports, the child's age, and the source of the referral. Risk assessment and determining the safety of the home should occur continuously in the course of the a case. The article discusses factors to consider in evaluating safety. Other child protective service decisions include the decision to remove a child from the home, decisions related to substantiation, opening cases for service, identifying family strengths and needs, developing a service plan, assessing change, and closing the case. Some of the changes implemented by States since the beginning of structured risk assessment and decision making are highlighted. Safety assessment instruments and models are described. The challenges of implementing risk assessment models are discussed. Many child protective services workers do not use risk assessment as a guide for making decisions; instead, they see the risk assessment as another form to complete. The article concludes that structured risk assessment systems are promising tools to assist child protective services workers in making difficult decisions. The potential benefits include more consistent decisions and better allocation of resources. Numerous references.

 Document Number:              CD-28288

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      The CIVITAS-Children's Crisis Care Center Model: A Proactive, Multidimensional Child and Family Assessment Process.

 Author:                                 Perry, B. D.;  Conrad, D. J.;  Dobson, C.;  Schick, S.;  Runyan, D.

 Author Affiliation:                Baylor Coll. of Medicine, Houston, TX. Dept. of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences.

 Source:                                 Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX. CIVITAS Child Trauma Programs, 1999;  23 pp.

 Internet URL: http://www.bcm.tmc.edu

 Distributor:                           Baylor Coll. of Medicine;  CIVITAS Child Trauma Programs One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030;  Tel: (713) 798-4951

 Index Terms:
assessment;  program models;  children at risk;  child protective services;  early intervention programs;  interdisciplinary approach;  interagency collaboration;  systems reform

 Abstract:
This paper describes the development of the Children's Crisis Care Center (CCCC), an early assessment program to inform placement and service plans, co-sponsored by the Harris County (Texas) Child Protective Service, the Texas Department of Protective and Regulatory Services, and the Child Trauma Programs of Baylor College of Medicine in Houston. The multidisciplinary assessment process is a proactive model that evaluates all levels of functioning of children younger than six years old. Valid and
reliable quantitative measures are compiled into a standardized report which can by disseminated quickly for decision-making. A follow-up assessment is also conducted to determine the appropriateness of the placement and services provided. The results are used to continuously improve programming. Six domains are specifically addressed: physical- medical; family-social; life history and traumatic life events; emotional-behavioral; cognitive-academic; and developmental. The child's strengths and weaknesses are compiled into a report that includes the clinician's recommendations for service. CCCC staff analyzes the child's report in light of a separate assessment of the family structure and history and makes decisions about services. A review of the pilot project indicated that the process helped to improve the coordination and consistency of services to children and expedite placement. Implications for program expansion and replication are discussed. 36 references, 2 figures, and 5 tables.

 Document Number:              CD-28401

 Publication Type:                 Technical Report

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Childhood Sexual Abuse: An Evidence Based Perspective.

 Author:                                 Fergusson, D. M.;  Mullen, P. E.

 Author Affiliation:                Christchurch School of Medicine (New Zealand).

 Source:                                 Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., February 1999;  145 pp.

 Internet URL: http://www.sagepub.com/

 Distributor:                           Sage Publications, Inc.;  2455 Teller Rd., Thousand Oaks, CA 91320;  Tel: (805) 499-0721;  Fax: (805) 499-0871;  E-mail: order@sagepub.com

 Index Terms:
sexual abuse;  victims;  sequelae;  prevalence;  historical perspective;  perpetrators;  characteristics of abused;  child abuse history

 Abstract:
This book examines the scope, nature, and effects of child sexual abuse. Chapter 1 provides a historical perspective on child sexual abuse. Included is a discussion on the epidemiological research into child sexual abuse. Chapter 2 discusses the prevalence of sexual abuse during childhood. Issues include validity,
reliability, and measurement. Chapter 3 examines victims and perpetrators. Characteristics of abused children and of molesters are discussed. Chapter 4 discusses the effects of childhood sexual abuse on children and chapter 5 examines the effects on adults. Chapter 6 provides conclusions, current controversies, and future directions. Future directions include the need to clarify the definition and meaning of child sexual abuse and the need for a clearer understanding of the meaning and validity of recalled childhood experiences. Numerous references and 8 tables.

 Document Number:              CD-28473

 Publication Type:                 Book

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Psychiatric Hospital Service Utilization of Children and Adolescents in State Custody.

 Author:                                 Leon, S. C.;  Uziel-Miller, N. D.;  Lyons, J. S,.;  Tracy, P.

 Author Affiliation:                Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL. Dept. of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences.

 Source:                                 Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; 38(3): pp. 305-310;  American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Washington, DC, March 1999

 Distributor:                           Scott C. Leon;  Northwestern Univ. Medical School Ward Building 9-217 303 E. Chicago Ave., Chicago, IL 60611;  E-mail: sleon@nwu.edu

 Index Terms:
psychiatric hospitals;  psychiatric services;  hospitalization;  illinois

 Abstract:
This article examines the factors related to psychiatric hospitalization decision and length of stay of wards of the Illinois Department of Child and Family Services. A prospective design was implemented using Childhood Severity of Psychiatric Illness (CSPI), a
reliable, quantitative measure of psychiatric severity and its mediating factors. The CSPI was completed by hospital screeners upon conclusion of their crisis interviews. In addition to completing the CSPI, workers reported on demographic information, DSM-IV diagnoses, prescreening living arrangements, and length of hospital stay. CSPI variables could effectively predict decision to admit versus deflect. The overall accuracy of this statistically significant prediction model was 77.9 percent, which was replicated on a new sample. Factors associated with decision to hospitalize are clinical in nature; ratings of suicidality, dangerousness, and impulsivity contributed the most to the model. Predicting length of stay was only moderately successful. Despite achieving significance, the model accounted for just 15.1 percent of length of stay variance using a multiple regression. Factors associated with length of stay were largely non-clinical in nature; living arrangement stability, region of the hospitalization, and age. These results can be used to assess how decisions regarding level and duration of care are currently being made as a point of departure for quality improvement efforts. 20 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract modified)

 Document Number:              CD-28478

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Childhood Victimization and the Development of Personality Disorders: Unanswered Questions Remain.

 Author:                                 Widom, C. S.

 Author Affiliation:                New York State Univ., Albany. School of Criminal Justice.

 Source:                                 Archives of General Psychiatry; 56(7): pp. 607-608;  Chicago, IL, American Medical Association, July 1999

 Internet URL: http://www.ama-assn.org

 Distributor:                           American Medical Association;  250 S. Wacker Dr., Suite 200, Chicago, IL 60606;  Tel: (800) 621-8335;  Fax: (312) 464-5600;  E-mail: info@ama-assn.org

 Index Terms:
victimization;  personality disorders;  neglected children;  longitudinal studies;  outcomes;  sexual abuse;  physical abuse;  adults abused as children

 Abstract:
This article comments on a longitudinal study demonstrating that abused and neglected children are more likely than nonvictims to develop personality disorders in young adulthood. This article discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the longitudinal study and notes that it raises important questions that await answers. The article cites one of the study's strengths as examining the neglected group separately from the other forms of childhood abuse. Neglected children were found to be at increased risk for cluster B disorders (antisocial, borderline, and narcissistic personality disorders), as well as cluster A (paranoid and schizotypal personality disorders), cluster C (avoidant and dependent personality disorders), and passive-aggressive personality disorders, after controlling for offspring age, parental education, and parental psychopathology. The longitudinal study found an increase in risk for borderline personality disorders associated with sexual abuse. This finding brings up a question about the role of gender and its potential effect on the development of personality disorders. This article notes that one of the weaker aspects of the study is its
reliance on retrospective assessments of earlier child maltreatment. The article also discusses the study finding of little overlap between documented and self-reported cases of childhood maltreatment. Finally, this article questions to what extent do the cases in the study represent pure types of physical and sexual abuse and neglect or to what extent is their overlap. Because there is considerable discussion in the childhood maltreatment literature about the possibility of differential outcomes associated with single versus multiple forms of childhood victimization, it might be worthwhile considering additional analyses to explore this issue further. This article concludes that the longitudinal study demonstrates the importance of these early childhood victimization experiences for the development of personality disorders, although many unanswered questions remain. 13 references.

 Document Number:              CD-28557

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Recurrence of Maltreatment: An Application of the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS).

 Author:                                 Fluke, J. D.;  Yuan, Y. Y. T.;  Edwards, M.

 Author Affiliation:                American Humane Association, Englewood, CO. Children's Div.

 Source:                                 Child Abuse and Neglect; 23(7): pp. 633-650;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science Ltd., July 1999

 Internet URL: http://www.americanhumane.org

 Distributor:                           John D. Fluke;  American Humane Association Children's Div. 63 Inverness Dr., E., Englewood, CO 80112-5117;  Tel: (303) 792-9900;  Fax: (303) 792-5333;  E-mail: cpmem@americanhumane.org

 Index Terms:
outcomes;  risk assessment;  ncands;  databases;  data analysis;  reabuse;  children at risk

 Abstract:
This research describes and compares patterns of maltreatment recurrence across multiple States using large samples to confirm the patterns of recurrence found in the literature, and to explore unreported patterns of recurrence. Recurrence is defined as any subsequent report of maltreatment; any subsequent maltreatment of the same child, of another child within the family, or by the same perpetrator; or even recurrence of maltreatment without a prior report; and recurrence may be a combination of these definitions. A recurrence data set for calendar years 1994 and 1995 was constructed from the multi-State case level data from the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System. These data are available for 10 States and included a range from 2,419 to 99,288 substantiated or indicated report-child pairs per State. A common set of data constructs lent consistency to data construction and analysis, while preserving differences in policy. Event history analysis (survival) techniques were used. Single site studies were confirmed across the 10 States. These include the patterns where neglect is most likely to recur, followed by physical abuse and then sexual abuse. Similarly, younger children are more likely to recur. A finding of the analysis is that the likelihood of recurrence increases in a systematic and consistent fashion based upon the sequential ordering of recurrent maltreatment events. The likelihood of recurrence is associated with the provision of post-investigative services. Highly consistent patterns of recurrence were observed across States. Children experiencing multiple recurrence compared to no recurrence or one recurrence may represent a special at-risk population requiring additional research. Adequate baselines and an understanding of recurrence is needed when considering recurrence as an outcome indicator or in developing risk assessment tools. Important recurrence patterns may be difficult to detect
reliably with relatively small samples. 4 tables, 6 figures, and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 Document Number:              CD-28622

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Predicting Child Maltreatment Recurrences During Treatment.

 Author:                                 DePanfilis, D.;  Zuravin, S. J.

 Author Affiliation:                Maryland Univ., Baltimore. School of Social Work.

 Sponsor:                               National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (DHHS), Washington, DC.

 Grant Number:                     90CA1497

 Source:                                 Child Abuse and Neglect; 23(8): pp. 729-743;  New York, NY, Elsevier Ltd., August 1999

 Distributor:                           Diane DePanfilis;  Maryland Univ. School of Social Work 525 W. Redwood St., Baltimore, MD 21201

 Index Terms:
predictor variables;  recidivism;  child abuse research;  therapeutic intervention;  intervention strategies;  child protective services;  family characteristics;  characteristics of abused

 Abstract:
This NCCAN-funded study investigated the correlates of recurrence during child protective service (CPS) intervention for families who were provided continuing intervention following a confirmed index report of physical abuse or neglect. The nonconcurrent prospective study selected 446 subject families who met study eligibility requirements from 1,181 families randomly selected from the 2,902 families who had experienced a substantiated report of child abuse or neglect during the sampling year. Data were collected and coded from archival sources for 5 years following the index report. Each record was coded by two research analysts to increase inter-rater
reliability. Data were analyzed with survival analysis methods: Kaplan Meier and the Cox Proportional Regression Model. Predictors of recurrence were child vulnerability, family stress, partner abuse, social support deficits, and an interaction between family stress and social support deficits. Implications of this and earlier research suggest that increasing social supports may help families cope with life events that increase stress and the risk of continued child maltreatment; that collaborations between CPS and domestic violence agencies are needed; and that screening maltreated children for mental health problems and other disabilities and assuring that children with these needs and their families get effective treatment may reduce the likelihood of continued maltreatment. 43 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract)

 Document Number:              CD-28655

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Genital Findings in Prepubertal Girls Evaluated for Sexual Abuse: A Different Perspective on Hymenal Measurements.

 Author:                                 Pugno, P. A.

 Author Affiliation:                Methodist Hospital of Sacramento, CA. Family Practice Residency Program.

 Source:                                 Archives of Family Medicine; 8: pp. 403-406;  American Medical Association, Chicago, IL., September-October 1999

 Internet URL: http://www.ama-assn.org/public/journals/fami/famihome.htm

 Distributor:                           American Medical Association;  515 N. State St., Chicago, IL 60610;  Tel: (800) 262-2350; (312) 464-5000;  Fax: (312) 464-5831

 Index Terms:
sexual abuse;  physical examinations;  symptoms;  diagnoses;  genital injuries;  medical evidence; 
reliability;  sequelae

 Abstract:
Transhymenal measurements performed on 1,058 prepubertal girls aged 6 months to 10 years were compared to evaluate the usefulness of the measurement for differentiating between girls with and without other definitive signs of sexual abuse. Measurements were referenced against prior publications of criterion standards. Girls with no definitive signs of genital trauma exhibited a mean transhymenal diameter of 2.3 mm and in general showed an increase of approximately 1 mm per year of age. Girls with definitive signs of genital trauma exhibited a mean transhymenal diameter of 9.0 mm and no significant variance with age. Correcting for age differences, the transhymenal diameter was highly significant as a differentiating factor. When compared against the criterion standard, the transhymenal measurement is 99 percent specific and 79 percent sensitive as a screening tool. Although not independently diagnostic of sexual molestation, the transhymenal diameter, when compared against the criterion standard for age, is a useful screening parameter for primary care physicians evaluating children for potential sexual abuse. 28 references, 3 figures, and 1 table. (Author abstract)

 Document Number:              CD-32485

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Response to Clare Dalton's When Paradigms Collide: Protecting Battered Parents and Their Children in the Family Court System.

 Author:                                 Johnston, J. R.

 Author Affiliation:                San Jose State Univ., CA. Administration of Justice Dept.

 Source:                                 Family and Conciliation Courts Review; 37(4): pp. 422-428;  Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA., October 1999

 Internet URL: http://www.sagepub.com/

 Distributor:                           Sage Publications, Inc.;  2455 Teller Rd., Thousand Oaks, CA 91320;  Tel: (805) 499-9774;  Fax: (805) 499-0871;  E-mail: order@sagepub.com

 Index Terms:
family courts;  battered women;  custody disputes;  family characteristics;  research methodology;  child witnesses of family violence;  sequelae; 
reliability

 Abstract:
The methodology and findings of two research studies cited in Clare Dalton's article When Paradigms Collide published in a previous issue of the journal are defended in this article. The studies have been misunderstood by Dalton, as well as other researchers. Both studies examined the effects of domestic violence on children and the outcomes of counseling for parents. The first interviewed 80 families from 1982 to 1984 and the second interviewed 60 families from 1989 to 1991. Contrary to Dalton's assertion that couples were categorized into one of several predetermined types which were not assessed for accuracy, the typology was continually adjusted to reflect the data being collected. Dalton's second concern was that the researchers had no guidelines for finding the truth when parents gave conflicting reports of incidents. In fact, statistical analyses of discrepancies were performed and parents' reports were compared for comprehensiveness, specificity, plausibility, consistency, attitudes, and evidence. Dalton also claims that research about forms of domestic violence focus on conflict, rather than abuse. However, the two are linked especially in cases of male controlling violence. Limitations of typologies are outlined. 11 references.

 Document Number:              CD-32493

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Psychological Consultation in Parental Rights Cases.

 Author:                                 Dyer, F. J.

 Source:                                 Guilford Press, New York, NY., July 1999;  320 pp.

 Internet URL: http://www.guilford.com

 Distributor:                           Guilford Press;  72 Spring St., New York, NY 10012;  Tel: (800) 365-7006; (212) 431-9800;  Fax: (212) 966-6708;  E-mail: info@guilford.com

 Index Terms:
parental rights;  termination of parental rights;  expert witnesses;  psychologists;  psychologists role;  legal processes;  guidelines;  ethics

 Abstract:
Guidelines for providing scientifically
reliable psychological testimony in parental rights cases are provided in this text. The discussion reviews the role of the psychologist in termination proceedings and explores relevant legal and ethical issues. Chapters summarize statutory and case laws regarding the testimony of psychologists, assessment procedures, special situations, theories, and empirical research. Standards for objective and projective tests in court, voir dire, testimony preparation, and direct and cross-examination are highlighted. The final chapter makes recommendations for responding to typical issues addressed during cross-examination. Sample cases are analyzed in the appendix. Numerous references and 1 figure.

 Document Number:              CD-32502

 Publication Type:                 Book

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Promoting Safe Educational and Community Environments.

 Author:                                 Johnson, D. W.;  Johnson, R. T.

 Author Affiliation:                Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Dept. of Educational Psychology.

 Source:                                 In: Reynolds, A. J.; Walberg, H. J.; and Weissberg, R. P. (Editors). Promoting Positive Outcomes. //Issues in Children's and Families' Lives//. Number 2. Child Welfare League of America, Inc., Washington, DC., 1999;  pp.161-196

 Internet URL: http://www.cwla.org

 Distributor:                           CWLA c/o PMDS;  P. O. Box 2019, Annapolis Junction, MD 20701-2019;  Tel: (800) 407-6273;  Fax: (301) 206-9789;  E-mail: cwla@pmds.com

 Index Terms:
safety;  family environment;  community violence;  community characteristics;  school violence;  schools;  child development;  prevention programs

 Abstract:
Cooperative community, constructive conflict resolution, and civic values are vital to the health and positive development of children. The school is a natural environment in which to provide these influences which will prevent criminal and deviant behavior and counteract the effects of abuse and negative role models in the community and the family. The Three Cs Program has been used widely all over the world with all types of students in a variety of situations. It emphasizes the positive development of youth using concepts such as the power of cooperation, social interdependence, cooperative learning, problem solving negotiations, peer mediation, continuous training, and acceptance of the common good. Students learn about these issues through a carefully constructed curriculum that progresses through each grade. Communities and schools considering replication of the program are advised to cooperatively structure learning projects; reduce
reliance on competitive activities; conduct regular class meetings to solicit student input; encourage positive, open relationships between students; refer to conflict resolution and civic value lessons when teaching academic subjects; and promote cooperation between classes and schools, and schools and parents. 20 references, 1 figure, and 2 tables.

 Document Number:              CD-32523

 Publication Type:                 Chapter in Book

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      The Comprehensive Childhood Maltreatment Inventory: Early Development and Reliability Analyses.

 Author:                                 Riddle, K. P.;  Aponte, J. F.

 Author Affiliation:                Louisville Univ., KY. Psychology Dept.

 Source:                                 Child Abuse and Neglect; 23(11): pp. 1103-1115;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., November 1999

 Distributor:                           Kathryn P. Riddle;  Louisville Univ. Psychology Dept., Louisville, KY 40292;  E-mail: Kpriddle22@aol.com

 Index Terms:
adults abused as children;  measures;  assessment; 
reliability;  validity;  sequelae;  predictor variables;  parental behavior

 Abstract:
The goal of this study was to develop a
reliable measure of childhood maltreatment that could be used to evaluate retrospective memories among adults across a broad range of potentially abusive caregiver behaviors. These behaviors were organized into 31 items that query age at onset, frequency across 4 developmental periods, relationships of the perpetrator(s), and respondents' perception of the experience. Additional factors directly relevant to each of the individual 4 categories of childhood maltreatment were also queried. Preliminary data collected from 95 college students find the measure to have excellent test-retest reliability, and 2 of 4 subscales to possess adequate internal consistency. Reasons for low internal consistency for the Physical Maltreatment and Physical Neglect categories and the relative importance of test- retest reliability as compared to internal consistency in a questionnaire of this type are discussed. 48 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract)

 Document Number:              CD-32619

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      A Description of the California Child Welfare Services Structured Decision-Making Project.

 Author:                                 Johnson, W.;  Scott, R.

 Author Affiliation:                California State Dept. of Social Services, Sacramento.

 Source:                                 In: Twelfth National Roundtable on Child Protective Services Risk Assessment: Summary of Proceedings, San Francisco, CA, July 8-10, 1998. American Humane Association, Englewood, CO. Children's Div., 1999;  pp. 37-42

 Internet URL: http://www.americanhumane.org

 Distributor:                           American Humane Association;  Children's Div. Dept. Number 0828, Denver, CO 80263-0828;  Tel: (303) 792-9900;  Fax: (303) 792-5333;  E-mail: children@americanhumane.org

 Index Terms:
california;  decision making;  risk assessment;  child welfare;  pilot programs;  outcomes

 Abstract:
This paper describes the California Child Welfare Services Structured Decision-Making (SDM) pilot program. It is designed to aid child welfare professionals in their efforts to protect children. SDM helps families receive services appropriate for their levels of risk and identifies needs by linking risk and needs assessments to service plans and actions taken in cases. Based on research, jurisdictions that use SDM can be expected to have better outcomes for children than those that do not in a number of areas. The pilot program was designed to bring added structure to decision making, increase
reliance on research in the assessment of risk of child maltreatment, and increase the amount of case information line staff and managers have available. The paper discusses the research-based risk assessment and reassessment, other tools for structured decision making, discretionary and policy overrides in structured decision making, workload analysis and accounting system, added management reporting capability and process evaluation, project organization, and project staffing. The results of the California Risk Assessment Validation Study indicate that risk categories derived through the study correlate with case outcomes. 10 figures.

 Document Number:              CD-32684

 Publication Type:                 Chapter in Book

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Male Victims of Sexual Abuse: An Analysis of Substantiation of Child Protective Services Reports.

 Author:                                 Dersch, C. A.;  Munsch, J.

 Author Affiliation:                Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Dept. of Human Development and Family Studies.

 Sponsor:                               National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (DHHS), Washington, DC.

 Grant Number:                     90CA1370

 Source:                                 Journal of Child Sexual Abuse; 8(1): pp. 27-48;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 1999

 Internet URL: http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 Distributor:                           Haworth Press, Inc.;  10 Alice St., Binghamton, NY 13904-1580;  Tel: (800) 342-9678;  Fax: (800) 895-0582;  E-mail: getinfo@haworthpressinc.com

 Index Terms:
male victims;  child protective services;  mandatory reporting;  sexual abuse;  female victims;  characteristics of abused

 Abstract:
This research seeks to understand why reports involving female victims of sexual abuse are substantiated at a significantly higher rate than reports involving male victims. Both descriptive analyses of the child, case, and investigatory process variables in the child protective services reports and a discriminant function analysis (done separately for male and female victims) to identify which variables distinguish between substantiated and unsubstantiated reports find relatively few differences. Female victims are older and these reports are more likely to come from an anonymous reporter. Given the greater
reliability of reports from mandated reporters and the difficulty of investigating a report from an anonymous source, the authors suggest that educating mandated reporters about the signs of sexual abuse in male children may result in more reports from mandated reporters and consequently in a higher substantiation rate. Specific targets for this education effort would be social services personnel and school staff, both of whom report alleged abuse involving females far more often than abuse involving males. 6 tables and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 Document Number:              CD-32704

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Findings From the Parent-Child Project and Implications for Early Intervention.

 Author:                                 Egeland, B.;  Erickson, M. F.

 Author Affiliation:                Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis.

 Source:                                 Zero to Three; 20(2): pp. 3-10;  Zero to Three: National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families, Washington, DC., October-November 1999

 Internet URL: http://www.zerotothree.org

 Distributor:                           Zero to Three: National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families;  734 15th St. NW, 10th Floor, Washington, DC 20005;  Tel: (800) 899-4301; (202) 638-1144

 Index Terms:
longitudinal studies;  attachment;  parent child relationships;  parenting skills;  sequelae;  child development;  followup studies;  child abuse research

 Abstract:
The Parent-Child Interaction Project followed a sample of women pregnant with their first child who were identified as high risk. Parent-child relationships and child development were assessed through observation, interviews, and standardized instruments for 25 years. The most recent analysis examined the romantic relationships of the children in the original sample, their own parenting styles, and overall functioning at 23 years. The study focused on attachment and the factors that contribute to resilience or behavior problems. Findings revealed that responsive care and secure attachment relationships contributed to positive outcomes, such as high self esteem, engaging peer relationships, empathy, self-
reliance, and more successful functioning during middle childhood. Subjects with secure attachments in infancy also were able to resolve conflict more positively with romantic partners during adulthood. Children with anxious attachment histories were found to develop antisocial behaviors, psychopathology in adolescence, and other emotional problems. The quality of attachment was related to a variety of factors, including personal factors (maternal characteristics), economic stress, home environment, family conflict, and level of social support. However, history of childhood abuse did not necessarily result in continued child maltreatment. Mothers who were able to overcome the cycle of child abuse had emotional support, a stable, satisfying relationship with a husband or boyfriend, and participation in long-term psychotherapy. Implications of these findings for practice are discussed. 33 references.

 Document Number:              CD-32745

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      State v. Michaels: A New Jersey Supreme Court Ruling With National Implications.

 Author:                                 Ross, K. L.

 Source:                                 Michigan Bar Journal; 78: pp. 32-35;  Michigan State Bar, Lansing., January 1999

 Distributor:                           Michigan State Bar;  Michael Franck Bldg. 306 Townsend St., Lansing, MI 48933-2083

 Index Terms:
state case law;  new jersey;  child witnesses;  testimony;  sexual abuse;  competency;  right to confrontation;  credibility

 Abstract:
This article analyzes the implications of the New Jersey Supreme Court decision in State v. Michaels, which held that a hearing should be held to determine the
reliability of a child's testimony before trial. The taint hearing actually assesses the quality of the pretrial interview process to ensure that the questioning procedures were not suggestive. Focus is placed on the procedures used during the investigation, not the credibility of the child. The Court suggested that trial judges hold a taint hearing in any of the following situations: the lack of a tape of the initial interview; limited control over influence by family members; limited degree of spontaneous recollection; interviewer bias; leading questions; repeated questioning and interviews; vilification of the accused; bribes and threats; and other factors that would influence the child. Findings of the taint hearing will ensure that information obtained from the child's interview can be presented as evidence without violating the defendant's constitutional right to confrontation.

 Document Number:              CD-32940

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Impact of Welfare Reform on Child Welfare in Cuyahoga County, Ohio.

 Author:                                 Wells, K.;  Sloan, J.;  Guo, S.

 Author Affiliation:                Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH. Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences.

 Source:                                 Presented at: The National Association for Welfare Research and Statistics 39th Annual Workshop, Cleveland, OH., August 8-11, 1999;  20 pp.

 Distributor:                           Kathleen Wells;  Case Western Reserve Univ. Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences 10900 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, OH 44106-7164;  E-mail: kmw3@po.cwru.edu

 Index Terms:
welfare reform;  child welfare;  ohio;  program evaluation;  research methodology;  data collection;  data analysis;  child welfare research

 Abstract:
This paper describes the major components and methodology of a study designed to assess the impact of welfare reform on the welfare of poor children and their families in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. The study has three parts: an examination of changes in child welfare caseloads; an evaluation of the effect of neighborhood, family, and child characteristics on utilization of child welfare services; and a review of the policy context of welfare reform. Data will be analyzed with a time series design, as well as an entry-cohort design. The paper also identifies considerations in the use of administrative data for research, such as gaining access to the information; relationships among data sources, data collection forms, and electronic data records; determining the completeness and
reliability of data; reorganizing data for analysis; and integrating data from different agencies. The third part of the paper reviews data analytic strategies for entry-cohort studies, including the proportional-hazards model, pooling, and Cox regression. 11 references.

 Document Number:              CD-33000

 Publication Type:                 Proceedings Paper

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Homelessness: Programs and the People They Serve. Findings of the National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients.

 Author:                                 Burt, M.R.;  Aron, L. Y.;  Douglas, T.;  Valente, J. et al.

 Author Affiliation:                Urban Institute, Washington, DC.

 Source:                                 Interagency Council on the Homeless (HUD), Washington, DC., December 1999;  602 pp.

 Internet URL: http://www.huduser.com

 Distributor:                           HUD User;  P.O. Box 6091, Rockville, MD 20849;  Tel: (800) 245-2691;  Fax: (301) 519-5767;  E-mail: huduser@aspensys.com

 Index Terms:
national surveys;  direct service providers;  homelessness;  homeless children;  homeless shelters;  individual characteristics;  interagency planning;  interagency collaboration

 Abstract:
This report describes the 1996 National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients (NSHAPC). The survey provides data about the providers of homeless assistance and the characteristics of homeless persons who use services. NSHAPC is based on a statistical sample of 76 metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas, including small cities and rural areas. Chronic poverty, coupled with physical and other disabilities, have combined with rapid changes in society, the workplace, and local housing markets to make many people vulnerable to the effects of homelessness. Despite significant increases in funding, program administrators had to manage their programs without current and
reliable data on the characteristics of the people they were serving and the emerging networks of services and service providers. In 1991 Federal agencies began planning for a new national survey to fill this gap. The NSHAPC was designed and funded by 12 federal agencies in a collaborative venture under the auspices of the Interagency Council on the Homeless, a working group of the White House Domestic Policy Council. The survey provides up-to-date information about the providers of assistance to homeless people, the characteristics of those who use services that focus on homeless people, and how this population has changed in metropolitan areas since the last survey in 1987. The analyses of the provider data examine factors such as geographic level, program type, and the types and levels of services delivered. The data received from service users identifies patterns based on a number of characteristics including age, race/ethnicity, sex, family status, history of homelessness, employment, education, veteran status, and the use of services and benefits. The report notes that the survey information is critical to discussions about effective public policy responses needed to break the cycle of homelessness. The report contains 17 chapters, 5 appendices, and numerous tables and figures.

 Document Number:              CD-33061

 Publication Type:                 Technical Report

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Homelessness: Programs and the People They Serve. Findings of the National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients. Summary.

 Author:                                 Burt, M. R.;  Aron, L. Y.;  Douglas, T.;  Valente, J. et al.

 Author Affiliation:                Urban Institute, Washington, DC.

 Source:                                 Interagency Council on the Homeless (HUD), Washington, DC., December 1999;  110 pp.

 Internet URL: http://www.huduser.org

 Distributor:                           HUD User;  P.O. Box 6091, Rockville, MD 20849;  Tel: (800) 245-2691;  Fax: (301) 519-5767;  E-mail: huduser@aspensys.com

 Index Terms:
national surveys;  direct service providers;  homelessness;  homeless children;  homeless shelters;  individual characteristics;  interagency planning;  interagency collaboration

 Abstract:
This summary report describes the 1996 National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients (NSHAPC). The survey provides data about the providers of homeless assistance and the characteristics of homeless persons who use services. NSHAPC is based on a statistical sample of 76 metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas, including small cities and rural areas. Chronic poverty, coupled with physical and other disabilities, have combined with rapid changes in society, the workplace, and local housing markets to make many people vulnerable to the effects of homelessness. Despite significant increases in funding, program administrators had to manage their programs without current and
reliable data on the characteristics of the people they were serving and the emerging networks of services and service providers. In 1991 Federal agencies began planning for a new national survey to fill this gap. The NSHAPC was designed and funded by 12 federal agencies in a collaborative venture under the auspices of the Interagency Council on the Homeless, a working group of the White House Domestic Policy Council. The survey provides up-to-date information about the providers of assistance to homeless people, the characteristics of those who use services that focus on homeless people, and how this population has changed in metropolitan areas since the last survey in 1987. The analyses of the provider data examine factors such as geographic level, program type, and the types and levels of services delivered. The data received from service users identifies patterns based on a number of characteristics including age, race/ethnicity, sex, family status, history of homelessness, employment, education, veteran status, and the use of services and benefits. The report notes that the survey information is critical to discussions about effective public policy responses needed to break the cycle of homelessness. The report contains 5 chapters, 2 appendices on NSHAPC's primary sampling areas and program definitions, and numerous tables and figures.

 Document Number:              CD-33083

 Publication Type:                 Technical Report

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Instrument Design and Selection: A Resource Guide for Children's Trust Fund's Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Programs.

 Author:                                 Lanzi, R.;  Terry, K.;  Guest, K.;  Cotton, J.;  Ramey, C.

 Author Affiliation:                Alabama Univ., Birmingham. Civitan International Research Center.

 Source:                                 Alabama Univ., Birmingham. Civitan International Research Center., 1999;  164 pp.

 Internet URL: http://www.circ.uab.edu

 Distributor:                           Robin Lanzi;  Alabama Univ. Civitan International Research Center 137 1530 3rd Ave. S., Birmingham, AL 35294-0021;  Tel: (205) 934-8900;  Fax: (205) 975-6330;  E-mail: rlanzi@civitan.circ.uab.edu

 Index Terms:
childrens trust funds;  prevention programs;  measures;  psychological tests;  psychometrics;  standards;  tests;  rating scales

 Abstract:
This manual provides guidelines for the selection of psychological tests for use by Children's Trust Fund Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention programs. The guide outlines standards developed by the American Educational Research Association, the American Psychological Association, and the National Council on Measurement in Education for evaluating test coverage and use,
reliability, predictive validity, content validity, test administration, test reporting, and test and item bias. Instructions for using the Mental Measurements Yearbook, Tests in Print, the ERIC database, ERIC's Test Locator, and the online databases of the Child Abuse and Neglect Clearinghouse are provided and examples of searches from these resources are included. The manual also presents a table and descriptions of published child abuse and neglect prevention program measures for typical constructs, such as attachment, child behavior, child development, family functioning, and parent-child interaction. 1 table.

 Document Number:              CD-33112

 Publication Type:                 Book

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      An Evaluation of the We Care: A Community Response to Respite Families.

 Institutional Author:            Lowcountry Human Resource Development.

 Sponsor:                               Children's Bureau (DHHS), Washington, DC.

 Grant Number:                     90CO0762

 Source:                                 South Carolina State Dept. of Social Services, Columbia., 79 pp.

 Distributor:                           South Carolina State Dept. of Social Services;  P.O. Box 1520, Columbia, SC 29202-1520;  Tel: (803) 898-7107

 Index Terms:
respite care;  south carolina;  respite care programs;  grants;  program evaluation;  special needs;  minority adoption

 Abstract:
This evaluation report reviews the We Care respite families grant program awarded to the South Carolina Department of Social Services. The project made respite care services available to adoptive families Statewide in coordination with the minority faith community. The target population also included children in the foster care system and non-minority adoptive families whose children had special needs. Respite services provided included parents night out, kids day out, weekend retreats, summer camp, special request respite, adoption parents appreciation luncheon and workshop, and therapeutic respite care. The report provides an analysis of the activities that guided the We Care project, delineating how
reliable and sensitive respite services were provided to minority adoptive families. The report also includes a review of the major findings representing a program that can be replicated locally and nationally. The external evaluation provided evidence that the project met each of the objectives proposed and it was successful in achieving its overall mission to provide respite care services to families throughout South Carolina at a rate that exceeded that established in the original proposal. The report recommends that future program development focus on providing respite care resources to minority adoptive families. An appendix gives an overview of the respite services provided.

 Document Number:              CD-33137

 Publication Type:                 Technical Report

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      CHILD NEGLECT: Selected Articles.

 Sponsor:                               Lois and Samuel Silberman Foundation, NY

 Source:                                 NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 Internet URL: http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 Index Terms:
child abuse research;  decision making;  child neglect;  definitions;  risk factors;  neglected children;  policy formation;  child neglect research;  child protection;  outcomes;  evaluation;  prevention;  social policies;  child welfare;  prevalence;  sequelae;  research methodology;  intervention;  ecological factors;  spouse abuse;  termination of parental rights;  child protection laws;  battered women;  family support systems;  community based services;  risk assessment;  child protective services;  families at risk;  child fatalities;  case studies;  parental responsibility;  child health;  child development;  cognitive development;  emotional neglect;  physical neglect;  cultural competency;  cultural factors;  cultural sensitivity;  socioeconomic status;  poverty;  depression;  literature reviews;  psychological needs

 Full Text:
Document No.: CD-27549
Coming to Terms With a Consenual Definition of Child Maltreatment.
Portwood, S. G.
Journal Article
Copyright February 1999
Child Maltreatment.
4(1):56-68.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-0721
FAX: (805) 499-0871
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com/

This article addresses the need to clarify current definitions of child
abuse and child neglect, which in the article is described as "child
maltreatment." The study attempts to identify the extent to which
consensus exists and highlights those areas in which key decision makers
disagree as to what affects an abuse determination. Participants (323
total) were mental health, legal, and medical professionals, teachers,
parents, and adult non-parents. Respondents agreed that actual physical or
psychological harm to the child, whether the act is sexual in nature,
seriousness and frequency of the act, and an intent to harm the child are
key factors. The groups began to diverge on their evaluations to the
degree to which intent should be factored into such a decision.
Suggestions for future research aimed at developing more consistent legal
and practice standards are presented. 2 tables, numerous references.

Descriptors:
child abuse research; decision making; child neglect; definitions; risk
factors

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27760
Neglected Children: Research, Practice, and Policy.
Dubowitz, H. (Editor)
Book
328 pp.
Copyright January 1999
Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-0721
FAX: (805) 499-0871
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com/

This book synthesizes current knowledge of child neglect in one text that
provides a foundation for further developing the knowledge base and new
theory, programs, and policies related to the neglect of children. Because
cases involving neglect constitute more than half of cases reported to
child protective services, the child welfare system and practitioners in
several disciplines have had much experience addressing neglect. The book
presents a comprehensive and critical portrait of the phenomenon of
neglect, based on theory, research, and clinical practice experience. The
contents reflect the lack of concensus on the definition and causal
pathways of neglect, as well as overlying interpretations of research.
Fourteen chapters address the following topics: causes and contributing
factors; definitions and measurement research; cultural issues; short and
long term outcomes; evaluation and risk assessment; prevention and
intervention; prenatal substance abuse; fatal neglect; and policy issues.
Numerous references.

Descriptors:
neglected children; child neglect; policy formation; child neglect
research; child protection; outcomes; evaluation; prevention

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27766
Policy Issues in Child Neglect.
Gelles, R. J.
Chapter in Book
pp. 278-298
Copyright 1999
In: Dubowitz, H. (Editor). Neglected Children: Research, Practice, and
Policy. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-0721
FAX: (805) 499-0871
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com/

This chapter focuses on social policy for child maltreatment and how
social policy has generally ignored child neglect. The neglect of children
can be either a child welfare or a welfare issue depending on where the
locus of responsibility is placed. Neglect cases are responded to by the
child welfare system when the responsibility is placed on caretakers; when
the responsibility lies elsewhere, the case may be referred to the
welfare, health care, or educational systems. The chapter reviews child
neglect definitions, the extent of the problem, the correlates, and
consequences. The chapter ends with a discussion of how a more specific
focus on neglect can lead to better and more informed social policy.
Recommended policy improvements are included and challenges are identified
that must be overcome in the child welfare system to improve policy
responses to neglect. Numerous references.

