TITLE:    Impact of Child Noncompliance on Stress Appraisals, Attributions, and Disciplinary Choices in Mothers at High and Low Risk for Child Physical Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:    Dopke, C. A.;  Milner, J. S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:    24(4): pp. 493-504;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., April 2000;  p. 179

 

ABSTRACT:    This study investigated the impact of repeated child noncompliance on stress appraisals, attributions, and disciplinary choices in high- and low-risk mothers. Twenty-five high risk and 25 demographically matched low-risk mothers responded to questions related to stress appraisals, attributions, and disciplinary choices following presentations of a child engaging in repeated noncompliance. After repeated child noncompliance, high-risk, compared to low-risk, mothers perceived morethreat and uncontrollability, rated child behaviors as more stressful, and reported higher levels of negative affect. High-risk mothers also reported more stable, global, and intentional attributions, with a trend toward more internal attributions, but did not differ in their evaluation of wrongness and seriousness of the child's behavior. After repeated noncompliance, a risk group difference was found in estimates of future child compliance but not in the use of power assertive discipline. Results support the view that high-risk, relative to low-risk, mothers are differentially responsive to stressful situations and differ in their attributions for negative child behaviors and in their expectations of future child compliance. However, since risk group differences in disciplinary choices were not also found, additional research is needed to demonstrate the process through which risk group cognitive and affective differences are related to differences in disciplinary behavior. 57 references and 4 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    mothers;  child behavior;  parental attitudes;  discipline;  child abuse research;  risk factors;  parental expectations;  high risk groups

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Coping Strategies and Burnout Among Veteran Child Protection Workers.

 

AUTHOR:    Anderson, D. G.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Kentucky Univ., Lexington. Coll. of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:    24(6): pp. 839-848;  Elsevier Science, Ltd., New York, NY., June 2000;  p. 200

 

ABSTRACT:    This study examined how veteran child protective service investigations workers cope with job stress and the relationship between coping strategies and levels of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and sense of reduced personal accomplishment (burnout syndrome). Cross-sectional, self-report methodology was used to measure coping strategies and the burnout syndrome. The voluntary subjects were 151 front-line child protective service workers with at least 2 years experience in a southeastern Department of Social Services. They attended one of nine stress management workshops provided in various locations around the state. Quantitative analyses were run on the data. These workers perceived themselves to use Engaged (active) coping strategies more than Disengaged (avoidant) strategies. Sixty-two percent of participants scored in the high range on Emotional Exhaustion, the aspect some researchers consider to be the heart of Burnout. Those who used Engaged coping were less likely to feel depersonalized and more likely to feel a sense of personal accomplishment. Neither the use of active nor avoidant coping strategies saved these workers from Emotional Exhaustion. The problem-focused strategies they are taught and use most do not help deal with the emotional content and context of their work, suggesting the use of emotion-focused coping to prevent and remediate burnout. 39 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    child welfare workers;  coping skills;  well being;  child protective services;  psychological characteristics;  stress management;  investigations;  child welfare research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    The Influence of Personality and History of Sexual Victimization in the Prediction of Juvenile Perpetrated Child Molestation.

 

AUTHOR:    Hunter, J. A.;  Figueredo, A. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Behavior Modification

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Virginia Univ., Charlottesville. School of Medicine.

 

SOURCE:    24(2): pp. 241-263;  Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA., April 2000;  p. 241

 

ABSTRACT:    Structural equation modeling was used to delineate the relationship between sexual victimization and personality variables in the prediction of patterns of child molestation in adolescent males. Two hundred thirty-five adolescents, representing subsamples of sexually victimized and nonvictimized, perpetrating and nonperpetrating, and emotionally maladjusted and nonmaladjusted youths, participated in the study. Juvenile child molesters were found to have more pessimistic explanatorystyles and deficits in self-sufficiency relative to nonoffending youths. A younger age at time of victimization, a greater number of incidents, a longer period of waiting to report the abuse, and a lower level of perceived family support postrevelation of the abuse were found to be predictive of subsequent sexual perpetration. Implications for treatment are discussed. 44 references, 1 figure, and 2 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    adolescent sex offenders;  sexual abuse;  child abuse history;  sequelae;  characteristics of abuser;  personality;  predictor variables;  child abuse research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    The Relevance of Narrative Research With Children Who Witness War and Children Who Witness Woman Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:    Berman, H.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University of Western Ontario, London (Canada). School of Nursing.

 

SOURCE:    3(1): pp. 107-125;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 2000;  p. 253

 

ABSTRACT:    This article highlights findings from a recent critical narrative study comparing the experiences of children of war and children exposed to domestic violence. The sample consisted of 15 children of war and 16 children of battered women, ages 10-17. Although both groups of children reported similar symptoms of trauma, such as loneliness, problems eating and sleeping, headaches and intrusive thoughts and fears, their perceptions of their experiences were significantly different. The children of war had fond memories of their life before the war and viewed the war as a temporary situation. The children who witnessed domestic violence often were unable to identify periods of happiness and contentment in their life. Children of warwere clear that they were on the right side of a conflict between good and bad, while children exposed to spouse abuse could not take sides in their conflict. The relevance of narrative research with this population is discussed and implications for researchers and clinicians are presented. 55 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    research methodology;  child witnesses of family violence;  trauma;  community violence;  child abuse research;  qualitative research;  posttraumatic stress disorder;  sequelae

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:    Evaluation of the London (Ontario) Community Group Treatment Programme for Children Who Have Witnessed Woman Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:    Suderman, M.;  Marshall, L.;  Loosely, S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Thames Valle District School Board, London, ON (Canada).

 

SOURCE:    3(1): pp. 127-146;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 2000;  p. 254

 

ABSTRACT:    This article describes a community group model of intervention for children exposed to woman abuse, and an evaluation approach used to assess the impact of such groups. The collaborative development of the questionnaire-interview evaluation instruments for this purpose is described, and the set of instruments is presented in its entirety. The main instrument was tailored to the content of the groups and covers topics such as definitions and understanding of abuse, safety skills, beliefs and attitudes about abuse, perceived responsibility for abuse, alternatives to violence, non-violent conflict resolution strategies, and help-seeking skills. Both closed-ended and open-ended questions are employed. Separate questionnaires assess consumer (mother or caregiver and child) satisfaction and feedback. The results of a study evaluating the groups are described, which showed positive changes from pre to post intervention, as well as a high degree of satisfaction among children and mothers with regard to the groups. 17 references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    program evaluation;  child witnesses of family violence;  group therapy;  therapeutic effectiveness;  community intervention projects;  assessment;  program models;  canada

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:    The Transracial Adoption Debate in the United States.

 

AUTHOR:    Lancaster, M. K.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Monroe County Florida Public Schools.

 

SOURCE:    Kathy Lancaster, Key Colony Beach, FL., February 2000;  p. 267

 

ABSTRACT:    This paper applies social systems logic, theory, and concepts to an analysis of the structures and processes, problems, and prospects involved in the cross cultural adoption of minority children into dominant culture families. Argumentsfor and against transracial adoption are summarized, with an examination of the values of community-self determination, the benefits of integration, and the needs of children for permanency. Viewed in one regard, this social issue has the potential of pitting two social systems, racial-cultural preservation and child welfare (permanency), against each other. Viewed in another regard, the issue can be approached with a goal of harmony for both society and for individuals. Proponents and opponents of transracial adoption are urged to focus on their shared goal of child welfare to form partnerships and help multiracial families support the development of racial identity in minority children. The perception of conflict between the goals of these two systems (racial-cultural preservation and child welfare) is also addressed. 14 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    transracial adoption;  social problems;  sociology;  racial identity;  child welfare;  permanency planning;  policy formation;  social policies

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Technical Report

 

 

TITLE:    Cultural Factors in Child Maltreatment and Domestic Violence in Korea.

 

AUTHOR:    Doe, S. S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Children and Youth Services Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Indiana Univ. Northwest. Div. of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:    22(3-4): pp. 231-236;  Elsevier Science, Ltd., New York, NY., March-April 2000;  p. 286

 

ABSTRACT:    Recent laws enacted and proposed in Korea illustrate the country s growing recognition of the social problems of child maltreatment and domestic violence. However, differences in perceptions of the use of corporal punishment and intervention exist among teachers, physicians, and social workers, as well as in the general public. In Korean culture, children are taught to be obedient and to live up to adults expectations, quietly carrying out their important duties like schoolwork.In such an adult-centered culture that has largely ignored children s opinions and perceptions, corporal punishment has been accepted as a disciplinary action often employed by parents and teachers. Until recently, little public attention has been paid to children at risk of being abused in the name of disciplining. Empirical studies conducted in the 1990s found that physical punishment is prevalent, with boys and younger children most likely to be disciplined. Social workers and physicians are more likely than teachers to perceive corporal punishment as child maltreatment and to support government intervention. Similarly, traditional patriarchal values also contributed to domestic violence, as husbands imposed the hierarchical order in the family. One study found that as many as 30 percent of couples interviewed had experienced some form of violence in the previous year. Coverage by the media and advocacy by various civic and non-profit organizations has prompted the establishment of a national level public policy for preventing child abuse and domestic violence. 6 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    child abuse research;  spouse abuse;  asia;  cultural factors;  cultural values;  corporal punishment;  social problems;  public awareness

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    The Dangerousness of Parents Who Have Abnormal Illness Behaviour.