Descriptors:
child neglect; social policies; policy formation; definitions; child
welfare; prevalence; sequelae

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27767
Child Neglect: Research Recommendations and Future Directions.
Black, M. M.; Dubowitz, H.
Chapter in Book
pp. 261-277
Copyright 1999
In: Dubowitz, H. (Editor). Neglected Children: Research, Practice, and
Policy. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-0721
FAX: (805) 499-0871
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com/

In 1993, the National Research Council (NRC) reviewed the state of
knowledge in the field of child maltreatment and recommended that the
research agenda be child oriented within an ecological framework to
include "experiences of developing children and their families within a
broader social context that includes their friends, neighborhoods, and
communities". This chapter endorses the ecological perspective recommended
by the NRC for guiding future research in child neglect. The chapter
reviews theories of neglect; the definition of child neglect; measures and
methodology; prevention and intervention, areas where research is not
needed; the context in which neglect occurs; parental characteristics
associated with neglect; child characteristics associated with neglect;
and policy implications. Although neglect is a complex, multifaceted
problem that can have profound effects on children, there has been little
research on the conceptualization, definition, measurement, prevention,
treatment, or policy implications of neglect. Conceptualizations regarding
neglect are complicated by the recognition that different forms of neglect
may have differing etiological pathways and require differing
interventions. Even though effective interventions are likely to be
expensive because they often require long-term multidisciplinary
collaboration, there is a national need to develop and evaluate policies
and programs to help parents and communities protect and nurture their
children. Numerous references.

Descriptors:
child neglect; child neglect research; definitions; research methodology;
prevention; intervention; ecological factors

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27768
Are Battered Women Bad Mothers? Rethinking the Termination of Abused
Women's Parental Rights for Failure to Protect.
Lyon, T. D.
Chapter in Book
pp. 237-260
Copyright 1999
In: Dubowitz, H. (Editor). Neglected Children: Research, Practice, and
Policy. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-0721
FAX: (805) 499-0871
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com/

This chapter assesses the rights of battered women who fail to protect
their children against abuse and neglect. The differences between battered
women who fail to protect and another group of battered women who kill
their abusers are discussed. It is shown why arguments for expanding the
self-defense doctrine to excuse the actions of battered women who kill do
not easily translate into arguments for greater rights for battered women
who fail to protect their children. Specific suggestions made for the
reform of child protection law with respect to battered mothers are
reviewed. The distinction between jurisdiction and removal on the one hand
and termination on the other suggests that reforms can occur at the
termination stage without putting children at greater risk of further
abuse and neglect. In the final section the case law on the termination of
the parental rights of battered mothers is critiqued. A review of issues
includes discussion of the double standard for mothers and fathers, the
unwarranted assumption that a battered woman who has escaped one abusive
relationship will enter another, the lack of attention to adoptability and
the parent-child relationship, and the problems presented by cases in
which there is evidence that the mother was unwilling rather than unable
to leave the relationship. Numerous references.

Descriptors:
spouse abuse; child neglect; termination of parental rights; child
protection; child protection laws; battered women

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27770
Intervening With Families When Children Are Neglected.
DePanfilis, D.
Chapter in Book
pp. 211-236
Copyright 1999
In: Dubowitz, H. (Editor). Neglected Children: Research, Practice, and
Policy. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-0721
FAX: (805) 499-0871
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com/

This chapter synthesizes the current knowledge of approaches to help
families meet the basic needs of their children. It integrates research on
effective child neglect interventions and proposes strategies based on the
child welfare field's collective knowledge and experience. The chapter
defines neglect as acts of omission of care to meet a child's basic needs
that result in harm or a threat of harm to children. Principles for
effective intervention are reviewed with respect to an
ecological-developmental framework that includes the importance of:
outreach and community; family assessment; a helping alliance and
partnership with the family; empowerment-based practice; emphasizing
strengths; culturally competent intervention; and developmental
appropriateness of interventions. The goal of intervention, to help
families within communities meet the basic needs of their children, is to
provide the mix and intensity of services appropriate to each family's
need. Interventions are geared to increase the ability of families to
successfully nurture their children by enabling families to use resources
and opportunities in the community that will help them alleviate stress,
overcome knowledge and skill deficits, and build and maintain caretaking
competencies. Because the contributors to neglect are varied,
interventions may be directed to developing and/or providing concrete
resources, social support, developmental remediation; and interventions
that are cognitive or behavioral, individually oriented, family-focused,
or some combination of these. 1 table and numerous references.

Descriptors:
neglected children; child neglect; intervention; family support systems;
community based services

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27771
Evaluation and Risk Assessment of Child Neglect in Public Child Protection
Services.
English, D. J.
Chapter in Book
pp. 191-210
Copyright 1999
In: Dubowitz, H. (Editor). Neglected Children: Research, Practice, and
Policy. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-0721
FAX: (805) 499-0871
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com/

This chapter reviews the role of child protective services (CPS) in the
protection of children, outlines factors that influence the scope of CPS,
and describes methods used by CPS to carry out their mandate. The chapter
also discusses risk assessment in child protection, its general
application, and how risk assessment relates to and affects CPS services
provided to child-neglecting families. Because allegations of neglect are
the least likely maltreatment reports to meet the threshold for CPS
intervention, it is questionable whether CPS is the appropriate agency to
serve neglecting families, especially given the resource deficits in CPS.
Although neglect is strongly associated with poverty, it is also
associated with inadequate parenting skills and knowledge and other
caretaker deficits. Community based support services may be the most
appropriate intervention for lower-risk, non-chronic neglect situations.
In-home specialists, such as home health nurses who can model parenting
behaviors, may be more effective than other types of services routinely
offered by CPS workers. CPS may act as a conduit for service referral to
less intrusive but suitable services for neglecting families. Higher-risk
neglect cases may be more appropriately served by a more intrusive service
that can invoke legal interventions, if needed, to protect the child. The
key to successful assessment is for CPS programs to take a larger view of
the concept of serious harm that includes long-term and cumulative harm to
children. Assessments should place more emphasis on child development and
prior history and referrals. Numerous references.

Descriptors:
child neglect; risk assessment; child protective services; evaluation;
community based services

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27772
The Prevention of Child Neglect.
Holden, E. W.; Nabors, L.
Chapter in Book
pp. 174-190
Copyright 1999
In: Dubowitz, H. (Editor). Neglected Children: Research, Practice, and
Policy. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-0721
FAX: (805) 499-0871
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com/

This chapter focuses on the prevention of child neglect from a
multidimensional perspective. Although neglect is the most prevalent form
of child maltreatment, it has been targeted infrequently for preventive
intervention. Reasons for this omission are addressed. Definitional issues
are discussed, both with respect to child neglect, and to the application
of prevention strategies. Successful prevention programs are reviewed to
show their specific applicability to the area of neglect. The implications
of the current knowledge of the prevention of neglect for public policy
and dissemination are addressed. Specific recommendations are made for
research, practice, and policy. Future progress in child neglect will
require policy makers to understand the importance of investing in the
support of at-risk families and to recognize that cost offsets may not
occur immediately. Effective policy should be guided by assessing multiple
outcomes longitudinally to enhance health and safety and physical and
mental health outcomes in children. Numerous references.

Descriptors:
child neglect; prevention; definitions; intervention; social policies;
families at risk; outcomes

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27773
Fatal Child Neglect.
Bonner, B. L.; Crow, S. M.; Logue, M. B.
Chapter in Book
pp. 156-173
Copyright 1999
In: Dubowitz, H. (Editor). Neglected Children: Research, Practice, and
Policy. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-0721
FAX: (805) 499-0871
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com/

This chapter presents an overview of fatal child neglect, including
definition, incidence, etiology, investigation, and the current
professional and societal responses to this issue. Fatal neglect is
narrowly defined as death due to parental or caretaker failure to provide
a reasonable standard of care. It may be broadly defined as a
multidimensional problem that requires a focus on all possible harm, the
severity of the likely harm to the child, and the frequency and chronicity
of the situation or the circumstances in which the neglect occurred. The
responsibility to meet the needs of children falls primarily on parents,
although other caretakers, community members, and society as a whole share
in this responsibility. When applied to real-life circumstances, defining
neglect and assessing responsibility are complex issues. The actual number
of children who die as a result of neglect each year is not known.
Inaccurate and incomplete information, coupled with an outdated death
classification system and miscoding of neglect-related deaths on death
certificates, contributes to the uncertainty of the number of
child-neglect-related deaths. Several types of fatalities that can be
attributed to neglect are described, and ways these contributory factors
may be implicated are discussed. The most common forms of neglect-related
death are believed to be inadequate supervision-hazard exposure; smoke
inhalation; drowning; and medical neglect. Case histories of each are
given, along with recommendations on evaluation, intervention, protection
and prevention. The investigation and evaluation of child-neglect-related
deaths should include a comprehensive assessment of all factors involved
in the death, not just parental responsibility. This evaluation may lead
to primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention measures. Numerous
references.

Descriptors:
child fatalities; child neglect; case studies; parental responsibility;
definitions; prevention

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27775
Neglect of Children's Health Care.
Dubowitz, H.
Chapter in Book
pp. 109-131
Copyright 1999
In: Dubowitz, H. (Editor). Neglected Children: Research, Practice, and
Policy. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-0721
FAX: (805) 499-0871
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com/

This chapter discusses the definition of neglected health care, its
frequency, etiology, major manifestations, and management. Neglected
health care occurs when the child is harmed or at significant risk for
harm. "Significant" is difficult to define and could refer to a remote
possibility of a terrible consequence or the frequent occurrence of a
mildly disabling condition. Neglected health care also occurs when the
recommended health care offers a significant net benefit. This requires
weighing the anticipated benefits and the possible costs. Neglect concerns
actual and potential harm to a child due to lack of health care. Severity
is related to the short-term and long-term outcomes, physical and
psychological. Six major influences are reviewed on whether children's
health care needs are met: context, family, parents, child, the disorder
and the treatment, and the quality of care. Guidance on evaluating and
managing possible neglected health care is provided, along with key
principles for approaching neglected health care. Numerous references.

Descriptors:
child neglect; child health; definitions; outcomes; neglected children

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27776
Child Neglect: Short-Term and Long-Term Outcomes.
Gaudin, J. M.
Chapter in Book
pp. 89-108
Copyright 1999
In: Dubowitz, H. (Editor). Neglected Children: Research, Practice, and
Policy. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-0721
FAX: (805) 499-0871
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com/

This chapter critically reviews the limited research on the short-term and
longer-term effects of neglect on children. It discusses the ecological
perspectives on child development and limitations of current research. The
short-term effects of child neglect are examined with respect to cognitive
and language effects, social or peer relationships, physical effects, and
child fatalities. Longer-term effects of child neglect include cognitive
and academic deficits. The evidence for the effects of neglect on
children's socioemotional functioning is more equivocal. Conclusions are
based primarily on very small, biased samples of children who have been
reported and substantiated for neglect. The available data do not offer
clear distinctions in the consequences of different types, severity, or
chronicity of the neglect. The connection between neglect and subsequent
delinquent or adult criminal activity has not been clearly established. It
is recommended that future research focus on critical stage-specific
developmental tasks of children and domains of adaptive functioning, using
an ecological understanding of child development. Numerous references.

Descriptors:
child neglect; outcomes; ecological factors; child development; cognitive
development; emotional neglect; physical neglect; sequelae

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27777
Cultural Competence and Child Neglect.
Korbin, J. E.; Spilsbury, J. C.
Chapter in Book
pp. 69-88
Copyright 1999
In: Dubowitz, H. (Editor). Neglected Children: Research, Practice, and
Policy. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-0721
FAX: (805) 499-0871
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com/

This chapter focuses on cultural competence in child protection and argues
that culture is central to understanding and working with child abuse and
neglect. Cultural competence begins by acquiring the skills and knowledge
that enable child maltreatment professionals both to understand their own
cultures as well as to take another cultural perspective. There is no
inherent contradiction between incorporating culture in child protection
and ensuring child well-being. If cultural diversity is accommodated in
child protection efforts, differing standards for different cultures will
not emerge and children will not suffer as a result. The lack of cultural
competence leads to acceptance of all behavior as culturally appropriate,
regardless of the impact on children, or insistance on one global standard
to which all societies must adhere for optimal child well being. Although
cultural factors are not necessarily involved in all cases of child
neglect, culture must be considered when working within a multicultural
context. Intracultural variability, steps in culturally competent child
protection, and culture and etiology of child neglect are discussed.
Further research and guidelines for practitioners are needed to more fully
understand the implications of cultural diversity for effective child
neglect prevention and intervention. 1 figure and numerous references.

Descriptors:
cultural competency; child neglect; child protection; cultural factors;
cultural sensitivity

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27780
Child Neglect: Causes and Contributors.
Crittenden, P. M.
Chapter in Book
pp. 47-68
Copyright 1999
In: Dubowitz, H. (Editor). Neglected Children: Research, Practice, and
Policy. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-0721
FAX: (805) 499-0871
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com/

This chapter addresses the issue of socioeconomic causation of child
neglect, concluding that such causation is not sufficient to explain
neglect. An alternative perspective is discussed; specifically, that
distortions of mental processing of information cause both poverty and
child neglect. Three types of child neglect are identified: disorganized,
emotionally neglecting, and depressed. Each type is associated with
different kinds of mental processing by adults. For each type of neglect,
it is suggested that analysis in terms of differential critical causes
would lead to different styles of intervention. Numerous references.

Descriptors:
child neglect; neglected children; socioeconomic status; poverty;
depression; emotional neglect; intervention

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27781
Child Neglect: A Review of Definitions and Measurement Research.
Zuravin, S. J.
Chapter in Book
pp. 24-46
Copyright 1999
In: Dubowitz, H. (Editor). Neglected Children: Research, Practice, and
Policy. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-0721
FAX: (805) 499-0871
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com/
Sponsored by:
Lois and Samuel Silberman Foundation, NY.

To promote the development of
reliable and valid operational definitions
of child neglect, this chapter reviews recent methodologies for defining
neglect, examines recent measurement research on neglect, and makes
recommendations for future research. A review of the literature reveals no
publications that have focused on methodologies for definind neglect or
measurement research. Background information is provided about problems
and recommendations for defining maltreatment and its various types such
as physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional maltreatment, and neglect.
Recent definitions of child neglect are reviewed and the current status of
methods for defining child neglect are examined. The review of measurement
research addresses adequacy of different data sources, development and
psychometrics of two measures, construct validity of the maltreatment
classification system, and known groups validity of the child well-being
scales. Implications for future measurement of child neglect are provided.
An appendix lists the 25 articles on child neglect reviewed by the author.
Numerous references.

Descriptors:
child neglect research; child neglect; research methodology; definitions;
literature reviews

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27782
Child Neglect: The Family With a Hole in the Middle.
Garbarino, J.; Collins, C. C.
Chapter in Book
pp. 1-23
Copyright 1999
In: Dubowitz, H. (Editor). Neglected Children: Research, Practice, and
Policy. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-0721
FAX: (805) 499-0871
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com/

This chapter introduces the topic of child neglect by matching up the
concept of neglect with important concepts and issues in child
development. The chapter explores the intrinsically contextual nature of
efforts to define child neglect and the centrality of "psychological
availability" in concepts of neglect. The case is made that difficulties
in defining what constitutes neglect may stem from changing cultural norms
on what standards of behavior are acceptable. The chapter provides some
recent statistics on child neglect and gives evidence that the effects of
neglect are more severe than those from abuse. Child neglect has been
neglected as a topic among the public and many professionals in the child
protection field. The reasons for this are reviewed. An ecological
perspective is presented as a means of contributing to the process of
understanding child neglect, examining the environment at 4 levels beyond
the individual--from the "micro" to the "macro." Numerous references.

Descriptors:
child development; child neglect; neglected children; psychological needs;
ecological factors; definitions

 Publication Type:                 Annotated Bibliography

 Availability:
This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 Database:                             Annotated Bibliographies

 

 

Title:                                      CHILD NEGLECT RESEARCH: Selected Articles.

 Sponsor:                               Lois and Samuel Silberman Foundation, NY;  Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC. (90CA1582);  National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (DHHS), Washington, DC. (90CA1469);  National Institute of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD. (RO1MH49191);  National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (DHHS), Washington, DC. (90CA1467)

 Source:                                 NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 Internet URL: http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 Index Terms:
child abuse research;  decision making;  child neglect;  definitions;  risk factors;  neglected children;  policy formation;  child neglect research;  child protection;  outcomes;  evaluation;  prevention;  research methodology;  intervention;  ecological factors;  child development;  cognitive development;  emotional neglect;  physical neglect;  sequelae;  literature reviews;  models;  family environment;  parenting skills;  predictor variables;  family support systems;  parental behavior;  family life;  family characteristics;  home environment;  sexual abuse;  physical abuse;  longitudinal studies;  research reviews;  child welfare research;  foster care;  independent living;  family reunification;  attachment;  fathers;  family structure;  families at risk;  individual therapy;  group therapy;  prevalence;  intervention strategies;  risk assessment;  etiology

 Full Text:
Document No.: CD-27549
Coming to Terms With a Consensual Definition of Child Maltreatment.
Portwood, S. G.
Journal Article
Copyright February 1999
Child Maltreatment.
4(1):56-68.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-0721
FAX: (805) 499-0871
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com/

This article addresses the need to clarify current definitions of child
abuse and child neglect, which in the article is described as "child
maltreatment." The study attempts to identify the extent to which
consensus exists and highlights those areas in which key decision makers
disagree as to what affects an abuse determination. Participants (323
total) were mental health, legal, and medical professionals, teachers,
parents, and adult non-parents. Respondents agreed that actual physical or
psychological harm to the child, whether the act is sexual in nature,
seriousness and frequency of the act, and an intent to harm the child are
key factors. The groups began to diverge on their evaluations to the
degree to which intent should be factored into such a decision.
Suggestions for future research aimed at developing more consistent legal
and practice standards are presented. 2 tables, numerous references.

Descriptors:
child abuse research; decision making; child neglect; definitions; risk
factors

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27760
Neglected Children: Research, Practice, and Policy.
Dubowitz, H. (Editor)
Book
328 pp.
Copyright January 1999
Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-0721
FAX: (805) 499-0871
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com/

This book synthesizes current knowledge of child neglect in one text that
provides a foundation for further developing the knowledge base and new
theory, programs, and policies related to the neglect of children. Because
cases involving neglect constitute more than half of cases reported to
child protective services, the child welfare system and practitioners in
several disciplines have had much experience addressing neglect. The book
presents a comprehensive and critical portrait of the phenomenon of
neglect, based on theory, research, and clinical practice experience. The
contents reflect the lack of concensus on the definition and causal
pathways of neglect, as well as overlying interpretations of research.
Fourteen chapters address the following topics: causes and contributing
factors; definitions and measurement research; cultural issues; short and
long term outcomes; evaluation and risk assessment; prevention and
intervention; prenatal substance abuse; fatal neglect; and policy issues.
Numerous references.

Descriptors:
neglected children; child neglect; policy formation; child neglect
research; child protection; outcomes; evaluation; prevention

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27767
Child Neglect: Research Recommendations and Future Directions.
Black, M. M.; Dubowitz, H.
Chapter in Book
pp. 261-277
Copyright 1999
In: Dubowitz, H. (Editor). Neglected Children: Research, Practice, and
Policy. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-0721
FAX: (805) 499-0871
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com/

In 1993, the National Research Council (NRC) reviewed the state of
knowledge in the field of child maltreatment and recommended that the
research agenda be child oriented within an ecological framework to
include "experiences of developing children and their families within a
broader social context that includes their friends, neighborhoods, and
communities". This chapter endorses the ecological perspective recommended
by the NRC for guiding future research in child neglect. The chapter
reviews theories of neglect; the definition of child neglect; measures and
methodology; prevention and intervention, areas where research is not
needed; the context in which neglect occurs; parental characteristics
associated with neglect; child characteristics associated with neglect;
and policy implications. Although neglect is a complex, multifaceted
problem that can have profound effects on children, there has been little
research on the conceptualization, definition, measurement, prevention,
treatment, or policy implications of neglect. Conceptualizations regarding
neglect are complicated by the recognition that different forms of neglect
may have differing etiological pathways and require differing
interventions. Even though effective interventions are likely to be
expensive because they often require long-term multidisciplinary
collaboration, there is a national need to develop and evaluate policies
and programs to help parents and communities protect and nurture their
children. Numerous references.

Descriptors:
child neglect; child neglect research; definitions; research methodology;
prevention; intervention; ecological factors

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27776
Child Neglect: Short-Term and Long-Term Outcomes.
Gaudin, J. M.
Chapter in Book
pp. 89-108
Copyright 1999
In: Dubowitz, H. (Editor). Neglected Children: Research, Practice, and
Policy. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-0721
FAX: (805) 499-0871
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com/

This chapter critically reviews the limited research on the short-term and
longer-term effects of neglect on children. It discusses the ecological
perspectives on child development and limitations of current research. The
short-term effects of child neglect are examined with respect to cognitive
and language effects, social or peer relationships, physical effects, and
child fatalities. Longer-term effects of child neglect include cognitive
and academic deficits. The evidence for the effects of neglect on
children's socioemotional functioning is more equivocal. Conclusions are
based primarily on very small, biased samples of children who have been
reported and substantiated for neglect. The available data do not offer
clear distinctions in the consequences of different types, severity, or
chronicity of the neglect. The connection between neglect and subsequent
delinquent or adult criminal activity has not been clearly established. It
is recommended that future research focus on critical stage-specific
developmental tasks of children and domains of adaptive functioning, using
an ecological understanding of child development. Numerous references.

Descriptors:
child neglect; outcomes; ecological factors; child development; cognitive
development; emotional neglect; physical neglect; sequelae

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27781
Child Neglect: A Review of Definitions and Measurement Research.
Zuravin, S. J.
Chapter in Book
pp. 24-46
Copyright 1999
In: Dubowitz, H. (Editor). Neglected Children: Research, Practice, and
Policy. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-0721
FAX: (805) 499-0871
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com/
Sponsored by:
Lois and Samuel Silberman Foundation, NY.

To promote the development of
reliable and valid operational definitions
of child neglect, this chapter reviews recent methodologies for defining
neglect, examines recent measurement research on neglect, and makes
recommendations for future research. A review of the literature reveals no
publications that have focused on methodologies for definind neglect or
measurement research. Background information is provided about problems
and recommendations for defining maltreatment and its various types such
as physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional maltreatment, and neglect.
Recent definitions of child neglect are reviewed and the current status of
methods for defining child neglect are examined. The review of measurement
research addresses adequacy of different data sources, development and
psychometrics of two measures, construct validity of the maltreatment
classification system, and known groups validity of the child well-being
scales. Implications for future measurement of child neglect are provided.
An appendix lists the 25 articles on child neglect reviewed by the author.
Numerous references.

Descriptors:
child neglect research; child neglect; research methodology; definitions;
literature reviews

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-26589
The Parental Environment Cluster Model of Child Neglect: An Integrative
Model.
Burke, J.; Chandy, J.; Dannerbeck, A.; Watt, J. W.
Journal Article
Copyright July-August 1998
Child Welfare.
77(4):389-405.
J. Wilson Watt, School of Social Work, University of Missouri- Columbia,
702 Clark Hall, Columbia, MO 65211
Sponsored by:
Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC. (90CA1582).

This article describes the Parental Environment Cluster model of child
neglect which identifies three clusters of factors involved in the
occurrence of neglectful behavior: factors related to parenting skills and
functions; factors related to the development and use of positive social
supports; and factors related to resource availability and management
skills. According to the model, deficits in the parent's ability to use
the parenting environment are present in the occurrence of child neglect.
Management of the clusters and the ability to link the clusters affect the
maintenance of the child's well-being. The model offers a focal theory for
research on child neglect, a structure for exploring and refining the
definition of neglect, and a framework for designing new intervention
strategies in cases of child neglect. 52 references and 1 figure. (Author
abstract)

Descriptors:
child neglect research; models; family environment; parenting skills; risk
factors; predictor variables; family support systems; parental behavior

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27215
School-Age and Adolescent Children's Perceptions of Family Functioning in
Neglectful and Non-Neglectful Families.
Gable, S.
Journal Article
Copyright September 1998
Child Abuse and Neglect.
22(9):859-867.
Sara Gable, Missouri Univ., Human Development and Family Studies
Extension, 162B Stanley Hall, Columbia, MO 65211
Sponsored by:
National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (DHHS), Washington, DC.
(90CA1469).

This research examines whether neglected children's perceptions of their
own family's functioning acknowledge the differences that exist between
neglectful and non-neglectful families. The study used an inter-rater
consistency design. Child and caseworker reports of family functioning in
33 neglectful and 34 non-neglectful families were compared. After
establishing significant differences between the socioemotional and
physical environment provided by neglectful and non-neglectful families,
the results indicate that children from neglectful families perceive a
higher level of quality in family functioning than was reported by
caseworkers or supported by other measures. Study limitations are
discussed and possible explanations for results are given. Implications
are discussed for designing effective interventions for school age and
adolescent children from neglectful families. 4 tables. Numerous
references. (Author abstract modified)

Descriptors:
child neglect research; neglected children; family life; family
characteristics; home environment

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27295
A Longitudinal Analysis of Risk Factors for Child Maltreatment: Findings
of a 17-Year Prospective Study of Officially Recorded and Self-Recorded
Child Abuse and Neglect.
Brown, J.; Cohen, P.; Johnson, J. G.; Salzinger, S.
Journal Article
Copyright November 1998
Child Abuse and Neglect.
22(11):1065-1078.
Jocelyn Brown, Columbia Univ. Dept. of Pediatrics, 622 W. 168th St., New
York, NY 10032
Sponsored by:
National Institute of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD. (RO1MH49191).

This article examines the results of a longitudinal study of risk factors
for child abuse and neglect among families in the community, using data on
child maltreatment obtained from both official records and youth
self-reports. Surveys assessing demographic variables, family
relationships, parental behavior, and characteristics of parents and
children were administered to a representative sample of 644 families in
upstate New York on 4 occasions between 1975 and 1992. Data on child abuse
and neglect were obtained from New York State records and retrospective
self-report instruments administered when youths were 18 years of age or
older. Logistic regression analyses indicated that different patterns of
risk factors predicted the occurrence of physical abuse, sexual abuse, and
neglect, although maternal youth and maternal sociopathy predicted the
occurrence of all 3 forms of child maltreatment. In addition, the
prevalence of child abuse or neglect increased from 3 percent when no risk
factors were present to 24 percent when 4 or more risk factors were
present. State records and self-reports of child maltreatment did not
correspond in most cases when maltreatment was reported through at least
one data source, underlying the importance of obtaining data from both
official records and self-reports. Assessment of a number of risk factors
may permit health professionals to identify parents and children who are
at high risk for child maltreatment, thereby facilitating appropriate
implementation of prevention and treatment interventions. 77 references, 1
figure, and 5 tables. (Author abstract modified)

Descriptors:
sexual abuse; physical abuse; child neglect; child abuse research; family
characteristics; longitudinal studies; risk factors

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-23801
Child Welfare Research Review. Volume II.
Berrick, J. D. (Editor); Barth, R. P. (Editor); Gilbert, N. (Editor)
Book
326 pp.
Copyright 1997
New York, NY, Columbia Univ. Press
Distributed by:
Columbia Univ. Press
136 S. Broadway
Irvington, NY 10533
(800) 944-8648

This research review provides highlights of recent studies in the child
welfare field. Selected papers describe important findings in the areas of
child neglect, the role of the extended family in child welfare, foster
family care, and family reunification. Definitions of neglect; family
functioning; prevention of neglect; kinship foster care; maltreatment in
foster families; transitional programs; and the effectiveness of
reunification are specifically addressed. Each section begins with an
introduction that summarizes current knowledge about the particular area.
Numerous references, 18 figures, and 26 tables.

Descriptors:
research reviews; child neglect research; child welfare research; foster
care; independent living; family reunification

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-23833
Family Functioning in Neglectful Families: Recent Research.
Gaudin, J. M.; Dubowitz, H.
Chapter in Book
pp. 28-62
Copyright 1997
In: Berrick, J. D.; Barth, R. P.; and Gilbert, N. (Editors). Child Welfare
Research Review, Volume II. New York, NY, Columbia Univ. Press
Distributed by:
Columbia Univ. Press
136 S. Broadway
Irvington, NY 10533
(800) 944-8648

This paper summarizes findings from an NCCAN-funded study of functioning
in neglectful families. Three-year studies were conducted in five sites:
Maryland, Georgia, Iowa, North Carolina, and South Carolina. In each
study, a sample of neglecting families was compared with a matched sample
of non- neglectful families. Operational definitions of neglect and
measures varied among the sites. Overall, the studies found that
predictors of neglect included mother's inability to connect emotionally,
lack of interaction between mother and child, mothers' poor social skills
and well-being, and less father involvement. Family functioning was not
found to predict neglect. Limitations and strengths of the studies and
implications for research and intervention are discussed. Numerous
references and 2 tables.

Descriptors:
research reviews; child neglect research; attachment; fathers; family
characteristics; family structure; families at risk

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-23834
Child Neglect: Definition, Incidence, Outcomes.
Berrick, J. D.
Chapter in Book
pp. 1-12
Copyright 1997
In: Berrick, J. D.; Barth, R. P.; and Gilbert, N. (Editors). Child Welfare
Research Review, Volume II. New York, NY, Columbia Univ. Press
Distributed by:
Columbia Univ. Press
136 S. Broadway
Irvington, NY 10533
(800) 944-8648

This chapter reviews findings from current research about the prevalence,
risk, and treatment of child neglect. Although neglect is more prevalent
than physical and sexual abuse, few studies have examined the
characteristics of neglecting families and the effectiveness of
intervention strategies. Lack of consensus about a definition of neglect
has posed a significant barrier to child neglect research. Debates focus
on expectations for supervision, parental intent, and the differing
perspectives of the parent, the child, and social workers. Relationships
have been found between neglect and family characteristics of poverty,
social isolation, poor self-concept, and depression. Research on
prevention and treatment of neglect is limited because most studies do not
separate neglect from other forms of maltreatment. However, findings
indicate that longer-term treatment with specific goals is most effective.
Individual therapy that targets immediate issues has also been shown to be
successful. 47 references.

Descriptors:
research reviews; child neglect research; family characteristics;
prevention; individual therapy; group therapy; prevalence

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-24285
Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect, LONGSCAN: The First Five
Years at the Coordinating Center, North Carolina Site and Seattle Site,
1991-1996.
Runyan, D. K.; Hunter, W. M.; Everson, M. D.; Bangdiwala, S.; et al.
Final Report
656 pp.
April 8, 1997
National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (DHHS), Washington, DC
Distributed by:
Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
(800) 394-3366
nccanch@calib.com
http://www.calib.com/nccanch
Sponsored by:
National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (DHHS), Washington, DC.
(90CA1467).

This report details the results of a five year NCCAN-funded longitudinal
study of child abuse and neglect. The Consortium of Longitudinal Studies
in Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) coordinated five research projects
to examine the causes and effects of child maltreatment. The project
involved five sites: Chicago, Baltimore, San Diego, North Carolina, and
Seattle. This report presents findings from North Carolina and Seattle and
discusses the role of the Coordinating Center of the project. The North
Carolina study investigated the role of family stress and social support
on child maltreatment in 221 children, aged 4-5 years old, who were
identified as high risk when they were born. The Seattle study examined
the long-term effects of referral to child protective services and the
relationship between substantiation and re-referral in 261 children aged
1-4 identified as moderately at risk for child abuse and neglect by the
CPS. Data revealed that the most significant predictors of maltreatment
reports were poverty, maternal depression, high number of children, and
low maternal education. Social support was somewhat effective in
protecting against abuse and neglect. The North Carolina study found that
child neglect referrals were under-represented in the state central
registry and that some incidents of physical or sexual abuse by a
non-parent were mis-classified as parental neglect. In Seattle, the study
revealed that substantiation did not predict re-referral rates. Caretaker
social support, caretaker history of domestic violence, and only one child
in the family did correlate with re-referral. Implications for practice
and research are discussed. Numerous references, 1 figure, and 18 tables.

Descriptors:
longitudinal studies; sequelae; intervention strategies; outcomes; risk
assessment; predictor variables; child neglect; etiology

 Publication Type:                 Annotated Bibliography

 Availability:
This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 Database:                             Annotated Bibliographies

 

 

Title:                                      CPS RISK ASSESSMENT AND DECISION MAKING: Selected Articles.

 Sponsor:                               National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (DHHS), Washington, DC. (90CA1576);  National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (DHHS), Washington, DC. (90CA1563);  National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (DHHS), Washington, DC. (90CA1547)

 Source:                                 NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 Internet URL: http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 Index Terms:
child neglect;  risk assessment;  child protective services;  evaluation;  community based services;  sexual abuse;  assessment;  credibility;  disclosure;  research methodology;  decision making;  child protection;  social work;  outcomes;  policy formation;  child welfare;  family centered services;  detection;  symptoms;  child welfare services;  NCCAN;  social workers attitudes;  interviews;  child welfare research;  washington;  physical abuse;  service delivery;  resource materials;  characteristics of abuser;  investigations;  child welfare workers;  risk factors;  computer based training;  social workers;  models;  protocols;  diagnoses;  probability;  evaluation methods;  predictor variables;  well being;  validity; 
reliability;  measures;  family group conferencing;  family preservation;  mediation;  family role;  new zealand;  incest;  child welfare reform;  case assessment;  intervention strategies;  indicators;  managed care;  outcome based accountability;  child abuse research;  female sex offenders;  police attitudes;  sex roles;  spouse abuse;  interagency collaboration;  multiproblem families;  maine;  abuse allegations;  proof;  evidence;  standards;  child protection laws;  state surveys

 Full Text:
Document No.: CD-27771
Evaluation and Risk Assessment of Child Neglect in Public Child Protection
Services.
English, D. J.
Chapter in Book
pp. 191-210
Copyright 1999
In: Dubowitz, H. (Editor). Neglected Children: Research, Practice, and
Policy. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-0721
FAX: (805) 499-0871
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com/

This chapter reviews the role of child protective services (CPS) in the
protection of children, outlines factors that influence the scope of CPS,
and describes methods used by CPS to carry out their mandate. The chapter
also discusses risk assessment in child protection, its general
application, and how risk assessment relates to and affects CPS services
provided to child-neglecting families. Because allegations of neglect are
the least likely maltreatment reports to meet the threshold for CPS
intervention, it is questionable whether CPS is the appropriate agency to
serve neglecting families, especially given the resource deficits in CPS.
Although neglect is strongly associated with poverty, it is also
associated with inadequate parenting skills and knowledge and other
caretaker deficits. Community based support services may be the most
appropriate intervention for lower-risk, non-chronic neglect situations.
In-home specialists, such as home health nurses who can model parenting
behaviors, may be more effective than other types of services routinely
offered by CPS workers. CPS may act as a conduit for service referral to
less intrusive but suitable services for neglecting families. Higher-risk
neglect cases may be more appropriately served by a more intrusive service
that can invoke legal interventions, if needed, to protect the child. The
key to successful assessment is for CPS programs to take a larger view of
the concept of serious harm that includes long-term and cumulative harm to
children. Assessments should place more emphasis on child development and
prior history and referrals. Numerous references.

Descriptors:
child neglect; risk assessment; child protective services; evaluation;
community based services

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-25873
The Assessment of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations: Using Research to Guide
Clinical Decision Making.
Dammeyer, M. D.
Journal Article
Copyright Winter 1998
Behavioral Sciences and the Law.
16(1):21-34.
Distributed by:
John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Customer Service
605 Third Ave.
New York, NY 10158-0012
(212) 850-6645
FAX: (212) 850-6021
subinfo@wiley.com
http://www.interscience.wiley.com

This article evaluates which sources of information clinicians should rely
upon when conducting child sexual abuse assessments. Specifically, the
commonly used indicators and procedures for assessing allegations of abuse
are identified and then examined in light of their respective empirical
literatures. It is concluded that medical examinations and the child's
report are among the best sources of information, and should therefore be
most heavily relied upon to arrive at accurate decisions. Clinicians are
encouraged to adopt the mind set of a scientist conducting an a priori,
hypothesis-driven research investigation. This approach should help
clinicians avoid the temptation of post hoc analyses that reflect personal
biases more than the actual data. 46 references. (Author abstract)

Descriptors:
sexual abuse; assessment; credibility; disclosure; research methodology;
decision making

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-26067
Promoting Evidence-based Practice in Child Protection.
MacDonald, G.
Journal Article
Copyright January 1998
Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry.
3(1):71-84.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-0721
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com

This article argues for the adoption of an evidence-based approach to
decision-making in child protection. Such a change hinges upon the
availability of good quality, up-to-date evidence that is readily
accessible to practitioners and policymakers. Following a resume of the
arguments for recognizing controlled trials as methodologically superior
to other forms of methodology in evaluating professional interventions,
the article presents the case for adopting a similarly rigorous approach
to synthesizing research findings. It then identifies a range of obstacles
to promoting evidence-based practice and makes recommendations for changes
in training, research, and practice which might facilitate improvement in
both primary research and in reviews of the literature. 47 references and
1 table. (Author abstract)

Descriptors:
child protection; social work; decision making; outcomes

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-26234
Information Integration in Child Welfare Cases: An Introduction to
Statistical Decision Making.
Ruscio, J.
Journal Article
Copyright May 1998
Child Maltreatment.
3(2):143-156.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-0721
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com
Sponsored by:
National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (DHHS), Washington, DC.
(90CA1576).

This article presents two general methods for formulating decision making
policies in the field of child maltreatment, along with a discussion of
the considerable research literature demonstrating the superior predictive
validity of statistical decision models over clinical prediction. A series
of illustrative contrasts between the two approaches highlights the
desirable mathematical properties of statistical equations as well as the
cognitive biases and limitations inherent in unaided human judgement.
Reasons for practitioners' adherence to the clinical approach are
explored, with specific reference to child welfare decision making.
Finally, recommendations are provided for enhancing the efficiency,
validity, and ethical defensibility of decision making that seriously
impacts the lives of children and their families. Numerous references and
3 figures. (Author abstract)

Descriptors:
decision making; policy formation; child welfare; child protective
services

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-26268
Field Guide to Child Welfare: Volume I: Foundations of Child Protective
Services.
Rycus, J. S.; Hughes, R. C.
Book
238 pp.
Copyright 1998
Washington, DC, CWLA Press
Distributed by:
Child Welfare League of America, Inc.
440 First St., NW, Suite 310
Washington, DC 20001-2085
(202) 638-2952
FAX: (202) 638-4004
books@cwla.org
http://www.cwla.org/

Volume I of the Field Guide to Child Welfare provides an overview of child
protection values and practice. The first section reviews child welfare
values and the concepts of freedom, justice, social responsibility, and
human dignity. A history of child welfare is presented from ancient times
to western social work in England and North America. Early versions of
out-of-home placement and debates about the role of poverty and punishment
are described. The section concludes by outlining the role of
family-centered services in contemporary child welfare. When it is in the
best interests of the children, child protective services are now expected
to focus on strengthening and preserving the family. Implications of this
philosophy for child placement are described. The second section of the
text offers a more in-depth examination of the application of the
family-centered approach to child protection. Chapters review the physical
and behavioral indicators of abuse and neglect and describe the dynamics
of child maltreatment, risk assessment, intake and initial family
assessment, and family-centered child welfare services. This section
presents a conceptual framework for child abuse and neglect and lists risk
factors related to the parent characteristics, child characteristics,
family stress and crisis, and social isolation. Practical strategies for
assessment, intake, and service delivery are discussed. The final section
examines issues specific to sexual abuse. Indicators of child sexual abuse;
 dynamics of sexual abuse; characteristics of perpetrators, victims, and
nonoffending parents; consequences; disclosure; investigation procedures;
and therapeutic interventions are outlined.

Descriptors:
child protective services; family centered services; risk assessment;
detection; symptoms; child welfare services

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-26318
Decision-Making in Child Protective Services: A Study of Effectiveness.
Phase II: Social Worker Interviews.
English, D.; Brummel, S. C.; Coghlan, L. K.; Novicky, R. S.; Marshall, D.
B.
Final Report
124 pp.
Copyright 1998
Washington State Dept. of Social and Health Services, Olympia. Office of
Children's Administration Research
Distributed by:
Washington State Dept. of Social and Health Services, Office of Children's
Administration Research
P. O. Box 45701
Olympia, WA 98504-5701
(360) 902-8051
Sponsored by:
National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (DHHS), Washington, DC.
(90CA1563).

This report provides an overview of phase II of a study conducted by the
National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (NCCAN). This phase examines
Child Protective Services (CPS) decision-making based on interviews with
CPS social workers. A sample of 200 randomly selected CPS referrals were
identified and the workers who investigated those cases were interviewed
about their decision processes in general, and their decision process in
the specifically identified case. Basic descriptive data was collected in
closed and open ended format. Primary factors that influenced
decision-making in this group of cases included caregiver cooperation,
collateral contacts, caregiver's recognition of the problem, family
history, and the availability of resources. Major themes influencing CPS
worker decisions included issues associated with resources, individual and
organizational factors, role ambiguity, the trend toward the use of
criminal investigative standards, and the willingness and ability of
caretakers to recognize and participate in services. Findings of abuse in
these cases was not necessarily related to whether or not maltreatment
actually occurred. Numerous figures, 10 references, appendix.

Descriptors:
NCCAN; child protective services; decision making; social workers
attitudes; interviews; child welfare research; washington

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-26320
Even From a Broken Web: Brief, Respectful Solution-Oriented Therapy for
Sexual Abuse and Trauma.
O'Hanlon, B.; Bertolino, R.
Book
189 pp.
Copyright 1998
Distributed by:
John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Department 063, P. O. Box 6793
Somerset, NJ 08875-9977
(800) 225-5945
info@wiley.com
http://www.wiley.com

This report provides an overview of phase I of a study conducted by the
National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (NCCAN). This phase consisted
of a quantitative analysis of Child Protective Services (CPS)
decision-making data from a one year cohort of CPS cases accepted for
investigation in Washington State. This phase included a description of a
one-year cohort of CPS referrals, bivariate and multivariate analyses of
CPS decisions at different points in a case, an analysis of risk factors,
and an examination of hypotheses associated with different decisions, and
an analysis of outcomes. Referrals accepted for investigation by
Washington State CPS during a one- year period, a total of 12,978
referrals, were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate analysis by
abuse type and across decisions. Highlights of findings include that there
are age, gender and ethnic differences by type of abuse, children under
age five are assessed at higher overall risk after investigation, and
sexual abuse and physical neglect cases are proportionately less likely
than other types of child abuse and neglect to be substantiated
post-investigation. Numerous references, 3 appendixes.

Descriptors:
nccan; child welfare research; sexual abuse; child protective services;
decision making; social workers attitudes; interviews; washington

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-26387
CPS Operations and Risk Assessment in Child Abuse Cases Receiving Services:
 Initial Findings From the Pittsburgh Service Delivery Study.
Kolko, D. J.
Journal Article
Copyright August 1998
Child Maltreatment.
3(3):262-275.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-0721
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com
Sponsored by:
National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (DHHS), Washington, DC.
(90CA1547).

This article reviews a study of the psychometric characteristics of CPS
caseworkers' risk assessment and subgroup differences in risk parameters,
and describes the sample and methods of the the Pittsburgh Service
Delivery Study (PSDS), which documented the service delivery experiences
and outcomes of 90 families referred to Child Protective Services (CPS),
following allegations of child physical or sexual abuse, from 1995 to
1997. Findings reveal variability in the timeliness of worker decisions
and good correspondence between sources for abuse classification. Risk
assessment reports for a subset of cases were virtually unrelated to
selected clinical functioning measures. Several risk parameters
differentiated physically and sexually abusive families, which,
collectively, correctly classified most of the cases. The findings provide
a basis for understanding some of the operations of CPS and their role in
the service delivery system. 41 references, 1 figure, and 5 tables.
(Author abstract modified)

Descriptors:
child protective services; risk assessment; decision making; physical
abuse; sexual abuse; service delivery

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-26396
Intake and Investigation in Child Protective Services: Training Resource
Notebook. VISSTA Course 204.
Hay, R. S.
Training Material
160 pp.
Copyright February 1998
Revised. Virginia State Dept. of Social Services, Richmond
Distributed by:
Virginia Commonwealth Univ., School of Social Work - VISSTA
104 N. Linden St.
Richmond, VA 23284-2027
(804) 828-0178
bjzarris@vcu.edu

This training resource notebook offers pertinent information related to
intake and investigation in child protection services (CPS). This resource
notebook is written supplement the VISSTA training course and is intended
for new or inexperienced CPS line staff and supervisors. Resource
information is divided into 5 chapters. Chapter One provides an overview
of child protective services, including statistical information related to
CPS investigations, victims of child abuse and/or neglect, and caretakers
reported as suspected abusers/neglecters. Chapter Two focuses on specific
family and individual characteristics that are seen in cases of physical
abuse, neglect, sexual abuse, and emotional abuse. Numerous
characteristics related to general family dynamics are presented,
including abuser/neglecter characteristics, behaviors frequently observed
during interviews with caretaker, intrafamilial characteristics,
situational characteristics, and the impact of psychosis or substance
abuse. The effects of abuse and neglect and conditions that may be
mistaken for abuse are also discussed. Chapter Three presents techniques
for interviewing involved caretakers, non-involved caretakers, and
children. Chapter Four discusses issues related to disposition and risk
assessment, including assessing harm for disposition, risk assessment,
contributing factors, and high risk factors. Appendixes include a
comprehensive guide for CPS caseworkers detailing information related the
responsibilities of the CPS worker, the intake process, the helping
relationship, and the initial assessment and investigation. Additional
clinical information summarize the child and family assessment, case
planning, service provision, evaluation, supervision issues, consultation,
and support. A selected bibliography is included.

Descriptors:
resource materials; evaluation; child protective services; characteristics
of abuser; investigations; interviews; child welfare workers; risk
assessment

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-26531
Computer Learning and Risk Assessment in Child Protection.
Little, J.; Rixon, A.
Journal Article
Copyright May-June 1998
Child Abuse Review.
7(3):165-177.
Distributed by:
John Wiley and Sons, Attention Bob Kern
Baffins Lane
Chichester, Great Britain
adsales@wiley.co.uk
http://www.wiley.com

This paper examines the applicability of a technique known as computer
learning to the area of risk assessment in order to extract any underlying
patterns. The paper proposes first that there are a few key interrelated,
broad-level concepts used to assess and thereby classify risk. These can
be used as the basis for producing a set of rules under which a social
work team operates. The classification of risk made by one social work
team on 20 child protection cases was analyzed to find underlying patterns
of their decision making. These patterns are presented in the form of
"decision trees," as a way of illustrating the group's past experience in
assessing risk. Team members most relied on the carers' ability and the
carers' attitudes to classify the level of risk of each case. Carer's
abilities primarily affected determination of risk. However, assessments
of negative abilities could be mediated by a positive parental attitude.
Although the resulting decision tree was fairly simple, social workers
found it to be plausible. Further research may reveal more complex
decision processes as other risk factors are included. 16 references and 2
figures. (Author abstract modified)

Descriptors:
risk assessment; risk factors; decision making; computer based training;
social workers; child welfare workers; models; protocols

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-26533
Risk Assessment, Computer Learning, Diagnosis and Bayes: A Commentary.
Dalgleish, L. I.
Journal Article
Copyright May-June 1998
Child Abuse Review.
7(3):189-193.
Distributed by:
John Wiley and Sons, Attention Bob Kern
Baffins Lane
Chichester, Great Britain
adsales@wiley.co.uk
http://www.wiley.com

This commentary analyzes two different approaches to risk assessment as
presented in previous articles included in the journal. The first approach
integrated various risk factors in a set of 20 cases to build a decision
tree that illustrated patterns used by social workers to assess risk. Two
factors were found to be statistically significant for decisions about
risk: attitude of carers and ability of carers. However, there is some
concern that the algorithm used to calculate the values of various factors
may provide more configural information, which is not helpful for
prediction. The decision tree study also did not investigate the
connection between the level of risk and intervention. The second study
used information about the number and pattern of bruises in physically
abused children to estimate probabilities of abuse. Bayes' Theorem was
applied to refine the estimate to integrate people's beliefs about
probability into a posterior probability. The posterior probability
calculation is highly sensitive to the estimates of conditional
probabilities and differences in sample sizes. A threshold of probability
is provided so that policy makers can make their own determination of the
usefulness and accuracy of the estimate. Further research is necessary to
make both approaches more practical. 10 references and 1 table.

Descriptors:
risk assessment; decision making; computer based training; diagnoses;
probability; models

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27040
Risk Assessment in Child Protective Services: Challenges in Measuring
Child Well-Being.
Nasuti, J. P.
Journal Article
Copyright 1998
Journal of Family Social Work.
3(1):55-70.
Distributed by:
Haworth Press, Inc.
10 Alice St.
Binghamton, NY 13904-1580
(800) 342-9678
FAX: (800) 895-0582
getinfo@haworth.com
http://www.haworthpressinc.com

This article reports the findings of a test of the Utah Risk Assessment
Scales, which were designed to be used in assessments of child well-being
by child protective service (CPS) workers. Adapted from scales developed
by the Child Welfare League of America, the instrument includes 32 scales
that address parent force, child force, family force, maltreatment force,
and intervention force. The evaluation of the Utah scales was conducted to
determine the interrater
reliability of the instrument and the ability of
staff to identify risks as high or low. Scores reported by 56 CPS workers
and 15 CPS experts were compared for a variety of case vignettes that
provided examples of parental disposition, child performance, and
household adequacy. The findings indicated that the scales yielded
accurate and consistent assessments. Internal consistency and interrater
reliability were acceptable. Limitations of the study and recommendations
for future research are discussed. 35 references and 4 tables.

Descriptors:
risk assessment; child protective services; evaluation methods; predictor
variables; well being; validity;
reliability; measures

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27163
Family Group Decision Making Offers Alternative Approach to Child Welfare.
McElroy, P.; Goodsoe, C.
Journal Article
Copyright May-June 1998
Youth Law News.
19(3):1-6.
Distributed by:
National Center for Youth Law
114 Sansome St., Suite 900
San Francisco, CA 94104
(415) 543-3307
info@youthlaw.org
http://www.youthlaw.org

This article discusses Family Group Decision Making (FGDM), and variations
of this model, as an alternative family preservation approach. Originating
in New Zealand, FGDM relies on extended family members to play a more
prominent role in making and carrying out decisions, such as actually
designing a plan for the child's care and safety. The varied reasons for
which cases are referred to FGDM are discussed and differences in various
programs' assessment of which case are eligible are outlined. There three
stages to a Family Group Conference: preparation, the conference itself,
and post conference monitoring and follow-up are described. Mediation is
briefly discussed, and the strengths and concerns about mediation and
family group decision making are presented. 20 references.

Descriptors:
family group conferencing; family preservation; mediation; family role;
decision making; new zealand

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27221
Evaluation of Allegations of Sexual Abuse of Young Children: A Multimodal
Assessment Approach.
Seman, C. H.; Korfmacher, J.; Freedman, M. R.; Hoffman, J.; et al.
Journal Article
Copyright October 1998
Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry.
3(4):561-582.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-0721
FAX: (805) 499-0871
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com/

This article describes a multimodal process for assessing allegations of
sexual abuse when the alleged victim is preverbal or minimally verbal and
the alleged perpetrator is a parent or caregiver. The assessment process,
with identified decision- making characteristics, provides a
relationship-oriented approach to investigations, especially in light of
recent research on the suggestibility of young children. Evaluators obtain
information from individual interviews with the child, observations of the
child interacting with parents and siblings in daily activities, and
structured interviews with parents and other relevant adults. The
theoretical and clinical underpinnings for this approach are described in
the article, especially attachment theory, family systems theory, and
familial and developmental factors. Two case studies highlight the
assessment process and decision-making characteristics. 59 references.
(Author abstract modified)

Descriptors:
sexual abuse; assessment; incest; investigations; interviews; decision
making

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27244
Family Centered Child Protective Services: Family Assessment Change
Strategy.
Holder, W.
Training Material
236 pp.
Copyright 1998
ACTION for Child Protection, Charlotte, NC
Distributed by:
ACTION for Child Protection
2101 Sardis Rd. N., Suite 204
Charlotte, NC 28227
(704) 845-2121
FAX: (704) 845-5877
ktho@earthlink.net

This publication introduces a decision making model for helping
maltreating families by employing a family centered approach. The model is
a revised version of the Child At Risk Field Decision Making Service
Delivery System, and builds on that system's decision making and service
delivery approaches while shifting the concept from child-centered
family-focused to family-centered child-focused. Descriptions of the
theoretical base, evaluation support, history, and terminology for the
model are contained in Chapters 1-3. Chapters 4-11 provide a completed
example, instructions, and commentary on all of the program's components.
These chapters are organized around the child protective services process
and highlight each major child protective services decision point,
including initial family assessment and safety evaluation and planning.
The chapters begin with practice information, followed by a completed
worksheet, general instructions that provide overall guidance, and
specific instructions. Worksheets direct case decisions and are intended
to replace traditional narrative records. A meaningful worker/family
partnership, in collaboration with other service providers and members of
the family's support network, serves as the vehicle to achieve change.

Descriptors:
models; decision making; child welfare reform; child protective services;
case assessment; family centered services; intervention strategies

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27282
Assessing Outcomes in Child Welfare Services: Principles, Concepts, and a
Framework of Core Indicators.
American Humane Association, Englewood, CO. - Casey Outcomes and
Decision-Making Project.
Technical Report
52 pp.
Copyright 1998
American Humane Association, Englewood, CO. Casey Outcomes and
Decision-Making Project
Distributed by:
American Humane Association, Casey Outcomes and Decision-Making Project
63 Inverness Dr., E.
Englewood, CO 80112-5117
(303) 792-9900
FAX: (303) 792-5333
children@amerhumane.org
http://www.amerhumane.org/aha/

This manual presents an outcome-based approach to decision making in child
welfare managed care systems. The approach was designed to reinforce
certain principles to ensure that quality services are provided to
children and families. The core principles emphasize child safety and
family support; child and family well-being; community supports for
families; family-centered services; cultural competence; system
accountability and timeliness; and coordination of system resources. These
principles are translated into a set of indicators that can be used to
evaluate child welfare programs and managed care contractors. While some
indicators were specified in the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997,
others have been identified in the research. The report explains the
benefits of outcome-based decision making for child welfare and describes
the steps to implementing a managed care system. Program planners are
advised to first identify the system to be measured, determine the
services that are consistent with agency values, involve all stakeholders
in the decision making process, select outcomes to be measured, create a
model of tasks to complete the system, and design procedures for the
constant monitoring and distribution of data. The final section of the
report presents a sample list of core outcome indicators for children's
services. The guiding principle, applicable service intervention, and
measurement focus are identified for each indicator. Case level indicators
will be explained in a separate report. 40 references and 7 tables.

Descriptors:
assessment; outcomes; child welfare reform; indicators; managed care;
evaluation methods; decision making; outcome based accountability

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27289
Decisions and Attitudes Concerning Child Sexual Abuse: Does the Gender of
the Perpetrator Make a Difference to Child Protection Professionals?
Hetherton, J.; Beardsdall, L.
Journal Article
Copyright December 1998
Child Abuse and Neglect.
22(12):1265-1283.
Jacquie Hetherton, Department of Clinical Psychology, School of
Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, England B15
2TT

This study examined whether child protection investigators, specifically
social workers and the police, are as likely to take seriously a case of
child sexual abuse if it had been perpetrated by a female rather than a
male. Also, the study considered whether the decisions relating to
female-perpetrated abuse were predicted by participants' sex role
perceptions of women and their attitudes concerning women's sexualized
behavior toward children. Participants advocated decisions in response to
four hypothetical cases of child sexual abuse in which the perpetrator was
either male or female. The female perpetrators were then rated on
femininity and masculinity characteristics and attitudes concerning
women's sexualized behavior toward children were assessed. Following male-
rather than female-perpetrated sexual abuse, case registration and
imprisonment of the perpetrator was considered more appropriate by all
participant groups; male social workers also considered social services
involvement and investigation as more appropriate. A substantial number of
decisions concerning female perpetrated abuse were predicted by
participants' attitudes. While child protection professionals considered
child sexual abuse perpetrated by females to be a serious issue warranting
intervention, a number of advocated decisions suggested that they did not
consider female-perpetrated abuse to be as serious as male-perpetrated
abuse. The implication is that victims of sexual abuse perpetrated by a
woman may be less likely to receive the protection afforded victims of
male-perpetrated abuse. Furthermore, professionals' practices may be
inadvertently perpetuating the view that female child sexual abuse is rare
or less harmful than abuse carried out by males. 27 references and 6
tables. (Author abstract)

Descriptors:
sexual abuse; child abuse research; decision making; female sex offenders;
social workers attitudes; police attitudes; investigations; sex roles

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27361
Domestic Violence Protocol for the Maine Department of Human Services.
Campbell, P.; MacThomas, J.; Collin, G.
Technical Report
70 pp.
Copyright June 1998
University of Southern Maine, Portland. Edmund S. Muskie School of Public
Service
Distributed by:
University of Southern Maine, Edmund S. Muskie School of Public Service
96 Falmouth St.
P. O. Box 9300 Portland, ME 04104-9300
(207) 780-4430
http://www.muskie.usm.maine.edu

Written for child protective services workers employed by the Maine
Department of Human Services, this document outlines protocols for
managing cases that also involve spouse abuse. The guidelines describe the
prevalence of the co-occurrence of spouse abuse and child abuse and
emphasize the importance of treating both problems within violent
families. The protocols explain initial screening and intake processes, as
well as considerations for service planning. Specific recommendations are
provided for assessing the safety of the mother and child; interviewing
the mother, the child, and the suspected abuser; and identifying
protective factors and the mother's history of seeking help. Requirements
for documentation and disclosure and service planning options are also
discussed. Appendices include a sample personalized safety plan, a list of
batterer's intervention programs, and a report on state standards for
batterer intervention programs. 7 references and 3 figures.

Descriptors:
spouse abuse; protocols; interagency collaboration; child protective
services; multiproblem families; risk assessment; intervention strategies;
maine

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27711
Do Standards of Proof Affect Decision Making in Child Protection
Investigations?
Levine, M.
Journal Article
Copyright June 1998
Law and Human Behavior.
22(3):341-347.
Distributed by:
Plenum Publishing Corp.
233 Spring St.
New York, NY 10013
(800) 221-9369
info@plenum.com
http://www.plenum.com

Data from the NCCAN report, Child Maltreatment 1994, were analyzed for
this study of the relationship between state standards of proof and
substantiation rates for maltreatment. Thirty-two states were found to use
a lower standard of proof of "some credible evidence" (or similar terms)
to substantiate cases after investigation, while 15 states prescribed a
higher standard of "preponderance" of the evidence. Legislatures use these
terms of art as a matter of policy to control the risk of false-positive
errors. A lower rate of substantiation was expected to follow from a
higher standard of proof. There was no statistically significant
difference in the percent of substantiated and the percent of
unsubstantiated cases in the two groups of states. If state policy to
reduce the false- positive error rate is to be effective, something more
is required than simply manipulating the verbal formula in legislation. 11
references and 1 table. (Author abstract modified)

Descriptors:
investigations; abuse allegations; proof; evidence; standards; decision
making; child protection laws; state surveys

 Publication Type:                 Annotated Bibliography

 Availability:
This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 Database:                             Annotated Bibliographies

 

 

Title:                                      CHILD WELFARE REFORM: CPS Selected Articles.

 Sponsor:                               Allina Foundation;  Missouri State Dept. of Social Services, Jefferson City;  David and Lucile Packard Foundation, Los Altos, CA;  Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD;  Florida State Dept. of Children and Families, Tallahassee

 Source:                                 NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 Internet URL: http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 Index Terms:
interagency collaboration;  interdisciplinary approach;  child protective services;  battered women;  multiproblem families;  interagency cooperation;  child welfare research;  systems reform;  assessment;  program models;  children at risk;  early intervention programs;  mental health services;  child protection;  mental disorders;  ethics;  best practices;  service delivery;  guidelines;  child welfare services;  program administration;  evaluation;  demonstration programs;  dual tracking;  family centered services;  child welfare reform;  missouri;  michigan;  outcomes;  community cooperation;  social policies;  poverty;  family preservation;  agency role;  legislation;  historical perspective;  courts role;  prevalence;  sequelae;  foster care;  models;  decision making;  case assessment;  intervention strategies;  child abuse reporting;  multitrack response system;  investigations;  virginia;  social services;  pilot programs;  florida;  data analysis;  indicators;  home evaluation;  new jersey;  program evaluation;  statewide planning;  program improvement

 Full Text:
Document No.: CD-27802
Child Protection and Battered Women's Services: From Conflict to
Collaboration.
Beeman, S. K.; Hagemeister, A. K.; Edleson, J. L.
Journal Article
Copyright May 1999
Child Maltreatment.
4(2):116-126.
Sandra K. Beeman & Jeffrey L. Edleson, Minnesota Univ. School of Social
Work, 386 McNeal Hall, 1985 Buford Ave., Minneapolis, MN 55108-6142
Sponsored by:
Allina Foundation.

This article reports the results of an effort to systematically probe the
practices and views of child protection workers and domestic violence
workers to pinpoint ways in which current practices might evolve toward
greater cooperation. Six focus group interviews involving 23 child
protection workers and battered women's advocates were conducted. Key
questions addressed the current practice of each profession when
responding to cases that involve both child abuse and spouse abuse;
elements of successful intervention strategies; barriers to collaboration
with other agencies; and goals for collaborations in the future. The focus
group discussions revealed that child protection workers are
child-oriented, while battered women advocates are woman-centered. The
goals are often adversarial, as child protection workers hold mothers
accountable for placing their children in dangerous situations or failing
to protect their children from the offender. Lack of communication with
other systems and cultural bias were also identified as barriers to
interagency collaboration. Focus group participants were able to describe
cases in which both systems had cooperated successfully. These situations
featured information sharing, existing relationships between individual
workers in each agency, and high motivation of the mother. Future attempts
for collaboration should encourage the development of common goals,
involvement of the police and the courts in the service system, and
holding male abusers accountable for the abuse. 9 references. (Author
abstract modified)

Descriptors:
interagency collaboration; interdisciplinary approach; child protective
services; battered women; multiproblem families; interagency cooperation;
child welfare research; systems reform

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-28401
The CIVITAS-Children's Crisis Care Center Model: A Proactive,
Multidimensional Child and Family Assessment Process.
Perry, B. D.; Conrad, D. J.; Dobson, C.; Schick, S.; Runyan, D.
Technical Report
23 pp.
Copyright 1999
Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX. CIVITAS Child Trauma Programs
Distributed by:
Baylor Coll. of Medicine, CIVITAS Child Trauma Programs
One Baylor Plaza
Houston, TX 77030
(713) 798-4951
http://www.bcm.tmc.edu

This paper describes the development of the Children's Crisis Care Center
(CCCC), an early assessment program to inform placement and service plans,
co-sponsored by the Harris County (Texas) Child Protective Service, the
Texas Department of Protective and Regulatory Services, and the Child
Trauma Programs of Baylor College of Medicine in Houston. The
multidisciplinary assessment process is a proactive model that evaluates
all levels of functioning of children younger than six years old. Valid
and
reliable quantitative measures are compiled into a standardized report
which can by disseminated quickly for decision-making. A follow-up
assessment is also conducted to determine the appropriateness of the
placement and services provided. The results are used to continuously
improve programming. Six domains are specifically addressed: physical-
medical; family-social; life history and traumatic life events;
emotional-behavioral; cognitive-academic; and developmental. The child's
strengths and weaknesses are compiled into a report that includes the
clinician's recommendations for service. CCCC staff analyzes the child's
report in light of a separate assessment of the family structure and
history and makes decisions about services. A review of the pilot project
indicated that the process helped to improve the coordination and
consistency of services to children and expedite placement. Implications
for program expansion and replication are discussed. 36 references, 2
figures, and 5 tables.

Descriptors:
assessment; program models; children at risk; child protective services;
early intervention programs; interdisciplinary approach; interagency
collaboration; systems reform

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-28534
Building Bridges: The Interface Between Adult Mental Health and Child
Protection.
Tye, C.; Precey, G.
Journal Article
Copyright 1999
Child Abuse Review.
8:164-171.
Distributed by:
John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Customer Service, 605 Third Ave.
New York, NY 10158-0012
(212) 850-6645
FAX: (212) 850-6021
subinfo@jwiley.com
http://www.wiley.com

Bringing together 2 distinct professional systems such as adult mental
health and child protection challenges strategies for making effective
working together and working in partnership arrangements. However, failure
to make these arrangements increases the risk for children who may be
suffering or likely to suffer significant harm as an outcome of their
parents' or caretakers' mental health problems. This paper provides an
analysis of the challenges inherent in bringing these systems together at
the assessment interface, and offers some insights into the contribution
each system can make to an integrated assessment process for children and
their families. The authors conclude that the adult mental health and
child protection interface is a complex matrix of services, thresholds,
differing knowledge bases, different ways of experiencing and
understanding the world, and diverse ethical and legal considerations.
Working at this interface requires integrated assessment practices by
clinicians and practitioners within the adult mental health services, and
professionals working within the child protection agencies. 1 figure and
numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

Descriptors:
mental health services; child protection; mental disorders; assessment;
ethics

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-28699
Guidelines for a Model System of Protective Services for Abused and
Neglected Children and Their Families.
National Association of Public Child Welfare Administrators, Washington,
DC.
Technical Report
88 pp.
Copyright 1999
Revised. Washington, DC, American Public Human Services Association
Distributed by:
American Public Human Services Association
810 First St., NE, Suite 500
Washington, DC 20002-4267
(202) 682-0100
FAX: (202) 289-6555
pubs@aphsa.org
http://www.aphsa.org/

These guidelines for child protective services developed by the National
Association of Public Child Welfare Administrators represent a significant
revision from the original edition published in 1986. Changes in federal
legislation and trends in policy and practice were integrated into the new
document, which reviews major considerations in the administration of
child protective services. Historical and current influences on child
protective services, terminology and philosophy, target populations, core
services of child protective services, and administrative issues are
discussed. Specific topics include: family preservation and family support
programs, the role of the community, leadership responsibilities,
outcomes, staff qualifications and performance standards, information
systems, central registry, confidentiality of records, relationships with
community partners, interdisciplinary teams, and child death reviews. 16
references and 1 figure.

Descriptors:
child protective services; program models; best practices; service
delivery; guidelines; systems reform; child welfare services; program
administration

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-25507
Child Protection Services Family Assessment and Response Demonstration
Impact Evaluation: Digest of Findings and Conclusions.
Siegel, G. L.; Loman, L. A.; Sherburne, D. S.; Aldrich, D.; et al.
Final Report
50 pp.
Copyright January 1998
Institute of Applied Research, St. Louis, MO
Distributed by:
Missouri State Dept. of Social Services
P. O. Box 88
Jefferson City, MO 65103
(573) 751-3221
Sponsored by:
Missouri State Dept. of Social Services, Jefferson City.

This impact evaluation summarizes the findings of the Family Assessment
and Response Demonstration implemented in Missouri following a mandate in
the state legislature in 1994. The bill required the Department of Social
Services to test a supportive, non-accusatory intervention to child abuse
reports which were screened and determined to be less threatening. The
family assessment response offered needed services without the trauma,
stigma, or delay of the investigative process, and involved the family in
a collaborative response to problems and needs. The demonstration was
piloted in 14 small and medium-sized counties across Missouri. The
comparison area included 14 similar counties. A quasi-experimental design
was utilized to compare the baseline and demonstration period data for
both the pilot and comparison areas. Findings revealed that child safety
was not compromised; improvements were noted in family cooperation; fewer
families moved away after cases were opened; fewer barriers to services
were noted; and workers and families reported improved satisfaction. There
was also a reduction in new reports of abuse and neglect (i.e. recidivism)
evidenced, suggesting possible long-term preventive consequences. This
demonstration highlights the importance of new initiatives involving
collaboration between the child welfare agency and community
organizations. An addendum examines cases of severe abuse or neglect that
were subject to traditional investigations and analyzes arrests stemming
from those investigations. Numerous figures.

Descriptors:
evaluation; demonstration programs; child protective services; dual
tracking; family centered services; child welfare reform; assessment;
missouri

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-25933
Involving the Community in the Achievement of Outcomes for Children and
Families.
Gabrielse, D.
Proceedings Paper
pp. 83-90
Copyright April 1998
In: McDaniel, N. C. and Alsop, R. J. (Editors). Fifth National Roundtable
on Outcome Measures in Child Welfare Services: Summary of Proceedings.
American Humane Association, Englewood, CO
Distributed by:
American Humane Association
63 Inverness Dr., E.
Englewood, CO 80112-5117
(303) 792-9900
FAX: (303) 792-5333
cpmem@americanhumane.org
http://www.americanhumane.org/

This report examines the child protective services program of Kent County,
Michigan and its goal to create a partnership between itself and its
community, because CPS alone cannot be the protector of children. In order
to develop a program to achieve this goal, the program determined the
number of calls received, accepted, substantiated, and screened out.
Further research found that 50 percent of screened out cases and 50
percent of investigated but not substantiated cases showed children to be
at risk. In order to implement the community plan to provide assessments
and services to families with children at risk, additional funding was
needed for approximately 900 to 1000 families, with the cost of service
approximately one thousand dollars per family. The goal of the program,
which began in 1996, is to respond to all complaints of child abuse and
neglect and provide services to those families who are at risk. Evaluation
of the effectiveness of the program and the validity of the current risk
assessment tool for unsubstantiated reports is a program component.

Descriptors:
michigan; child welfare reform; outcomes; child protective services;
community cooperation

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-26281
Protecting Children from Abuse and Neglect: Analysis and Recommendations.
Larner, M. B.; Stevenson, C. S.; Behrman, R. E.
Journal Article
Copyright Spring 1998
Future of Children.
8(1):4-22.
Distributed by:
Center for the Future of Children
300 2nd St., Suite 102
Los Altos, CA 94022-3621
circulation@futureofchildren.org
http://www.futureofchildren.org

This article examines how Child Protective Services (CPS), other
government entities and the community at large respond to child abuse and
neglect. It reviews the emergence of the government role in child
protection and summarizes current debate over the parameters of that role.
Then the article examines three key issues regarding the shared
responsibility for child protection, and offers recommendations with
regard to each. The first issue is how the role of CPS should be framed,
its efforts focused, and its decision making improved. The second is what
prevention and treatment resources should broader service systems offer to
families to complement the protection CPS can provide to children. The
third is what will it take to make lasting improvements in the child
protection system. 65 references.

Descriptors:
child protective services; social policies; poverty; child welfare reform;
family preservation

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-26490
Past, Present, and Future Roles of Child Protective Services.
Schene, P. A.
Journal Article
Copyright Spring 1998
Future of Children.
8(1):23-38.
Distributed by:
Center for the Future of Children
300 2nd St., Suite 102
Los Altos, CA 94022-3621
circulation@futureofchildren.org
http://www.futureofchildren.org

This article examines how today's child protective services system evolved
from a past of almshouses, orphan trains, anticruelty societies, and
legislation establishing the protection of children as a government
function. This history of child protection in the United States is marked
by a continuing, unresolved tension between the aim of rescuing children
from abusive homes and that of strengthening the care their families can
provide. The article explains the structure of the typical child
protective services (CPS) agency (the unit within a broader public child
welfare department that focuses on abuse and neglect) and outlines the
roles in child protection that are played by police, the courts, private
and public social services agencies, and the community at large. According
to the analysis, the fundamental challenges facing CPS focus on
appropriate boundaries for the agency as it determines when intervention
is necessary and how the community can be mobilized to protect children. A
brief historical summary of child protection legislation is provided. 31
references and 1 figure. (Author abstract)

Descriptors:
child protective services; social policies; child welfare reform; agency
role; legislation; historical perspective; courts role

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27049
Protecting Children from Abuse and Neglect.
Behrman, R. E. (Editor)
Book
142 pp.
Copyright Spring 1998
Future of Children, Volume 8:1. Los Altos, CA, Center for the Future of
Children
Distributed by:
Center for the Future of Children
300 2nd St., Suite 102
Los Altos, CA 94022
(415) 948-3696
info@futureofchildren.org
http://www.futureofchildren.org
Sponsored by:
David and Lucile Packard Foundation, Los Altos, CA.

This edition of The Future of Children provides an overview of the status
of child protection in the United States. Articles describe the historical
and future role of public child protective services and review recent
research about the prevalence and effects of child maltreatment. Trends in
family-centered services, foster family care and kinship care, and welfare
reform are analyzed. The volume also includes essays that present new
paradigms for service delivery, as well as recommendations for improving
child protection. Numerous references, figures, and tables.

Descriptors:
child protection; service delivery; child protective services; prevalence;
sequelae; family centered services; foster care; child welfare reform

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27244
Family Centered Child Protective Services: Family Assessment Change
Strategy.
Holder, W.
Training Material
236 pp.
Copyright 1998
ACTION for Child Protection, Charlotte, NC
Distributed by:
ACTION for Child Protection
2101 Sardis Rd. N., Suite 204
Charlotte, NC 28227
(704) 845-2121
FAX: (704) 845-5877
ktho@earthlink.net

This publication introduces a decision making model for helping
maltreating families by employing a family centered approach. The model is
a revised version of the Child At Risk Field Decision Making Service
Delivery System, and builds on that system's decision making and service
delivery approaches while shifting the concept from child-centered
family-focused to family-centered child-focused. Descriptions of the
theoretical base, evaluation support, history, and terminology for the
model are contained in Chapters 1-3. Chapters 4-11 provide a completed
example, instructions, and commentary on all of the program's components.
These chapters are organized around the child protective services process
and highlight each major child protective services decision point,
including initial family assessment and safety evaluation and planning.
The chapters begin with practice information, followed by a completed
worksheet, general instructions that provide overall guidance, and
specific instructions. Worksheets direct case decisions and are intended
to replace traditional narrative records. A meaningful worker/family
partnership, in collaboration with other service providers and members of
the family's support network, serves as the vehicle to achieve change.

Descriptors:
models; decision making; child welfare reform; child protective services;
case assessment; family centered services; intervention strategies

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27926
The Future of Child Protection: How to Break the Cycle of Abuse and
Neglect.
Waldfogel, J.
Book
294 pp.
Copyright 1998
Cambridge, MA, Harvard Univ. Press
Distributed by:
Harvard Univ. Press
79 Garden St.
Cambridge, MA 02138
(800) 448-2242
FAX: (800) 962-4983
jws@hup.harvard.edu
http://www.hup.harvard.edu
Sponsored by:
Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD.

This book analyzes the public child protection system. Divided into 9
chapters, the first one provides an overview of child abuse and neglect in
the United States. The next chapters take a look at the children reported
to child protective services (CPS) and at the CPS itself. To account for
the high reporting rates in the United States relative to other countries,
chapter 2 compares the 1994 Boston case-record sample with samples of
reported children from Australia, Britain, and Canada. This chapter also
tracks outcomes over time for children reported to CPS. Chapter 3 surveys
the evolution of CPS, the assumption underlying it, and how well it is
responding to the needs of children today. The next chapter examines how
well the reporting, screening, and investigation components of the system
are responding to children's needs and suggest improvements. Chapter 5
reviews and evaluates proposals to narrow the scope of CPS. Chapter 6
presents a new paradigm for child protection, differential response, and
draws upon examples of reforms in 3 states to illustrate some of the
features and potential. Chapter 7 draws upon child protection reforms in
Britain to illustrate other features of the new paradigm, in particular
those that emphasize the collaboration of CPS agencies with other
agencies, with community members, and with families themselves. Chapter 8
explores the practical implications of the differential response paradigm,
again drawing upon examples of reforms under way in the United States and
other countries. The final chapter summarizes the case for reform, offers
concrete steps that localities or states could take to move toward a
differential-response approach to child protection, and identifies the
benefits of the new approach for the various partners in child protection,
and for the children in need of protection.