 

AUTHOR:    Eminson, M.;  Atkin, B. L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Royal Bolton Hospital, Farnworth (United Kingdom).

 

SOURCE:    9(1): pp. 68-73;  John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY., January-February 2000;  p. 315

 

ABSTRACT:    Parental abnormal illness behavior can affect children in many ways, developmentally, physically, and psychologically. The most direct effect is the likelihood that parents with abnormal illness behavior will inflict their children withfactitious disorders or Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy. In addition, parents who believe they are seriously ill spend a great deal of time in the hospital, at doctor s appointments, and in bed, making themselves emotionally and physically unavailable to their children. Children may stay home from school to care for their parent, and be placed at risk for academic and social delays. The extent of the direct and indirect effects of parental abnormal illness behavior may depend on the severity of the behavior, as well as the parent s own history of childhood abuse and neglect. Pediatricians and other professionals who work with children should be aware of the symptoms of abnormal illness behavior and consider protective factors in any assessment of the family. Future research should examine how parents with abnormal illness behavior perceive their child s health and the effects of the behavior on the health and development of the child. 12 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    munchausen syndrome by proxy;  sequelae;  child development;  mental disorders;  definitions;  research needs;  risk factors;  clinical intervention

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.wiley.com

 

 

TITLE:    The Epidemic of Rape and Child Sexual Abuse in the United States.

 

AUTHOR:    Russell, D. E. H.;  Bolen, R. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Mills Coll., Oakland, CA.

 

SOURCE:    Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA., June 2000;  p. 342

 

ABSTRACT:    This book evaluates 14 government- and privately-funded studies, including the authors', to address the perceived wide variation in prevalence rates of rape and child sexual abuse in the United States. It takes into consideration the various definitions the studies have used for rape and sexual abuse, as well as methodologies for collecting data. In particular, the book addresses sexual victimization statistics compiled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Bureau of Justice Statistics, which the authors assert have historically reported low incidence rates. A major goal of the evaluation was to address widely publicized backlash criticism, from anti-femnists and others, claiming that high sexual assault rates have been; greatly exaggerated. Results validate the authors' premise that the FBI's and the BJS's methodologies are inferior, and that the scope of the problems of rape and child sexual abuse have reached epidemic levels. The authors offer recommendations for further addressing the issues. Twenty tables; 13 figures; two appendixes; index; numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:    rape;  sexual abuse;  laws;  research;  surveys;  government role;  statistics;  data analysis

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:    The Abused Child as Parent: The Structure and Content of Physically Abused Mothers' Perceptions of Their Babies.

 

AUTHOR:    Gara, M. A.;  Allen, L. A.;  Herzog, E. P.;  Woolfolk, R. L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    New Jersey Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry, Piscataway. Dept. of Psychiatry.

 

SOURCE:    24(5): pp. 627-639;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., May 2000;  p. 355

 

ABSTRACT:    Does a mother's history of being physically abused as a child have a discernable impact on the structure and content of her perceptions and beliefs concerning her own child? This study attempted to provide an empirical answer. The studycontacted 185 as potential participants in the longitudinal study; 103 agreed to participate. They were classified as abused' or not-abused' based on their responses to a standard questionnaire. The methodology involved free-response memories and current description of babies, self, and significant others such as parents, when their babies were six months, one year, and two years old. The two groups were compared with respect to the age of baby, race, and socioeconomic status. Results showed thatabused mothers were found to differ significantly from control mothers in the structure and content of their free-response perceptions of their own babies. Specifically, abused mothers lagged behind controls in how well differentiated were their negative perceptions of their babies. Conversely, abused mothers were comparable to controls with respect to differentiation of positive perceptions of babies. The authors assert that the findings constitute a discovery about the structural organization of social cognition in mothers at risk for child abuse. Five figures; 27 references. (Author abstract modified.)

 

KEY TERMS:    child abuse history;  abusive parents;  children at risk;  longitudinal studies;  perceptions;  data collection;  data analysis;  social cognition

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    The Relationship of Social Support to Physically Abused Children's Adjustment.

 

AUTHOR:    Ezzell, C. E.;  Swenson, C. C.;  Brondino, M. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Medical Univ. of South Carolina, Charleston. Dept. of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences.

 

SOURCE:    24(5): pp. 641-651;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., May 2000;  p. 356

 

ABSTRACT:    With a growing body of research linking increased levels of social support with reduced adjustment difficulties in children experiencing chronic stressors, this study used data from a sample of physically abused children and their primary caretakers to address fundamental questions regarding the relationship between social support and child adjustment. Specifically, the study had three goals: to assess physically abused children's perceptions of teacher, peer, and family support; to determine whether the levels of perceived support differ according to the person's social role; and to assess which sources of social support show stronger associations with adjustment in a physically abused sample. Participants included 37 Medicaid-eligible physically abused children and their self-identified primary parent or caregiver. Methodology included a shortened version of the Survey of Children's Social Support, and answers were indexed by child and parent reports of child depression, anxiety, and anger. Results showed that children reported receiving a high level of support from all three sources, with families rated as providing significantly greater levels of support than teachers, while family and peer, and teacher andpeer support levels did not differ significantly. In regression analyses, perceived peer support was significantly negatively related to children's and parent's reports of children's depression and anxiety. Perceived family support was significantly negatively associated with child-reported depression. Results suggest that peer and family support are particularly important for physically abused children's psychological functioning, particularly for internalizing problems. Thirty-two references. (Author abstract modified.)

 

KEY TERMS:    child abuse;  perceptions;  support systems;  family relationships;  adjustment problems;  research;  data analysis;  therapists role

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Treating Secondary Victims: Intervention With the Non-Offending Mother in the Incest Family.

 

AUTHOR:    Strand, V. C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Fordham Univ., Tarrytown, NY. Graduate School of Social Service.

 

SOURCE:    Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA., July 2000;  p. 378

 

ABSTRACT:    The nonabusive mother of incest victims has unique psychological needs for her own recovery from the trauma of the abuse and its effects on her perception of self and her role as wife, sexual partner, worker, and mother. This book describes the mother as a secondary victim and examines the influence of race, class, work history, and individual and family history on her response to the sexual abuse of her child. The chapters review countertransference issues, the impact of professional training, and social attitudes about the fault of the mother. A conceptual framework for evaluation and treatment is also presented, supported by numerous case studies. Phases of the treatment model include engagement and assessment, early intervention in response to traumatic effects, coping capacities, surfacing traumatic effects of the incest, identification of relational consequences, and resolution. Strategies for individual, group, and family treatment, and case coordination are explained. The book also examines issues regarding custody and visitation disputes and highlights future directions for research. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:    intervention strategies;  clinical intervention;  nonabusive parents;  mothers of abuse victims;  incest;  therapeutic intervention;  program models;  cultural factors

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:    Childhood Experiences of Domestic Violence.

 

AUTHOR:    McGee, C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, London (United Kingdom). Child Protection Research Group.

 

SOURCE:    Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London (United Kingdom)., 2000;  p. 405

 

ABSTRACT:    Fifty-four children and their mothers were interviewed for a study about the best ways to support children who have witnessed domestic violence, the perceptions of children and their mothers about support services, and the typical +; sources of support sought by families. Study participants were asked about the forms of domestic violence and child abuse they experienced, triggers of violence, characteristics of abusers, and the effects of witnessing violence on the child's identity, +; health, education, friendships, and relationships with family members. This book summarizes the findings of the study and identifies methods of coping and barriers to assistance for the women and children. The responses of social service agencies, law +; enforcement, schools, courts, and health professionals to the needs of children affected by domestic violence are also reviewed and assessed. The final chapter outlines recommendations for raising public awareness of domestic violence, legal protection, +; professional training, support services, and the protection of children during contact with the abuser. Numerous references, 1 figure, and 1 table.

 

KEY TERMS:    child witnesses of family violence;  spouse abuse;  service delivery;  intervention strategies;  policy formation;  battered women;  child protection;  sequelae

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.jkp.com

 

 

TITLE:    An Analysis of Rank Effects on Child Maltreatment in the United States Army: 1983-1985.

 

AUTHOR:    Soma, D. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

SOURCE:    In: Mercier, P. J. and Mercier, J. D. (Editors). Battle Cries on the Home Front: Violence in the Military Family. Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Ltd., Springfield, IL., 2000;  p. 430

 

ABSTRACT:    Data from surveys conducted by the United States Army were analyzed to determine whether neglect and serious child abuse-related injuries were more common in the junior enlisted grades. Overall, the Army child maltreatment rate was 7.5 per 1,000 children, 4 points lower than the national rate for 0-17 year olds. However, maltreatment rates for younger children were comparable to the national rate. An association was found between the rank of a parent and the rate of maltreatment. Excluding maltreatment rates for E-1s and E-2s because those individuals are in training, maltreatment was more common among E-3s than E-7s. The maltreatment rate decreased steadily as rank increased. The rate also declined with child age. Children age 0-2 years old were almost twice as likely to be abused or neglected as 3-5 years olds and more than three times as likely as 6-11 year olds. The risk of maltreatment is also higher for male children than females. Possible explanations for these trends include the greater social acceptability of physically disciplining boys, the income differences between ranks, social isolation and difficult living conditions, family instability related to mobility, lack of support for the family, and perceptions of low status and control over the environment. Based on these findings, prevention programs should target the families of E-3s through E-5s. 29 references and 9 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    statistical data;  incidence;  child abuse research;  armed forces;  military personnel;  characteristics of abuser;  characteristics of abused;  predictor variables

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

 

TITLE:    Judgements About Parenting: What Do Social Workers Think They Are Doing?

 

AUTHOR:    Daniel, B.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Dundee Univ., (Scotland). Center for Child Care and Protection Studies.

 

SOURCE:    9(2): pp. 91-107;  John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex (United Kingdom)., 2000;  p. 449

 

ABSTRACT:    Scottish social workers' beliefs about the elements of parenting that ensure a child's well-being and their perceptions about what underpins their decision-making about child care and protection were examined in this study. Q methodology revealed eight different strands of opinion, three of which are discussed in the article: that physical milestones are easier to assess than emotional needs; that children can be happy, even in less than ideal environments; and that positive attachment to the caregiver is the most important characteristic of adequate parenting. The discussion indicates that there is broad consistency of opinion within factors. That is, there is a link between views about children's needs and decision-making.However, the different factors also demonstrate that there are clusters of significantly different opinions about priorities in assessing parenting. 28 references and 2 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    scotland;  social workers attitudes;  social workers role;  decision making;  values;  cultural conflicts;  parental adequacy;  parenting

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.wiley.com

 

 

TITLE:    Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: Theoretical, Empirical and Clinical Perspectives.

 

AUTHOR:    Hayslip, B. (Editor);  Goldberg-Glen, R. (Editor)

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University of North Texas, Denton. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:    Springer Publishing Co., Inc., New York, NY., August 2000;  p. 483

 

ABSTRACT:    An increasing number of grandparents are being given custody of their grandchildren as nuclear family structures change with divorce, teenage childbirth, or conditions that prevent parents from caring for their children. Written for alltypes of professionals who work with families, this book reviews the research regarding grandparents raising grandchildren and describes the clinical and policy implications of the phenomenon. Section One focuses on theoretical and historical perspectives of custodial grandparenting with chapters that examine the demographic characteristics of grandparent caregivers, the influence of grandparents on their grandchildren, and the communication of beliefs and cultural from one generation to another. The second section explores the different ways in which grandparents care for their grandchildren. Topics include the emotional well-being of grandparents caring for children whose parents have HIV, cross-cultural differences in custodial grandparenting, and the differences between primary and secondary caregiving. Section Three addresses clinical perspectives, such as the physical and mental health of the grandparents, depression among grandparent caregivers, school-based interventions for children, perceptions of problem behavior, and support groups. The final section reviews service delivery and public policy issues. Grandparent education, legal issues, the role of organizational advocacy, and the needs of low-income grandparent caregivers are specifically discussed. Numerous references, 2 figures, and 31 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    kinship care;  grandparents;  historical perspective;  child custody;  family problems;  parental stress;  service delivery;  public policy

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.springerpub.com/

 

 

TITLE:    Managing Risk in Child Welfare.

 

AUTHOR:    Herman, M. L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Children's Voice

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Nonprofit Risk Management Center, Washington, DC.

 

SOURCE:    9(4): pp. 24-29;  Child Welfare League of America, Washington, DC., July 2000;  p. 490

 

ABSTRACT:    Nonprofit management experts have recognized the need for organizations to be visionary and strategic. But many nonprofit agencies have difficulty focusing on vision when a major focus involves raising money, diversifying their funding,and staying competitive with employee benefits. The author advocates the need for a more formal role of risk management in agencies as a means of anticipating, preparing for, and dealing with the unexpected. Barriers to risk management strategies in nonprofit agencies are outlined, discussing perceptions of complexity, lack of appeal, and inordinate use of resources. Risk management frameworks are discussed, with emphasis on a simple framework that focuses on three fundamental questions: 1. What cango wrong? 2. What will the agency do, either when something goes wrong or to prevent things from going wrong in the first place? 3. How will the agency pay for prevention efforts or for damages that occur despite the agency s best efforts? These effortsalso require periodic examination and evaluation. The author emphasizes that taking on risk management does not mean becoming a wet blanket, but rather taking an approach to solving problems that creates an environment in which an organization takes on more risk, not less.

 

KEY TERMS:    child welfare;  risk management;  service delivery;  evaluations;  risk factors;  agencies;  barriers;  funding

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.cwla.org

 

 

TITLE:    African American Kin Caregivers and Child Welfare Issues: Research Implications.

 

AUTHOR:    Hill, R. B.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Westat, Inc., Rockville, MD.

 

SOURCE:    In: Barth, R. P.; Freundlich, M.; and Brodzinsky, D. (Editors). Adoption and Prenatal Alcohol and Drug Exposure: Research, Policy, and Practice. Child Welfare League of America,, 2000;  p. 514

 

ABSTRACT:    Longitudinal studies about the outcomes of kinship care among African American families should focus on the four primary care arrangements: informal adoption; kinship care; relative foster care; and relative adoptions. Current research has considered the cultural tradition of kinship care in African American families, the characteristics of children and their kin caregivers, reasons for kinship parenting, the impact of kinship care on child abuse and neglect, duration of placements, financial support provided to kinship families, service needs, and perceptions of family preservation. However, there are several issues that require more in-depth study, such as the need for preparation and support services from child welfare agencies; the types of support networks used by kinship providers caring for children placed independently from child welfare agencies; the protective factors that prevent placement in the public foster care system; barriers to public support and assistance to kinship caregivers; and factors that promote formal adoption by kinship care providers. 37 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    kinship care;  african americans;  drug exposed children;  prenatal drug exposure;  outcomes;  research needs;  family characteristics;  adoption research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.cwla.org

 

 

TITLE:    The Strengths of Black Families: Appropriate Placements for All.

 

AUTHOR:    Rashid, S. P.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Adoption and Fostering

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Open Univ., Milton Keynes (United Kingdom).

 

SOURCE:    24(1): pp. 15-22;  British Agencies for Adoption and Fostering, London (England)., Spring 2000;  p. 523

 

ABSTRACT:    The strengths which black families bring to foster care have rarely been explored in detail in British social work research literature. This article summarizes the results of a study on the permanent placement of black children in +; foster care. The author reports on black foster caretakers and identifies their strengths in helping the children in their care to settle in their new families, deal with the issues of racism and identity and retain contact with their birth families. A +; survey was undertaken of 1,165 children with special needs who were placed in permanent care by major adoption agencies in the United Kingdom between 1980 and 1984. Researchers identified 246 children of minority background, of which qualitative work was+; undertaken with 38 families. The experiences of six families are described in this study. These families demonstrate considerable strengths in providing care for black children with a variety of needs and have met with a high degree of success. The +; author says their accounts are important because they provide examples of good practice, resourcefulness, skill, and determination, and dispel perceptions that black families and black communities are unable to provide appropriate placements for black +; children. Twelve references.

 

KEY TERMS:    foster care;  placement;  permanency;  caretakers;  racial identity;  united kingdom;  transracial adoption;  support groups

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.baaf.org.uk

 

 

TITLE:    Societal Attitudes Toward Drug-Using Women and Their Children: Past and Present.