Descriptors:
child protective services; child welfare reform; systems reform; child
abuse reporting; multitrack response system; investigations

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27937
Interim Report on the Multiple Response System for Child Protective
Services in Virginia.
Virginia State Dept. of Social Services, Richmond.
Technical Report
27 pp.
December 1, 1998
Virginia State Dept. of Social Services, Richmond.
Distributed by:
Virginia State Dept. of Social Services
730 E. Broad St.
Richmond, VA 23219-1849
(804) 692-1251, (800) 828-1120, (800) 828-1120

A multiple response child protective services system is being piloted in 5
Virginia social service departments from March 1997 to December 1999. This
report presents some preliminary outcomes based on the first year of
implementation. The Multiple Response System (MRS) allows for a
differential response to reports of child abuse and neglect. During the
year, State and local staff identified a number of implementation issues
and adjusted procedures as necessary. The pilot agencies are using greater
flexibility offered by the MRS. The number of investigations dropped
dramatically in the 5 agencies. The agencies conducted a total of 665
investigations from July 1997 to June 1998, compared with 2,458
investigations during a comparable baseline period. Preliminary data from
the first year of MRS implementation suggest that the pilot is developing
along expected lines. Pilot agencies are conducting fewer investigations
but a higher percentage of the investigations are founded. Service needs
are being identified and services offered. The Virginia Department of
Social Services will continue to work with pilot agencies to identify and
provide training to improve worker skills in conducting assessments and
securing family acceptance of services. Additionally, the Virginia
Department of Social Services and the pilot agencies will develop
strategies to bring more local community resources into the MRS. 15
figures.

Descriptors:
child protective services; child welfare reform; virginia; multitrack
response system; social services; pilot programs; child abuse reporting

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-28503
A Profile of Florida's Child Protection System Data Fiscal Years 1996-97
and 1997-98.
Brown, E. C.; Hernandez, M.; Greenbaum, P. E.
Technical Report
45 pp.
1998
University of South Florida, Tampa. Louis de la Parte Florida Mental
Health Institute
Distributed by:
Office of Training Support-Technical Publications, Louis de la Parte
Florida Mental Health Institute
University of South Florida, 13301 Bruce B. Downs Blvd.
Tampa, FL 33612-3899
(813) 974-4483
FAX: (813) 974-1078
http://www.fmhi.usf.edu
Sponsored by:
Florida State Dept. of Children and Families, Tallahassee.

This report provides an analyses of data contributed by Florida's Office
of Family Safety and Preservation and is intended to provide State- and
district-level stakeholders with information pertaining to the child
protection system in Florida that is useful for system management and
improvement. The report is organized by primary service areas that
comprise the Office of Family Safety and Supervision. These areas include:
protective investigations, protective supervision, foster care, and
adoptive home supervision. Within each of these service areas, the report
is organized further by indicators of children entering services, service
activities occurring while children are in care, and outcomes of services.
Indicators related to protective investigations cover the period from
fiscal years 1993 to 1998. Indicators related to length of stay in, or
exit from, protective supervision, foster care, and adoptive home
supervision cover the period from fiscal years 1990 to 1998. Five
appendices provide the following information: maltreatment types,
protective investigation exit categories, protective supervision exit
categories, foster care exit categories, and adoptive home supervision
exit categories. 3 tables and 53 figures.

Descriptors:
florida; child protection; data analysis; indicators; investigations; home
evaluation; outcomes; foster care

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-28663
The Final Report of the Governor's Blue Ribbon Panel on Child Protection
Services.
New Jersey State Div. of Youth and Family Services, Trenton. Governor's
Blue Ribbon Panel on Child Protection Services.
Final Report
215 pp.
Copyright February 20, 1998
New Jersey State Div. of Youth and Family Services, Trenton. Governor's
Blue Ribbon Panel on Child Protection Services.
Distributed by:
New Jersey State Div. of Youth and Family Services, Governor's Blue Ribbon
Panel on Child Protection Services
P.O. Box 716
Trenton, NJ 08625-0716
(609) 292-6920
ddaniels@dhs.state.nj.us
http://www.state.nj.us/humanservices

This report outlines the findings and recommendations of the Governor's
Blue Ribbon Panel on Child Protection Services in New Jersey.
Subcommittees of the panel examined services, system supports, community
and interagency relationships, cultural competence, domestic violence,
staffing issues, and case management. The delivery of prevention and
diversion services, child protective services investigations, family
preservation and reunification services, kinship care, foster care,
adoption, residential services, and independent living services were
specifically reviewed. Recommendations focus on improving foundations of
the system, components of the service system, and community and
interagency supports. System design issues, the case management process,
supervision, practice standards and policies, staffing and workload,
material supports, contractual processes, professional development,
quality assurance, budget and fiscal support, interdepartmental
decision-making and information sharing, integration with the court
system, and community involvement and response are addressed. Emphasis is
placed on increasing prevention and early intervention services and making
long-term commitments to support families and ensure the safety and
permanency of children.

Descriptors:
new jersey; program evaluation; child protective services; child welfare
reform; child welfare services; statewide planning; interagency
collaboration; program improvement

 Publication Type:                 Annotated Bibliography

 Availability:
This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 Database:                             Annotated Bibliographies

 

 

Title:                                      EVALUATION/RESEARCH OF PREVENTION PROGRAMS: Selected Articles.

 Sponsor:                               Minnesota State Dept. of Human Services, Saint Paul

 Source:                                 NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 Internet URL: http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 Index Terms:
prevention programs;  community programs;  literature reviews;  program planning;  program evaluation;  delinquent behavior;  primary prevention;  sexual abuse;  schools role;  school linked services;  personal safety;  research reviews;  parenting skills;  parent education;  child welfare;  intervention strategies;  child abuse research;  research methodology;  research needs;  data analysis;  data collection;  program models;  family preservation;  outcomes;  public awareness;  public service announcements;  outreach;  motivation;  evaluation methods;  measures; 
reliability;  self report inventories;  preschool children;  child witnesses of family violence;  aggressive behavior;  spouse abuse;  group therapy;  childrens therapy;  therapeutic effectiveness;  evaluation;  violence;  intervention;  prevention;  families at risk;  high risk groups;  interagency collaboration;  guidelines;  research;  child development;  home visitation programs;  shaken baby syndrome;  infants;  head injuries;  symptoms;  identification;  diagnoses;  sequelae;  medical aspects of child abuse

 Full Text:
Document No.: CD-25719
Preventing Child Abuse: A Review of Community-Based Projects II: Issues
Arising from Reviews and Future Directions.
Cox, A. D.
Journal Article
Copyright January-February 1998
Child Abuse Review.
7(1):30-43.
Distributed by:
John Wiley and Sons, Attention Bob Kern
Baffins Lane
Chichester, Great Britain
adsales@wiley.co.uk
http://www.wiley.com

Detailed examination of evaluated community programs for the prevention of
physical child abuse and neglect shows that success depends on matching
the skills of the staff to the needs of the families. The relative
inefficiency of risk screening and attrition from prevention programs
argues for comprehensive as well as focused and varied activities. Sexual
abuse prevention programs have usually been implemented in schools but are
more successful when they address bullying and when children and parents
are also actively involved. This is also true of bullying programs. In
establishing risk for abuse, more effective methods are required to assess
aspects of family life that are not readily observable, including involved
but non- resident adult males. It is important not only to approach abuse
prevention by intervening in different ways and at different points in the
network of processes within and around the family, but also to find
cost-effective ways of sustaining preventative efforts. 49 references and
2 tables. (Author abstract)

Descriptors:
prevention programs; community programs; literature reviews; program
planning; program evaluation

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-25782
An Evaluation of Comprehensive, Community-Based Delinquency Prevention
Programming.
Howitt, P. S.; Moore, E. A.; Gaulier, B.
Journal Article
Copyright Winter 1998
Juvenile and Family Court Journal.
49(1):39-49.
Distributed by:
National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges
P. O. Box 8970
Reno, NV 89570
(775) 784-6012
FAX: (775) 784-6628
admin@ncjfcj.unr.edu
http://ncjfcj.unr.edu

This three-year program evaluation investigated the primary prevention
aspects of Youth Assistance (YA), a community-based program of the Oakland
County Probate Court providing casework and prevention services. The
activities studied included parent education sessions, supervised teen
recreation, summer camp scholarships, skill building activities, and a
one-to-one mentorship program. The goals of the study were to determine
how effectively the program succeeded in mobilizing community volunteers,
and to examine whether the incidence of neglect and delinquency had been
reduced as a result of participation in one or more of these primary
prevention activities. Ethnographical as well as quasi-experimental
approaches were used. The evaluation found that YA primary prevention
services do serve "at risk" populations in the community and that
participation in the YA activities had positive effects on the
participants, such as improved communication skills, increased respect for
authority, and more use of positive discipline techniques. Ninety-two
percent of the primary prevention program participants had no subsequent
contact with YA or the Court. Overall, the data indicate that the program
is cost effective. The study also confirmed that volunteers are an
essential part of the success of a community-based prevention program. The
study resulted in a number of specific recommendations which will be
implemented over the next few years in order to continuously improve the
program. 11 references and 2 tables. (Author abstract)

Descriptors:
prevention programs; delinquent behavior; community programs; program
evaluation; primary prevention

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-25891
School-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: Questions, Answers,
and More Questions.
Wurtele, S. K.
Chapter in Book
pp. 501-516
Copyright 1998
In: Lutzker, J. R. (Editor). Handbook of Child Abuse Research and
Treatment. New York, NY, Plenum Publishing Corp.
Distributed by:
Plenum Publishing Corp.
233 Spring St.
New York, NY 10013-1578
(800) 221-9369
books@plenum.com
http://www.plenum.com

This chapter answers common questions about the effectiveness of child
sexual abuse prevention programs administered by schools. Questions focus
on the objectives of prevention programs; success rates for teaching
children to recognize, resist, and report abuse; enhancement of the
child's knowledge of abuse and reassurance that the child is not at fault;
and evidence of reduction of sexual victimization. The chapter also
explores common concerns about the negative side effects of sexual abuse
prevention programs, such as anxiety, acting out, overgeneralization, and
sexual development. The roles of parents and school-based programs are
discussed. The final section outlines topics for further research.
Numerous references.

Descriptors:
sexual abuse; prevention programs; schools role; school linked services;
program evaluation; personal safety; research reviews

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-25893
Contributions of Parent Training to Child Welfare: Early History and
Current Thoughts.
Pinkston, E. M.; Smith, M. D.
Chapter in Book
pp. 377-399
Copyright 1998
In: Lutzker, J. R. (Editor). Handbook of Child Abuse Research and
Treatment. New York, NY, Plenum Publishing Corp.
Distributed by:
Plenum Publishing Corp.
233 Spring St.
New York, NY 10013-1578
(800) 221-9369
books@plenum.com
http://www.plenum.com

This chapter reviews research conducted on the effectiveness of parent
training in reducing child abuse and neglect, improving relationships
between parents and children, and increasing community support for
families. Recent findings are described in the areas of treatment of
single parent families, the involvement of fathers in parent training,
interventions with substance abusing parents, discontinuance, parents as
therapists, and training methods for workers. In general, the studies
found that many parent training programs are limited in scope and fail to
the meet the specific needs of parents who have special needs children or
substance abuse problems. Contracts for parent training should identify
the number of families to be served, number of classes, curriculum,
attendance, type of assessment, mental stability of parents, drug use by
parents, goals for changing behavior, and key components. Numerous
references.

Descriptors:
parenting skills; parent education; child welfare; prevention programs;
intervention strategies; research reviews

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-25953
Methodological Issues in Child Maltreatment Research.
Ammerman, R. T.
Chapter in Book
pp. 117-132
Copyright 1998
In: Lutzker, J. R. (Editor). Handbook of Child Abuse Research and
Treatment. New York, NY, Plenum Publishing Corp.
Distributed by:
Plenum Publishing Corp.
233 Spring St.
New York, NY 10013-1578
(800) 221-9369
books@plenum.com
http://www.plenum.com

This chapter examines the pitfalls and challenges of child maltreatment
research. The discussion identifies the limitations of current methods and
recommends improvements in definitions, subject sampling, measurement and
design, data analysis, intervention evaluation, and intervention
integrity. Problems include: lack of standard definitions of maltreatment
and molecular indices; questions of the representativeness of samples;
inattention to psychometric principles and the
reliability and validity of
instruments; underuse of experimental designs; lack of sophisticated,
multivariate analysis to determine the interaction of variables;
differences between research outcomes and treatment outcomes; and lack of
control over integrity and consistency of treatment. Researchers are
advised to document all sampling and analytical procedures to provide a
context for findings. An open discussion of limitations will help to
improve strategies and research methods. 28 references and 1 table.

Descriptors:
child abuse research; research methodology; research needs; data analysis;
data collection; program evaluation

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-26228
Utilization-Focused Evaluation of Two Intensive Family Preservation
Programs.
Drisko, J. W.
Journal Article
Copyright January-February 1998
Families in Society.
79(1):62-74.
Distributed by:
Editor, Families in Society
11700 W. Lake Park Dr.
Milwaukee, WI 53224-3099
fis@fsanet.org

This article evaluates the Brightside Intensive Family Intervention (IFI)
Program and the Massachusetts Department of Social Services' Family Life
Center (FLC), which share a referral pool of 47 client families. The
families were interviewed to assess the two programs from the consumers'
perspective. Applying Patton's utilization-focused evaluation, qualitative
information offered feedback to program staff and supervisors and
quantitative data provided and administrative summary of the success of
both programs. The structure and process of each program, as experienced
by its clients, were linked with outcome. Families found these tertiary
prevention programs worked well to support their dignity and expand their
community connections. Agency auspices were unimportant to most parents,
who preferred a team model and relatively longer contact. Most parents
viewed concrete services an ancillary to relationship-based work. 32
references. (Author abstract)

Descriptors:
program evaluation; prevention programs; program models; family
preservation; outcomes

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-26507
Appealing to Positive Motivations and Emotions in Social Marketing:
Example of a Positive Parenting Campaign.
Henley, N.; Donovan, R. J.; Moorhead, H.
Proceedings Paper
8 pp
Copyright June 1998
Presented at: Innovations in Social Marketing Conference, June 1998,
Washington, DC
Distributed by:
Family and Children's Services

This paper outlines the benefits of a positive approach to social
marketing and describes a public awareness campaign designed to improve
parenting behaviors. Positive marketing strategies focus on positive
motivations, rather than threats and negative emotions. Emphasis is placed
on sensory gratification, intellectual stimulation, social approval,
conformity and self approval, instead of problem removal, avoidance, and
incomplete satisfaction. In the case of the "Accentuate the Positive"
parenting campaign, printed and video materials highlighted the positive
aspects of parenting skills. The emotions of love, excitement,
assertiveness, and humor were shown as rewards for encouraging parenting
styles. An evaluation of the campaign revealed that 69 percent of the
target audience were aware of the television advertisement and 40 percent
of parents said they were motivated to change their behavior. Calls to a
parenting hotline increased by 40 percent during the campaign period. 18
references and 2 tables.

Descriptors:
parenting skills; parent education; prevention programs; public awareness;
public service announcements; outreach; motivation; program evaluation

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-26513
An Examination of the
Reliability of the "What If" Situations Test: A
Brief Report.
Wurtele, S. K.; Hughes, J.; Owens, J. S.
Journal Article
Copyright 1998
Journal of Child Sexual Abuse.
7(1):41-52.
Distributed by:
Haworth Document Delivery Service
10 Alice St.
Binghamton, NY 13904-1580
(800) 429-6784
getinfo@haworth.com
http://www.haworthpressinc.com

The purpose of this study was to investigate the internal and test-retest
reliability of the "What If" Situations Test (WIST) to determine its
utility as an evaluation tool for young children. The WIST contains six
scales designed to assess children's abilities to recognize, resist, and
report inappropriate touching. The WIST was administered to 406
preschoolers involved in five previous studies. Internal and test-retest
reliabilities of the six scales met research standards, supporting the
internal consistency and temporal stability of the WIST. Advantages and
limitations of the measure are presented and validation issues are then
discussed. 22 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract)

Descriptors:
prevention programs; program evaluation; evaluation methods; measures;
reliability; research methodology; self report inventories; preschool
children

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-26598
Decreasing Aggression in Child Witnesses of Domestic Violence.
Ragg, D. M.; Sultana, M.; Miller, D.
Proceedings Paper
20 pp.
Copyright July 1998
Presented at: Program Evaluation and Family Violence Research: An
International Conference. New Hampshire Univ., Durham, Family Research
Laboratory
Distributed by:
Eastern Michigan Univ., Department of Social Work
419B King Hall
Ypsilanti, MI 48197

This paper reports the findings of an evaluation of a psychoeducational
program designed to reduce the aggressive behavior of child witnesses of
domestic violence. Components of the group treatment include: establish
group rapport; challenge assumptions and models of family functioning;
increase positive self-worth; improve listening and problem solving skills;
 encourage assumption of responsibility; develop assertiveness skills; and
increase the communication of feelings and anger control. The Child
Behavior Checklist-Parent Report (CBCL) was completed for every child
(143) who entered the program. The CBCL was completed a second time for 70
children who finished the program and 73 children who did not attend the
program after intake. Pre- and post-test scores were compared for the
treatment and control groups. Male participants in the group scored
significantly better than control subjects in the areas of aggressive
behavior, externalizing problems, and internalizing problems. Female
participants differed from nonparticipants only on the internalizing
behavior scale. Overall, 75 percent of male and female participants
demonstrated improvement in internalizing problems. Seventy percent of
males decreased aggressive behavior, while almost half of the females
increased their aggressive behavior. Reasons for the increased aggressive
behavior among females are discussed. 80 references and 10 tables.

Descriptors:
child witnesses of family violence; aggressive behavior; prevention
programs; spouse abuse; group therapy; childrens therapy; program
evaluation; therapeutic effectiveness

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-26644
Evaluation Research on Violence Interventions: Issues and Strategies for
Design.
Tolan, P. H.; Brown, C. H.
Chapter in Book
pp. 439-464
Copyright 1998
In: Trickett, P. K. and Schellenbach, C. D. (Editors). Violence Against
Children in the Family and the Community. Washington, DC, American
Psychological Association
Distributed by:
American Psychological Association
P. O. Box 92984
Washington, DC 20090-2984
(202) 336-5510
http://www.apa.org

This chapter provides a framework and guidance for evaluation research on
interventions to prevent violence affecting children. The authors hope to
facilitate empirical investigations of key questions concerning the causes
of and solutions to violence affecting children, and to deepen and broaden
the knowledge base needed for sound and effective policy in this area. The
chapter summarizes some of the issues involved in designing violence
interventions and suggests some design and analytical approaches that can
be applied to improve the strength and sensitivity of evaluations. At the
end of the chapter, an example is provided on how alternative strategies
for evaluation can work in interventions for abusers. The authors conclude
that scientific evaluations of intervention programs are possible under a
wide set of circumstances that include designs with a formal randomization
to intervention assignment, as well as methods in which assignment is
subject to conditions, only some of which can be modeled. The authors
recommend that all researchers of violence interventions report how the
assignment to intervention was done and collect baseline data that can be
used to build a predictive model of intervention choice. In addition,
reporting baseline differences by condition, outcome distribution after
adjusting for baseline differences, and interaction effects of
intervention by baseline characteristics will enhance the knowledge base
and allow investigators to combine results from separate studies. Numerous
references.

Descriptors:
evaluation; research methodology; violence; intervention; prevention

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27218
The Effectiveness of Public-Private Partnerships in Reducing Child
Maltreatment Among High Risk Families.
Owen, G.; Fercello, C.; AuClaire, P.; Thompson, D.
Proceedings Paper
14 pp.
Copyright November 20, 1998
Presented at: Twelfth National Conference on Child Abuse and Neglect,
Cincinnati, OH
Distributed by:
Wilder Research Center
1295 Bandana Blvd. N., Suite 55108
Saint Paul, MN 55108
(612) 647-4600 x
greg@wilder.org
http://www.wilder.org/wrc/wrc.html
Sponsored by:
Minnesota State Dept. of Human Services, Saint Paul.

This paper presents the results of two experimental studies conducted in
Minnesota between 1994 and 1998 to examine the effectiveness of a
public-private service model designed to reduce child maltreatment and
improve family functioning among at-risk families. The first study,
conducted in Minneapolis, examined the effectiveness of specific service
interventions designed for families who have already been involved in the
child protection system. The second study investigated the effectiveness
of specific intervention efforts among families in St. Paul with
significant risk factors who have not yet been involved with in child
protection. In both studies, families were offered financial incentives
and given an opportunity to work with a non-profit human service agency of
their choosing. Families who met risk criteria were assigned to either a
treatment (specific intervention) or control (typical services) condition
and followed for a period of two years. Outcomes of subsequent
maltreatment, severity of maltreatment, out-of-home placement
expenditures, housing stability, strength of family resources and family
support, service utilization, and economic well-being were measured. The
results indicate that in the higher risk population (Minneapolis), the
experimental intervention produced a significant drop in out-of-home
placement costs for those served by the family options program. In
addition, the severity of new neglect cases appeared to be reduced for
families served under this condition. The study also found greater
effectiveness among those non-profit agencies that develop service plans
most closely aligned with identified risk factors. In the lower risk model
(St. Paul), results found a general reduction in spousal abuse for
families served, as well as gains in both housing stability and employment
status. Consistent with the Minneapolis study, the St. Paul study also
shows a significant reduction in out-of-home placement costs for treatment
group families. (Author abstract modified)

Descriptors:
families at risk; high risk groups; program evaluation; prevention
programs; interagency collaboration; program models

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27309
Guidelines for Conducting Site-Based Evaluations of Intensive Family
Preservation Programs.
Raschick, M.; Critchley, R.
Journal Article
Copyright November-December 1998
Child Welfare.
77(6):643-660.
Michael Raschick, Department of Social Work, University of Minnesota -
Duluth, 10 University Dr., Duluth, MN 55812

Guidelines for conducting on-site evaluations of intensive family
preservation programs are outlined in this article. Child welfare agencies
are advised to work with university researchers to supplement the funding
and personnel resources that are available for research. Keys to
successful collaborations include: involve all key stakeholders throughout
the evaluation process; apply the objectives and goals of stakeholders to
the development of research questions, methodologies, and instruments;
implement a utilization-oriented research model; and modify agency
information systems to facilitate data collection. Evaluation designs
should also include a control or comparison group, measure placement
restrictiveness in intervals, assess placements over a two-year period,
use event history analysis, design new instruments when necessary to
evaluate improvements in family and child functioning, and consider
qualitative approaches to evaluation. 31 references.

Descriptors:
program evaluation; evaluation methods; family preservation; research
methodology; program models; guidelines; interagency collaboration

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27332
Parent Education Home Visitation Program: Adolescent and Nonadolescent
Mother Comparison After Six Months of Intervention.
Culp, A. M.; Culp, R. E.; Blankmeyer, M.; Passmark, L.
Journal Article
Copyright Summer 1998
Infant Mental Health Journal.
19(2):111-123.
Distributed by:
John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Customer Service
605 Third Ave.
New York, NY 10158-0012
(212) 850-6645
FAX: (212) 850-6021
subinfo@wiley.com
http://www.interscience.wiley.com

This article discusses a model program for parent education home
visitation. Adolescent and nonadolescent mothers were visited weekly by
trained and supervised child development paraprofessionals. The mothers
were taught parenting skills, child development, and were linked to
community services. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance
(MANOVA) was used to determine group by time effects. After 6 months of
intervention, the mothers significantly improved their knowledge of: (1)
infant development; (2) empathic responsiveness; and (3) child and parent
roles in the family. In addition, the safety of their homes improved
significantly and their involvement with agencies in the community
increased significantly. The adolescent mothers scored significantly lower
than the nonadolescent mothers at baseline on only 2 measures: knowledge
of infant development and understanding of child and parent roles;
however, after 6 months of intervention, their scores were not
significantly different from the nonadolescent mothers. This model seems
to help adolescent and nonadolescent mothers even when the adolescent
mothers begin the program with less information on child development and
parenting than that of nonadolescent mothers. 39 references. (Author
abstract modified)

Descriptors:
parent education; parenting skills; prevention; prevention programs;
research; child development; home visitation programs

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27603
Nonaccidental Head Injury in Infants: "The Shaken Baby Syndrome
Revisited.".
Conway, E. E.
Journal Article
Copyright October 1998
Pediatric Annals.
27(10):677-690.
Edward E. Conway, Beth Israel Medical Center-North Division, Division of
Pediatric Critical Care, 170 East End Ave., New York, NY 10128

This article describes the symptoms and mechanisms of nonaccidental head
trauma (NAHT), also known as shaken baby syndrome or shaken impact
syndrome. Common presentations and complaints of infants with NAHT include
upper respiratory infection, diarrhea, fever, vomiting, colic, lethargy,
irritability, apnea, poor feeding, and seizures. Physicians should suspect
that injuries are abuse-related when the explanation of the injury in not
believable or consistent, when the family has a history of abuse, or when
the caregiver delays treatment or is hostile or unreasonable. The extent
of the injuries is attributed to the physical characteristics of infants
(head proportionally large and weak neck muscles), as well as the
development of the neuronal processes of the brain and the violence of the
acceleration-deceleration movement. The article reviews the
characteristics and incidence of intracerebral trauma, skull fractures,
retinal hemorrhages, and other traumatic injuries. Physicians are
cautioned to explore alternative diagnoses that present with similar
symptoms, such as bleeding diatheses or metabolic disorders. 60
references, 6 figures, and 4 tables.

Descriptors:
shaken baby syndrome; infants; head injuries; symptoms; identification;
diagnoses; sequelae; medical aspects of child abuse

 Publication Type:                 Annotated Bibliography

 Availability:
This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 Database:                             Annotated Bibliographies

 

 

Title:                                      FALSE ALLEGATIONS AND FALSE MEMORY SYNDROME: Selected Articles.

 Source:                                 NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 Internet URL: http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 Index Terms:
false memory syndrome;  trauma;  memory;  social policies;  policy formation;  political factors;  public opinion;  social attitudes;  dissociation;  amnesia;  evidence;  multiple personality disorder;  false allegations;  neurology;  adults abused as children;  repression;  validity;  sexual abuse;  research reviews;  suggestibility;  theories;  therapeutic intervention;  therapists role;  research methodology;  psychotherapy;  models;  mental health;  child witnesses;  child development;  literature reviews;  individual characteristics;  credibility

 Full Text:
Document No.: CD-26957
The Sociopolitical Context of the Delayed Memory Debate.
Kristiansen, C. M.; Gareau, C.; Mittleholt, J.; DeCourville, N. H.;
Hovdestad, W. E.
Chapter in Book
pp. 331-347
Copyright 1999
In: Williams, L. M. and Banyard, V. L. (Editors). Trauma and Memory.
Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-0721
FAX: (805) 499-0871
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com/

This chapter reports the findings of two studies of public attitudes about
recovered memories of abuse. In the first study, 187 college students
completed a questionnaire about the equality of women, belief in a just
world, opinions about false memories, and attitudes about the
admissibility of memories as evidence in court. Analyses revealed that
support for the concept of false memory syndrome was most often indicated
by subjects who were male, younger, authoritarian, opposed to the equality
of women, and had greater beliefs in a just world. Subjects with these
characteristics also supported stricter requirements for legal evidence
and were less knowledgeable about incest. These findings are consistent
with hypotheses attributing attitudes to views about a just world,
backlash, and narcissism. The second study examined whether these
hypotheses were applicable to other women's issues. A sample of 187 people
completed a questionnaire about attitudes toward women, authoritarian
styles, values, and political orientations. Participants were specifically
asked their opinions regarding battered women and premenstrual syndrome.
Older participants and those with strong beliefs about a just world had
more negative opinions about women. People with high authoritarian scores
were also less knowledgeable about incest, battered women, and
premenstrual syndrome. 59 references, 1 figure, and 6 tables.

Descriptors:
false memory syndrome; trauma; memory; social policies; policy formation;
political factors; public opinion; social attitudes

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-26958
True Lies, False Lies, and Naturalistic Raw Data: Applying Clinical
Research Findings to the False Memory Debate.
Kluft, R. P.
Chapter in Book
pp. 319-329
Copyright 1999
In: Williams, L. M. and Banyard, V. L. (Editors). Trauma and Memory.
Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-0721
FAX: (805) 499-0871
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com/

This chapter reports the findings of a clinical review of patients with
dissociative identity disorder to determine whether recovered memories
could be confirmed or disconfirmed. Of the 34 cases reviewed, 19 had
memories of abuse which were corroborated. Thirteen of those patients with
confirmed abuse recovered the memory of those incidents while in therapy.
Evidence disproving allegations of abuse was found for three of the
patients. These findings demonstrate that accurate memories can be
recovered in therapy and documented as true by other sources. Sources of
confirmation and the role of hypnosis are described in the chapter. 41
references and 3 tables.

Descriptors:
false memory syndrome; trauma; memory; dissociation; amnesia; evidence;
multiple personality disorder; false allegations

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-26960
Can Cognitive Neuroscience Illuminate the Nature of Traumatic Childhood
Memories?
Schacter, D. L.; Koustaal, W.; Norman, K. A.
Chapter in Book
pp. 257-269
Copyright 1999
In: Williams, L. M. and Banyard, V. L. (Editors). Trauma and Memory.
Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-0721
FAX: (805) 499-0871
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com/

This chapter applies knowledge from the cognitive neuroscience field to
the debate over recovered memories. In general, research has found that,
in some situations, abuse victims have forgotten their trauma. Forgotten
incidents are usually caused by regular processes of forgetting, including
decay, interference, and infantile and childhood amnesia. However, the
forgetting of more severe or extended periods of abuse may be the result
of repression, although the evidence of this is limited. Research does
indicate that forgotten memories of abuse can be recalled accurately with
the right techniques. In addition, illusory memories can occur in
suggestible individuals. Source memory and source monitoring have been
found to contribute to false or illusory memories. Other explanations for
memory forgetting and recovery from the cognitive neuroscience field
include differences in brain systems in abused women, retrograde amnesia,
and the effects of stress on cognitive functioning. Numerous references.

Descriptors:
neurology; memory; trauma; adults abused as children; repression; validity;
 false memory syndrome; amnesia

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-26965
Seeking the Core: The Issues and Evidence Surrounding Recovered Accounts
of Sexual Trauma.
Schooler, J. W.
Chapter in Book
pp. 203-216
Copyright 1999
In: Williams, L. M. and Banyard, V. L. (Editors). Trauma and Memory.
Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-0721
FAX: (805) 499-0871
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com/

This chapter identifies issues in the debate about the validity of
recovered memories of childhood trauma and the fabrication of memories by
suggestion. Research on the validity of recovered memories focuses on two
major considerations: that the abuse occurred and that it was forgotten
for a period of time. The chapter describes these aspects as well as
corroboration of the abuse and the processes of forgetting and recovering
memories. Research findings on each of these topics are highlighted. The
chapter then explores fabricated memories. The role of suggestion in the
creation of memories, the acceptance of false memories by the alleged
victim, and the retractions of recovered memories are discussed. In
general, research in both areas provides evidence that memories can be
recovered or fabricated. However, more research is necessary to examine
the frequency of corroboration for recovered memories of abuse and the
variables that influence forgetting and remembering, including therapeutic
techniques. 69 references.

Descriptors:
sexual abuse; adults abused as children; memory; trauma; false memory
syndrome; false allegations; research reviews; suggestibility

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-26966
False Childhood Memories: Research, Theory, and Applications.
Hyman, I. E.; Kleinknecht, E. E.
Chapter in Book
pp. 175-188
Copyright 1999
In: Williams, L. M. and Banyard, V. L. (Editors). Trauma and Memory.
Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-0721
FAX: (805) 499-0871
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com/

This chapter reviews research about the creation of false memories and
describes the implications for therapy. While acknowledging that many
memories of childhood sexual abuse are true, the chapter presents evidence
from the research that indicates that false memories of emotional events
can be created. The process of memory creation begins with the acceptance
that a particular event was possible. Source of suggestion, the
believability of the event, and group membership can influence whether an
individual believes that the event could have happened. Next, the person
creates an image by integrating knowledge, personal experiences,
suggestions, and demands. Journaling, dream interpretation, and other
reflective activities can facilitate the memory construction process.
Finally, the person mistakenly attributes the created image of the story
to personal memory. Memories can also be influenced by social situations,
as people internalize the anecdotes of other people into their own
memories. The chapter concludes with general guidelines for therapy with
clients who have memories of trauma, clients without memories, and clients
who recover memories. 47 references.

Descriptors:
false memory syndrome; memory; trauma; research reviews; theories;
therapeutic intervention; therapists role; false allegations

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-26979
Memory Research and Clinical Practice: A Critique of Three Paradigms and a
Framework for Psychotherapy with Trauma Survivors.
Harvey, M. R.
Chapter in Book
pp. 19-29
Copyright 1999
In: Williams, L. M. and Banyard, V. L. (Editors). Trauma and Memory.
Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-0721
FAX: (805) 499-0871
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com/

This chapter presents a psychotherapist's perspective on the false memory
debate and the quality of the research that is used to support the theory.
A history of memory research identifies the key issues of the controversy
about repressed and delayed memories: their validity as forensic evidence;
differences between traumatic memory and normal memory; and effective
strategies for psychotherapy. The chapter then critiques the major
paradigms of the research that is used to substantiate the false memory
theory. Elizabeth Loftus' shopping mall study, Steven Ceci's child
interrogation study, and Ira Human's study of recall in college students
are flawed in methodology as well as applicability to the clinical
setting. The first two were conducted outside a clinical type atmosphere.
Hyman's study was conducted in the laboratory, but did not use standard
clinical practices to determine the therapist's role in recall.
Clinical-focused research has found that many patients recover memories
outside of therapy and that most have been able to substantiate their
recovered memories. Amnesia and delayed recall are common among trauma
survivors in therapy. The chapter explains the goals of clinical memory
work and it's role in therapy. 50 references.

Descriptors:
memory; trauma; research methodology; psychotherapy; models; false memory
syndrome; validity; adults abused as children

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-26980
Trauma, Memory, and Clinical Practice.
Berliner, L.; Briere, J.
Chapter in Book
pp. 3-18
Copyright 1999
In: Williams, L. M. and Banyard, V. L. (Editors). Trauma and Memory.
Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-0721
FAX: (805) 499-0871
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com/

This chapter reviews research about the memory process and the effects of
trauma on the accuracy of recall. Implications for therapy are
specifically discussed. Current research has found that in general, most
children and adults are able to accurately remember traumatic events.
However, it is possible that the events could be misunderstood or
inaccurate about certain details. In addition, traumatic memories are
processed differently than memories of other events and are often less
clear. Victims of trauma may develop symptoms of post traumatic stress
disorder, such as intrusive thoughts about the event, nightmares and
flashbacks, and dissociative amnesia. The chapter also summarizes the
findings of research about the mechanisms of memory, including the
reconstructive nature of the process; memory ability; organization of
memories in children and adults; suggestibility; and the development of
false memories or beliefs about an event. Trauma specific therapy is
usually recommended for patients with symptoms of post-traumatic stress
who can remember their trauma. However, treatment should focus on
techniques to reduce stress, rather than on the memories of trauma. When
treating patients who do remember their traumatic experience, clinicians
are advised to use caution in their support of the recovery of memory.
Interviews must comply with legal standards for evidence and avoid any
questions that may influence the memory process. Numerous references.

Descriptors:
trauma; memory; repression; research reviews; neurology; false memory
syndrome; therapists role; suggestibility

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-26986
Trauma and Memory.
Williams, L. M. (Editor); Banyard, V. L. (Editor)
Book
397 pp.
Copyright 1999
Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-0721
FAX: (805) 499-0871
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com/

The articles in this volume review current research and theory about the
effects of trauma on memory and the
reliability of repressed memories of
childhood abuse. The first part focuses on clinical practice and legal
issues with chapters that examine memory functioning, the suggestibility
of the memories of maltreated children, psychotherapy with trauma
survivors, and implications for the civil statues of limitations. Part Two
considers the effects of traumatic memories on mental health functioning.
Post-traumatic stress disorder, bulimia nervosa, psychopathology,
dissociation, participation in research, and the evolution from victim to
survivor are discussed. The third section reviews cognitive and
physiological perspectives on trauma and memory. Chapters examine the
effects of trauma on brain functioning and the validity of research about
false memories. The final section presents evidence of the characteristics
of traumatic memories and provides an overview of the memory debate.
Numerous references, figures, and tables.

Descriptors:
trauma; memory; adults abused as children; repression; research reviews;
theories; mental health; neurology

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27690
The Suggestibility of Children's Memory.
Bruck, M.; Ceci, S. J.
Journal Article
Copyright 1999
Annual Review of Psychology.
50:419-439.
Distributed by:
Annual Reviews Reprint Service
4139 El Camino Way
P. O. Box 10139 Palo Alto, CA 94303-0139
(800) 347-8007
FAX: (415) 259-5017
arpr@class.org
http://www.annurev.org

This review describes a shift that has taken place in the area of
developmental suggestibility. Formerly, studies in this area indicated
that there were pronounced age-related differences in suggestibility, with
preschool children being particularly susceptible to misleading
suggestions. The studies on which this conclusion was based were
criticized on several grounds (e.g., unrealistic scenarios, truncated age
range). Newer studies that have addressed these criticisms, however, have
largely confirmed the earlier conclusions. These studies indicate that
preschool children are disproportionately vulnerable to a variety of
suggestive influences. There do not appear to be any strict boundary
conditions to this conclusion, and preschool children will sometimes
succumb to suggestions about bodily touching, emotional events, and
participatory events. The evidence for child assertion is presented in the
review. 58 references. (Author abstract)

Descriptors:
child witnesses; memory; suggestibility; child development; literature
reviews; individual characteristics; credibility; false allegations

 Publication Type:                 Annotated Bibliography

 Availability:
This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 Database:                             Annotated Bibliographies

 

 

Title:                                      CHILD FATALITIES(Excludes Child Fatality Review Teams): Selected Articles.