 

AUTHOR:    Kandall, S. R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

SOURCE:    In: Barth, R. P.; Freundlich, M.; and Brodzinsky, D. (Editors). Adoption and Prenatal Alcohol and Drug Exposure: Research, Policy, and Practice. Child Welfare League of America,, 2000;  p. 529

 

ABSTRACT:    Current societal concern about drug addiction can be traced to the late 1800's when the demographics of substance abuse shifted from wealthy, white, southern women to poor, urban, minorities. Historically, women became addicted to opiumand other drugs when they were prescribed by their physicians and pharmacists. Opium-addicted women were pitied, rather than viewed as a threat to society. However, increasing drug use by minority populations was labeled social deviance and most states prohibited the use of cocaine and opiates by 1912. Early treatment programs were opposed by the federal narcotics agency because they were inconsistent with punitive policies. The needs of addicted women were overlooked until the 1970s, when the Women's Movement and the National Institute on Drug Abuse promoted the establishment of therapeutic programs targeted to pregnant women. However, the social policies of the Reagan administration continued to fuel an attitude of anger and suspicion against poor, minority women and funding for law enforcement exceeded allocations for prevention and treatment. Criminal laws were also used to convict pregnant, drug-addicted women of prenatal child abuse. Increases in the incidence of drug-exposed infants, child maltreatment, and other medical conditions associated with prenatal drug exposure added to society's negative perception of addicted women. Political trends indicate that funding for treatment programs for poor minority women will remain limited. 81 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    social attitudes;  social values;  public opinion;  substance abusing mothers;  historical perspective;  social problems;  prenatal drug exposure;  intervention strategies

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.cwla.org

 

 

TITLE:    Workplace Violence: Perceptions and Experiences of Local Public Assistance and Child Support Enforcement Staff and Managers.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC. Office Evalulation and Inspections.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

SOURCE:    Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC. Office of Evaluation and Inspections., March 2000;  p. 534

 

ABSTRACT:    The Office of the Inspector General of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services submitted this final report on worker safety. The report summarizes information the department gathered about workplace violence from local welfare +; and child support enforcement staff. Interestingly, worker safety was not the original objective of the collection of data; instead the topic was raised during a pre-inspection process as the department gathered information about how local offices deal +; with clients who might experience spouse abuse. Staff from 99 local child support offices and 103 local welfare offices in California, Georgia, Illinois, New Jersey, Texas, and Virginia provided information. Seventy-eight percent of local child support +; enforcement and 61 percent of local welfare managers reported that they have had reason to fear for the safety of workers in their office. However, they also reported that the actual incidences of violence in their offices have been rare. Staff reported +; that the nature of their work often contributes to stress levels of the individuals they serve, potentially leading to threats of violence or actual violence. Conclusions suggest that while local office safety is primarily the responsibility of the +; states, the federal Administration for Children and Families should discuss the extent and severity of worker safety with its state partners with a view to promoting the development and sharing of strategies that effectively address the issue. One +; appendix.

 

KEY TERMS:    us department of health and human services;  data analysis;  worker safety;  spouse abuse;  child welfare workers;  child support;  prevention;  welfare

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Final Report

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.hhs.gov/oig/oei/

 

 

TITLE:    Parent Prevails Over Grandparents on Child Visitation.

 

AUTHOR:    Kim, K.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Youth Law News

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    National Center for Youth Law, Oakland, CA.

 

SOURCE:    21(2-3): pp. 11-14;  National Center for Youth Law, Oakland, CA., March/June 2000;  p. 553

 

ABSTRACT:    This article describes a legal decision known as the grandparents' rights case, which went to the U.S. Supreme Court in 2000. The author describes the decision in a larger context, not just for grandparents' rights but for other groups wishing preserve established relationships with children. The case, Troxel v. Granville, resulted from a complaint by Gary and Jennifer Troxel, a couple in Anacortes, Washington, whose son was the unmarried father of two young daughters. The Troxels had an ongoing relationship with their granddaughters, but when their son committed suicide, the Troxels were unable to agree on continued visitation with the girls' mother. The Troxels filed a petition for visitation in state court, which agreed with them and ordered visitation rights. The mother and her new husband appealed, and the case eventually went to the U.S. Supreme Court. The court, in a plurality decision, asserted that parents, not judges or grandparents, have the fundamental right to decide what is best for their children. The case has been perceived primarily as a test of grandparents' rights, and was heralded in the media as a huge setback. But the author maintains that the door remains open for grandparents to seek visitation privileges,and outcomes will still largely depend on the facts of each case. Essentially, the Troxel decision leaves it to states to balance constitutional rights with the realities of changing families. Twenty-one notes.

 

KEY TERMS:    grandparents rights;  visitation;  u s supreme court;  state supreme courts;  child advocacy;  kinship care;  constitutional challenges;  families

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Grandparent Caregivers' Perception of the Stress of Surrogate Parenting.

 

AUTHOR:    Sands, R. G.;  Goldberg-Glen, R. S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Social Service Research

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Pennsylvania Univ., Phildelphia. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:    26(3): pp. 77-95;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 2000;  p. 558

 

ABSTRACT:    This paper examined the relationship between sociodemographic factors, stressors, and resources, and the perception of stress by grandparents caring for their grandchildren. A sample of 129 grandparents had face-to-face interviews. A +; hierarchical block regression analysis produced a model that accounted for 49 percent of the variance. For the first block (sociodemographic factors) younger age and being white were significant, but in the context of the second block, these variables +; disappeared and being employed, having conflict with the children's parent, and grandchild problems were significant. The final block, in which resources were added, found that being employed, having conflict with the children's parent, grandchild +; problems, and lack of family resources were associated with high perception of stress. These findings suggest strategies for social work intervention. 37 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    grandparents;  kinship care;  parental stress;  family characteristics;  child welfare research;  parental surrogates;  stress;  demography

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:    Predictors of Treatment Outcome in Sexually Abused Children.

 

AUTHOR:    Cohen, J. A.;  Mannarino, A. P.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Hahnemann Univ. School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA. Dept. of Psychiatry.

 

SOURCE:    24(7): pp. 983-994;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., July 2000;  p. 575

 

ABSTRACT:    This NCCAN-funded study evaluated the impact of child and family characteristics on treatment outcome for sexually abused children. Forty-nine recently sexually abused 7- to 14-year old children were randomly assigned to either +; abuse-focused cognitive behavioral therapy or nondirective supportive therapy, and assessed pre- and post-treatment using several standardized instruments. These included five measures of psychological symptomatology and four measures of child and family+; characteristics hypothesized to mediate treatment response. Correlational and multiple regression analyses were utilized to evaluate the impact of the following mediating factors on treatment outcome: children's abuse-related attributions and +; perceptions; family cohesion and adaptability; parental support of the child; and parental emotional reaction to the child's abuse. Children's abuse-related attributions and perceptions and parental support of the child were strong predictors of +; treatment outcome in this population. Therapeutic attention to children's sexual abuse-related attributions and to enhancing parental support may be important factors in optimizing treatment outcome in 8- to-14-year old sexually abused children. 26 +; references and 3 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    predictor variables;  sexual abuse;  therapeutic effectiveness;  outcomes;  childrens therapy;  characteristics of abused;  family characteristics;  parental reactions

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Perceptions of Grandparents' Influence in the Lives of Their Grandchildren.

 

AUTHOR:    Hayslip, B.;  Shore, R. J.;  Henderson, C. E.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University of North Texas, Denton. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:    In: Hayslip, B.; Goldberg-Glen, R. (Editors). Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: Theoretical, Empirical and Clinical Perspectives. Springer Publishing Co., Inc., New York, NY., 2000;  p. 615

 

ABSTRACT:    One hundred, eighty-one adolescents and young adults were surveyed for this study about the extent that their grandparents were involved in their lives and the level of their influence. Measures assessed the amount of regular contact, the level of care given by the grandparent, direct and positive influence on vocational and educational choices, problem solving, values, and the degree of influence on the entire family. Data were analyzed by gender and age of the grandchild (14-18 years and 19-24 years), and by grandparent gender and kinship position. The findings indicated that grandparents had greater breadth of influence and were more involved in the lives of male grandchildren than female grandchildren. Females, and to some extent, males perceived their grandmothers to be more parental, more involved in their up-bringing, and more influential on their lives and families than grandfathers. Males of all ages reported that their grandparents influenced family decisions, helpedto resolve conflict, and had an impact on how the child was raised. The findings support the results of other research that revealed that grandchildren had more positive interactions with their grandparents before they were placed in their custody. 26 references and 2 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    grandparents;  kinship care;  parental role;  parent child relationships;  parenting;  interpersonal relationships;  child welfare research;  sequelae

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.springerpub.com

 

 

TITLE:    Primary and Secondary Caregiving Grandparents: How Different Are They?

 

AUTHOR:    Goldberg-Glen, R. S.;  Sands, R. G.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Widener Univ., Chester, PA. Center for Social Work Education.