 Sponsor:                               Children's Bureau (DHHS), Washington, DC

 Source:                                 NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 Internet URL: http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 Index Terms:
child fatalities;  child neglect;  case studies;  parental responsibility;  definitions;  prevention;  infanticide;  characteristics of abused;  characteristics of abuser;  family characteristics;  predictor variables;  armed forces;  military personnel;  medical neglect;  religion;  investigations;  autopsies;  forensic medicine;  protocols;  child abuse reporting;  state surveys;  prevalence;  statistical data;  child welfare services;  family violence;  statistical analysis;  infant mortality;  family relationships;  trauma;  child abuse research;  foster care;  sudden infant death syndrome;  california;  program evaluation;  federal programs;  health services;  community based services;  demonstration programs;  early intervention programs;  homicide;  child protective services;  sequelae;  symptoms;  head injuries;  infants;  diagnoses

 Full Text:
Document No.: CD-27773
Fatal Child Neglect.
Bonner, B. L.; Crow, S. M.; Logue, M. B.
Chapter in Book
pp. 156-173
Copyright 1999
In: Dubowitz, H. (Editor). Neglected Children: Research, Practice, and
Policy. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-0721
FAX: (805) 499-0871
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com/

This chapter presents an overview of fatal child neglect, including
definition, incidence, etiology, investigation, and the current
professional and societal responses to this issue. Fatal neglect is
narrowly defined as death due to parental or caretaker failure to provide
a reasonable standard of care. It may be broadly defined as a
multidimensional problem that requires a focus on all possible harm, the
severity of the likely harm to the child, and the frequency and chronicity
of the situation or the circumstances in which the neglect occurred. The
responsibility to meet the needs of children falls primarily on parents,
although other caretakers, community members, and society as a whole share
in this responsibility. When applied to real-life circumstances, defining
neglect and assessing responsibility are complex issues. The actual number
of children who die as a result of neglect each year is not known.
Inaccurate and incomplete information, coupled with an outdated death
classification system and miscoding of neglect-related deaths on death
certificates, contributes to the uncertainty of the number of
child-neglect-related deaths. Several types of fatalities that can be
attributed to neglect are described, and ways these contributory factors
may be implicated are discussed. The most common forms of neglect-related
death are believed to be inadequate supervision-hazard exposure; smoke
inhalation; drowning; and medical neglect. Case histories of each are
given, along with recommendations on evaluation, intervention, protection
and prevention. The investigation and evaluation of child-neglect-related
deaths should include a comprehensive assessment of all factors involved
in the death, not just parental responsibility. This evaluation may lead
to primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention measures. Numerous
references.

Descriptors:
child fatalities; child neglect; case studies; parental responsibility;
definitions; prevention

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-25426
Victim, Perpetrator, Family, and Incident Characteristics of 32 Infant
Maltreatment Deaths in the United States Air Force.
Brewster, A. L.; Nelson, J. P.; Hymel, K. P.; Colby, D. R.; et al.
Journal Article
Copyright February 1998
Child Abuse and Neglect.
22(2):91-101.
Albert L. Brewster, Malcolm Grow Medical Center, 1075 W. Perimeter Road,
Andrews AFB, MD 20762

The aim of the present study was to extend the previous number of
variables used to describe infanticide and identify factors that might be
used to prevent infant fatalities caused by child abuse. Using a
multidisciplinary approach, victim, perpetrator, family, and incident
variables were identified and examined. Available investigative, birth,
medical, autopsy, and Air Force Family Advocacy Program records concerning
substantiated cases of infanticide due to family maltreatment occurring in
the United States Air Force from 1989 through 1995 were independently
reviewed for 58 criteria. Interrater
reliability was 96 percent. The mean
age of the infant-victim was 4.9 months old. Although 35 percent of
physicians' reports about the infant-victim noted colic, only 10 percent
of mothers and 13 percent of the parent-perpetrators reported their
infants as colicky. Fifty-five percent of the infant-victims had physical
trauma before the fatal incident, indicating physical abuse. At death age,
the infants' weights and lengths were smaller in comparison to normal
infants the same age. The caretaker-perpetrator had a history of abuse in
childhood (23 percent), was male (84 percent), the biological father of
the victim (77 percent) and a first-time parent (54 percent). The
infant-victim families were composed of young, married parents with one or
two children. The incident had the infant-victim crying (58 percent) and
alone with the caretaker-perpetrator (86 percent) on the weekend (47
percent) at around noon in the home (71 percent). The findings indicate
several factors related to infanticide. Awareness of these factors may
help in the prevention of infant deaths caused by abuse. 32 references, 1
figure, and 1 table. (Author abstract)

Descriptors:
child fatalities; infanticide; characteristics of abused; characteristics
of abuser; family characteristics; predictor variables; armed forces;
military personnel

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-25908
Child Fatalities From Religion-motivated Medical Neglect.
Asser, S. M.; Swan, R.
Journal Article
Copyright April 1998
Pediatrics.
101(4):625-629.
Distributed by:
American Academy of Pediatrics
141 Northwest Point Blvd.
Elk Grove Village, IL 60007-1098
(800) 433-9016
kidsdocs@aap.org
http://www.aap.org

This study reviewed 172 cases of child deaths in which parents withheld
medical care because of
reliance on religious rituals. Probability of
survival for each was then estimated based on expected survival rates for
children with similar disorders who receive medical care to determine if
the deaths were preventable. One hundred forty fatalities were form
conditions for which survival rates with medical care would have exceeded
90 percent. Eighteen more had expected survival rates of more than 50
percent. All but 3 of the remainder would likely have had some benefit
from clinical help. When faith healing is used to the exclusion of medical
treatment, the number of preventable child fatalities and the associated
suffering are substantial and warrant public concern. Existing laws may be
inadequate to protect children from this form of medical neglect. 31
references and 4 tables. (Author abstract)

Descriptors:
child fatalities; medical neglect; religion; prevention

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-26069
Fatal Child Abuse: Autopsy Protocol and Death Scene Investigation.
Case, M. S.
Proceedings Paper
pp. 520-529
Copyright March 17, 1998
Presented at: The 14th National Symposium on Child Sexual Abuse,
Huntsville, AL
Distributed by:
National Children's Advocacy Center
200 Westside Sq., Suite 700
Huntsville, AL 35801
(205) 533-0531
ncacadm@HiWAAY.net

This protocol outlines recommended procedures for conducting pediatric
autopsies as required when the cause of death is suspicious or unknown.
The guidelines review preliminary investigation procedures, general
autopsy examination, external examination, and internal examination.
Medical examiners are advised to examine clothing and other items with the
body and search for trace evidence. Specific recommendations when there is
evidence of external injury, internal injury, skeletal or organ injury are
provided. External examinations should include an evaluation of
cleanliness, congenital anomalies, failure to thrive, evidence of abuse or
neglect, and evidence of sexual abuse. The protocol also addresses
microscopic examination, post mortem chemistry, toxicology,
neuropathology, and radiographic views. Topics to be discussed in a
comment or opinion are discussed.

Descriptors:
child fatalities; investigations; autopsies; forensic medicine; protocols

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-26191
Current Trends in Child Abuse Reporting and Fatalities: The Results of the
1997 Annual Fifty State Survey.
Wang, C.; Daro, D.
Technical Report
9 pp.
Copyright May 1998
Working Paper Number 808. National Committee to Prevent Child Abuse,
Chicago, IL
Distributed by:
National Committee to Prevent Child Abuse
200 S. Michigan Ave., 17th Floor
Chicago, IL 60604-4357
(312) 663-3520
ncpca@childabuse.org
http://www.childabuse.org

This report highlights the findings of a survey of state liaisons for
child abuse and neglect about the number of child abuse reports during the
period 1995 through 1997, the number of substantiated reports, reasons for
changes in reporting levels, type of maltreatment, confirmed child abuse
fatalities during 1995 through 1997, child protective service systems,
level of funding, and agency attitudes regarding proposed reforms. Every
state except Maine and Nevada responded to the questionnaire. The analysis
estimated that almost 3.2 million children were reported to child
protective services during 1997, with a substantiation rate of 33 percent.
Neglect was reported most often, accounting for 52 percent of the reports,
while 26 percent of the reports addressed physical abuse and 7 percent
indicated sexual abuse. Only 3 percent of substantiated cases of abuse
were in day care or foster care settings. Nationwide, state liaisons
reported decreases in the number of families receiving child welfare
services, reflecting the increased focus of child protection on foster
care services. Funds from the New Federal Family Preservation and Support
Services Program are being allocated somewhat evenly, with an average of
54 percent spent for family support services and 41 percent applied to
family preservation. Few survey participants gave an opinion on the
possible impact of welfare reform on child welfare services. 6 references.

Descriptors:
child abuse reporting; child fatalities; state surveys; prevalence;
statistical data; child welfare services

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-26658
Infant Homicide: Victim-Offender Relationship and Causes of Death.
Smithey, M.
Journal Article
Copyright September 1998
Journal of Family Violence.
13(3):285-297.
Distributed by:
Plenum Publishing Corp.
233 Spring St.
New York, NY 10013-1578
(212) 620-8000
journals@plenum.com
http://www.plenum.com

The phenomenon of infanticide has been examined, explained, justified, and
treated according to physiological, psychiatric, and psychological
correlates. There has been little examination of the social correlates
directly pertaining to infant homicide. However, social correlates are
often indirectly addressed in the medical and psychiatric literature. This
paper tests relationships between social correlates often asserted, but
typically not tested, in the medical and psychiatric literature. Using a
sample of 380 infant homicides in Texas from 1981 through 1991, a
multivariate analysis between victim and offender relationship, cause of
death, and victim's age at time of fatal injury, predicts the age at which
an infant, defined here as 34 or less months of age, is likely to be
fatally injured. The leading cause of death was head trauma (54.2 percent)
and the second largest category was body or abdomen trauma (10 percent).
Other causes of death, such as asphyxia, exposure or abandonment, stab
wounds, gunshot wounds, burns, and neglect, were less than 8 percent of
the cases. The risk of fatal injury decreased with each additional day of
life. Mothers were the most frequent offenders of the murder of newborns
and infants up to 4 months; the biological father is the leading offender
at ages 4 to 10 months; the mother's boyfriend and victim's stepfather
were the most frequent offenders from 10 to 25 months; and mothers were
the primary offenders for ages 25 months and older. The findings support
the hypotheses that as the age of the victim increases, the level of
violence used to fatally injure the infant increases; and as the level of
relational intimacy decreases, the level of violence used to fatally
injure the infant increases. 4 figures, 1 table, and numerous references.
(Author abstract modified)

Descriptors:
family violence; statistical analysis; infanticide; infant mortality;
family relationships; child fatalities; trauma

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-26724
Death Rates Among California's Foster Care and Former Foster Care
Populations.
Barth, R. P.; Blackwell, D. L.
Journal Article
Copyright August 1998
Children and Youth Services Review.
20(7):577-604.
Richard Barth, School of Social Welfare, University of California,
Berkeley, CA 94702-7400
(888) 437-4636
usinfo-f@elsevier.com
http://www.elsevier.com
Sponsored by:
Children's Bureau (DHHS), Washington, DC.

This article examines death rates among children in foster care in
California. Crude death rates are computed for 690 children who died while
in foster care in California during 1988 to 1994. These death rates are
compared to those for the general population of children in California, as
well as for 321 former foster care children who were in care during the
same time period and died after being released (and prior to age 19).
While death rates of children in foster care during the study period were
generally higher than those for the general population during the same
period, breakdowns by age, race/ethnicity, cause of death, and type of
care reveal important exceptions and are discussed. Interpretation of the
findings is complicated because children in foster care constitute a more
fragile and impoverished population than the general population of
children. Discussion of these complexities is accompanied by a warning
that findings of this study should not be misunderstood. Findings show no
basis for concluding that residing in foster care is not as safe as
residing at home for children who are at risk of serious harm at home. 34
references and 6 tables. (Author abstract modified)

Descriptors:
child fatalities; child abuse research; foster care; sudden infant death
syndrome; california

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27013
Healthy Start: Preliminary Results from National Evaluation Are Not
Conclusive.
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.
Technical Report
17 pp.
Copyright June 1998
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC
Distributed by:
General Accounting Office
P. O. Box 37050
Washington, DC 20013
(202) 512-6000
FAX: (202) 512-6061
info@www.gao.gov
http://www.gao.gov/

This report reviews the preliminary findings of an evaluation of the
original 15 Healthy Start program sites. The Healthy Start program was
established by the Health Resources and Services Administration of the
United States Department of Health and Human Services to reduce infant
mortality by providing community services and education to women and
children at-risk. The Government Accounting Office (GAO) reviewed the
first national evaluation of the program, which was conducted after the
first five years of the demonstration period. A review of the plan for the
national evaluation and the preliminary results indicate that the
evaluation will not be comprehensive enough to reflect the actual
effectiveness of the program. Data are included for only 9 of the sites
and are limited to the first three years of the program due to delays in
implementation. Results that indicate that the program has not been
effective are premature and incomplete. The GAO recommends that the study
continue to collect data and postpone assessment until after the sixth
year of the program.

Descriptors:
program evaluation; federal programs; health services; infant mortality;
community based services; demonstration programs; early intervention
programs

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27037
Child Abuse Reports in Families With Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.
O'Halloran, R. L.; Ferratta, F.; Harris, M.; Ilbeigi, P.; Rom, C. D.
Journal Article
Copyright March 1998
American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology.
19(1):57-62.
Ronald L. O'Halloran, Office of the Ventura County Medical Examiner, 3291
Loma Vista Rd., Ventura, CA 93003

This study investigated the relationship between sudden infant death
syndrome (SIDS) cases and reports to public child protection service (CPS)
agencies of suspected child abuse or neglect prior to the sudden deaths.
SIDS data were collected from the Ventura County Medical Examiner's death
investigation records from 1981 through 1995. Names of deceased infants,
their parents, and any other caretakers who might have been with the
infant near the time of death were submitted to the county CPS, where they
were referenced for reports of abuse or neglect. A control population of
non-SIDS infants and their caretakers were checked in a similar manner.
The 150 infants from the control group were compared with 157 SIDS infants;
 no significant statistical difference was found between groups in the
incidence or type of CPS referrals. These findings suggest that screening
CPS records for previous referrals is an ineffective method by which to
detect infanticides misdiagnosed as SIDS and may cast unwarranted
suspicion on otherwise typical SIDS cases. 30 references and 1 table.
(Author abstract)

Descriptors:
sudden infant death syndrome; child abuse reporting; homicide; child
fatalities; infanticide; infant mortality; investigations; child
protective services

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27449
Interval Duration Between Injury and Severe Symptoms in Nonaccidental Head
Trauma in Infants and Young Children.
Gilliland, M. G. F.
Journal Article
Copyright May 1998
Journal of Forensic Sciences.
43(3):723-725.
M. G. F. Gilliland, East Carolina Univ. School of Medicine, Dept. of
Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Brody 7 S 10 Greenville, NC 27858-4354
mgilliland@brody.med.ecu.edu

A prospective, postmortem study examined the interval between injury and
onset of symptoms in 76 head injury deaths in which this information was
available. The head injury deaths were divided by mechanism of injury. The
mechanisms were shake (no impact), combined shake and blunt impact, and
blunt impact (no history of shaking). The interval was less than 24 hours
in 80 percent of shakes, 71.9 percent of combined, and 69.2 percent of
blunt injuries. The interval was greater than 24 hours in more than 25
percent of each of these latter groups and was more than 72 hours in four
children. The variable intervals between injury and severe symptoms
warrant circumspection in describing the interval for investigators or
triers of fact. It should be noted that in all of the cases where
information was supplied by someone other than the perpetrator, the child
was not normal during the interval. 6 references, 1 figure, and 1 table.
(Author abstract)

Descriptors:
sequelae; symptoms; head injuries; infants; child fatalities; forensic
medicine; diagnoses; autopsies

 Publication Type:                 Annotated Bibliography

 Availability:
This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 Database:                             Annotated Bibliographies

 

 

Title:                                      OUT OF HOME CARE: KINSHIP CARE(Excludes Foster Care and Residential/Group Care): Selected Articles.

 Sponsor:                               AARP Andrus Foundation, Washington, DC;  Stuart Foundations, San Francisco, CA;  Minnesota State Dept. of Human Services, Minneapolis

 Source:                                 NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 Internet URL: http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 Index Terms:
kinship care;  policy formation;  child welfare research;  foster care;  adoption;  program models;  child welfare services;  outcomes;  grandparents;  hispanics;  service delivery;  utilization review;  needs;  predictor variables;  cultural factors;  foster parents;  professional personnel;  program evaluation;  permanency planning;  child placement;  systems reform;  foster children;  adjustment problems;  independent living;  homelessness;  adolescents;  behavior problems;  prevalence;  aggressive behavior;  depression;  delinquent behavior;  parental role;  parents attitudes;  parents characteristics;  demographics;  african americans;  research reviews;  family characteristics;  professional training;  child welfare workers;  curricula;  competency based training;  assessment;  intervention strategies;  child welfare reform;  family group conferencing;  foster care maintenance;  state laws;  guardianship;  termination of parental rights;  state case law;  family preservation;  licensing;  illinois;  sociocultural patterns;  asia;  africa;  north america;  drug exposed infants;  sequelae;  legal processes;  child custody;  legal guardianships;  standby guardianship;  social policies;  welfare reform;  federal programs;  funding;  interagency collaboration;  lawyers role;  courts role;  financial assistance;  professional societies;  program development;  program descriptions;  family support systems;  private sector;  case management;  out of home care;  child welfare;  afdc;  historical perspective;  research needs;  surveys;  minnesota;  perception;  quality of care;  california;  caretakers;  parenting skills;  family relationships;  social skills;  social characteristics;  models;  parental surrogates

 Full Text:
Document No.: CD-27397
Kinship Foster Care: Policy, Practice, and Research.
Hegar, R. L. (Editor); Scannapieco, M. (Editor)
Book
272 pp.
Copyright 1999
Distributed by:
Order Dept., Oxford Univ. Press
2001 Evans Rd.
Cary, NC 27513
(800) 451-7556
custserv@oup-usa.org
http://www.oup-usa.org

This book provides an overview of current research and thought about
kinship foster care. Written by professionals from a variety of
disciplines, the chapters address policy issues, practical application,
and research findings regarding the effectiveness and outcomes of
substitute care in the extended family. The first part of the book
explains the history of kinship care and the development of policy. The
role of kinship care in child welfare services and legal options for
adoption are described. Part Two reviews formal practice models and
describes the impact of the paradigm shift on family-serving agencies and
staff training. The final chapter in the section profiles the New Zealand
model of kinship care. Part Three summarizes the research findings about
the role perceptions of kinship and other foster parents, the perspectives
of child welfare workers, behavior problems of adolescents in kinship
foster care, and the differences in outcomes between former kinship and
nonrelative foster care children. Challenges for the future are outlined
in the final chapter. Numerous references, 5 figures, and 16 tables.

Descriptors:
kinship care; policy formation; child welfare research; foster care;
adoption; program models; child welfare services; outcomes

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27401
Custodial Grandparents in Latino Families: Patterns of Service Use and
Predictors of Unmet Needs.
Burnette, D.
Journal Article
Copyright January 1999
Social Work.
44(1):22-34.
Distributed by:
NASW Press
750 1st St., NE, Suite 700
Washington, DC 20002-4241
(202) 408-8600
FAX: (202) 336-8312
press@naswdc.org
http://www.naswpress.org
Sponsored by:
AARP Andrus Foundation, Washington, DC.

This article examines patterns of service use and predictors of unmet
needs among a purposive sample of 74 Latino grandparent caregivers in New
York City. Study participants tended to be unmarried, middle-aged, and
older women who were monolingual Spanish speaking and had very low levels
of educational attainment and income. Nearly all respondents were
connected to the formal service system, yet they still reported
substantial unmet needs. Lack of knowledge was the major barrier to
service use, and predictors of unmet needs included low education, poor
health, high levels of stress, and lack of
reliable help with child
rearing. Implications for policy and practice strategies that focus on
role-related needs of Latino custodial grandparents are discussed. 60
references and 3 tables. (Author abstract)

Descriptors:
kinship care; grandparents; hispanics; service delivery; utilization
review; needs; predictor variables; cultural factors

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27415
Professional Foster Care: A Future Worth Pursuing?
Testa, M. F.; Rolock, N.
Journal Article
Copyright January-February 1999
Child Welfare.
78(1):108-124.
Distributed by:
Child Welfare League of America, Inc.
440 First St., NW, Suite 310
Washington, DC 20001-2085
(202) 638-2952
FAX: (202) 638-4004
journal@cwla.org
http://www.cwla.org/

This article reports on a study comparing the performance of a
professional foster care program and two specialized programs in Cook
County, Illinois, with random samples of kinship and nonrelative family
foster homes. Professional foster parents are trained and paid an annual
salary in addition to board payments. Specialized foster caregivers
receive larger board payments reflecting care needed by children with
special needs. Professional and kinship foster care consistently
outperformed the specialized programs and the nonrelative care in terms of
stability, sibling placement, restrictiveness of care, and proximity to
the child's community of origin. While the former two program types also
do slightly better than the latter in achieving permanent living
situations, the professional foster care program had difficulty moving
children to adoptive homes or subsidized guardianship. Implications of
these differences for the evolution of family foster care in the next
century are considered. 17 references and 1 table. (Author abstract)

Descriptors:
foster care; foster parents; professional personnel; kinship care; program
evaluation; program models; permanency planning; outcomes

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27431
Kinship Foster Care: The New Child Placement Paradigm.
Hegar, R. L.
Chapter in Book
pp. 225-240
Copyright 1999
In: Hegar, R. L. and Scannapieco, M. (Editors). Kinship Foster Care:
Policy, Practice, and Research. New York, NY, Oxford Univ. Press
Distributed by:
Order Dept., Oxford Univ. Press
2001 Evans Rd.
Cary, NC 27513
(800) 451-7556
custserv@oup-usa.org
http://www.oup-usa.org

This concluding chapter summarizes key ideas about the role and impact of
kinship care on child placement practice as described throughout the book.
A history of child placement is reviewed, from religious responsibility
for dependency in Europe through orphans' asylums and boarding homes in
the United States. The chapter then examines the demographic trends that
contributed to the institutionalization of the previously informal
practice of kinship care. Increased employment of women and mothers,
divorce, single parenthood, and the decrease in available foster homes are
identified as factors that led to greater interest in relatives as
caregivers. Although kinship care practice is consistent with the cultural
values of African American families, concerns have been raised about the
disproportionate number of African American children in formal kinship
care arrangements and the needs of children and families for more
financial assistance. Challenges for the next century include legal
security for all parties, state funding, and state oversight and services.
62 references.

Descriptors:
kinship care; foster care; program models; child placement; service
delivery; systems reform; policy formation

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27432
The Adult Functioning of Former Kinship and Nonrelative Foster Care
Children.
Zuravin, S. J.; Benedict, M.; Stallings, R.
Chapter in Book
pp. 208-222
Copyright 1999
In: Hegar, R. L. and Scannapieco, M. (Editors). Kinship Foster Care:
Policy, Practice, and Research. New York, NY, Oxford Univ. Press
Distributed by:
Order Dept., Oxford Univ. Press
2001 Evans Rd.
Cary, NC 27513
(800) 451-7556
custserv@oup-usa.org
http://www.oup-usa.org

This study compared the functioning of three groups of adults: 31 former
residents of kinship foster homes; 40 former residents of non-relative
foster care, and 213 adults who had no experience with foster care. The
first two samples were drawn from Phase 1 of a study of the
characteristics of foster homes conducted by Benedict and Zuravin (1992).
Data on the third group were taken from a previous study by Dr. Janet
Hardy, et al. Subjects were matched for age, gender, and race and
interviewed about childhood experiences, self-sufficiency, behavioral
adjustment, family and social support, and mental health. Data analyses
revealed that adults who lived in foster care arrangements were not as
self-sufficient as those who spent no time in foster care and that former
residents of kinship care homes were slightly more self-sufficient than
former residents of regular foster care. No significant differences were
found between former foster children and non-foster children on domains of
behavioral adjustment. The study also confirmed previous findings about
the prevalence of homelessness for former foster children. Recommendations
for future research are briefly discussed. 22 references and 4 tables.

Descriptors:
kinship care; foster care; outcomes; foster children; child welfare
research; adjustment problems; independent living; homelessness

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27433
Behavior Problems of Teens in Kinship Care: Cross-Informant Reports.
Starr, R. H.; Dubowitz, H.; Harrington, D.; Feigelman, S.
Chapter in Book
pp. 193-207
Copyright 1999
In: Hegar, R. L. and Scannapieco, M. (Editors). Kinship Foster Care:
Policy, Practice, and Research. New York, NY, Oxford Univ. Press
Distributed by:
Order Dept., Oxford Univ. Press
2001 Evans Rd.
Cary, NC 27513
(800) 451-7556
custserv@oup-usa.org
http://www.oup-usa.org

Behavior problems among adolescents in kinship foster care were measured
in a sample of 66 youth. The cross-informant study obtained reports from
the youth, their care providers, and teachers about externalizing and
internalizing behavior problems, including aggressive and delinquent
behavior, somatic complaints, anxiety and depression, social problems,
thought problems, and attention problems. It was expected that kinship
providers would rate problem behavior as more "clinical" than the youth,
and that boys would report more problems than girls. While significant
differences were found in the reports of youth and caregivers on measures
of externalizing behavior and attention problems, no differences were
found on internalizing problems. The data did reveal significant
correlations in reports of total behavior problems, internalizing
problems, and externalizing problems. Partial confirmation was obtained
for the third hypothesis that boys would have more clinical behavior than
girls. Significant differences were found in 8 of 22 analyses, including
internalizing problems; social problems; thought problems; attention
problems; somatic complaints; and total behavior problems. Teacher reports
were significantly correlated to total problem reports and externalizing
scores, but not internalizing scores on the Child Behavior Checklist.
Implications of the findings are discussed. 40 references and 2 tables.

Descriptors:
kinship care; adolescents; behavior problems; child welfare research;
prevalence; aggressive behavior; depression; delinquent behavior

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27434
Role Perceptions of Kinship and Other Foster Parents in Family Foster
Care.
Pecora, P. J.; Le Prohn, N. S.; Nasuti, J. J.
Chapter in Book
pp. 155-178
Copyright 1999
In: Hegar, R. L. and Scannapieco, M. (Editors). Kinship Foster Care:
Policy, Practice, and Research. New York, NY, Oxford Univ. Press
Distributed by:
Order Dept., Oxford Univ. Press
2001 Evans Rd.
Cary, NC 27513
(800) 451-7556
custserv@oup-usa.org
http://www.oup-usa.org

This chapter summarizes the findings of two related studies about the role
perceptions of foster parents and kinship parents. Participants included
188 families in the first survey and 222 families in the second survey.
Both groups were asked about household composition, family income, income
source, education, ethnicity, and level of responsibility. The findings
indicated that kinship, or relative, foster families tended to be older,
single, African American women with lower incomes than nonrelative foster
parents. Children placed with relatives were in foster care longer than
children in regular foster care, but had fewer number of placements.
Relative foster parents also viewed themselves as more involved in
strengthening the relationship between children and their birth parents.
They reported that they had more responsibility for gifts, emotional
assistance, self-confidence, spirituality, planning foster care services,
and teaching children about relationships with their birth families.
Policy implications of the findings are discussed. 37 references and 7
tables.

Descriptors:
kinship care; foster parents; parental role; parents attitudes; parents
characteristics; demographics

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27435
Kinship Care in the Public Child Welfare System: A Systematic Review of
the Research.
Scannapieco, M.
Chapter in Book
pp. 141-154
Copyright 1999
In: Hegar, R. L. and Scannapieco, M. (Editors). Kinship Foster Care:
Policy, Practice, and Research. New York, NY, Oxford Univ. Press
Distributed by:
Order Dept., Oxford Univ. Press
2001 Evans Rd.
Cary, NC 27513
(800) 451-7556
custserv@oup-usa.org
http://www.oup-usa.org

This chapter reviews findings from the research about kinship care.
Studies about the characteristics of kinship foster families, child
welfare services provided to kinship families, and goals and outcomes are
specifically summarized. Overall, the research has found that a major
portion of families involved in kinship care are African American. This
trend may be due to the tradition of kinship care in African American
cultures and- or the failure of child welfare services to address the
needs of this population. Although caregivers tend to be single, older,
poorer, and less educated than non-relative foster care providers, there
appears to be no difference in child well- being. The research indicates
that kinship providers receive less support than other foster care
providers and that family reunification is not as successful in kinship
families. Implications of the research for policy and practice are
discussed. 24 references and 1 table.

Descriptors:
kinship care; african americans; child welfare services; research reviews;
program evaluation; family characteristics; service delivery; outcomes

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27439
Paradigm Shift: Training Staff to Provide Services to the Kinship Triad.
Jackson, S. M.
Chapter in Book
pp. 93-111
Copyright 1999
In: Hegar, R. L. and Scannapieco, M. (Editors). Kinship Foster Care:
Policy, Practice, and Research. New York, NY, Oxford Univ. Press
Distributed by:
Order Dept., Oxford Univ. Press
2001 Evans Rd.
Cary, NC 27513
(800) 451-7556
custserv@oup-usa.org
http://www.oup-usa.org

This chapter outlines the components of training programs for kinship care
staff. The differences between the regular foster care paradigm and the
kinship care paradigm are highlighted. While the traditional paradigm is
child-centered and adversarial, the new paradigm is family-centered and
emphasizes court-based mediation. The new philosophy also favors custody
and guardianship rather than foster care maintenance, and therapy instead
of case management. Training should examine these differences and focus on
the philosophies of permanency planning, cultural considerations, the
extended family meeting, resource provision, and the strengths
perspective. The curriculum should address the definition of kinship,
history of kinship care, specialized competencies for kinship care, value
of appropriate placements, legal foundation, and the permanency planning
hierarchy. An assessment component is also necessary to train workers in
the specifics of evaluating the kinship triad and its relationships,
strengths and problems, structure, and functioning. Finally, the
curriculum should include a section on making decisions about termination
and transition from care. 22 references and 4 figures.

Descriptors:
kinship care; professional training; child welfare workers; curricula;
competency based training; assessment; intervention strategies; service
delivery

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27440
Kinship Care in Family-Serving Agencies.
Wilson, D. B.
Chapter in Book
pp. 84-92
Copyright 1999
In: Hegar, R. L. and Scannapieco, M. (Editors). Kinship Foster Care:
Policy, Practice, and Research. New York, NY, Oxford Univ. Press
Distributed by:
Order Dept., Oxford Univ. Press
2001 Evans Rd.
Cary, NC 27513
(800) 451-7556
custserv@oup-usa.org
http://www.oup-usa.org

This chapter explores ways in which kinship care is utilized and supported
by child protection agencies. Trends indicate that family-serving agencies
are developing a set of principles and practices to meet the needs of
families who are caring for kin. These principles include flexible
definitions of the family; emphasis on strengths; importance of safe and
nurturing families; equitable financial support; involvement of both the
birth parents and the kinship parents; and the need for cultural
sensitivity. Caregivers are viewed as partners with the workers and
involved in all decision making about the child. A survey of 18 child
protection agencies revealed that private agencies favored long-term
relative care for children in kinship care, while public agencies still
maintained goals for return to parents. Commonly cited service needs of
kinship families included child abuse-neglect prevention, mental health
and income assistance, services for birth parents, and cooperation with
juvenile justice. The agencies varied in the amount of training provided
to staff of kinship care services. As the field of kinship care evolves,
it should combine lessons learned from family support and regular foster
care programs. A flexible, non-categorical approach is recommended to
address the individual needs of each family. Kinship care can play a part
in family support services, crisis intervention, family preservation,
full-time care, child day care, respite care, co- parenting, mentoring,
group support, and advocacy activities. 15 references.

Descriptors:
kinship care; foster care; family support systems; service delivery; child
protective services; child welfare agencies; professional training;
program models

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27445
Formal Kinship Care Practice Models.
Scannapieco, M.
Chapter in Book
pp. 71-83
Copyright 1999
In: Hegar, R. L. and Scannapieco, M. (Editors). Kinship Foster Care:
Policy, Practice, and Research. New York, NY, Oxford Univ. Press
Distributed by:
Order Dept., Oxford Univ. Press
2001 Evans Rd.
Cary, NC 27513
(800) 451-7556
custserv@oup-usa.org
http://www.oup-usa.org

This chapter describes a conceptual framework for formal kinship foster
care services and reviews the principles of various kinship care models.
Kinship families receive financial assistance from two major federal
programs: the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families program (TANF,
formerly Aid to Families with Dependent Children) and the Adoption
Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980. While states have discretionary
authority to allocate TANF funds to kinship providers, the Adoption
Assistance program mandates equal assistance for licensed kinship and
non-relative foster parents. Welfare assistance funds two types of kinship
care models: care that is considered a diversion from foster care, and
kinship care perceived as a type of family preservation. In a third model,
kinship care is integrated into the formal foster care program. Programs
either require kinship homes to meet all licensing standards or modify
their standards according to differences between kin and non-relative
homes. Families that provide care as part of a formal foster care program
receive a higher payment than families who receive welfare. Three of the
most innovative activities in kinship care are family decision-making
meetings, caregiver support groups, and differential assistance. 36
references.

Descriptors:
kinship care; foster care; program models; service delivery; child welfare
services; child welfare reform; family group conferencing; foster care
maintenance

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27446
The Case for Kinship Adoption Laws.
Takas, M.; Hegar, R. L.
Chapter in Book
pp. 54-67
Copyright 1999
In: Hegar, R. L. and Scannapieco, M. (Editors). Kinship Foster Care:
Policy, Practice, and Research. New York, NY, Oxford Univ. Press
Distributed by:
Order Dept., Oxford Univ. Press
2001 Evans Rd.
Cary, NC 27513
(800) 451-7556
custserv@oup-usa.org
http://www.oup-usa.org

The chapter proposes that states implement a new category of child custody
to facilitate parent-child relationships after the child's adoption by a
relative or other caregiver. Kinship adoption arrangements would promote
permanency for the child without requiring the termination of all parental
rights. The chapter suggests two types of kinship adoption. The first
would involve the voluntary or involuntary termination of parental rights
of one parent, while the second would terminate only some of the rights of
both parents. In both cases, the child and adoptive parents would have a
permanent, legal relationship. Contact and involvement with the biological
parents is decided on a case-by-case basis. Kinship adoption is similar to
open adoption, with the exception that postadoption visitation is flexible
and enforceable. Two vignettes are used to illustrate the application of
the kinship adoption arrangement. 33 references.

Descriptors:
kinship care; adoption; permanency planning; state laws; child welfare
reform; guardianship; program models; termination of parental rights

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27448
Kinship Care as a Child Welfare Service: Emerging Policy Issues and
Trends.
Gleeson, J. P.
Chapter in Book
pp. 28-53
Copyright 1999
In: Hegar, R. L. and Scannapieco, M. (Editors). Kinship Foster Care:
Policy, Practice, and Research. New York, NY, Oxford Univ. Press
Distributed by:
Order Dept., Oxford Univ. Press
2001 Evans Rd.
Cary, NC 27513
(800) 451-7556
custserv@oup-usa.org
http://www.oup-usa.org

This chapter reviews the development of kinship care policy in Illinois,
highlighting issues that must be addressed when integrating placement with
relatives into the formal child welfare system. Case law established in
Miller v. Youakim and Reid v. Suter prompted the Illinois Department of
Children and Family Services to actively recruit relatives as foster
caregivers, inform them of their legal options, and provide financial
support to those who became foster parents. The state also formalized
standards for relative homes to meet Title IV-E requirements for matching
funds. Other policy changes included transfer of cases to private agencies
and home-of-relative purchase-of-service contracts; clarification of
criteria for service eligibility; and equitable permanency services
provided to children in kinship care. Another initiative, the Illinois
Home-of-Relative Reform Plan, was proposed by the governor in 1995 to
decrease state expenditures for child welfare. The reform plan required
relatives to pass the same licensing standards as non-relative caregivers
and created a new program for informal kinship care arrangements. The plan
also decreased foster care payments to unlicensed relatives.
Implementation of the reform also involved changes in adoption assistance,
a IV-E waiver from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and a
redesign of the purchase-of-service system. Policy issues and the impact
of welfare reform and managed care are also discussed in the chapter. 67
references.

Descriptors:
kinship care; policy formation; state case law; foster care; child welfare
reform; family preservation; licensing; illinois

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27451
The Cultural Roots of Kinship Care.
Hegar, R. L.
Chapter in Book
pp. 17-27
Copyright 1999
In: Hegar, R. L. and Scannapieco, M. (Editors). Kinship Foster Care:
Policy, Practice, and Research. New York, NY, Oxford Univ. Press
Distributed by:
Order Dept., Oxford Univ. Press
2001 Evans Rd.
Cary, NC 27513
(800) 451-7556
custserv@oup-usa.org
http://www.oup-usa.org

Literature about kinship care in ancient cultures, the Pacific Islands,
Africa, and North America is reviewed in this chapter to provide a
historical and cultural background for current child placement practice.
Examples of kinship foster care are provided from Biblical stories and
mythology. In these examples, kinship foster care was used as a way to
protect the child from harm or because the child might eventually threaten
the father's power. Foster care was also used as a way to forge a
relationship with another family. Kinship care is common among the tribal
cultures of the Pacific Islands and Rim, where children are often raised
by grandparents or other extended family members. The reasons for kinship
care in these traditional societies are primarily to strengthen bonds with
relatives, to establish favorable alliances, and to gain a higher rank in
society. Kinship fostering is also practiced in Africa, especially in the
Western region, where between 20 and 40 percent of families have a child
living apart from their parents. Motivations include: weaning; care during
family problems; vocational training; education; or to assist the
caregiver. In early American history, children were taken care of by
grandparents when their parents died or could not take care of them.
Children of slaves and Hispanic children living in North America were
cared for by relatives primarily because they were excluded from more
formal child welfare services. Although many Native American children were
removed from their communities and placed in institutions, the practice of
kinship care remained an important part of Native culture. The history of
kinship care demonstrates the natural care contributed by family and
community members. Child welfare policy should integrate the traditional
practices into the continuum of options for children who cannot live with
their biological parents. 54 references.

Descriptors:
kinship care; cultural factors; policy formation; child placement;
sociocultural patterns; asia; africa; north america

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27463
Kinship Foster Care in Context.
Scannapieco, M.; Hegar, R. L.
Chapter in Book
pp. 1-13
Copyright 1999
In: Hegar, R. L. and Scannapieco, M. (Editors). Kinship Foster Care:
Policy, Practice, and Research. New York, NY, Oxford Univ. Press
Distributed by:
Order Dept., Oxford Univ. Press
2001 Evans Rd.
Cary, NC 27513
(800) 451-7556
custserv@oup-usa.org
http://www.oup-usa.org

This introductory chapter reviews trends in kinship foster care and
provides an outline of the book. Emphasis is placed on the increasing
number of children in foster care and the role of kinship care in the
continuum of permanency planning. The advantages and disadvantages of
placement with relatives are briefly described. The chapter also reviews
the core questions regarding kinship foster care policy that address
whether kinship foster care should be considered out-of-home care or
family preservation; licensing requirements for kinship foster homes;
financial assistance and incentives for child placement; length of kinship
foster care placements; risks related to kinship care; and the trend
toward a racially segregated foster care system. The chapter concludes
with a summary of each section in the book. 38 references.

Descriptors:
kinship care; policy formation; foster care; adoption; program models;
permanency planning; licensing

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27692
Kinship Care and Substance-Exposed Children.
Brooks, D.
Journal Article
Copyright Winter 1999
Source.
9(1):1-2, 20-21.
Distributed by:
National Abandoned Infants Assistance Resource Center
1950 Addison St., Suite 104
Berkeley, CA 94704-1182
(510) 643-8383
FAX: (510) 643-7019
amyprice@uclink4.berkeley.edu

This article reviews the characteristics of kinship care and presents the
findings of a study of the long-term impact of kinship care and
substance-exposure on child behavior. Kinship care is being utilized more
as states experience an increase in foster care caseloads and a decrease
in available foster homes. Benefits include less trauma for the children
and greater stability in placements. The practice is more common among
African American families than Caucasian families. The study classified
600 foster caregivers into one of four groups: non substance-exposed
children in kin placements; substance-exposed children in kin placements;
non substance-exposed children in nonrelative placements; and
substance-exposed nonrelative placements. Significant differences were
found in the emotional and behavior development of children in each group.
Emotional development was more dependent on the type of placement (kinship
or nonrelative), while behavior was linked to substance exposure. Children
who had no prenatal exposure to drugs and who were placed with kin had the
most positive outcomes. Behavior problems were also related to age of
placement: Children placed when they were older were more likely than
children placed at birth to have problem behavior. The high rate of
behavior problems of prenatally-exposed children placed with kin is
attributed to several factors, including age and income level of kin
caregivers and less contact with social workers than nonrelative
caregivers. 19 references.

Descriptors:
kinship care; drug exposed infants; sequelae; child placement; outcomes;
prevalence; behavior problems; child welfare research

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27697
The Legal Maze of Kinship Care.
Harvey, V.
Journal Article
Copyright Winter 1999
Source.
9(1):3-6.
Distributed by:
National Abandoned Infants Assistance Resource Center
1950 Addison St., Suite 104
Berkeley, CA 94704-1182
(510) 643-8383
FAX: (510) 643-7019
amyprice@uclink4.berkeley.edu

This article reviews the legal options available to grandparents or other
relatives who are caring for the children of family members. The range of
options vary from informal agreements between parents and caregivers to
full adoption. Informal caregiving arrangements involve no court
procedures and the parents retain all legal rights. Caregivers can be
given a power of attorney or another type of authorization form that
states their authority to make certain decisions, such as school
enrollment and emergency medical treatment. Legal guardianship is a
temporary arrangement that grants legal and physical custody of the child
to the substitute caregivers. It can be modified at any time and does not
terminate parental rights. However, if parents contest a request for legal
guardianship, the caregiver must prove that the parents are unfit to have
custody of the child. In standby guardianship, the parents make
arrangements for custody in the event of their death or serious illness. A
physician's statement is required as proof that the parent is terminally
ill. In a similar arrangement, the state of Illinois permits parents to
appoint a guardian for a specific period. This option permits incarcerated
parents to take back custody of their child after they have completed
their sentence. Foster care arrangements are coordinated through the child
welfare system for children who have been abused or neglected. Federal law
requires that child welfare workers place children with a relative, when
possible, while a more permanent home is found. Relatives who enter the
foster care system may be eligible for financial assistance. Finally,
relatives may adopt the child. Caregivers usually do not pursue this
option because it requires the termination of parental rights. Advantages
and disadvantages of each arrangement are discussed. 9 references.

Descriptors:
kinship care; grandparents; legal processes; child custody; legal
guardianships; foster care; adoption; standby guardianship

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27837
Challenges and Opportunities Posed by the Reform Era.
Courtney, M. E.
Proceedings Paper
15 pp.
Copyright February 26, 1999
Presented at: Reconciling Welfare Reform With Child Welfare Conference,
Minneapolis, MN
Distributed by:
Center for Advanced Studies in Child Welfare, Minnesota Univ.
425 Ford Hall
224 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455-0493
(612) 626-8202
http://ssw.che.umn.edu/cascw

This presentation reviews recent changes in national policies regarding
pubic assistance and child welfare and explains why reforms in the two
areas should be coordinated. Welfare reform legislation has focused on
setting time limits for financial assistance and encouraging parents to
work. However, these policy changes have overlooked the needs of low
income working families for child care assistance and social services.
Child welfare reform, as embodied in the Adoption and Safe Families Act of
1997, emphasizes the safety of children, short timelines for permanency
planning, incentives for adoptions, and accountability for child welfare
services. Other reforms include the Multi-Ethnic Placement Act which
prohibits the consideration of race or ethnic background when making
permanency decisions, and the authorization of Title IV-E waivers to allow
states to design demonstration programs for subsidized guardianship for
children in kinship foster care arrangements, intensive wraparound
services, or contracting for managed care. Most of these initiatives are
intended to reduce state expenditures and control costs. The two sets of
reform-pubic assistance and child welfare- affect essentially the same
population of low-income families. Many parents who have trouble finding
or keeping work are also involved in the child welfare system due to
substance abuse, mental illness, domestic violence, or limited education.
The presentation recommends that welfare reform efforts be coordinated
into an integrated system of supports for families, to address both work
and parenting issues. These supports may include subsidized child care and
health care for all working families. Examples of service delivery models
are briefly discussed.

Descriptors:
child welfare reform; policy formation; social policies; welfare reform;
federal programs; funding; interagency collaboration

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27857
Policy Resolution on Kinship Care of Abused, Neglected, and Abandoned
Children.
American Bar Association, Chicago, IL.
Technical Report
10 pp.
Copyright February 1999
Chicago, IL, American Bar Association
Distributed by:
American Bar Association
750 N. Lake Shore Dr.
Chicago, IL 60611
(312) 988-5000
http://www.abanet.org

This policy resolution, approved by the American Bar Association in
February 1999, recommends that state legislatures enact laws to facilitate
child placements in kinship care arrangements. Specifically, the proposed
laws should clarify the role of courts, child welfare service agencies,
and attorneys. They should provide for identification of relatives;
screening of potential caregivers; defining expectations of kinship
providers; legal representation for kinship providers during judicial
proceedings; financial support, health care coverage, and other resources
for kinship providers, and a wide range of options for kinship placement.
Suggestions for policies regarding each of these issues are outlined in
the report.

Descriptors:
kinship care; state laws; lawyers role; courts role; child welfare
services; financial assistance; adoption; professional societies

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27863
Kinship Support Network: Edgewood's Program Model and Client
Characteristics.
Cohon, D. J.; Cooper, B. A.
Journal Article
Copyright April 1999
Children and Youth Services Review.
21(4):311-338.
J. Donald Cohon, Institute for the Study of Community-Based Services,
Edgewood Center for Children and Families, 1801 Vicente St., San
Francisco, CA 94103, E-mail: dcohon@itsa.ucsf.edu
Sponsored by:
Stuart Foundations, San Francisco, CA.

This article describes the development of the Kinship Support Network
(KSN), focusing on the Case-managed Unit of the KSN program model. KSN
provides community-based, case-managed, supportive services to kinship
caregivers, filling gaps in public social services. The network includes
intake and case planning, training and supervision, self-help groups,
workshops, special events, tutoring and mentoring, independent living
skill training, community outreach, and preparation for termination. The
article discusses strengths and weaknesses of privatizing public services
and presents demographic data, needs, and health information describing
kin caregivers and relative children in their homes. Future research
directions are suggested. 54 references, 1 figure, and 4 tables. (Author
abstract)

Descriptors:
program models; kinship care; program development; program descriptions;
family support systems; private sector; family characteristics; case
management

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-28028
Who Goes Into Kinship Care? Examining the Factors Influencing the
Placement of Children Into Kinship Foster Care.
Grogan-Kaylor, A.
Proceedings Paper
23 pp.
Copyright March 10-13, 1999
Presented at: Council on Social Work Education Annual Program Meeting, San
Francisco, CA, March 10-13, 1999
Andy Grogan-Kaylor, Wisconsin Univ. School of Social Work, 1350 University
Ave., Madison, WI 53706
FAX: (608) 263-3836
agrogan@ssc.wisc.edu

Kinship care refers to a formal arrangement in which care for a child is
legally transferred through a court order to the child welfare system, and
in which the child's kin become his foster parents. Since the early 1980s,
kinship care has grown from a relatively rare form of child welfare
placement to a very common one. This report examines the factors
influencing the placement of children into kinship foster care. It
discusses the growth of kinship foster care, research on kinship foster
care, methodology used in the analysis of kinship care, and multivariate
analysis of the research. Study results indicate that placement into
kinship care is influenced by a number of characteristics of the children
and families who come into contact with the child welfare system such as a
child's age, sex, and race as well as the type of maltreatment for which
the child was removed from his or her family. Some of the most vulnerable
children are some of the least likely to be placed with kin. Children
under the age of 1 year old are less likely to be placed into kinship care
than any other age group except for children over 12. Children with health
problems are much less likely to be placed with kin than children who do
not have such problems. The study also suggests that children removed from
families receiving AFDC are less likely to be placed with kin, perhaps
indicating that poverty decreases the likelihood of placement with
relatives. Placement into kinship care is also related to factors
connected to the communities in which children live. The report ends by
reviewing further research needs. 3 tables, 1 figure, and numerous
references.

Descriptors:
kinship care; out of home care; foster care; child welfare; afdc; child
welfare reform; historical perspective; research needs

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-28058
Child Welfare Professionals' Attitudes Toward Kinship Foster Care.
Beeman, S.; Boisen, L.
Journal Article
Copyright May-June 1999
Child Welfare.
78(3):315-337.
Distributed by:
Child Welfare League of America, Inc.
440 First St., NW, Suite 310
Washington, DC 20001-2085
(202) 638-2952
FAX: (202) 638-4004
books@cwla.org
http://www.cwla.org/
Sponsored by:
Minnesota State Dept. of Human Services, Minneapolis.

This article reports on a survey of 261 urban, metropolitan, and rural
child welfare professionals in Minnesota regarding their perceptions of
kinship foster care. Overall, survey respondents were highly educated and
experienced in child welfare. The survey defined kinship foster care as
"children placed by the child welfare system with relatives or others with
close familial ties." The majority (81.5 percent) of respondents reported
some involvement with kinship foster care. Most professionals had
generally positive perceptions of kinship foster parents' motivations and
competence, and of kinship foster care. Participants also believed that
kinship placements were more difficult to supervise than changes in
practice and policy to accommodate kin. The article reviews differences in
perceptions by race of the child welfare professionals. Child welfare
workers of color generally expressed a more positive perception of kinship
care. Survey findings suggest that workers recognize the potential
benefits to children of being placed in kinship foster care. Implications
for child welfare practice are discussed. 6 tables and numerous
references. (Author abstract modified)

Descriptors:
kinship care; child welfare workers; surveys; minnesota; foster care;
perception

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-28270
Foster Care: Kinship Care Quality and Permanency Issues.
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.
Technical Report
116 pp.
May 1999
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC
Distributed by:
General Accounting Office
P. O. Box 37050
Washington, DC 20013
(202) 512-6000
FAX: (202) 512-6061
info@www.gao.gov
http://www.gao.gov/

In response to the question of how well kinship care is serving foster
children, this General Accounting Office report describes the quality of
care that children in kinship care receive compared with that received by
other foster children, as measured by a caseworker's assessment of a
caretaker's parenting skill, the extent to which a foster child is able to
maintain contact with familiar people and surroundings, and a caretaker's
willingness to enforce court-ordered restrictions on parental visits. The
report also discusses the frequency with which State child welfare
agencies pursue various permanent living arrangements and the time
children in kinship care have spent in the system compared with other
foster children; and recent State initiatives intended to help ensure that
children in kinship care receive good quality foster care and are placed
in permanent homes in a timely manner. In conducting this work, the
auditors reviewed recent research, federal statutes and regulations, and
California and Illinois legislation and initiatives regarding kinship
care. The auditors also surveyed samples of foster care cases in
California and Illinois. The survey of open foster care cases in
California and Illinois showed that in most respects the quality of both
kinship and other foster care was good and that the experiences of
children in kinship care and children in other foster care settings were
comparable. Caretakers both in kinship care and in other foster care
settings demonstrated good parenting skills overall. There is more
continuity in the lives of children in kinship care before and after they
enter foster care than there is in other foster children's lives. However,
some of the standards that California and Illinois use to ensure good
quality foster care and the level of support each State provides to foster
caretakers are lower for kinship care than other types of foster care.
This survey showed no consistent findings regarding the relationship
between kinship care and permanency goals or the time foster children had
spent in the system. 7 appendices, 37 tables and 6 figures.

Descriptors:
kinship care; foster care; quality of care; permanency planning;
california; illinois; caretakers; parenting skills

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-28411
Social Relationships of Latino Grandparent Caregivers: A Role Theory
Perspective.
Burnette, D.
Journal Article
Copyright February 1999
Gerontologist.
39(1):49-58.
Denise Burnette, Columbia Univ. School of Social Work, 622 W. 113th St.,
New York, NY 10025
jdb5@columbia.edu

This article uses a role theory perspective to examine the social
relationships of 74 Latinos, mostly middle-aged and older Puerto Rican and
Dominican women, rearing their grandchildren in New York City. Fully 81
percent of households were below poverty level. Most grandparents had
large families and were socially connected, but two thirds of households
were skipped- generational and many grandparents lacked
reliable help with
child rearing. Most relied on a focal secondary caregiver, usually an
adult daughter, and extrafamilial supports. These and other sources of
strain and support for the grandparent caregiver role in Latino families
are discussed, as is the impact of this role on their social
relationships. 67 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract)

Descriptors:
grandparents; kinship care; family relationships; hispanics; social skills;
 social characteristics; models; family support systems

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-28480
Grandparents Caring for Grandchildren: What Do We Know?
Pebley, A. R.; Rudkin, L. L.
Journal Article
Copyright March 1999
Journal of Family Issues.
20(2):218-242.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-9774
FAX: (805) 499-0871
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com/

This article examines grandparent care. Approximately 5 percent to 6
percent of grandchildren and 10 percent of grandparents live in
grandparent-grandchild households at any point in time. The proportion of
children living with grandparents appears to have remained relatively
stable over time. This article critically reviews previous research on the
determinants of grandparent care for grandchildren. This research suggests
that grandparent care generally is precipitated by need or problems
experienced by parents. However, the determinants of custodial care (in
which grandparents become sole caretakers) and of coresidence (three-
generation households) are quite different. Custodial care generally
occurs when parents are no longer able or willing to take care of their
children. Coresidence more commonly is associated with the middle
generation's problems with living independently or with transition among
roles. 65 references, 2 tables and 1 figure. (Author abstract modified)

Descriptors:
kinship care; research reviews; grandparents; parental surrogates;
caretakers

 Publication Type:                 Annotated Bibliography

 Availability:
This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 Database:                             Annotated Bibliographies

 

 

Title:                                      MODELS OF PREVENTION PROGRAMS: Selected Articles.

 Sponsor:                               Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC

 Source:                                 NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 Internet URL: http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 Index Terms:
prevention;  prevention programs;  health services;  health personnel;  physicians role;  nurses role;  program models;  early intervention programs;  child abuse prevention;  multidisciplinary teams;  parent education;  family preservation;  family reunification;  program descriptions;  adolescents;  family violence;  nonmarital violence;  spouse abuse;  program evaluation;  cultural sensitivity;  african americans;  community violence;  outcomes;  ecological theories;  behavioral psychology;  treatment programs;  research methodology;  home visitation programs;  visiting nurses;  prenatal care;  antisocial behavior;  juvenile delinquency;  pregnancy;  treatment foster care;  foster parents training;  therapeutic effectiveness;  child neglect;  parenting skills;  retarded parents;  children at risk;  assessment

 Full Text:
Document No.: CD-27962
Preventing Child Maltreatment: Multiple Windows of Opportunity in the
Health Care System.
Wurtele, S. K.
Journal Article
Copyright Spring 1999
Children's Health Care.
28(2):151-165.
Sandy K. Wurtele, Department of Psychology, Colorado Univ., Colorado
Springs, CO 80933-7150

This article describes representative programs that have been developed to
prevent the physical and sexual abuse and neglect of children. Prevention
efforts germane to the prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal periods, as well
as to preschoolers, school-age children, and adolescents are reviewed.
Health care providers' contact with individuals across the life span
provides unique opportunities to reduce the risk of child maltreatment.
Their role in such efforts are explored and suggestions are offered to
clarify how health care professionals may assume a broader role in
prevention child maltreatment. 84 references. (Author abstract)

Descriptors:
prevention; prevention programs; health services; health personnel;
physicians role; nurses role; program models; early intervention programs

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27968
Family School: Twenty Years as an Innovative Model Demonstration Project.
Peckham, V. C.
Chapter in Book
pp.399-410
Copyright 1999
In: Silver, J. A.; Amster, B. J.; Haecker, T. Young Children and Foster
Care: A Guide for Professionals. Baltimore, MD, Paul H. Brookes Publishing
Co.
Distributed by:
Brookes Publishing Co.
P. O. Box 10624
Baltimore, MD 21285-0624
(800) 638-3775
custserv@pbrookes.com
http://www.pbrookes.com

This chapter describes the Family School, a parent education, early
intervention program in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Goals of the program
are to prevent child maltreatment, reduce developmental delays, and
provide support for families with young children. Parents and children
participate in the structured program twice a week, in family activities
as well as separate classes. Staff includes a program director, program
assistant, parent educator, directors of children's programs, social
workers, classroom teachers, cooks, nurse, speech- language therapist,
occupational therapist, and a child psychologist. In addition to classroom
activities, a social worker visits the family once per month to facilitate
access to concrete services and legal issues. An evaluation of the program
found it to be effective in reducing the incidence of abuse for parents
assessed to be high risk. Lessons for replication are discussed. 12
references and 1 table.

Descriptors:
child abuse prevention; early intervention programs; multidisciplinary
teams; parent education; family preservation; family reunification;
program models; program descriptions

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-25947
Prevention During Adolescence: The Youth Relationships Project.
Pittman, A.; Wolfe, D. A.; Wekerle, C.
Chapter in Book
pp. 341-356
Copyright 1998
In: Lutzker, J. R. (Editor). Handbook of Child Abuse Research and
Treatment. New York, NY, Plenum Publishing Corp.
Distributed by:
Plenum Publishing Corp.
233 Spring St.
New York, NY 10013-1578
(800) 221-9369
books@plenum.com
http://www.plenum.com

This chapter describes the Youth Relationships Program, a violence
prevention program targeted to mid-adolescents (aged 14-16 years). The
18-week educational program was designed with the input of youth to
address risk factors related to insecure attachment, interpersonal
sensitivity, gender role rigidity, sexist social expectations, power
assertions, conflict avoidance, and limited problem solving ability and
protection skills. Small groups meet for two hours a week with both male
and female facilitators in four sessions. Session A explains power in
relationships, Session B describes how to break the cycle of violence,
Session C explores the contexts of relationship violence, and Session D
focuses on breaking the cycle of violence in the community. Training
methods include self-report questionnaires, videos, role-playing, social
service, and other exercises. Preliminary research findings indicate that
youth are interested in the program and integrate what they've learned, at
least for the short-term. 34 references and 5 tables.

Descriptors:
adolescents; prevention programs; program models; family violence;
nonmarital violence; spouse abuse; program evaluation

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-25948
Breaking the Cycle: A Culturally Sensitive Violence Prevention Program for
African-American Children and Adolescents.
Yung, B. R.; Hammond, W. R.
Chapter in Book
pp. 319-340
Copyright 1998
In: Lutzker, J. R. (Editor). Handbook of Child Abuse Research and
Treatment. New York, NY, Plenum Publishing Corp.
Distributed by:
Plenum Publishing Corp.
233 Spring St.
New York, NY 10013-1578
(800) 221-9369
books@plenum.com
http://www.plenum.com

This chapter describes the Positive Adolescent Choices Training (PACT)
program, a culturally sensitive violence prevention program targeted to
African American adolescents. Components of the program include training
on social skills (giving and receiving negative feedback); anger
management; and education about violence. The approach focuses on helping
adolescents develop positive methods of interacting with others and
reducing aggressive behaviors that have been modeled and reinforced within
their communities. The strategies are intended to counteract the negative
effects of faulty cognitive processes, emotional factors, and
confrontational situations. Training methods include videotapes, role
modeling, group discussion, self-evaluation and feedback, therapeutic
games, and whole school assemblies. Cultural considerations are
operationalized through environmental features, role models, language,
reality base, and facilitator preparation. Program evaluations have found
positive outcomes for youth who participated in the training, with
reductions in school violence and criminal behavior. Numerous references.

Descriptors:
prevention programs; cultural sensitivity; african americans; community
violence; family violence; program models; adolescents; outcomes

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-25951
An Ecobehavioral Model for the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and
Neglect: History and Applications.
Lutzker, J. R.; Bigelow, K. M.; Doctor, R. M.; Gershater, R. M.; Greene,
B. F.
Chapter in Book
pp. 239-266
Copyright 1998
In: Lutzker, J. R. (Editor). Handbook of Child Abuse Research and
Treatment. New York, NY, Plenum Publishing Corp.
Distributed by:
Plenum Publishing Corp.
233 Spring St.
New York, NY 10013-1578 (800) 221-9369
books@plenum.com
http://www.plenum.com

This chapter describes two research projects designed to test replication
of a multi-faceted ecobehavioral treatment model. The ecobehavioral
approach focuses on the family as a social ecology with multiple
characteristics that contribute to child abuse and neglect. Treatment
services address these multiple determinants with parent-child training,
home safety, child health care, stress reduction, marital counseling, and
nutrition. The first replication, Project Ecosystems, examined the
effectiveness of the model for a population of families with children with
disabilities. Graduate students worked with families at high risk for
child abuse and neglect, providing parent-child training, stress reduction
for parents, and skill training for children. Experimental studies and
program evaluations found that participating families were less
reliant on
services from other agencies. The second replication, Project SafeCare,
tested the effectiveness of other types of trainers and the impact of
training mediums, individual differences, and potential cultural
differences. Preliminary group data and single-subject evaluations found
that services were effectively delivered by nurses and caseworkers.
Videotraining was also effective in reducing recidivism of child abuse and
neglect. 37 references, 13 figures, and 1 table.

Descriptors:
ecological theories; behavioral psychology; program models; prevention
programs; treatment programs; research methodology

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27228
Prenatal and Early Childhood Nurse Home Visitation.
Olds, D.; Hill, P.; Rumsey, E.
Journal Article
November 1998
Juvenile Justice Bulletin.
NCJ172875:1-7
Distributed by:
National Criminal Justice Reference Service
P. O. Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20850-6000
(800) 851-3420
puborder@ncjrs.org
http://www.ncjrs.org

This bulletin describes how a prenatal and early childhood nurse home
visitation program addresses three major risk factors for later antisocial
behavior and juvenile delinquency: maternal health during pregnancy; child
abuse and neglect; and maternal lifestyle. It specifically explains the
key components of the Prenatal and Early Childhood Nurse Visitation
Program developed and revised by David Olds et al for low-income, first
time parents. The program uses trained, experienced nurses who begin their
visits during the client's pregnancy and continue services every one or
two weeks until the child is two years old. Personal health of the mother,
environmental health, and quality of caregiving are emphasized. The
services enhance the neurodevelopment of the child, improve emotional and
behavior regulation, and decrease welfare dependence and substance abuse
in target families. Costs for the home visitation program typically range
from $2,800 to $3,200 per family, and result in a savings of government
expenditures for crime, welfare, and health care. 38 references and 1
figure.

Descriptors:
prevention; home visitation programs; visiting nurses; prenatal care;
early intervention programs; program models; antisocial behavior; juvenile
delinquency

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27650
Prenatal and Early Childhood Nurse Home Visitation.
Olds, D.; Hill, P.; Rumsey, E.
Technical Report
7 pp.
November 1998
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (DOJ), Washington,
DC
Distributed by:
National Criminal Justice Reference Service
P. O. Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20850-6000
(800) 851-3420
FAX: (877) 712-9279
puborder@ncjrs.org
http://www.ncjrs.org
Sponsored by:
Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.

This article explains the role of prenatal and early childhood home
visitation programs in reducing the risk for antisocial behavior and
juvenile delinquency. It describes the development of the Prenatal and
Early Childhood Nurse Home Visitation Program model, designed by David
Olds et al for low- income, first time parents. Key components of the
model include targeted population; trained nurses; frequent, regular
visits from pregnancy through the child's second birthday; involvement of
friends and family members; services that address mother's health and
development, environment, and parenting skills; and supervision for
nurses. First implemented in Elmira, New York, the program successfully
reduced the three primary contributors to antisocial behavior:
neuropsychological impairment caused by prenatal influences, such as
cigarette smoking by pregnant women; developmental problems resulting from
child abuse and neglect; and the effects of additional unplanned
pregnancies, welfare dependence, and maternal substance abuse. Cost
benefit studies have found that the program cost of $2,800 per family per
year results in significant cost savings to the state for welfare, crime,
and health care for high risk families. 38 references and 1 figure.

Descriptors:
home visitation programs; prenatal care; pregnancy; early intervention
programs; prevention programs; juvenile delinquency; visiting nurses;
program models

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27676
Treatment Foster Care.
Chamberlain, P.
Journal Article
December 1998
Juvenile Justice Bulletin.
NCJ173421:1-11
Distributed by:
Juvneile Justice Clearinghouse
P. O. Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20850-6000
(800) 638-8736
FAX: (301) 519-5212
puborder@ncjrs.org
http://www.ncjrs.org

This article describes the application of treatment foster care to the
prevention of juvenile delinquency. Treatment foster care provides an
alternative to incarceration and group care for adolescent offenders. The
model as designed by the Oregon Social Learning Center (OSLC) offers close
supervision by trained foster families, consistent discipline, and minimal
influence from other delinquent youth. Foster parents recruited from the
community are considered part of the treatment team and are responsible
for implementing a structured plan of rules and expectations. The
intensive intervention is delivered constantly throughout the youth's
daily activities at home, school, and in the community. Restrictions
gradually decrease as the youth reaches certain phases in the program.
Four evaluations of the OSLC model have found the program to be more cost
effective than other residential treatment models. Community treatment
reduced rates of subsequent incarceration and improved the behavior of
participants. The article reviews considerations for foster parent
recruitment and training and describes planning and funding arrangements.
22 references.

Descriptors:
treatment foster care; juvenile delinquency; prevention; program models;
program descriptions; foster parents training; program evaluation;
therapeutic effectiveness

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27682
Preventing Child Neglect: Child-Care Training for Parents with
Intellectual Disabilities.
Feldman, M. A.
Journal Article
Copyright October 1998
Infants and Young Children.
11(2):1-11.
Distributed by:
Aspen Publishers, Inc., Professional Sales Dept.
200 Orchard Ridge Dr., Suite 200
Gaithersburg, MD 20878
(800) 638-8437
http://www.aspenpub.com

This article describes an empirically validated assessment and training
model designed to improve the parenting skills of parents with
intellectual disabilities. The parent education approach is based on an
interactional model of parenting and the view that many parenting problems
of parents with intellectual disabilities are due to specific skill
deficiencies that are remediable. A case study is used to illustrate
various aspects of the assessment and intervention process. Qualifications
of staff, individualized planning, skills, and instructional methods are
described. Evaluations of the intervention found that in-home,
skill-focused parent training can reduce the risk of child neglect by
parents with intellectual disabilities by improving parenting abilities.
More research is needed, particularly regarding long-term effects of
parent education. 34 references and 1 figure. (Author abstract modified)

Descriptors:
prevention; child neglect; parenting skills; parent education; retarded
parents; children at risk; assessment; program models

 Publication Type:                 Annotated Bibliography

 Availability:
This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 Database:                             Annotated Bibliographies

 

 

Title:                                      RISK FACTORS: Selected Articles.

 Source:                                 NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 Internet URL: http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 Index Terms:
characteristics of abuser;  predictor variables;  risk factors;  child abuse research;  families at risk;  assessment;  physicians role;  identification;  developmental disabilities;  children with disabilities;  pediatricians role;  evaluation methods;  physical abuse;  preschool children;  parent education;  community based services;  children at risk;  child abuse;  sequelae;  prevalence;  social policies;  etiology;  drug abuse;  alcohol abuse;  drug treatment programs;  crime;  social problems;  outcomes;  indicators;  state government;  intervention strategies;  family violence;  prevention programs;  ecological factors;  primary prevention;  secondary prevention;  research needs;  substance abuse;  measures;  drug addiction;  african americans;  ethnic differences;  pediatricians;  hipanics;  resilience;  research reviews;  child development;  longitudinal studies;  fetal alcohol syndrome;  alcoholism;  denmark;  national surveys;  newborn infants;  home visitors;  questionnaires

 Full Text:
Document No.: CD-27505
Predicting Abuse-Prone Parental Attitudes and Discipline Practices in a
Nationally Representative Sample.
Jackson, S.; Thompson, R. A.; Christiansen, E. H.; Colman, R. A.; et al.
Journal Article
Copyright January 1999
Child Abuse and Neglect.
23(1):15-29.
Distributed by:
Shelly Jackson, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Center on Children, Families, and the Law
121 S. 13th St., Suite 302, Lincoln, NE 68588-0227

The purpose of this study was to examine factors that place parents at
risk of abusing their children by predicting parents' use of discipline
practices and attitudes that may bias parents towards abusive behaviors,
referred to as abuse-proneness. A telephone interview was administered by
the Gallup Organization to a nationally representative sample of 1,000
parents. Using a set of theoretically relevant risk factors, multiple
regression was used to predict variations in parental attitudes (i.e.,
attitudes towards physical discipline and attitudes that devalue children)
and parental discipline practices (i.e., physical discipline, nonphysical
discipline, and verbal abuse). The findings confirmed the importance of
examining elements of parental attitudes, history, and personality
characteristics, as well as religion and ideology in predicting abuse
proneness. Child age also was an important predictor in all analyses
except predicting parental attitudes that devalue children. The findings
suggest also, however, that it may be unduly simplified to regard parents
as somewhere on a continuum of nonpunitive to punitive disciplinarians.
Social isolation was not a significant predictor in any of the analyses.
Although many important theoretical predictors of abuse proneness were
confirmed, many questions arise regarding the diversity of discipline
practices that parents use, and the relevance of child's age and social
isolation in predicting abuse proneness. Implications for practitioners
and future research are discussed. 22 references and 11 tables. (Author
abstract)

Descriptors:
characteristics of abuser; predictor variables; risk factors; child abuse
research; families at risk

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27860
Child Abuse and Disabilities: A Medical Perspective.
Botash, A. S.; Church, C. C.
Journal Article
Copyright Spring 1999
APSAC Advisor.
12(1):10-13, 18.
Distributed by:
American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children
407 S. Dearborn St., Suite 1300
Chicago, IL 60605
(312) 554-0166
FAX: (312) 554-0919
APSACpubls@aol.com
http://www.apsac.org

This article explains the dual role of medical providers in caring for
children with disabilities who have been maltreated. First, medical
professionals can identify developmental disabilities among children in
the care of child protective services. They can screen for certain
conditions using tools such as the Denver Developmental Screening Test-II
and the First STEP instrument. The physician can also make observations
and address parent concerns during the medical history and physical
examination procedure. Second, physicians and other professionals should
be aware of the risk factors for abuse of developmentally disabled
children and be prepared to identify and report suspected abuse among
patients with disabilities. Risk factors include vulnerability, stress of
caregivers, parental attachment difficulties, parental isolation, child
behavior, lack of ability to communicate, and other caregiver behaviors,
such as substance abuse. The article concludes with a review of research
findings regarding the relationship between maltreatment and developmental
disabilities. 19 references.

Descriptors:
assessment; physicians role; identification; developmental disabilities;
children with disabilities; pediatricians role; evaluation methods; risk
factors

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27888
Researching Families With Preschoolers at Risk of Physical Child Abuse:
What Works?
Whipple, E. E.
Journal Article
Copyright March-April 1999
Families in Society.
80(2):148-160.
Distributed by:
Families International, Inc.
11700 W. Lake Dr.
Milwaukee, WI 53224-3099
FAX: (414) 359-1074
fis@alliance1.org

This study tested the effectiveness of the Family Growth Center (FGC)
community-based parent education and support program in improving risk
factors associated with physical child abuse. The FGC is a
behaviorally-grounded parent-child program operated at 3 sites. The risk
factors examined were parental stress, impaired parent-child interactions,
verbal and physical aggression, and poor quality of the overall home
environment. Pre- and posttest data were collected on 116 families for 3
structured programs and every 3 months for 1 ongoing support group. Level
of program involvement was framed as duration (length of time) and
intensity (programming per week). Strongest gains were made by parents who
participated in the more intensive programs. Especially notable in regard
to the most intensive program, was the mandatory parent and child
components, 4 contacts per week, clear identification of risk factors, and
the provision of transportation when needed. These findings have important
implications for targeting service delivery for families with preschool
children at risk of physical child abuse. 4 tables and numerous
references. (Author abstract modified)

Descriptors:
physical abuse; risk factors; preschool children; parent education;
community based services; children at risk

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27947
Child Abuse and Developmental Disabilities.
Jaudes, P. K.; Shapiro, L. D.
Chapter in Book
pp. 213-234
Copyright 1999
In: Silver, J. A.; Amster, B. J.; Haecker, T. Young Children and Foster
Care: A Guide for Professionals. Baltimore, MD, Paul H. Brookes Publishing
Co.
Distributed by:
Brookes Publishing Co.
P. O. Box 10624
Baltimore, MD 21285-0624
(800) 638-3775
custserv@pbrookes.com
http://www.pbrookes.com

This chapter examines the relationship between developmental disabilities
in children and child abuse from two perspectives: abuse as a cause of
disability and the vulnerability of children with disabilities for abuse.
The first section describes abuse- related injuries that can cause
developmental disabilities, including brain damage, head trauma, near-miss
drowning, asphyxiation, spinal cord injury, burns, fetal exposure to drugs
and alcohol, exposure to domestic violence, psychological injury, firearm
injury, Munchausen syndrome by proxy, folk medicine, and neglect. The
second section reports the incidence of maltreatment among children with
disabilities. Studies conducted by NCCAN and other organizations have
found that children with developmental disabilities are at higher risk of
abuse and neglect than children in the general population. Medical neglect
is the most common form of maltreatment for children with disabilities
when caregivers fail to follow medical instructions or facilitate
treatment. The lack of policy support for services for children with
disabilities is also discussed. Numerous references.

Descriptors:
child abuse; developmental disabilities; children with disabilities;
sequelae; risk factors; prevalence; social policies; etiology

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-28029
Keeping Score: 1998.
Drug Strategies, Washington, DC.
Technical Report
47 pp.
Copyright 1999
Drug Strategies, Washington, DC
Distributed by:
Drug Strageties
1575 Eye St. NW, Suite 210
Washington, DC 20005
(202) 289-9070
FAX: (202) 414-6199
dspolicy@aol.com
http://www.drugstrategies.org

This report provides data on the latest research on women and alcohol,
tobacco, and other drugs. Its intent is to demonstrate the need to
concentrate on resources where they will have the maximum effect in
reducing substance use and abuse among girls and women. The report
examines alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among women from many
different perspectives: public health, criminal justice, impact on
children, treatment and prevention. Although the number of women and girls
who use illegal drugs has risen sharply in recent years, they still
represent a much smaller percentage of the nation's addicts than do men.
However, if binge drinking, smoking, and abuse of prescription drugs are
also considered, millions more women are affected. Substance abuse among
women has adverse effects not only on the individuals involved but also on
their children, their families, and their communities, creating a host of
health and social problems. The report highlights a number of promising
programs for girls, women, and their families in communities across the
country. This report is divided into the following sections: drug use and
attitudes, health and welfare, drugs and crime, and looking to the future.
Numerous tables, figures, and references.

Descriptors:
drug abuse; alcohol abuse; drug treatment programs; crime; social problems

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-28135
At-Risk in the Midwest: State Strategies to Improve Outcomes for Young
Children.
Kocinski, J. M.
Technical Report
24 pp.
Copyright February 1999
Council of State Governments, Lombard, IL
Distributed by:
Council of State Governments
641 E. Butterfield Rd., Suite 401
Lombard, IL 60148-5651
(630) 810-0210
FAX: (630) 810-0145
csgm@csg.org
http://www.csg.org/regions/midwest

This report was written by the Committee on the Status of Children of the
Midwestern Legislative Conference, the Council of State Governments. It
considers the status of children and how States may improve their future
outcomes. In doing so, it examines those conditions influencing a child's
health and well-being, as social science research has identified a variety
of risk factors that can compromise a child's potential to succeed. It
identifies where young children in the Midwestern states fall across a
number of risk factors and highlights a few States' efforts to address
these risks in the areas of early childhood education and care, health,
and welfare. The report's conclusion reviews early childhood intervention
strategies with respect to defining goals, design versus practice, and
costs versus savings. Numerous exhibits.

Descriptors:
outcomes; risk factors; indicators; state government; children at risk;
intervention strategies

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-28213
Preventing Child Maltreatment.
Harrington, D.; Dubowitz, H.
Chapter in Book
pp. 122-147
Copyright 1999
In: Hampton, R. L. (Editor). Family Violence: Prevention and Treatment.
Second Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-0721
FAX: (805) 499-0871
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com/

This chapter provides an overview of the ecological model of child
maltreatment. It summarizes the 3 levels of prevention efforts. Primary
prevention, such as providing pediatric care for all children, targets the
general population. Secondary prevention is directed at groups thought to
be at high risk for child maltreatment; an example is home visiting
programs for young, unmarried mothers. Tertiary prevention, or treatment,
occurs after the condition has been identified. The goal is to prevent
further abuse or neglect and to reduce the negative sequelae of
maltreatment. An example is protective services intervention following a
substantiated report for child maltreatment. Next, the chapter discusses
primary and secondary prevention efforts directed toward the 4 levels of
the ecological model (parent, family, community, and cultural/societal
level). The chapter concludes with examples of prevention programs
recently developed and evaluated. The authors recommend that more
information is needed about what prevention strategies are most effective
and cost-effective for which families. In addition, child maltreatment
prevention research has not included the roles of fathers, other family
members, and the culture; future efforts will need to address these areas.
The authors advocate for a national commitment to addressing the
underlying problems, such as poverty, that compromise the functioning of
families and contribute to child maltreatment. Numerous references.