 

SOURCE:    In: Hayslip, B.; Goldberg-Glen, R. (Editors). Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: Theoretical, Empirical and Clinical Perspectives. Springer Publishing Co., Inc., New York, NY., 2000;  p. 622

 

ABSTRACT:    Thirty-three pairs of custodial grandparents were surveyed for this study of the differences in stress and well-being between the primary caregiver and the secondary caregiver. Almost all of the pairs consisted of married couples, and 85 percent of the primary caregivers were women. The measures addressed stress, life satisfaction, well-being, and resources. Secondary caregivers reported higher levels of stress than the primary caregivers and had significantly fewer resources and lower financial stability than the primary caregivers. No differences were found on measures of family cohesion, emotional control, perceived stress, well-being, psychological anxiety, or life satisfaction. Future research should be conducted with a larger sample, and examine the role of the secondary caregiver in the family and the impact of the secondary caregiver's health on primary caregiver and the grandchild. Research should also compare outcomes for children raised by single grandparents and those raised with two caregivers. Implications for practice are highlighted in the chapter. 48 references and 5 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    kinship care;  grandparents;  parental behavior;  individual characteristics;  parental role;  demography;  parental stress;  child welfare research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.springerpub.com

 

 

TITLE:    Determinants of Custodial Grandparents' Perceptions of Problem Behavior in Their Grandchildren.

 

AUTHOR:    Hayslip, B.;  Silverthorn, P.;  Shore, R. J.;  Henderson, C. E.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University of North Texas, Denton. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:    In: Hayslip, B.; Goldberg-Glen, R. (Editors). Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: Theoretical, Empirical and Clinical Perspectives. Springer Publishing Co., Inc., New York, NY., 2000;  p. 627

 

ABSTRACT:    This study was conducted to identify predictors of grandparent perceptions of behavior problems in their grandchildren. The sample of 101 custodial grandparents was asked about the situation that led to their raising their grandchildren, motives for caring for the child, social support, professional help requested, and the existence of nine different behavior problems in their grandchild. Analyses of the responses indicated a strong relationship between seeking help for the grandchild and the perceived severity of behavior problems presented by the child. Behaviors that resulted in problems in the school and the community received especially severe ratings. In addition, problem severity correlated with the health of thegrandparents. Grandparents who reported high levels of problem severity also reported poor health. Requesting assistance for oneself was not related to problem severity. Grandparents who desired to have another chance to parent a child were more likely to report drug and alcohol abuse problems and overall problem severity in their grandchildren. 24 references and 2 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    kinship care;  grandparents;  child behavior;  behavior problems;  parental attitudes;  predictor variables;  family characteristics;  child welfare research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.springerpub.com

 

 

TITLE:    Success-Based, Noncoercive Treatment of Oppositional Behavior in Children From Violent Homes.

 

AUTHOR:    Ducharme, J. M.;  Atkinson, L.;  Poulton, L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Human Development and Applied Psychology.

 

SOURCE:    39(8): pp. 995-1003;  Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Hagerstown, MD., August 2000;  p. 661

 

ABSTRACT:    Errorless compliance training is a success-based, noncoercive intervention for children with severe oppositional behavior. The strategy involves hierarchical introduction of more demanding parental requests at a gradual pace that greatly reduces noncompliance and obviates the need for constraining consequences, such as time-out. This study evaluated that approach as a treatment for severe disciplinary programs in children from violent homes. Participants were 15 children, aged 3-10 years old and their mothers. All participants had experienced long-term family violence. Using a multiple-baseline design, the researchers trained parents in a group format and conducted observations of child compliance in the home throughout the intervention. Observations indicated improvements in generalized child compliance that were maintained up to 6 months posttreatment. Pre- and post-maternal reports indicated significant reductions in maternal perception of child noncompliance, externalizing and internalizing programs, and parenting stress. Researchers have noted a dearth of empirically supported interventions for children from violent homes. Errorless compliance training may help to fill this void, as it appears well suited tothe treatment of difficulties encountered by these youngsters and their parents. 27 references, 2 figures, and 1 table. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    childrens therapy;  child witnesses of family violence;  child behavior;  behavior problems;  oppositional defiant disorder;  program evaluation;  intervention strategies;  parent

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Child Psychological Maltreatment in Palestinian Families.

 

AUTHOR:    Khamis, V.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Bethlehem Univ., West Bank (Palestine). Dept. of Social Sciences.

 

SOURCE:    24(8): pp. 1047-1059;  Elsevier Science Inc., New York, NY., 2000;  p. 795

 

ABSTRACT:    This study was designed to identify predictors of child psychological abuse in Palestinian families. It examined the relative contributions of child characteristics, parents' sociodemographics, and economic hardships, family characteristics such as family values, family ambiance, gender inequities, parental support, harsh discipline, psychological abuse, and other forms of abuse. The sample consisted of 1,000 school age children from 12 to 16 years. Two school counselors interviewed the children at school, and with the available parent at home. Results showed that child school performance was specifically associated with child psychological abuse. Parents who perceived that the family did not have enough money to meet the child's needs were more likely to abuse their children psychologically. Gender inequities, harsh discipline, family ambiance, and lack of parental support were the most salient predictors of abuse. Child psychological abuse occurred concurrently withother forms of abuse such as physical abuse and child labor. Parental psychological abuse proved to be weakened with high traditional family values. Conclusions suggested that a significant portion of the sample could be considered psychologically abused. The authors recommend that intervention and prevention efforts should be focused on child welfare, educational programs for high-risk parents, and mobilization of the community and social services agencies. Two tables; numerous references. (Author abstract modified.)

 

KEY TERMS:    child abuse;  middle eastern cultures;  family;  psychological abuse;  socialization;  questionnaires;  data analysis;  predictor variables

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Factors Related to Mothers' Perceptions of Parenting Following Their Children's Disclosures of Sexual Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:    Hiebert-Murphy, D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Maltreatment

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg (Canada).

 

SOURCE:    5(3): pp. 251-260;  Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA., August 2000;  p. 801

 

ABSTRACT:    The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to parenting satisfaction and efficacy in non-offending mothers. Parenting satisfaction and efficacy was of particular interest, given previous findings suggesting that satisfaction and efficacy are associated with child behavior and parental functioning. The study was based on a stress-coping model in which the relationship between a sexual abuse disclosure by a child and the mother's parenting satisfaction and efficacy was expected to be affected by risk factors as well as stress-resistance factors. Two main questions were considered in the study: 1. Do risk factors and stress-resistance factors predict parenting satisfaction and efficacy among mothers whose children have disclosed sexual abuse? and 2. Do the hypothesized stress-resistance factors predict parenting satisfaction and efficacy after controlling the risk factors as predicted by a stress-coping model? Participants were 102 women recruited througha sexual assault clinic at a children's hospital and a community-based service for families affected by third-party sexual abuse. Findings suggest that understanding the parenting satisfaction of mothers following a disclosure of sexual abuse requires consideration of at least several factors. Abuse characteristics and demographic variables do not seem central to predicting satisfaction; rather, attention must be given to the behavior of the child and to social and personal resources the women can usein dealing with the situation. The author suggests that more research is needed to understand the relationship between social support and coping strategies and parenting efficacy among mothers of children who have been sexually abused. Three tables; numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:    sexual abuse;  parenting skills;  disclosure;  mother child relationships;  behavior problems;  coping skills;  data collection;  data analysis

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:    The Kempe Family Stress Inventory: A Review.

 

AUTHOR:    Korfmacher, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Colorado Univ. School of Medicine, Denver. Kempe Children's Center.

 

SOURCE:    24(1): pp. 129-140;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., January 2000

 

ABSTRACT:    This article reviews research about the validity of the Kempe Family Stress Inventory (KFSI), a 10-item scale that measures risk for parenting difficulties based upon responses to a thorough psychosocial interview. Research and documentation regarding the assessment instrument were gathered from journals, book chapters, presentations, workshops, and intervention evaluation reports. The KFSI has been used to predict parents' future risk of maltreating their children. The scale covers a variety of domains, including psychiatric history, criminal and substance abuse history, childhood history of care, emotional functioning, attitudes towards and perception of child, discipline of child, and level of stress in the parent's life. Although construct validity has been demonstrated with the KFSI, questions remain about its specificity and sensitivity. In addition, there has been minimal reliability and work done on the measure. It is concluded that the KFSI may have clinical utility, but should be used as part of a more comprehensive risk assessment that includes multiple measures. Acceptable accuracy in predicting child abuse and neglect when used by itself has not been demonstrated. There is a need for more demonstration of reliability and validity. Suggestions for future research are noted. 21 references and 2 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    assessment;  measures;  parental stress;  parental behavior;  validity;  adults abused as children;  substance abuse;  mental health

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Client Evaluation of a Consultation Team on Crimes Against Children.

 

AUTHOR:    Bross, D. C.;  Ballo, N.;  Korfmacher, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Colorado Univ. School of Medicine, Denver. Dept. of Pediatrics.

 

SOURCE:    24(1): pp. 71-84;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., January 2000

 

ABSTRACT:    Cases of child abuse filed in court as crimes against children represent a small percentage of the total number of children maltreated. However, studying child maltreatment crimes is important to assure that these cases are managed well. Forensic consultation teams can perform several functions related to child abuse crimes: provide multidisciplinary expertise in the evaluation of maltreatment cases; offer a method for allocating resources between cases managed by the criminal justice and child protection systems; and provide important research and teaching opportunities. This study reviews the role played by multidisciplinary team consultations based on the perception of client professionals whose agencies pay for an outside consulting forensic team. Professionals referring to a forensic team for consultative assistance were asked to evaluate the service during telephone interviews, responding to both structured and unstructured questions. Eighteen responding professionals stated that the team increased their confidence that the approach being taken to a case was correct (94 percent), that missing expertise was provided (100 percent), that progress was made in cases that might otherwise not have been made (55 percent), and that ambiguity was reduced (in 83 percent of referred cases). Using the team sometimes caused delays. Some delays were unacceptable administrative delays while others were considered necessary to assure completeness of the evaluation. The use of the team did not result in resolution of all the cases referred, but referral to the team consistently provided closure for referring professionals. In one-third of the cases studied, if it had not been for the State and Regional Team (START) consultation, the cases would not have proceeded to an appropriate criminal or civil resolution. 3 tables and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    evaluation;  multidisciplinary teams;  criminal charges;  criminal justice system;  child protective services;  consultation;  interviews

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Enhancing Law Enforcement Identification and Investigation of Child Maltreatment.

 

AUTHOR:    Portwood, S. G.;  Grady, M. T.;  Dutton, S. E.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Missouri Univ., Kansas City.

 

SOURCE:    24(2): pp. 195-207;  Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY., February 2000

 

ABSTRACT:    Data from 2 independent studies is presented, representing the investigators' ongoing work with faculty from a state criminal justice academy to analyze existing knowledge and skills among veteran law enforcement officers and recruits, as well as to enhance future training. Through an anonymous questionnaire, the first of these studies examined officers' perceptions of maltreatment, including those factors that do and do not influence a determination of whether a particular act constitutes child maltreatment and assessments of whether particular acts constitute abuse or neglect. The second study also utilized an anonymous questionnaire to examine officers' knowledge of the developmental strengths and limitations of children relative to their ability to provide accurate information in suspected cases of child maltreatment. As hypothesized, several gaps both in law enforcement officers' knowledge of certain characteristics that can serve to denote a case of maltreatment and their knowledge of fundamental developmental issues and interview techniques that could assist them in the performance of their professional duties are identified. Suggestions for enhanced law enforcement training programs are presented and discussed. 4 tables and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    investigations;  law enforcement;  questionnaires;  identification;  assessment;  professional training

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    ANTI-SOCIAL BEHAVIOR AS A RESULT OF ABUSE: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

SOURCE:    NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  2000

 

KEY TERMS:    kinship care;  drug exposed infants;  sequelae;  child placement;  outcomes;  prevalence;  behavior problems;  child welfare research;  longitudinal studies;  violence;  symptoms;  adolescents;  school surveys;  ethnicity;  urban environment;  risk factors;  physical abuse;  corporal punishment;  child abuse research;  china;  sexual behavior;  child behavior;  predictor variables;  spouse abuse;  child witnesses of family violence;  child development;  research methodology;  data collection;  measures;  sexual abuse;  etiology;  sexually abusive children;  differential diagnoses;  case studies;  adolescent;  adults abused as children;  attachment behavior;  nonmarital violence;  aggressive behavior;  juvenile delinquency;  homicide;  psychological characteristics;  family violence;  suicide;  antisocial behavior;  impulsive behavior;  mothers;  posttraumatic stress disorder;  battered women;  community violence;  emotional problems;  child abuse history;  adoption;  foster care;  school children;  family relationships;  family support systems

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:    CHILD WELFARE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

SOURCE:    NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  2000

 

KEY TERMS:    kinship care;  professional training;  child welfare workers;  curricula;  competency based training;  assessment;  intervention strategies;  service delivery;  social workers;  social workers role;  personnel needs;  child protective services;  child welfare services;  personnel management;  competency;  children with disabilities;  developmental disabilities;  foster care;  foster parents training;  program models;  interagency collaboration;  evaluation methods;  validity;  testing;  outcomes;  longitudinal studies;  program evaluation;  family preservation;  cultural competency;  schools of social work;  resource materials;  child welfare research;  risk factors;  prevention;  child welfare research;  child welfare agencies;  substance abuse;  multidisciplinary teams;  child welfare reform;  pennsylvania;  interdisciplinary approach;  new york;  social workers attitudes;  caseload;  staff development;  florida;  investigations;  supervisors;  foster care workers;  california;  measures

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:    A Review and Reformulation of Adoptive Relationships From an Attachment Perspective.

 

AUTHOR:    Edens, J. F.;  Cavell, T. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Adoption Quarterly

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Sam Houston State Univ., Huntsville, TX. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:    3(2): pp. 43-69;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 1999;  p. 17

 

ABSTRACT:    The authors provide a conceptualization of several unique aspects of adoptive relationships from an attachment perspective, focusing specifically on recent advances in the conceptualization and assessment of attachment status in adulthood. Noting a lack of empirical data directly examining these issues, they review existing data through the lens of attachment theory to better understand the process of establishing a relationship with an adopted child, as well as explain clinicalor individual differences seen among adopted persons in adolescence and adulthood. They limit the scope of discussion primarily to that of adoptions wherein a child is placed in early infancy with non-biological relatives and has no further contact withbiological family members. The authors describe Bowlby's attachment theory and hypothesize that attachment styles that adoptive parents bring to their relationships play a significant role in the formation and function of adoptive families. Their findings suggest that while secure caretakers can comfortably manage the parent-child relationship without being threatened by the fact of adoption, dismissing caretakers, who may encounter greater difficulty in bonding with their adopted child, may engage in coping strategies that focus, or insist upon, perceived differences between biological and adoptive relationships. They also examine attachment and adopted persons' functioning in later life, noting that while children who form attachment bondswith adopted parents that are similar to those seen in biological-related families, many questions remain unanswered as to how attachment theory plays a role in predicting the interpersonal functioning of adopted children as they move toward adolescenceand adulthood. Until more empirical work is done, the authors state that generalizations from the current body of research to specific issues involving adoptive families remains premature. Two tables, numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:    attachment;  interpersonal relationships;  literature reviews;  coping skills;  attachment theory;  adoptive families;  special needs

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:    Adoptive Family Adjustment and Its Relation to Perceived Family Environment.

 

AUTHOR:    Martin, B.;  Kelly, M. M.;  Towner-Thyrum, E.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Adoption Quarterly

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Millersville Univ., PA. Dept. of Psyschology.

 

SOURCE:    3(1): pp. 49-60;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 1999;  p. 21

 

ABSTRACT:    Fifty-one adopted college students from three mid-sized East Coast universities participated in interviews structured to gather information regarding adoptees' perceptions of adoptive family life. They were asked for their perspective of the overall environment that characterized their family life as well as their perceptions of how their families dealt with the tasks unique to their adoption. Additionally, subjects completed a scale that measured their perceptions of general characteristics of family environment. Multiple regression analysis revealed that of ten adoption-specific factors derived from interview data, overall satisfaction with one's adoptive status and family life was the strongest predictor of perceived general family environment. Adoptee satisfaction predicted high levels of family expressiveness, ethical focus, and involvement in shared activities as well as low levels of family conflict. Adoptees' perception of adoptive fathers' and mothers' communication styles predicted different aspects of family environment. Adoptees' acknowledgement of life differences due to their adoptive status did not relate to family expressiveness. The latter finding lends support to recent research suggesting that acknowledgement and expressiveness are independent aspects of adoptive family functioning. Three tables, 13 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    adoptive families;  adjustment problems;  family environment;  data collection;  data analysis;  communication;  surveys;  adolescents

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:    Mental Health and Legal Professionals' Perceptions of Child Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:    Greene, L. I.;  Glenwick, D. S.;  Schiaffino, K. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Family Social Work

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Fordham Univ., New York, NY. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:    3(4): pp. 25-38;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghampton, NY., 1999;  p. 229

 

ABSTRACT:    Definitions of the physical, sexual, and psychological abuse of children were assessed in a sample of mental health and legal professionals. Forty-eight social workers and 33 attorneys rated 39 items describing various parental behaviors that were potentially abusive. The results indicated that severity ratings were highest for sexual abuse, followed by physical and emotional abuse; the social workers rated several parental behaviors as more abusive than did the attorneys; and items that included physical or emotional consequence to the child often were regarded as more abusive. Implications of the findings for research and training are considered. 11 references and 3 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    mental health personnel;  social workers attitudes;  lawyers;  attitudes;  parental behavior;  definitions;  public opinion;  child abuse research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:    Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder-Disorders of Extreme Stress (CP-DES) in Sexually Abused Children: An Exploratory Study.