Descriptors:
family violence; prevention programs; ecological factors; primary
prevention; secondary prevention; research needs; children at risk

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-28245
Outcome Measures of Interventions in the Study of Children of
Substance-Abusing Parents.
Kumpfer, K. L.
Journal Article
Copyright May 1999
Pediatrics.
103(5):1128-1144 (Supplement).
Distributed by:
American Academy of Pediatrics
P. O. Box 927
Elk Grove Village, IL 60007-1098
(800) 433-9016
FAX: (847) 228-5097
kisdocs@aap.org
http://www.pediatrics.org

Children of substance-abusing parents, including children of alcoholics,
are one of the highest risk groups of children for substance abuse
problems. Prevention practitioners must work harder to identify and
evaluate effective ways to prevent future substance abuse in these at-risk
children. This article focuses on general and unique measurement methods
and instrument problems in prevention interventions for children of
substance-abusing parents. Part 1 covers the need for improved measurement
in research and practice with children of substance-abusing parents and
recommended measures for different hypothesized outcome variables. Part 2
covers considerations in selecting measures, and part 3 covers how to
select measures. This article concludes with recommendations to improve
measurement in research and practice. 2 tables and 112 references. (Author
abstract modified)

Descriptors:
outcomes; substance abuse; risk factors; prevention programs; research
needs; measures; alcohol abuse

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-28246
The Social Ecology of Addiction: Race, Risk, and Resilience.
Wallace, J. M.
Journal Article
Copyright May 1999
Pediatrics.
103(5):1122-1127 (Supplement).
Distributed by:
American Academy of Pediatrics
P. O. Box 927
Elk Grove Village, IL 60007-1098
(800) 433-9016
FAX: (847) 228-5097
kidsdocs@aap.org
http://www.pediatrics.org

This article informs pediatricians and other health professionals of key
contextual risk factors that elevate African American and Hispanic
Americans' likelihood to use substances and to discuss selected protective
mechanisms that may shield members of these populations against substance
use. The article selectively reviews the literature on the epidemiology,
etiology, and consequences of alcohol and other drug use among white,
black, and Hispanic adults and youth. The extant research suggests that
historical and contemporary racialized differences in substance use
outcomes, both directly and indirectly, through their influence on the
communities in which people of different racial and ethnic groups are
placed, through their influence on the structure and process of people's
interpersonal relationships, and through the impact that they have on
individuals' psychology and behavior. Although the emphasis of
pediatricians' and many other professionals' work focuses on individuals
and individual-level behaviors, these behaviors can only be properly
examined, diagnosed, and treated when they are understood in light of the
community and societal contexts in which they occur. 41 references.
(Author abstract modified)

Descriptors:
alcohol abuse; drug addiction; risk factors; african americans; ethnic
differences; pediatricians; hipanics; resilience

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-28248
Children of Substance Abusers: Overview of Research Findings.
Johnson, J. L.; Leff, M.
Journal Article
Copyright May 1999
Pediatrics.
103(5):1085-1099 (Supplement).
Distributed by:
American Academy of Pediatrics
P. O. Box 927
Elk Grove Village, IL 60007-1098
(800) 433-9016
FAX: (847) 228-5097
kidsdocs@aap.org
http://www.pediatrics.org

A relationship between parental substance abuse and subsequent alcohol
problems in their children has been documented extensively. Children of
alcoholics (COAs) are considered to be at high risk because there is a
greater likelihood that they will develop alcoholism compared with a
randomly selected child from the same community. The most potent risk
factor in the lives of COAs is their parent's substance-abusing behavior.
This risk factor can place children of substance abusers at biologic,
psychologic, and environmental risk. A series of earlier studies measured
mortality, physiology, and general health in the offspring of alcoholic
parents and concluded that when mothers stopped drinking during gestation,
their children were healthier. Present research on COAs can be classified
into studies of fetal alcohol syndrome, the transmission of alcoholism,
psychobiologic markers of vulnerability, and psychosocial characteristics.
This research supports the belief that COAs are at risk for a variety of
problems that may include behavioral, psychologic, cognitive, or
neuropsychologic deficits. The literature on COAs outweighs the literature
on children of other drug users. Many researchers suggest that the
children of addicted parents of other drugs are at greater risk for later
dysfunctional behaviors and that they, too, deserve significant attention
to prevent intergenerational transmission of drug use. Most research on
children of other drug abusers examines fetal exposure to maternal drug
abuse. The research on children of substance abusers points toward the
need for better, longitudinal research. Most studies on COAs or other drug
abusers are not longitudinal; they examine behavior at one point in time.
Given the studies reviewed in this article, it is unclear whether there
are true deficits or developmental delay in these children. Longitudinal
studies will allow researchers to predict when early disorders and
behavioral deviations will be transient or when they will be precursors to
more severe types of maladaptive behavior. Longitudinal research will also
help explain specific childhood outcomes. Differences in outcome could be
studied simultaneously to understand whether antecedents discovered for
one are specific to it or are general antecedents leading to a broad
variety of outcomes. 1 table and 202 references. (Author abstract
modified)

Descriptors:
substance abuse; research reviews; child development; research needs;
longitudinal studies; alcohol abuse; fetal alcohol syndrome; alcoholism

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-28257
The Prevalence and Nature of Abuse and Neglect in Children Under Four: A
National Survey.
Christensen, E.
Journal Article
Copyright March-April 1999
Child Abuse Review.
8(2):109-119.
Distributed by:
John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Customer Service, 605 Third Ave.
New York, NY 10158-0012
(212) 850-6645
FAX: (212) 850-6021
subinfo@jwiley.com
http://www.wiley.com

This paper reports the results from a Danish national survey of child
abuse and neglect. Data were obtained by a written questionnaire sent to
all home health visitors. All newborn Danish children receive visitors by
a home health visitor several times during their first year of life. For
children in need of special care for social reasons, the visits may
continue until school age (at age 6 or 7 years). The questionnaire
included 4 checklists of signs of abuse and neglect. The home health
visitors were asked to record what they had actually observed visiting the
children in their homes. Eight-three percent (covering 80 percent of all
newborns) answered the questionnaire. The objective was to establish a
scientific based framework that could be used to guide preventive efforts.
Ten percent of all children under 1 year of age may be characterized as
children in need of special care for social reasons, the most single
reason being
reliance on social assistance, alcohol abuse, or violence
against the mother. A minimum of 4 percent of infants are subjected to
broadly defined abuse or neglect from 1 or more of the 4 categories:
physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional abuse, and emotional neglect.
Physical and emotional neglect was the most frequent and physical
maltreatment the most rare form of abuse. 3 tables and numerous
references. (Author abstract modified)

Descriptors:
prevalence; denmark; national surveys; newborn infants; home visitors;
alcohol abuse; questionnaires

 Publication Type:                 Annotated Bibliography

 Availability:
This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 Database:                             Annotated Bibliographies

 

 

Title:                                      INTERVIEWING CHILD WITNESSES: Selected articles.

 Source:                                 NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 Internet URL: http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 Index Terms:
memory;  trauma;  suggestibility;  child witnesses;  interviews;  literature reviews;  research methodology;  validity;  repression;  research reviews;  neurology;  false memory syndrome;  therapists role;  sexual exploitation;  investigations;  sexual abuse;  child pornography;  victims;  perpetrators;  sex offenders;  competency;  credibility;  child development;  assessment;  preschool children;  protocols;  child abuse research;  case studies;  measures;  individual characteristics;  false allegations;  leading questions;  abuse allegations;  risk factors;  guidelines

 Full Text:
Document No.: CD-26978
Individual Differences in Maltreated Children's Memory and Suggestibility.
Eisen, M. I.; Goodman, G. S.; Davis, S. L.; Qin, J.
Chapter in Book
pp. 31-46
Copyright 1999
In: Williams, L. M. and Banyard, V. L. (Editors). Trauma and Memory.
Thousand
Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-0721
FAX: (805) 499-0871
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com/

This chapter reviews the research on children's memory from the child
witness and memory literature to formulate a model that explains the
impact of trauma on a child's memory process and eyewitness testimony.
Factors identified in the research as variables affecting the accuracy of
a child's reports include: interview procedures; type of abuse; and
individual differences among children. The literature indicates that
information vital to the experience is remembered more easily than
peripheral details and that developmentally appropriate, open-ended
questions prompt the most accurate reports. While repetitious questions
can improve children's memories, misleading questions can increase
mistakes in recall. Research on the effects of stress and trauma on memory
is more limited, but findings consistently suggest that there are also
individual differences in the way that children's memories are affected by
trauma and stress. The chapter proposes a model to explain that children
with identified characteristics such as poor coping skills are more apt to
develop pathological responses to stress and dissociate. The model was
tested in a sample of 214 children who had an anogenital examination.
Global adaptive functioning was found to be significantly related to the
accuracy of children's reports of the examination and resistance to
misleading statements. No relationship was found between dissociation and
memory or suggestibility. Numerous references.

Descriptors:
memory; trauma; suggestibility; child witnesses; interviews; literature
reviews; research methodology; validity

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-26980
Trauma, Memory, and Clinical Practice.
Berliner, L.; Briere, J.
Chapter in Book
pp. 3-18
Copyright 1999
In: Williams, L. M. and Banyard, V. L. (Editors). Trauma and Memory.
Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-0721
FAX: (805) 499-0871
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com/

This chapter reviews research about the memory process and the effects of
trauma on the accuracy of recall. Implications for therapy are
specifically discussed. Current research has found that in general, most
children and adults are able to accurately remember traumatic events.
However, it is possible that the events could be misunderstood or
inaccurate about certain details. In addition, traumatic memories are
processed differently than memories of other events and are often less
clear. Victims of trauma may develop symptoms of post traumatic stress
disorder, such as intrusive thoughts about the event, nightmares and
flashbacks, and dissociative amnesia. The chapter also summarizes the
findings of research about the mechanisms of memory, including the
reconstructive nature of the process; memory ability; organization of
memories in children and adults; suggestibility; and the development of
false memories or beliefs about an event. Trauma specific therapy is
usually recommended for patients with symptoms of post-traumatic stress
who can remember their trauma. However, treatment should focus on
techniques to reduce stress, rather than on the memories of trauma. When
treating patients who do remember their traumatic experience, clinicians
are advised to use caution in their support of the recovery of memory.
Interviews must comply with legal standards for evidence and avoid any
questions that may influence the memory process. Numerous references.

Descriptors:
trauma; memory; repression; research reviews; neurology; false memory
syndrome; therapists role; suggestibility

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27175
The Sexual Exploitation of Children: A Practical Guide to Assessment,
Investigation, and Intervention.
Goldstein, S. L.
Book
603 pp.
Copyright 1999
Second Edition. Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press
Distributed by:
CRC Press
2000 Corporate Blvd. NW
Boca Raton, FL 33431-9868
(800) 272-7737
orders@crcpress.com
http://www.crcpress.com

This book provides contemporary, comprehensive, and pragmatic information
to the practitioner involved in criminal investigations of sexual
exploitation of children. Chapter 1 provides a definition of the problem
of sexual exploitation. Chapter 2 focuses on the victim and the
perpetrator. Chapter 3 examines the methods used by perpetrators. Chapter
4 provides detailed information on the process of investigating child
pornography. Chapter 5 discusses the process of interviewing children.
Chapter 6 discusses interviewing the offender. Chapter 7 examines purposes
of search warrants. Chapter 8 focuses on case management. Fourteen
appendices provide examples of reports, court documents, interviews of
criminal investigations. Numerous references and tables.

Descriptors:
sexual exploitation; investigations; sexual abuse; child pornography;
victims; perpetrators; sex offenders; interviews

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27196
Forensic Interviews of Children.
Lamb, M. E.; Sternberg, K. J.; Orbach, Y.
Unpublished Paper
43 pp.
Copyright 1999
Distributed by:
John Wiley and Sons
1 Wiley Dr.
Somerset, NJ 08875-1272
(800) 225-5945
order@wiley.com
http://www.wiley.com

This chapter provides an overview of research findings on the competency
of children who disclose sexual abuse and the effectiveness of interview
techniques designed to improve the
reliability of children's reports. The
first section identifies factors found to affect the competency of
children, including language and communication abilities, memory
development, and suggestibility. Overall, the research has found that
children are able to remember details of events and that questioning
techniques can influence their reports. An electronic recording, such as a
videotape, is recommended to document the interview strategy used and
assess the suggestibility of the questions. Section Two of the chapter
highlights findings specific to investigative interviews and the
effectiveness and appropriateness of open-ended questions, recognition
probes, invitations, facilitators, directive utterances, leading
utterances, and suggestive utterances. Findings indicate that open-ended,
invitational questions elicit the best responses from children about the
details of the abuse. However, focused questions are used more frequently
by investigators, even those who have had intensive training in using
open-ended questions. Interview training for children and extended scripts
for interviewers have been found to improve the quality of information
obtained during forensic interviews. Numerous references.

Descriptors:
interviews; investigations; child witnesses; competency; credibility;
child development; memory; suggestibility

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27255
Assessing Allegations of Sexual Abuse in Preschool Children: Understanding
Small Voices.
Hewitt, S. K.
Book
315 pp.
Copyright 1999
Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc.
Distributed by:
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
(805) 499-0721
FAX: (805) 499-0871
order@sagepub.com
http://www.sagepub.com/

Written for police officers, child protection workers, and mental health
professionals, this book presents an approach for evaluating sexual abuse
in preverbal and other young children. Heavy emphasis is placed on
applying knowledge of child development to interviews and case management.
The first two chapters describe normal childhood sexual behavior and the
development of communication skills in infancy, at age 18 to 36 months, at
3 to 5 years, and 5 years and older. Chapter Three summarizes the memory
research and concludes that although children can remember events
accurately, their memories can be affected by trauma, neurobiology, and
suggestion. Specific strategies for assessing young children are outlined
in Chapters Four and Five. These chapters provide practical suggestions
for using objective measures, collecting collateral information,
prescreening the child, and preparing case decisions. Numerous case
studies are used to illustrate methods for interviewing children to assess
their understanding and developmental level, then to collect information
about abuse using dolls, pictures, and maps. Chapter Six identifies
different types of interviews that can be adapted for young children, and
Chapter Seven describes the Touch Survey, a systematic screening method in
detail. Chapter Eight explains how to protect children who are at risk
even though the allegations are unsubstantiated. The future of assessment
is explored in the final chapter. Numerous references, 7 figures, and 4
tables.

Descriptors:
sexual abuse; assessment; credibility; preschool children; interviews;
child development; protocols

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27516
Assessing the Accuracy of a Child's Account of Sexual Abuse: A Case Study.
Orbach, Y.; Lamb, M. E.
Journal Article
Copyright January 1999
Child Abuse and Neglect.
23(1):91-98.
Distributed by:
Michael E. Lamb, Section on Social and Emotional Development, National
Institute on Child Health and Human Development
9190 Rockville Pike
Bethesda, MD 20814

The objective of the case study reported in this paper was to examine the
accuracy of one child's account of a sexually abusive incident. The
availability of an audio recording of the last in a series of abusive
incidents enabled us to assess accuracy in greater detail than has
hitherto been possible in forensic contexts. Information given by the
victim during an investigative interview was compared with an audio-taped
record of the incident. Content analyses of the interview involved
quantitative analyses of the victim's account, and a qualitative analysis
of the eliciting utterances. A Criteria Based Content Analysis (CBCA) was
performed on the victim's account to assess its purported credibility.
More than 50 percent of the informative details reported by the victim
were corroborated by the audio-recorded account (of which 98 percent were
central, i.e., allegation related and 64 percent were confirmed by more
than one source). A total of 10 CBCA criteria were present in the victim's
free-narrative account of the last abusive incident. These findings
confirm that children can indeed provide remarkably detailed and accurate
accounts of their experiences. 44 references and 1 table. (Author
abstract)

Descriptors:
assessment; sexual abuse; credibility; child abuse research; research
methodology; case studies; interviews; measures

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27690
The Suggestibility of Children's Memory.
Bruck, M.; Ceci, S. J.
Journal Article
Copyright 1999
Annual Review of Psychology.
50:419-439.
Distributed by:
Annual Reviews Reprint Service
4139 El Camino Way
P. O. Box 10139, Palo Alto, CA 94303-0139
(800) 347-8007
FAX: (415) 259-5017
arpr@class.org
http://www.annurev.org

This review describes a shift that has taken place in the area of
developmental suggestibility. Formerly, studies in this area indicated
that there were pronounced age-related differences in suggestibility, with
preschool children being particularly susceptible to misleading
suggestions. The studies on which this conclusion was based were
criticized on several grounds (e.g., unrealistic scenarios, truncated age
range). Newer studies that have addressed these criticisms, however, have
largely confirmed the earlier conclusions. These studies indicate that
preschool children are disproportionately vulnerable to a variety of
suggestive influences. There do not appear to be any strict boundary
conditions to this conclusion, and preschool children will sometimes
succumb to suggestions about bodily touching, emotional events, and
participatory events. The evidence for chid assertion is presented in the
review. 58 references. (Author abstract)

Descriptors:
child witnesses; memory; suggestibility; child development; literature
reviews; individual characteristics; credibility; false allegations

               ------------------------------------

Document No.: CD-27807
Focused Questions for Interviewing Children Suspected of Maltreatment and
Other Traumatic Experiences.
Faller, K. C.
Journal Article
Copyright Spring 1999
APSAC Advisor.
12(1):14-18.
Distributed by:
American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children
407 S. Dearborn St., Suite 1300
Chicago, IL 60605
(312) 554-0166
FAX: (312) 554-0919
APSACMems@aol.com
http://www.apsac.org

This article provides general guidelines for interviews with children
about suspected abuse and outlines the specific types of questions that
should be asked during an interview. Evaluators are advised to prepare the
child for the interview and consider the developmental level of the child
when framing questions. Care should be taken to minimize the stress
experienced by the child during more sensitive or difficult questions.
Different types of questions should be asked to prompt the child's memory
without leading their answers and to graually broach more difficult
topics. Direct questions should be asked about people, behavior,
circumstances, environment, discipline or physical abuse, injuries from
physical abuse or neglect, body parts and sexual abuse, context of the
alleged event, and emotional maltreatment endangering behaviors such as
family violence and substance abuse. A list of specific questions is
provided. 6 references.

Descriptors:
interviews; leading questions; investigations; abuse allegations;
assessment; suggestibility; risk factors; guidelines

 Publication Type:                 Annotated Bibliography

 Availability:
This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 Database:                             Annotated Bibliographies

 

 

Title:                                      Legislation Authorizing HIV Testing of Sex Offenders (Current through December 31, 1999): Maine.

 Institutional Author:            U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE

 Author Affiliation:                U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES  Administration for Children and Families  Administration on Children, Youth and Families  Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION  330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565  Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE  99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321

 Source:                                 Investigations Number 16; In: HIV Testing of Sex Offenders

 Internet URL: http://www.ndaa-apri.org

 Series:                                  Child Abuse and Neglect State Statutes Elements

 Index Terms:
Statute;  Maine;  advocate;  conduct;  Department;  health care;  HIV Testing;  Human Services;  Legislation;  services;  Sex Offender

 Full Text:
MAINE

 Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 5, Section 19203-A(5) (West  Supp. 1999)

Consent need not be obtained when a court order has been issued under
section 19203-F. The fact that an HIV test was given as a result of the
exposure and the results of that test may not appear in a convicted
offender's medical record. Counseling on risk reduction must be offered,
but the convicted offender may choose not to be informed about the result
of the test unless the court has ordered that the convicted offender be
informed of the result.

Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 5, Section 19203-F (West Supp. 1999)

A person who is the victim of a sexual crime, or that person's parent,
guardian or authorized representative if that person is a minor or
incapacitated adult, may petition the court at any time prior to
sentencing or no later than 180 days after conviction to order the
convicted offender to submit to HIV testing and to order that the
convicted offender be informed of the test results.

Upon receipt of the petition, the court shall order that the convicted
offender obtain HIV testing conducted by or under authority of the
Department of Human Services and, if requested by the petitioner, that
the convicted offender be informed of the test results.

The health care facility in which a convicted offender is tested pursuant
to this section shall disclose the results of the test to the
victim-witness advocate, who shall disclose the result to the petitioner.
The test result may not be disclosed to the petitioner until the
petitioner has received counseling, pursuant to section 19204-A,
regarding the nature,
reliability and significance of the convicted
offender's HIV test and has been offered referrals for health care and
support services for the victim. The health care facility shall, upon
order of the court, disclose the results of the test to the convicted
offender.

 Document Number:             CS-0000766

 Publication Type:                 Statutes

 Database:                              US State Statute Series

 

 

Title:                                      Involuntary Civil Commitment of Sexually Violent Predators (Current through December 31, 1999): Texas.

 Institutional Author:            U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE

 Author Affiliation:                U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES  Administration for Children and Families  Administration on Children, Youth and Families  Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION  330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565  Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE  99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321

 Source:                                 Investigations Number 19; In: Involuntary Civil Commitment of Sexually Violent Predators

 Internet URL: http://www.ndaa-apri.org

 Series:                                  Child Abuse and Neglect State Statutes Elements

 Index Terms:
Statute;  Texas;  alcohol;  assessment;  circumstances;  Civil Commitment;  Commission;  conduct;  Criminal;  defendant;  Department;  jurisdiction;  offense;  physical health;  Procedure;  services;  Sexually Violent Predators;  treatment

 Full Text:
TEXAS

 Texas Health & Safety Code Section 841.002 and Section 841.003 (1999)

Behavioral abnormality means a congenital or acquired condition that, by
affecting a person's emotional or volitional capacity, predisposes the
person to commit a sexually violent offense, to the extent that the
person becomes a menace to the health and safety of another person.

Sexually violent predator means a person who is a repeat sexually violent
offender and who suffers from a behavioral abnormality that makes the
person likely to engage in a predatory act of sexual violence.

Texas Health & Safety Code Section 841.004 (1999)

A special division of the prison prosecution unit, separate from that
part of the unit responsible for prosecuting criminal cases, is
responsible for initiating and pursuing a civil commitment proceeding.

Texas Health & Safety Code Section 841.006 (1999)

This chapter does not prohibit a person committed under this chapter from
filing at any time a petition for release under this chapter; or create
for the committed person a cause of action against another person for
failure to give notice within a period required by Subchapter B.

Texas Health & Safety Code Section 841.021 (1999)

Before the person's anticipated release date, the Texas Department of
Criminal Justice shall give to the multidisciplinary team established
under Section 841.022 written notice of the anticipated release of a
person who:
    (1) is serving a sentence for a sexually violent offense;
    (2) may be a repeat sexually violent offender.

Before the person's anticipated discharge date, the Texas Department of
Mental Health and Mental Retardation shall give to the multidisciplinary
team established under Section 841.022 written notice of the anticipated
discharge of a person who:
    (1) is committed to the department after having been adjudged not
        guilty by reason of insanity of a sexually violent offense;
    (2) may be a repeat sexually violent offender.

The Texas Department of Criminal Justice or the Texas Department of
Mental Health and Mental Retardation, as appropriate, shall give the
notice described by Subsection (a), (b), not later than the first day of
the 16th month before the person's anticipated release or discharge date,
but under exigent circumstances may give the notice at any time before
the anticipated release or discharge date. The notice must contain the
following information:
    (1) the person's name, identifying factors, anticipated residence
        after release or discharge, and criminal history;
    (2) documentation of the person's institutional adjustment and actual
        treatment;
    (3) an assessment of the likelihood that the person will commit a
        sexually violent offense after release or discharge.

Texas Health & Safety Code Section 841.022 (1999)

The executive director of the Texas Department of Criminal Justice and
the commissioner of the Texas Department of Mental Health and Mental
Retardation jointly shall establish a multidisciplinary team to review
available records of a person referred to the team under Section 841.021.
The team must include:
    (1) two persons from the Texas Department of Mental Health and Mental
        Retardation;
    (2) three persons from the Texas Department of Criminal Justice, one
        of whom must be from the victim services office of that
        department;
    (3) one person from the Texas Department of Public Safety;
    (4) one person from the council.

The multidisciplinary team may request the assistance of other persons in
making a determination under this section.

Not later than the 30th day after the date the multidisciplinary team
receives notice under Section 841.021(a), or (b), the team shall:
    (1) determine whether the person is a repeat sexually violent
        offender and whether the person is likely to commit a sexually
        violent offense after release or discharge;
    (2) give notice of that determination to the Texas Department of
        Criminal Justice or the Texas Department of Mental Health and
        Mental Retardation, as appropriate;
    (3) recommend the assessment of the person for a behavioral
        abnormality, as appropriate.

Texas Health & Safety Code Section 841.023 (1999)

Not later than the 30th day after the date of a recommendation under
Section 841.022(c), the Texas Department of Criminal Justice or the Texas
Department of Mental Health and Mental Retardation, as appropriate, shall
determine whether the person suffers from a behavioral abnormality that
makes the person likely to engage in a predatory act of sexual violence.
To aid in the determination, the department required to make the
determination shall use an expert to examine the person. That department
may contract for the expert services required by this subsection. The
expert shall make a clinical assessment based on testing for psychopathy,
a clinical interview, and other appropriate assessments and techniques to
aid in the determination.

If the Texas Department of Criminal Justice or the Texas Department of
Mental Health and Mental Retardation determines that the person suffers
from a behavioral abnormality, the department making the determination
shall give notice of that determination and provide corresponding
documentation to the attorney representing the state not later than the
30th day after the date of a recommendation under Section 841.022(c).

Texas Health & Safety Code Section 841.041 (1999)

If a person is referred to the attorney representing the state under
Section 841.023, the attorney may file a petition alleging that the
person is a sexually violent predator and stating facts sufficient to
support the allegation. This petition must be filed not later than the
60th day after the date the person is referred to the attorney
representing the state.

Texas Health & Safety Code Section 841.061 (1999)

Not later than the 60th day after the date a petition is filed under
Section 841.041, the judge shall conduct a trial to determine whether the
person is a sexually violent predator. The person or the state is
entitled to a jury trial on demand. A demand for a jury trial must be
filed in writing not later than the 10th day before the date the trial is
scheduled to begin. The person and the state are entitled to an immediate
examination of the person by an expert.

Additional rights of the person at the trial include the following:
    (1) the right to appear at the trial;
    (2) the right to present evidence on the person's behalf;
    (3) the right to cross-examine a witness who testifies against the
        person;
    (4) the right to view and copy all petitions and reports in the court
        file.

The attorney representing the state may rely on the petition filed under
Section 841.041 and supplement the petition with documentary evidence or
live testimony.

Texas Health & Safety Code Section 841.062 (1999)

The judge or jury shall determine whether, beyond a reasonable doubt, the
person is a sexually violent predator. Either the state or the person is
entitled to appeal the determination. A jury determination that the
person is a sexually violent predator must be by unanimous verdict.

Texas Health & Safety Code Section 841.081 (1999)

If at a trial the judge or jury determines that the person is a sexually
violent predator, the judge shall commit the person for outpatient
treatment and supervision to be coordinated by the case manager.  The
outpatient treatment and supervision must begin on the person's release
from a secure correctional facility or discharge from a state hospital
and must continue until the person's behavioral abnormality has changed
to the extent that the person is no longer likely to engage in a
predatory act of sexual violence.

Texas Health & Safety Code Section 841.082 (1999)

Before entering an order directing a person's outpatient civil
commitment, the judge shall impose on the person requirements necessary
to ensure the person's compliance with treatment and supervision and to
protect the community. The requirements shall include:
    (1) requiring the person to reside in a particular location;
    (2) prohibiting the person's contact with a victim or potential
        victim of the person;
    (3) prohibiting the person's use of alcohol or a controlled
        substance;
    (4) requiring the person's participation in a specific course of
        treatment;
    (5) requiring the person to submit to tracking under a particular
        type of tracking service and to any other appropriate
        supervision;
    (6) prohibiting the person from changing the person's residence
        without prior authorization from the judge and from leaving the
        state without that authorization;
    (7) if determined appropriate by the judge, establishing a child
        safety zone, and requiring the person to comply with requirements
        related to the safety zone;
    (8) requiring the person to notify the case manager within 48 hours
        of any change in the person's status that affects proper
        treatment and supervision, including a change in the person's
        physical health or job status and including any incarceration of
        the person;
    (9) any other requirements determined necessary by the judge.

The judge shall provide a copy of the requirements imposed under
subsection (a), to the person and to the council.  The council shall
provide a copy of those requirements to the case manager and to the
service providers.

Immediately after the person's commitment, the judge shall transfer
jurisdiction of the case to a district court, other than a family
district court, having jurisdiction in the county in which the defendant
is residing.

Texas Health & Safety Code Section 841.083 (1999)

The council shall approve and contract for the provision of a treatment
plan for the committed person to be developed by the treatment provider.
A treatment plan may include the monitoring of the person with a
polygraph or plethysmograph. The treatment provider may receive annual
compensation in an amount not to exceed $6,000 for providing the required
treatment.

The case manager shall provide supervision to the person. The provision
of supervision shall include tracking services and, if required by court
order, supervised housing.

The council shall enter into an interagency agreement with the Texas
Department of Public Safety for the provision of tracking services. The
Department of Public Safety shall contract with the General Services
Commission for the equipment necessary to implement those services. 

The council shall contract for any necessary supervised housing. The
committed person may not be housed for any period of time in a mental
health facility, state school, or community center.

The case manager shall coordinate the outpatient treatment and
supervision required by this chapter, including performing a periodic
assessment of the success of that treatment and supervision; make timely
recommendations to the judge on whether to allow the committed person to
change residence or to leave the state and on any other appropriate
matters; and provide a report to the council, semiannually or more
frequently as necessary, which must include: any known change in the
person's status that affects proper treatment and supervision, and any
recommendations made to the judge.

Texas Health & Safety Code Section 841.084 (1999)

A treatment provider or a supervision provider other than the case
manager shall submit, monthly or more frequently if required by the case
manager, a report to the case manager stating whether the person is
complying with treatment or supervision requirements, as applicable.

Texas Health & Safety Code Section 841.085 (1999)

A person commits an offense if the person violates a requirement imposed
under Section 841.082.  An offense under this section is a felony of the
third degree.

Texas Health & Safety Code Section 841.101 (1999)

A person committed under Section 841.081 shall receive a biennial
examination. The council shall contract for an expert to perform the
examination.

In preparation for a judicial review conducted under Section 841.102, the
case manager shall provide a report of the biennial examination to the
judge. The report must include consideration of whether to modify a
requirement imposed on the person under this chapter and whether to
release the person from all requirements imposed on the person under this
chapter. The case manager shall provide a copy of the report to the
council.

Texas Health & Safety Code Section 841.102 (1999)

The judge shall conduct a biennial review of the status of the committed
person. The person is entitled to be represented by counsel at the
biennial review, but the person is not entitled to be present at that
review. The judge shall set a hearing if the judge determines at the
biennial review that: a requirement imposed on the person under this
chapter should be modified; or probable cause exists to believe that the
person's behavioral abnormality has changed to the extent that the person
is no longer likely to engage in a predatory act of sexual violence.

Texas Health & Safety Code Section 841.103 (1999)

At a hearing set by the judge under Section 841.102, the person and the
state are entitled to an immediate examination of the person by an
expert.

If the hearing is set under Section 841.102(c)(1), hearsay evidence is
admissible if it is considered otherwise
reliable by the judge. If the
hearing is set under Section 841.102(c)(2), the committed person is
entitled to be present and to have the benefit of all constitutional
protections provided to the person at the initial civil commitment
proceeding. On the request of the person or the attorney representing the
state, the court shall conduct the hearing before a jury. The burden of
proof at that hearing is on the state to prove beyond a reasonable doubt
that the person's behavioral abnormality has not changed to the extent
that the person is no longer likely to engage in a predatory act of
sexual violence.

Texas Health & Safety Code Section 841.121 (1999)

If the case manager determines that the committed person's behavioral
abnormality has changed to the extent that the person is no longer likely
to engage in a predatory act of sexual violence, the case manager shall
authorize the person to petition the court for release. 

The petitioner shall serve a petition under this section on the court and
the attorney representing the state. 

The judge shall set a hearing on a petition under this section not later
than the 30th day after the date the judge receives the petition. The
petitioner and the state are entitled to an immediate examination of the
petitioner by an expert.

On request of the petitioner or the attorney representing the state, the
court shall conduct the hearing before a jury. 

The burden of proof at the hearing is on the state to prove beyond a
reasonable doubt that the petitioner's behavioral abnormality has not
changed to the extent that the petitioner is no longer likely to engage
in a predatory act of sexual violence.

Texas Health & Safety Code Section 841.121 (1999)

On a person's commitment and annually after that commitment, the case
manager shall provide the person with written notice of the person's
right to file with the court and without the case manager's authorization
a petition for release.

Texas Health & Safety Code Section 841.123 (1999)

If the committed person files a petition for release without the case
manager's authorization, the person shall serve the petition on the court
and the attorney representing the state.

On receipt of a petition for release filed by the committed person
without the case manager's authorization, the judge shall attempt as soon
as practicable to review the petition.

Except as provided by Subsection (d), the judge shall deny without a
hearing a petition for release filed without the case manager's
authorization if the petition is frivolous or if:
    (1) the petitioner previously filed without the case manager's
        authorization another petition for release;
    (2) the judge determined on review of the previous petition or
        following a hearing that:

      (A) the petition was frivolous; or

      (B) the petitioner's behavioral abnormality had not changed to the
          extent that the petitioner was no longer likely to engage in a
          predatory act of sexual violence.

The judge is not required to deny a petition under Subsection (c), if
probable cause exists to believe that the petitioner's behavioral
abnormality has changed to the extent that the petitioner is no longer
likely to engage in a predatory act of sexual violence.

Texas Health & Safety Code Section 841.124 (1999)

If as authorized by Section 841.123 the judge does not deny a petition
for release filed by the committed person without the case manager's
authorization, the judge shall conduct as soon as practicable a hearing
on the petition.

The petitioner and the state are entitled to an immediate examination of
the person by an expert.

On request of the petitioner or the attorney representing the state, the
court shall conduct the hearing before a jury.

The burden of proof at the hearing is on the state to prove beyond a
reasonable doubt that the petitioner's behavioral abnormality has not
changed to the extent that the petitioner is no longer likely to engage
in a predatory act of sexual violence.

Texas Health & Safety Code Section 841.144 (1999)

At all stages of the civil commitment proceeding s under this chapter, a
person subject to a proceeding is entitled to the assistance of counsel.

If the person is indigent, the court shall appoint counsel through the
Office of State Counsel for Offenders to assist the person.

Texas Health & Safety Code Section 841.145 (1999)

A person who is examined under this chapter may retain an expert to
perform an examination or participate in a civil commitment proceeding on
the person's behalf.

On the request of an indigent person examined under this chapter, the
judge shall determine whether expert services for the person are
necessary.  If the judge determines that the services are necessary, the
judge shall appoint an expert to perform an examination or participate in
a civil commitment proceeding on the person's behalf.

The court shall approve reasonable compensation for expert services
rendered on behalf of an indigent person on the filing of a certified
compensation claim supported by a written statement specifying: time
expended on behalf of the person; services rendered on behalf of the
person; expenses incurred on behalf of the person;
    (4) compensation received in the same case or for the same services
        from any other source.

The court shall ensure that an expert retained or appointed under this
section has for purposes of examination reasonable access to a person
examined under this chapter, as well as to all relevant medical and
psychological records and reports.

Texas Health & Safety Code Section 841.146 (1999)

On request, a person subject to a civil commitment proceeding under this
chapter and the attorney representing the state are entitled to a jury
trial or a hearing before a jury for that proceeding, except for a
proceeding set by the judge under Section 841.102(c)(1). The number and
selection of jurors are governed by Chapter 33, Code of Criminal
Procedure.

A civil commitment proceeding is subject to the rules of procedure and
appeal for civil cases.

In an amount not to exceed $ 1,600, the state shall pay the costs of a
civil commitment proceeding conducted under Subchapter D. For any civil
commitment proceeding conducted under this chapter, the state shall pay
the costs of state or appointed counsel or experts and the costs of the
person's outpatient treatment and supervision.

 Document Number:             CS-0000915

 Publication Type:                 Statutes

 Database:                              US State Statute Series

 

 

Title:                                      Legislation Regarding the Admissibility Of Videotaped Interviews/Statements In Criminal Child Abuse Proceedings (Current through December 31, 1999): North Dakota.

 Institutional Author:            U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE

 Author Affiliation:                U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES  Administration for Children and Families  Administration on Children, Youth and Families  Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION  330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565  Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE  99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321

 Source:                                 Child Witnesses Number 22; In: Admissibility of Videotaped Interviews or Statements

 Internet URL: http://www.ndaa-apri.org

 Series:                                  Child Abuse and Neglect State Statutes Elements

 Index Terms:
Statute;  North Dakota;  Abuse;  Admissibility;  Child;  Child Abuse;  child's testimony;  conduct;  Court;  Criminal Child Abuse;  Criminal;  defendant;  incest;  Legislation;  offense;  Proceedings;  sexual assault;  solicit;  solicitation;  Statement;  trauma;  Videotaped Interviews

 Full Text:
NORTH DAKOTA

 N.D. Cent. Code Section 31-04-04.1 (Supp. 1999)

Crimes: gross sexual imposition; sexual imposition; corruption or
solicitation of a minor; sexual assault; sexual abuse of wards; incest.

Age: under 15 years of age.

Applicability: victim.

Criteria for admissibility: Court determines there is reasonable cause to
believe that the child victim would experience serious emotional trauma
as a result of in-court participation in the proceeding.

The accused is given reasonable written notice of the time and place for
taking the videotaped statement.

The accused is afforded the opportunity to hear and view the testimony
from outside the presence of the child by means of a two-way mirror or
other similar method that will ensure that the child cannot hear or see
the accused.

The accused has the opportunity to communicate orally with counsel by
electronic means while the videotaped statement is being made.

All questioning is done by attorneys for the prosecution and the defense
unless the defendant is an attorney pro se. An attorney pro se must
conduct all questioning from outside the presence of the child. Upon
request of any of the parties or upon the determination of the court that
it would be appropriate, the court may appoint a person who is qualified
as an expert and who has dealt with the child in a therapeutic setting to
aid the court throughout proceedings conducted under this section and the
court may appoint a guardian ad litem to protect the interests of the
child.

The court finds that the child is unavailable as a witness to testify at
trial, and the court views the videotape recording before it is shown to
the jury, and determines that it is sufficiently
reliable and trustworthy
and that the interests of justice will best be served by admission of the
statement into evidence.

Criteria for unavailability: A determination, based on medical or
psychological evidence or expert testimony, that the child would suffer
serious emotional or psychological strain if required to testify at
trial. The court shall consider at least the following: the nature of the
offense; the significance of the child's testimony to the case; the
child's age; the child's psychological maturity and understanding; the
nature, degree, and duration of potential injury to the child from
testifying.

 Document Number:             CS-0001008

 Publication Type:                 Statutes

 Database:                              US State Statute Series

 

 

Title:                                      Legislation Regarding the Use of Special Hearsay Exceptions for Criminal Child Abuse Cases (Current through December 31, 1999): Arizona.

 Institutional Author:            U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE

 Author Affiliation:                U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES  Administration for Children and Families  Administration on Children, Youth and Families  Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION  330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565  Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE  99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321

 Source:                                 Child Witnesses Number 23; In: Special Child Hearsay Exceptions

 Internet URL: http://www.ndaa-apri.org

 Series:                                  Child Abuse and Neglect State Statutes Elements

 Index Terms:
Statute;  Arizona;  Abuse;  Child;  Child Abuse;  Child Abuse Cases;  circumstances;  Criminal Child Abuse;  Criminal;  Legislation;  offense;  Special Hearsay Exceptions

 Full Text:
ARIZONA

 Ariz. Rev. Stat. Section 13-1416 (West 1989 & Supp. 1999)

Crimes: sexual offenses; physical abuse.

Age: under 10 years of age.

Applicability: victim or witness.

Criteria for admissibility: the court finds in an in camera proceeding
that the time, content and circumstances surrounding the statement have
sufficient indicia of
reliability; the child-declarant either:
    (1) testifies at the proceeding;
    (2) is unavailable as a witness and there is corroborative evidence
        of the statement.

Special issue: The proponent of the statement must make known to the
adverse party his or her intention to offer the statement and the
particulars of the statement sufficiently in advance to provide the
adverse party with a fair opportunity to prepare to meet the statement.

Held unconstitutional in State v. Robinson, 735 P.2d 801 (Ariz. 1987)
(finding the section infringes on the court's constitutional authority to
make procedural rules for the judiciary).

 Document Number:             CS-0001016

 Publication Type:                 Statutes

 Database:                              US State Statute Series

 

 

Title:                                      Legislation Regarding the Use of Special Hearsay Exceptions for Criminal Child Abuse Cases (Current through December 31, 1999): Illinois.

 Institutional Author:            U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE

 Author Affiliation:                U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES  Administration for Children and Families  Administration on Children, Youth and Families  Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION  330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565  Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE  99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321

 Source:                                 Child Witnesses Number 23; In: Special Child Hearsay Exceptions

 Internet URL: http://www.ndaa-apri.org

 Series:                                  Child Abuse and Neglect State Statutes Elements

 Index Terms:
Statute;  Illinois;  Abuse;  Board;  Child;  Child Abuse;  Child Abuse Cases;  circumstances;  conduct;  Criminal Child Abuse;  Criminal;  Legislation;  offense;  sexual assault;  Special Hearsay Exceptions;  Statement

 Full Text:
ILLINOIS

 725 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. Section 5/115-10 (West Supp. 1999)

Crimes: physical or sexual assault upon or against the child-declarant.

Age: under 13 years of age at the time of the assault.

Applicability: victim.

Criteria for admissibility: Hearsay statements covered by this exception
include:
    (1) testimony by the victim of an out of court statement made by the
        victim that he or she complained of such act to another person;
    (2) testimony of an out-of-court statement, made by the victim
        describing any  complaint of such act, or detail pertaining to
        any act which is an element of an offense which is the subject of
        a prosecution for a sexual or physical act against that victim.

Such testimony shall only be admitted if:
    (1) the court finds in a hearing conducted outside the presence of
        the jury, that the time, content, and circumstances of the
        statement provide sufficient indicia of
reliability; and the
        child either testifies at the proceeding, or is unavailable and
        there is corroborative evidence of the act which is the subject
        of the statement and; in a case involving an offense perpetrated
        against a child under the age of 13, the out of court statement
        was made before the victim attained 13 years of age or within 3
        months after the commission of the offense, whichever occurs
        later, but the statement may be admitted regardles of the age of
        the victim at the time of the proceeding.

Special issues: the proponent of the statement shall give the adverse
party reasonable notice of his or her intention to offer the statement
and the particulars of the statement; if a statement is admitted pursuant
to this exception to the hearsay rule, the court shall instruct the jury
that it is for the jury to determine the weight and credibility to be
given the statement and that, in making the determination, it shall
consider the age and maturity of the child-declarant, the nature of the
statement, the circumstances under which the statement was made, and any
other relevant factor. Statements described in this section shall not be
excluded on the basis that they were obtained as a result of interviews
conducted pursuant to a protocol adopted by a Child Advocacy Advisory
Board or that an interviewer or witness to the interview was or is an
employee, agent, or investigator of a State's Attorney's office.

Held constitutional in People v. Rocha, 547 N.E. 2d 1335 (Ill. Ct. App.
1989). Incompetence to testify due to the inability to communicate or
because of the child-declarant's tender years does not render unreliable
the child-declarant's out-of-court statements. The legislature's intent
was to include within the meaning of "unavailable" witnesses those
children who are unable to testify because of fear, inability to
communicate in the courtroom setting or incompetence.

 Document Number:             CS-0001025

 Publication Type:                 Statutes

 Database:                              US State Statute Series

 

 

Title:                                      Legislation Regarding the Use of Special Hearsay Exceptions for Criminal Child Abuse Cases (Current through December 31, 1999): Utah.

 Institutional Author:            U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE

 Author Affiliation:                U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES  Administration for Children and Families  Administration on Children, Youth and Families  Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION  330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565  Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE  99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321

 Source:                                 Child Witnesses Number 23; In: Special Child Hearsay Exceptions

 Internet URL: http://www.ndaa-apri.org

 Series:                                  Child Abuse and Neglect State Statutes Elements

 Index Terms:
Statute;  Utah;  Abuse;  Child;  Child Abuse;  Child Abuse Cases;  Criminal Child Abuse;  Criminal;  Legislation;  offense;  relationship;  Special Hearsay Exceptions

 Full Text:
UTAH

 Utah Code Ann. Section 76-5-411 (Supp. 1999)

Crimes: sexual offenses.

Age: under 14 years of age.

Applicability: victim. Criteria for admissibility: The statement
qualifies for admission under Utah R. Crim. Proc. 15.5(1).

The child-declarant either:
    (1) is available to testify at trial;
    (2) is unavailable to testify and there is corroborative evidence of
        the abuse.

Prior to admission of any statement into evidence under this section, the
judge shall determine whether the interest of justice will best be served
by admission of that statement; in making this determination, the judge
shall consider:
    (1) the age and maturity of the child-declarant;
    (2) the nature and duration of the abuse;
    (3) the relationship of the child-declarant to the offender;
    (4) the
reliability of the assertion and of the child-declarant.

Special issue: The statement shall be made available to the adverse party
sufficiently in advance of the trial or proceeding, to provide him or her
with an opportunity to prepare to meet it.

Held constitutional in State v. Ramsey, 782 P.2d 480 (Utah 1989).

 Document Number:             CS-0001044

 Publication Type:                 Statutes

 Database:                              US State Statute Series

 

 

Title:                                      Legislation Regarding the Use of Special Hearsay Exceptions for Criminal Child Abuse Cases (Current through December 31, 1999): Washington.

 Institutional Author:            U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE

 Author Affiliation:                U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES  Administration for Children and Families  Administration on Children, Youth and Families  Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION  330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565  Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE  99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321

 Source:                                 Child Witnesses Number 23; In: Special Child Hearsay Exceptions

 Internet URL: http://www.ndaa-apri.org

 Series:                                  Child Abuse and Neglect State Statutes Elements

 Index Terms:
Statute;  Washington;  Abuse;  Child;  Child Abuse;  Child Abuse Cases;  circumstances;  conduct;  Criminal Child Abuse;  Criminal;  Legislation;  Special Hearsay Exceptions

 Full Text:
WASHINGTON

 Wash. Rev. Code Ann. Section 9A.44.120 (West Supp. 2000)

Crimes: any act of sexual contact or physical abuse of the child that
results in substantial bodily harm.

Age: under 10 years of age when the statement was made.

Applicability: victim.

Criteria for admissibility: The court finds, in a hearing conducted
outside the presence of the jury, that the time, content and
circumstances provide sufficient indicia of
reliability.

The child-declarant either:
    (1) testifies at the proceedings;
    (2) is unavailable as a witness and there is corroborative evidence
        of the act.

Special issue: The proponent of the statement must make known to the
adverse party his or her intention to offer the statement and the
particulars of the statement sufficiently in advance of the proceedings
to provide the adverse party with a fair opportunity to prepare to meet
the statement.

Held constitutional in State v. Ryan, 691 P.2d 197 (Wash. 1984); see also
State v. Warren, 779 P.2d 1159 (Wash. Ct. App. 1989) (child hearsay
statute does not violate separation of powers).

 Document Number:             CS-0001046

 Publication Type:                 Statutes

 Database:                              US State Statute Series

 

 

Title:                                      Hoah Binh:  The Forgotten Province of Vietnam. [1999]

 Internet URL: http://www.losninos.org

 Distributor:                           Los Ninos International Adoption Center;  PO Box 9617, The Woodlands, TX 77387;  Fax: (281) 297-4191;  Email: jerichsen@losninos.org

 Target Audience:                 adoptive parents;  professionals

 Index Terms:
orphanages;  vietnam

 Abstract:
A Tet celebration, an orphanage and the poor villagers and the Muoung are presented, as well as ways to help them achieve self-
reliance.

 Document Number:              AV-00287

 Publication Type:                 Videotape

 Database:                              MULTIMEDIA

 

 

Title:                                      Clinical and Forensic Interviewing of Children and Families: Guidelines for the Mental Health, Education, Pediatric, and Child Maltreatment Fields.

 Author:                                 Sattler, J. M.

 Author Affiliation:                San Diego State Univ., CA.

 Source:                                 Third Edition. La Mesa, CA, Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc., 1998;  1151 pp.

 Distributor:                           Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.;  P. O. Box 3557, La Mesa, CA 91944-3557;  Tel: (619) 460-3667;  Fax: (619) 460-2489

 Index Terms:
interviews;  assessment;  risk assessment;  psychological interviews;  evaluation methods;  forensic psychiatry;  child witnesses;  family characteristics

 Abstract:
This comprehensive reference provides guidelines for interviewing children and families. The first section explains the general techniques of interviewing and reporting, including environmental factors, initial interviews, post-assessment interviews,
reliability and validity of interviews, and writing the interview report. The second section describes considerations for conducting interviews with individuals of specific minority groups, while the third section describes interview issues for children with psychological and behavioral disorders and families facing adoption, divorce, or homelessness. Section Four applies the general interview guidelines to pediatric situations and assessment of children with health-related disorders and brain injuries. The final section addresses issues related to child maltreatment. Specific topics include definition and types of child abuse and neglect, reporting procedures, characteristics of offenders, disclosure process, effects of maltreatment, memory and suggestibility, and approaches for interviewing children, the family, and the alleged offender. Numerous references, figures, and tables.

 Document Number:              CD-24905

 Publication Type:                 Book

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Identification of Child Maltreatment with the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales: Development and Psychometric Data for a National Sample of American Parents.

 Author:                                 Straus, M. A.;  Hanby, S. L.;  Finkelhor, D.;  Moore, D. W.;  Runyan, D.

 Author Affiliation:                New Hampshire Univ., Durham. Family Research Laboratory.

 Sponsor:                               National Institute of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

 Grant Number:                     T32MH15161

 Source:                                 Child Abuse and Neglect; 22(4): pp. 249-270;  Oxford (Great Britain), Elsevier Science, Ltd., April 1998

 Distributor:                           Murray A. Straus;  New Hampshire Univ. Family Research Laboratory, Durham, NH 03824

 Index Terms:
measures;  parent child relationships;  conflict tactics scales;  research methodology; 
reliability;  validity

 Abstract:
This article describes the development of the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales (CTSPC), a parent-to-child version of the Conflict Tactics Scales. The CTSPC included improved psychological aggression and physical assault scales, a new nonviolent discipline scale, supplementary scales for neglect, and supplemental questions on discipline methods and sexual abuse. Psychometric data for a nationally representative sample of 1,000 children found low to moderate
reliability and evidence of discriminant and construct validity. The CTSPC is better suited to measuring child maltreatment than the original CTS. It is brief (6 to 8 minutes for the core scales) and therefore practical for epidemiological research on child maltreatment and for clinical screening. Methodological issues inherent in parent self-report measures of child maltreatment are discussed. 63 references and 2 tables. (Author abstract)

 Document Number:              CD-25785

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Assessment Issues in Child Abuse Evaluations.

 Author:                                 Milner, J. S.;  Murphy, W. D.;  Valle, L. A.;  Tolliver, R. M.

 Author Affiliation:                Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb. Dept. of Psychology.

 Source:                                 In: Lutzker, J. R. (Editor). Handbook of Child Abuse Research and Treatment. New York, NY, Plenum Publishing Corp., 1998;  pp. 75-115

 Internet URL: http://www.plenum.com

 Distributor:                           Plenum Publishing Corp.;  233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013-1578;  Tel: (800) 221-9369;  E-mail: books@plenum.com

 Index Terms:
assessment;  psychological evaluation;  evaluation methods; 
reliability;  literature reviews

 Abstract:
This chapter provides an overview of the most common methods used for assessing parents and suspected child abuse offenders, including interviews, observations, general personality measures, offender-specific measures, and specialized risk assessment models. Typical approaches, and the
reliability and limitations of each method are discussed. Data on the accuracy of the instruments for identifying offenders and nonoffenders are also reported. Most of the methods are more appropriate for some applications than others. For example, the Michigan Screening Profile of Parenting (MSPP) is recommended for evaluating general parenting problems rather than specific child abuse and neglect behaviors and the Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory should only be used for screening for physical and not sexual abuse. Practitioners are advised to use caution when selecting an instrument and consider the intended application and error rates found in the research. Numerous references.

 Document Number:              CD-25906

 Publication Type:                 Chapter in Book

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Visual Reaction Time and Plethysmography as Measures of Sexual Interest in Child Molesters.

 Author:                                 Abel, G. G.;  Huffman, J.;  Warberg, B.;  Holland, C. L.

 Author Affiliation:                Behavioral Medicine Institute, Atlanta, GA.

 Source:                                 Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment; 10(2): pp. 81-95;  New York, NY, Plenum Publishing Corp., April 1998

 Internet URL: http://www.plenum.com

 Distributor:                           Plenum Publishing Corp.;  233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013;  Tel: (212) 620-8468;  E-mail: info@plenum.com

 Index Terms:
aggression;  assessment;  incest;  pedophilia;  sex offenses

 Abstract:
This article describes the importance of determining the sexual interests of those accused of child molestation. Visual reaction time and plethysmography are two means of measuring sexual interest with some objectivity, but there has been no direct comparison of these methodologies. The
reliability and validity of visual reaction time and plethysmography were evaluated in groups of individuals with sexual interest in children of various ages and genders. Results showed that both methods of assessment had a high reliability and validity. Visual reaction time has the added advantages that it can be used without nude slides and is a briefer assessment. 18 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract modified)

 Document Number:              CD-25926

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      From Memories of Abuse to the Abuse of Memories.

 Author:                                 Laurence, J.;  Day, D.;  Gaston, L.

 Author Affiliation:                Concordia Univ., Montreal (Canada). Dept. of Psychology.

 Source:                                 In: Lynn, S. J. and McConkey, K. M. (Editors). Truth in Memory. New York, NY, Guilford Publications, Inc., 1998;  pp. 323-346

 Internet URL: http://www.guilford.com

 Distributor:                           Guilford Publications, Inc.;  72 Spring St., New York, NY 10012-4019;  Tel: (800) 365-7006;  E-mail: info@guilford.com

 Index Terms:
memory;  repression;  suggestibility;  adults abused as children;  therapists role;  social attitudes

 Abstract:
This chapter examines the malleable nature of memory, asserting that human memory, by nature, is not
reliable and should not be the major focus of therapy. Research studies are cited to support the hypothesis that memories are constantly reinterpreted and affected by experience and expectation. Details and sequence are easily distorted and new memories are frequently created for events that never occurred. Contrary to what Freud believed, memories are not recorded permanently in the brain. The majority of contemporary therapists hold this mistaken view as well, and are likely to diagnose repression or dissociation when a patient cannot remember a traumatic event that the therapist is sure caused the present symptoms. Too much emphasis is placed on self-awareness and understanding of events. The chapter explains the therapists role in interpreting and misinterpreting memories and social attitudes that perpetuate the occurrence of pseudomemories. Numerous references.

 Document Number:              CD-26156

 Publication Type:                 Chapter in Book

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      The Impact of Child Witness Demeanor on Perceived Credibility and Trial Outcome in Sexual Abuse Cases.

 Author:                                 Regan, P. C.;  Baker, S. J.

 Author Affiliation:                California State Univ., Los Angeles, CA. Dept. of Psychology.

 Source:                                 Journal of Family Violence; 13(2): pp. 187-195;  New York, NY, Plenum Publishing Corp., June 1998

 Internet URL: http://www.plenum.com

 Distributor:                           Plenum Publishing Corp.;  233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013-1578;  Tel: (212) 620-8000;  E-mail: journals@plenum.com

 Index Terms:
child witnesses;  credibility;  sexual abuse;  judicial decisions;  criminal justice system;  prosecution;  juries

 Abstract:
This study examined how child witness demeanor at the moment of courtroom confrontation with the defendant affects trial outcome and the perceived credibility of the child witness in sexual abuse cases. Phase 1 of the study (descriptive) utilized a free response format to explore the affective and behavioral responses men and women expect a child victim of sexual assault to demonstrate upon first confronting the defendant in the courtroom. The most frequently cited responses by the sample of 27 undergraduate students included crying, fear, and confusion. Phase 2 (experimental) investigated the impact of presence or absence of one of these expected responses (i.e., crying) upon juror perceptions. This sample group included 31 undergraduate men and women. Participants who read about a child who cries upon initially confronting the defendant perceived her as more honest, credible, and
reliable than a calm child, and they were more likely to convict the defendant. 25 references and 1 table. (Author abstract)

 Document Number:              CD-26294

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Common Questions Regarding the Use of Phallometric Testing with Sexual Offenders.

 Author:                                 Lalumiere, M. L.;  Harris, G. T.

 Author Affiliation:                Clarke Institute of Psychiatry, Toronto, ON (Canada).

 Source:                                 Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment; 10(3): pp. 227-237;  New York, NY, Plenum Publishing Corp., July 1998

 Internet URL: http://www.plenum.com

 Distributor:                           Plenum Publishing Corp.;  233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013;  Tel: (212) 620-8468;  E-mail: info@plenum.com

 Index Terms:
sex offenders;  sex offenders therapy;  stimulus behavior

 Abstract:
Research on phallometric assessment has accumulated in recent years. Phallometric results
reliably distinguish groups of sexual and non-sexual offenders and predict violent recidivism among sexual offenders. This research can inform and enhance the use of phallometric measures of sexual preferences among sexual offenders. This short essay suggests empirical answers to common clinical questions regarding the application of this technology. 33 references. (Author abstract modified)

 Document Number:              CD-26297

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Reliability of the Wraparound Observation Form: An Instrument to Measure the Wraparound Process.

 Author:                                 Epstein, M. H.;  Jayanthi, M.;  McKelvey, J.;  Frankenberry, E. et al.

 Author Affiliation:                Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Dept. of Special Education and Communication Disorders.

 Source:                                 Journal of Child and Family Studies; 7(2): pp. 161-170;  New York, NY, Human Sciences Press, Inc., June 1998

 Internet URL: http://www.plenum.com

 Distributor:                           Human Sciences Press, Inc.;  233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013-1578;  Tel: (800) 221-9369;  E-mail: journals@plenum.com

 Index Terms:
program evaluation;  outcomes;  wraparound services;  measures; 
reliability

 Abstract:
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the
reliability of a scale that measures wraparound services. The Wraparound Observation Form (WOF), was developed to evaluate the implementation of the wraparound process in treatment planning meetings. The WOF includes 34 closed-ended items that require the respondent to note the occurrence or non-occurrence of specific events or behaviors at treatment planning meetings. Two data collectors attended planning meetings and independently completed the WOF. The inter-rater reliability was 95 percent. The WOF appears to be a reliable instrument and appropriate in evaluating wraparound services. 12 references and 1 table. (Author abstract)

 Document Number:              CD-26322

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Interviewing Child Witnesses: A Developmental Perspective.

 Author:                                 Saywitz, K.;  Camparo, L.

 Author Affiliation:                Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA. Dept. of Psychiatry.

 Source:                                 Child Abuse and Neglect; 22(8): pp. 825-843;  Oxford (Great Britain), Elsevier Science, Ltd., August 1998

 Distributor:                           Karen Saywitz;  Harbor-UCLA Medical Center Department of Psychiatry Building D-6 1000 W. Carson St., Torrance, CA 90509

 Index Terms:
interviews;  child witnesses;  child development

 Abstract:
This article reviews suggestions derived from the clinical and experimental literatures for interviewing child witnesses. The article identifies methods for which there is experimental support as well as key issues about which the available research offers little guidance. In a field brimming with polarization rather than integration, the author's goal is to locate and discuss practices that overlap with both clinical consensus and a growing body of research on child development. To accomplish this goal, the first half of the article considers general guidelines for questioning children at an age-appropriate level and in a manner that minimizes the potential for distortion. The second half of the article outlines the phases of forensic interview in a step-by-step fashion. The suggestions presented highlight a developmental perspective designed to facilitate children's memory and communicative competence, to address children's fears, and to facilitate an honest exchange of
reliable information. Numerous references and 4 figures. (Author abstract)

 Document Number:              CD-26393

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Normal Anogenital Anatomy in Children: Commentary.

 Author:                                 Ricci, L. R.

 Author Affiliation:                Spurwink Child Abuse Program, Portland, ME.

 Source:                                 Child Abuse and Neglect; 22(6): pp. 597-600;  Oxford (Great Britain), Elsevier Science, Ltd., June 1998

 Distributor:                           Lawrence R. Ricci;  Spurwink Child Abuse Program 17 Bishop St., Portland, ME 04103

 Index Terms:
sexual abuse;  medical research;  medical aspects of child abuse;  physical examinations;  genital injuries;  forensic medicine;  research reviews

 Abstract:
This article provides a commentary on another article in the same journal about the need for research to determine the characteristics of normal anogenital anatomy in children. The commentary reviews the progress made towards defining normal and trauma-related findings and describes the importance of research for making accurate diagnoses of sexual abuse. Future research should focus on identifying irregularities that may be caused by factors other than sexual abuse, such as chronic irritation, self-manipulation, poor hygiene, chronic constipation, and enuresis. Research should also determine the
reliability of measurements of the hymenal rim and proper examination techniques. Case control studies will be especially valuable for comparing abused and nonabused children. 23 references.

 Document Number:              CD-26438

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      User Empowerment of Family Self-Reliance? The Family Group Conference Model.

 Author:                                 Lupton, C.

 Author Affiliation:                Portsmouth Univ. (England). Social Services Research and Information Unit.

 Source:                                 British Journal of Social Work; 28(1): pp. 107-128;  Oxford (England), Oxford Univ. Press, February 1998

 Internet URL: http://www.oup.org

 Distributor:                           Oxford Univ. Press;  2001 Evans Rd., Cary, NC 27513;  Tel: (800) 852-7323;  Fax: (919) 677-1714;  E-mail: jnlorders@oup-usa.org

 Index Terms:
family group conferencing;  family centered services;  program models;  empowerment;  child welfare reform;  policy formation

 Abstract:
This paper explores the issue of empowerment in the context of the new Family Group Conference (FGC) initiative. Originating in New Zealand, the FGC model explicitly aims to shift the balance of power between families and professionals within the child care decision making process. Political interest in the model, however, may also be generated by its perceived potential for reducing the dependency of families on state-provided services. Drawing on research from New Zealand and the United Kingdom, the paper examines the quality of empowerment provided by the FGC model from the perspectives of the families involved and sets out to assess the particular balance that the model obtains between the different and potentially contradictory objectives of promoting user empowerment and encouraging family self-
reliance. Overall, families felt enabled by the process and were satisfied with their degree of participation. However, some evidence suggested that professionals may have taken a more active role than intended by the model, either by deference from the family or by guiding the conference decisions about services. 37 references. (Author abstract modified)

 Document Number:              CD-26449

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      The Relationship Between Parent and Child Reports of Parental Supportiveness and Psychopathology of Sexually Abused Children.

 Author:                                 Avery, L.;  Massat, C. R.;  Lundy, M.

 Author Affiliation:                Illinois Univ., Chicago.

 Source:                                 Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal; 15(3): pp. 187-205;  New York, NY, Human Sciences Press, Inc., June 1998

 Internet URL: http://www.plenum.com

 Distributor:                           Human Sciences Press, Inc.;  233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013-1578;  Tel: (800) 221-9369;  E-mail: journals@plenum.com

 Index Terms:
sexual abuse;  incest;  psychopathology;  nonabusive parents;  parental reactions;  parental attitudes;  parental behavior;  childs attitudes

 Abstract:
This study examined the relationship between parent and child reports of supportiveness of intrafamilially sexually abused children and levels of child psychopathology. Fifty-four intrafamilially sexually abused children completed a revised version of the Family Subscale of the Survey of Children's Social Support and the Child Assessment Schedule. Fifty-four parents completed a version of the Family Subscale of the Survey of Children's Social Support, modified for use in parental reporting of their own supportive behaviors. Satisfactory
reliability levels were obtained for the revised measures. This study of 54 sexually abused children and their non-offending parents found that although most non-offending parents were supportive of their children, the children reported considerable distress. Although there was no significant difference in mean levels of support reported by parents and children, the two measures were not significantly correlated. This suggests that parents and children perceive supportive behavior differently, although both constructs are of importance. Multiple regression analysis found that both child and parent reports of parental support were predictive of levels of child psychopathology, but that child estimates were a stronger predictor. 30 references and 5 tables. (Author abstract)

 Document Number:              CD-26455

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Reliability and Credibility of Young Children's Reports: From Research to Policy and Practice.

 Author:                                 Bruck, M.;  Ceci, S. J.;  Hembrooke, H.

 Author Affiliation:                McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada). Dept. of Psychology.

 Source:                                 American Psychologist; 53(2): pp. 136-151;  American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, February 1998

 Internet URL: http://www.apa.org

 Distributor:                           American Psychological Association;  750 1st St., NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242;  Tel: (800) 374-2721;  E-mail: order@apa.org

 Index Terms:
child witnesses;  interviews;  credibility; 
reliability;  suggestibility;  methods;  leading questions

 Abstract:
This article reviews issues, concerns, and research regarding the interviewing of young child witnesses. The article focuses on research on suggestibility and the influence of various interviewing techniques on the
reliability and credibility of young children's reports. Interviewer bias, guided imagery, peer pressure, visualization techniques, repetition of misinformation, and selective reinforcement are described as potential sources of false allegations. Research indicates that children are able to provide reliable and accurate reports of events when the interviewer is neutral and there exists no motivation for the child to report false information. However, children can be swayed by suggestive interviewing techniques and older children are as susceptible to suggestion as preschool children. Implications for future research and for policy are discussed. 90 references. (Author abstract modified)

 Document Number:              CD-26600

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Preliminary Validation of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory in Chile.

 Author:                                 Haz, A. M.;  Ramirez, V.

 Author Affiliation:                Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). School of Psychology.

 Source:                                 Child Abuse and Neglect; 22(9): pp. 869-879;  Oxford (Great Britain), Elsevier Science, Ltd., September 1998

 Distributor:                           Ana Maria Haz;  Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile Avda. Vicuna Mackenna

 Index Terms:
south america;  screening tests;  assessment;  cultural differences;  measures;  physical abuse

 Abstract:
The objective of this paper is a preliminary validation in Chile of the Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory. A sample of 134 participants was drawn from the Santiago metropolitan area and the city of Iquique, Chile, and were divided into 2 groups: people identified as physical abusers of their children and people identified as nonabusers. As a result of the sampling procedure, the study group was composed of 64 women and 3 men. This distribution was matched in the control group. A
reliability analysis, a predictive and construct validity analysis, and an item analysis of the Abuse Scale proposed by Milner were performed. The Abuse Scale items were tabulated both with the weighted scores and with simple scores. The results were more consistent with simple scores, which correctly classified 90 percent of respondents (91 percent in the abuse group and 88 percent in the control group). Of the 76 items on the Abuse Scale, 55 were highly discriminatory, 6 were nonsignificant, and 15 had differences that were not great enough to discriminate people well. To evaluate the dimensionality of the items, a factor analysis was performed. The best solution was obtained with 6 factors, which accounts for 53.8 percent of the variance. Milner's Abuse Scale discriminated between abusing and nonabusing individuals, and showed a factor analysis similar to the original one. Some items reflected cultural conducts in Chile instead of potential abuse. They were related to socially desirable neatness and cleanness of children and the home, especially in low income families. 2 figures, 2 tables, and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 Document Number:              CD-26659

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      A Compelling Need for Mandated Use of Supervised Visitation Programs.

 Author:                                 Clement, D. A.

 Source:                                 Family and Conciliation Courts Review; 36(2): pp. 294-316;  Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., April 1998

 Internet URL: http://www.sagepub.com/

 Distributor:                           Sage Publications, Inc.;  2455 Teller Rd., Thousand Oaks, CA 91320;  Tel: (805) 499-0721;  Fax: (805) 499-0871;  E-mail: order@sagepub.com

 Index Terms:
visitation;  visiting privileges;  parental rights;  courts role;  state laws

 Abstract:
This article proposes that all states should make supervised visitation programs universally available by enacting legislation that provides for their creation, regulation, and funding, together with clearly defined guidelines that mandate participation in supervised visitation programs whenever specific risk factors are present. Supervised visitation provides an opportunity for courts to encourage contact between parents and children while ensuring that children and the custodial parent are safe from a potentially violent environment. Structured visitation programs are more
reliable than supervision by another family member or friend. However, the demand for programs exceeds their availability. Most programs are run by private, non-profit corporations not directly connected to the court or social service systems. State laws can help promote the development of supervised programs and provide specific guidelines for judges to determine when supervised visitation is warranted, such as when the parent has abused or neglected the child; when the parents has a history of domestic violence; parental mental illness or substance abuse; and interference with the custody rights of the other parent. (Author abstract modified)

 Document Number:              CD-26766

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      The Evidence for Parental Alienation Syndrome: An Examination of Gardner's Theories and Opinions.

 Author:                                 Dallam, S.

 Source:                                 Treating Abuse Today; 8(2): pp. 25-34;  Lancaster, PA, Survivors and Victims Empowered (SAVE), March-April 1998

 Internet URL: http://child.cornell.edu/

 Distributor:                           Survivors and Victims Empowered (SAVE);  P. O. Box 3030, Lancaster, PA 17604-3030;  Tel: (717) 569-3636;  E-mail: TreatAbuse@aol.com

 Index Terms:
parent child relationships;  child custody;  custody disputes;  false allegations;  parental alienation syndrome;  suggestibility;  psychological theories;  validity; 
reliability

 Abstract:
Richard A. Gardner's theories regarding pedophilia, child abuse hysteria, and parental alienation syndrome (PAS) are critically reviewed in this article. The article summarizes Gardner's observation that allegations of child sexual abuse that arise during child custody disputes are actually the result of one parent programming the child against the other parent. In the majority of cases evaluated by Gardner, the mother convinces the child to falsely accuse the father of abuse. Gardner and other PAS-trained therapists recommend that courts impose fines and other punishment on women who influence their children to make false accusations. They suggest that the child have less or no contact with the mother and greater contact with the father to promote a healthy psychological bond. However, Gardner's theories are based solely on observation, with no scientific evidence. His assessment instrument, the Sex Abuse Legitimacy Scale, has not been validated or tested for
reliability. Even supporters of Gardner's theories have indicated that the instrument should not be used during expert testimony. Conceptual problems with Gardner's theories include its reliance on circular reasoning, erroneous assumptions, and lack of consideration of alternative explanations. Critics assert that the theories endanger children, are biased against women, and promote a legal backlash against women who have legitimate reports. 42 references.

 Document Number:              CD-26819

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Examining the Validity and Reliability of Childhood Abuse Scales: Putting The Courage to Heal to the Test.

 Author:                                 Brandyberry, L. J.;  MacNair-Semands, R. R.

 Author Affiliation:                North Carolina Univ., Charlotte.

 Source:                                 Child Abuse and Neglect; 22(12): pp. 1253-1263;  Oxford (Great Britain), Elsevier Science, Ltd., December 1998

 Distributor:                           Lisa J. Brandyberry;  1000 N. First St., Suite 1 P. O. Box 1396, Albemarle, NC 28002-1396

 Index Terms:
validity; 
reliability;  measures;  assessment;  sexual abuse;  self report inventories;  adults abused as children;  child abuse research

 Abstract:
The main purpose of this study was to examine the validity and
reliability of The Courage to Heal Workbook checklist (CTCH, Davis, 1990) in part, through examining the internal consistency and studying whether the CTHC distinguished between the participants reporting sexual abuse histories and those who did not. Two hundred and seventy-nine college students were surveyed utilizing the symptom checklist from the Courage to Heal Workbook, Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (TSC-40), Abusive Behavior Inventory (ABI), and questions related to participants' beliefs that they had been abused as a child. Results indicated that the Courage to Heal Checklist (CTHC) has robust reliability (alpha = .97) and can significantly discriminate between reported abuse survivors and nonsurvivors. Fifty-five percent of those participants reporting sexual abuse, 47 percent of those reporting physical abuse, and 34 percent of those reporting emotional abuse indicated a period of time during which they did not remember the abuse. Results indicate that the CTHC reliably differentiated between participants reporting past sexual abuse and those who did not. Mounting evidence continues to support that adult symptom profiles are able to indicate that some form of trauma is likely to have occurred in the past; however, differentiating between types of abuse based on symptom profiles may be impossible. 37 references and 2 tables. (Author abstract)

 Document Number:              CD-27288

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Recovered Memory Therapy: A Dubious Practice Technique.

 Author:                                 Stocks, J. T.

 Author Affiliation:                Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. School of Social Work.

 Source:                                 Social Work; 43(5): pp. 423-436;  Washington, DC, National Association of Social Workers, September 1998

 Internet URL: http://www.naswpress.org

 Distributor:                           NASW Press;  P. O. Box 431, Annapolis Junction, MD;  Tel: (301) 317-8688;  Fax: (301) 206-7989;  E-mail: nasw@pmds.com

 Index Terms:
memory;  repression;  therapeutic effectiveness;  adults abused as children;  sexual abuse;  research reviews;  therapeutic intervention

 Abstract:
This article examines the validity of memory work as well as the evidence for the efficacy of therapeutic interventions based in the recovery of childhood sexual abuse memories. Body work, hypnosis, dream interpretation, flashbacks, journaling, guided imagery, truth serum, and survivors' groups are described. Evidence suggests that both true and false memories can be recovered using memory work techniques, and there is no evidence that
reliable discriminations can be made between them. Similarly, there is no empirical evidence to suggest that recovered memory therapy results in improved outcomes for participating clients. The article reviews current treatment outcome research and suggests that participation in recovered memory therapy may be harmful to clients. Numerous references. (Author abstract)

 Document Number:              CD-27581

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Recidivism Base Rates, Predictions of Sex Offender Recidivism, and the Sexual Predator Commitment Laws.

 Author:                                 Doren, D. M.

 Author Affiliation:                Mendota Mental Health Institute, Madison, WI.

 Source:                                 Behavioral Sciences and the Law; 16: pp. 97-114;  New York, NY, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1998

 Internet URL: http://www.wiley.com

 Distributor:                           John Wiley and Sons, Inc.;  605 Third Ave., New York, NY 10158;  Tel: (212) 850-6645;  Fax: (212) 850-6021

 Index Terms:
sex offenders;  recidivism;  research reviews;  predictor variables; 
reliability;  state statutory law;  sex offenders therapy;  court ordered treatment

 Abstract:
This study reviewed research about the rate of recidivism among sex offenders to determine the
reliability of measures used to commit sex offenders to treatment after their prison sentence is complete. The true base rate for sex offense recidivism is estimated for extrafamilial child molesters and rapists. Overall, the research found that about 52 percent of child molesters and 39 percent of rapists repeated their offense. However, state referrals for commitment ranged from .6 percent in Washington State to 12 percent in Wisconsin - an underprediction of the actual occurrence of recidivism. State screening methods were 88-99.4 percent accurate. The implications of these findings for risk prediction and the ethics of predicting are discussed. 58 references.

 Document Number:              CD-27702

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      A Descriptive Model of Dysfunctional Cognitions in Child Molesters.

 Author:                                 Ward, T.;  Fon, C.;  Hudson, S. M.;  McCormack, J.

 Author Affiliation:                Canterbury Univ., Christchurch (New Zealand). Dept. of Psychology.

 Source:                                 Journal of Interpersonal Violence; 13(1): pp. 129-155;  Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., February 1998

 Internet URL: http://www.sagepub.com/

 Distributor:                           Sage Publications, Inc.;  2455 Teller Rd., Thousand Oaks, CA 91320;  Tel: (805) 499-9774;  Fax: (805) 499-0871;  E-mail: order@sagepub.com

 Index Terms:
characteristics of abuser;  cognitive development;  social cognition;  sex offenders;  sex offenders therapy;  predictor variables; 
reliability;  validity

 Abstract:
The aim of this study was to develop a descriptive model to classify sex offenders' cognitions concerning their offending behavior. Offense descriptions were obtained from 20 incarcerated male child sex offenders undergoing assessment for a sex offender treatment program. A data-driven approach to model development-grounded theory-was taken in the qualitative analysis of these offense accounts. The resulting model consisted of four categories: offense chain; cognitive operations; cognitive content; and metavariables. To determine its content validity and
reliability, the model was applied to the offense descriptions of a sample of 25 incarcerated child molesters also undergoing pretreatment assessment. Results suggest that the model has provisional validity and adequate interrater reliability. Finally, the theoretical and clinical implications of the model are discussed. 29 references. (Author abstract)

 Document Number:              CD-27842

 Publication Type:                 Journal Article

 Database:                              DOCUMENTS & ARTICLES

 

 

Title:                                      Parenting and Child Development in Nontraditional Families.

 Author:                                 Lamb, M. E. (Editor).

 Author Affiliation:                National Institute on Child Health and Human Development (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

 Source:                                 Mahwah, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., November 1998;  376 pp.

 Internet URL: http://www.erlbaum.com

 Distributor:                           Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.;  10 Industrial Dr., Mahwah, NJ 07430-2262;  Tel: (800) 926-6579; (201) 236-9500;  Fax: (201) 236-0072;  E-mail: orders@erlbaum.com