 

AUTHOR:    Hall, D. K.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Sexual Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Atkinson Coll., North York, ON (Canada). School of Nursing.

 

SOURCE:    8(4): pp. 51-71;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 1999;  p. 516

 

ABSTRACT:    The author proposes the syndrome of Complex Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Disorders of Extreme Stress to describe symptoms reported by adult survivors of repeated personal trauma for which post traumatic stress syndrome is +; characterized as an inadequate description. The article explores whether CP/DES characterizes the responses of sexually abused children, some of whom have sustained multiple interpersonal traumas. Three groups of sexually abused children were compared on+; seven child CP/DES indices: 1) alteration in regulation of affect/impulses; 2) alteration in regulation of attention and consciousness; 3) alteration in self-perception; 4) alteration in perception of the perpetrator; 5) alteration in relationships with+; others; 6) somatization; and 7) alteration in systems of meaning. Results indicated that children with post traumatic stress disorder exhibited more CP/DES symptoms within a greater number of CP/DES categories than did partial or non-PTSD groups. The +; relationship between cumulative trauma and total number of CP/DES symptoms revealed that as the cumulative number of types of trauma increases, the number of CP/DES symptoms rose. The results suggest that CP/DES also characterizes sexually abused +; children, especially those who have been multiply abused, and offers a more developmentally appropriate framework for assessment and treatment than PTSD. Five tables; numerous references. (Author abstract modified.)

 

KEY TERMS:    post traumatic stress disorder;  sexual abuse;  child abuse;  adults abused as children;  multi problem children;  studies;  comparative analysis;  pilot programs

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:    Videotaping Child Disclosure Interviews: Exploratory Study of Children's Experiences and

 

AUTHOR:    Henry, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Sexual Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:    8(4): pp. 35-49;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 1999;  p. 517

 

ABSTRACT:    The debate over whether to videotape victims of sexual abuse has lacked resolution because to date there has only been anecdotal experience to evaluate. This research void, the author of this study asserts, perpetuates the controversy +; and may deter localities from videotaping. The study examines the effects of videotaping compared to non-videotaping on a number of disclosure interviews, its impact on the likelihood of children testifying in court, and its effect on perpetrators' +; pleading. The study compares the investigatory and legal outcomes of 29 sexually abused children in three counties in Michigan, whose disclosure interviews were videotaped, with a group of 61 non-videotaped sexually abused children. Three testing +; instruments were administered during the interviews to measure the victim's perceived level of trauma and stress produced by system interventions. The results revealed that videotaped children were more likely to have fewer interviews and testify less +; frequently than the non-videotaped group. Offenders of videotaped sexually abused children were more likely to plead to criminal charges than offenders of the non-videotaped children. Eighty-six percent of videotaped sexually abused children indicated +; that videotaping was either helpful or had no effect on them. The results provide communities with information to evaluate as they seek to further refine their protocols to support sexually abused children and minimize stress caused by system +; interventions. Two tables; one note; 16 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    videotaping;  child abuse;  disclosure;  feasibility studies;  sex offenders;  trauma;  michigan;  outcomes

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:    Brief Research Report: Age Factors Affecting the Believability of Repressed Memories of Child Sexual Assault.

 

AUTHOR:    Golding, J. M.;  Sanchez, R. P.;  Sego, S. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Law and Human Behavior

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Kentucky Univ., Lexington. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:    23(2): pp. 257-268;  Kluwer Academic-Plenum Publishing, Dordrecht (The Netherlands)., April 1999;  p. 562

 

ABSTRACT:    Two experiments investigated how mock jurors react to testimony involving a claim of repressed memory in a case involving child sexual assault. Participants read a fictional civil trial summary presented in one of three conditions: +; immediate condition - the alleged victim testified immediately after the incident; repressed condition - the alleged victim reported the assault 1-39 years later, after remembering it for the first time; or not-repressed condition - the alleged victim +; reported the assault 1-39 years later, but the memory of the assault had been present for those years. When there was any type of delayed reporting, either the age of the alleged victim at the time of the assault was constant and her age at reporting +; varied (Experiment 1) or the age of the alleged victim at the time of the assault varied and her age at reporting remained constant (Experiment 2). The results showed that a delay in reporting an incident adversely affected believability of the alleged +; victim and led to fewer rulings in support of the plaintiff compared to reporting it immediately; longer delays in reporting generally led to lower alleged victim believability and fewer decisions in support of the plaintiff than shorter delays; the age +; of the alleged victim at the time of the incident was a critical variable in determining belief of the alleged victim; and men generally rated believability of the alleged victim lower and ruled in favor of the plaintiff less often than women. The +; results are discussed in terms of the psychosocial factors affecting the perception of delayed reporting in a child sexual assault trial. 21 references and 2 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    age factors;  sexual abuse;  repression;  adults abused as

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.wkap.nl

 

 

TITLE:    Expanding Family Options for Permanency.

 

AUTHOR:    Peterson, J.;  Cluster, C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Colorado State Dept. of Human Services, Denver. Child Welfare Div.

 

SOURCE:    Colorado State Dept. of Human Services, Denver. Child Welfare Div., 1999;  p. 584

 

ABSTRACT:    The goal of the Expanding Family Options for Permanency project in Colorado was to achieve permanency quickly for children by involving parents in a non-adversarial decision making process. The grant project had three major objectives: +; to develop an assessment process to identify families eligible for alternative services; to test family group decision making, voluntary relinquishment, and mediation as part of concurrent planning; and to support networks of community agencies to +; identify gaps and develop interventions. All three objectives were met through the development of protocols for decision making, a Concurrent Planning Guide, a Mediator Selection Guide, and training for judges, attorneys, and case workers. The +; effectiveness of the non-adversarial methods used depended on flexible funding; training to promote changes in the attitudes of workers; recognition of the increased role of parents; judicial support; and community resources. An evaluation of the +; training provided to workers found high levels of satisfaction with the programs, except for the Parent Empowerment Training Program. Caseworkers utilized the Concurrent Planning and Mediation Selection Guides, and one county felt that the tools were +; helpful for team meetings. The caseworkers also reported greater support from the court system for alternative decision making processes, as well as an increase in options considered for families. The project was perceived to be cost effective and family+; group decision making and Parenting Options Programs were integrated into service systems. 2 figures and 4 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    colorado;  permanency planning;  program models;  program evaluation;  concurrent planning;  nonadversarial case resolution;  family group conferencing;  outcomes

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Final Report

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.cdhs.state.co.us/cyf/cwelfare/

 

 

TITLE:    The Achievement and Sustainability of Sibling Contact: Why the Reality Falls Short of the Ideal.

 

AUTHOR:    Jones, A. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

SOURCE:    In: Mullender, A. (Editor). We Are Family: Sibling Relationships in Placement and Beyond. British Agencies for Adoption and Fostering, London (United Kingdom)., 1999;  p. 593

 

ABSTRACT:    Sibling groups of children placed in foster care or adoption are often separated for one or more of the following reasons: perception of failure of family preservation services; lack of placements; limitations of the caregiver; territorial attitudes of social workers; timing; and lack of parental input. The dynamics between the family system, caregivers, and social work systems can also influence how placements are made. Although each system has its own viewpoint, eventually, one system persists and takes control, while the others accept its goals. For example, when attempts to reunify the family are unsuccessful, the role of the family social worker decreases, as the roles of the foster parent and placement worker increase to ensure a stable and safe environment for the child. However, in this interaction of shifting priorities, the parties fail to consider the importance of sibling contact when a child is removed from the home. Children who are not able to sustain contactwith their brothers and sisters suffer a significant loss that multiplies the emotional impact of the separation from their families. In addition, the separation of siblings decreases the opportunity of children to experience and work through the developmental tasks presented by sibling rivalry. 10 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    siblings;  sibling relationships;  interpersonal relationships;  separation;  attachment;  family relationships;  decision making;  social workers role

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.baaf.org.uk

 

 

TITLE:    A 'For Ever and Ever Family:' Siblings' Views as Represented in Reports for Adoption Hearings.

 

AUTHOR:    Selwyn, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Bristol Univ. (United Kingdom). Family Policy and Child Welfare Research Centre.

 

SOURCE:    In: Mullender, A. (Editor). We Are Family: Sibling Relationships in Placement and Beyond. British Agencies for Adoption and Fostering, London (United Kingdom)., 1999;  p. 597

 

ABSTRACT:    The adoption case files of 32 children from sibling groups were reviewed to examine the extent that the opinions of siblings were considered during adoption hearings. Although the British Schedule 2 report requires that the wishes and feelings of children regarding adoption and religious and cultural issues be indicated on the form, the case review revealed few direct comments from children. Social workers often used the section of the form to highlight the foster carers' perceptions,the placement history of the child, and therapeutic interventions. Even the guardians who were specifically appointed to interview children failed to accurately represent the concerns and needs expressed by the children. None of the guardians or social workers asked the children about their relationships with their siblings or their feelings about brothers and sisters still living in an abusive home. At most, general statements were made about the views of the children, and siblings were not treated asindividuals. Guardians and social workers are urged to comply with the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and the British Adoption Act so that children's input can improve the decisions made about their placement. 8 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    siblings;  sibling relationships;  adoption research;  childs attitudes;  child advocacy;  guardians at litem;  hearings;  legal processes

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.baaf.org.uk

 

 

TITLE:    Drawing Out the Messages for Policy and Practice.

 

AUTHOR:    Mullender, A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom). Dept. of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:    In: Mullender, A. (Editor). We Are Family: Sibling Relationships in Placement and Beyond. British Agencies for Adoption and Fostering, London (United Kingdom)., 1999;  p. 606

 

ABSTRACT:    The concluding chapter of a book about the placement of sibling groups summarizes the concepts presented in the text. The highlights review the definition of siblings; the prevalence of separation among foster and adopted children; quasi-sibling relationships with other children in care; contact between separated children; children's perceptions of their relationships; and the negative effects of separation. The implications of research findings for policy and practice are also outlined and recommendations for reform are provided. The chapter suggests that policymakers and social workers recognize the long-term effects of separation and emphasize the value of child-to-child relationships in practice. Records should be kept about family structures and the child's view of significant others. Agencies should also recruit more homes for the placement of sibling groups and conduct assessments on a regular basis. 5 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    siblings;  sibling relationships;  separation;  visitation;  policy formation;  public policy on adoption;  great britain;  adoption research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.baaf.org.uk

 

 

TITLE:    Preventing Teenage Pregnancy: Contributions From Attachment Theory.

 

AUTHOR:    Pistole, C. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Mental Health Counseling

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, New Brunswick. Dept. of Educational Psychology.

 

SOURCE:    21(2): pp. 93-113;  American Mental Health Counselors Association, Alexandria, VA., April 1999;  p. 663

 

ABSTRACT:    This article examines the relevance of attachment theory for teen pregnancy prevention. Emphasis is placed on love as the confluence of the attachment, caregiving, sexual systems in a relationship, and the motivations that lead to sexual activity and pregnancy. The attachment system governs perceptions of social life and relationships, while the caregiving system addresses responsiveness and sensitivity to indications for a need for closeness or potential danger. The sexual systemfocuses primarily on reproduction and sexual pleasure. In a romantic love relationship, the three systems interact and can be confusing for an adolescent who is learning to cope with his or her emotional needs and motivations. Pregnancy prevention programs should focus on helping adolescents to recognize their needs and control their behavior. Effective interventions will identify the source of the adolescent's security that provides safety for experimental behavior and help the teen distinguish between the need for soothing and protective touch and sexual touch. The context of the family and social environment should also be considered, especially family culture and values. The article explains the role of each factor and outlines the implications for mental health counseling with teens at risk of sexual activity and pregnancy. 84 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    adolescent pregnancy;  adolescent pregnancy prevention;  attachment theory;  incidence;  emotional development;  emotional problems;  emotional response;  family role

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.amhca.org/

 

 

TITLE:    Research on Family Unity Meetings in Oregon: Report of Key Findings and the Challenges of Applying Them to a Large State Child Welfare Agency.

 

AUTHOR:    Rodgers, A.;  Rockhill, A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Portland State Univ., OR. Child Welfare Partnership.

 

SOURCE:    In: 1999 Family Group Decision Making National Roundtable and International Conference: Summary of Proceedings, Seattle, WA, May 12-14. American Humane Association, Englewood, CO. Children's Div., May 12-14, 1999;  p. 702

 

ABSTRACT:    Researchers from the Child Welfare Partnership at Portland State University analyzed the implementation of family unity meetings in Oregon to identify barriers to family involvement in decision-making and the benefits of holding a series of family unity meetings for each case. Participants in 26 meetings held between January 1998 and April 1999 were surveyed about their perceptions of the meeting process. Caseworkers, facilitators, and family members noted that there was little preparation of the family before the meeting. The families indicated that they would have liked to have received written information about the meeting process. Other barriers to family involvement include an inadequate level of information sharing, lack of understanding about who could be invited, domination of professionals during the meeting, and a sense of powerlessness. Respondents reported that families were more engaged in the meeting when they were involved in the invitation process and fully prepared, when a series of meetings were held, when they felt supported by their families and caseworkers, and when the meeting had a focused goal. Successful facilitation techniques included asking for family input before the meeting, advocating on behalf of the family for information and resources, encouraging professionals to use understandable terminology, and helping the family to develop a strategy for coping with conflict that might arise during the meeting. Follow-up meetings were rated as more productive than initial meetings. 7 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    family group conferences;  oregon;  program models;  statewide planning;  program evaluation;  decision making;  family centered services;  best practices

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.americanhumane.org

 

 

TITLE:    Assessing Outcomes in Child Welfare.

 

AUTHOR:    Stevens, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Portsmouth Univ., (United Kingdom).

 

SOURCE:    In: 1999 Family Group Decision Making National Roundtable and International Conference: Summary of Proceedings, Seattle, WA, May 12-14. American Humane Association, Englewood, CO. Children's Div., May 12-14, 1999;  p. 703

 

ABSTRACT:    This article reviews the differences between evaluations of outcomes in natural and social research and proposes a new method for assessing the results of social programs. The alternative approach considers the subjective nature of humans which cannot be factored into natural scientific research by studying the variations in how different participants in the process perceive events and relationships. The selection of a research method will depend on the goals of the evaluation to address causal relationships or to synthesize the experiences of participants. For example, the subjective approach will be more appropriate for tracking the empowerment of families because the meaning of empowerment is different for each family. Furthermore, subjectivist research can compare conflicting perspectives. 44 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    outcomes;  assessment;  evaluation methods;  program evaluation;  family group conferences;  research methodology;  models;  empowerment

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.americanhumane.org

 

 

TITLE:    Clinical Effects of Sexual Abuse of Children: A Melbourne Study.

 

AUTHOR:    Murnane, M.;  Peachey, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

SOURCE:    Presented at: The Restoration for Victims of Crime Conference, Melbourne, VIC (Australia), September 9-10, 1999. Australian Institute of Criminology, Cranberra, ACT (Australia)., September 1999;  p. 738

 

ABSTRACT:    This study examined the characteristics of 85 children who were sexually abused, the type of frequency of abuse, and the impact of the abuse. The children were referred to the Child Protection Unit at Monash Medical Centre in Australia.They ranged in age from 16 months to 16 years old. Sixty percent were younger than 9 years old. About 70 percent of the referrals were from police organizations. Almost all of the perpetrators were male and 8 percent of the offenders were younger than 9years old. Sixty-two percent of the abusers were relatives or friends of the child. Seventeen of the 85 children were abused by their biological father. The most common forms of abuse were digital penetration of the vulva or vagina, anal intercourse, and vulva-vaginal intercourse. More than half of the children were abused more than one time. The following effects were reported: sleep disorder; enuresis; excessive masturbation; withdrawal; and poor self-esteem. Although these behaviors decreased withtime, aggressive behavior increased. Approximately three-fourths of the 26 parents who were contacted about the effectiveness of treatment perceived the therapy to be average or above average. Many parents did not pursue counseling for the child becauseof family trauma following disclosure. 5 figures and 4 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    australia;  sequelae;  sexual abuse;  characteristics of abused;  characteristics of abuser;  forensic medicine;  therapeutic effectiveness;  child abuse research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Proceedings Paper

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.aic.gov.au/

 

 

TITLE:    Family Conflict and Child Adjustment: Evidence for a Cognitive-Contextual Model of Intergenerational Transmission.

 

AUTHOR:    Dadds, M. R.;  Atkinson, E.;  Turner, C.;  Blums, G. J.;  Lendich, B.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Family Psychology

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Griffith Univ., Brisbane, QLD (Australia).

 

SOURCE:    13(2): pp. 194-208;  American Psychological Association, Washington, DC., June 1999;  p. 757

 

ABSTRACT:    Three cohorts of 10- to 14-year old adolescents were sampled to obtain perceptions of their parents' conflict resolution styles, their own conflict resolution styles, and their behavioral adjustment, to test J. H. Grych and F. D. Fincham's (1990) cognitive contextual model of the relationship of marital conflict to child adjustment. As found previously, boys and girls were not exposed to different levels or types of interparental conflict, although boys tended to blame themselvesmore. Adolescents' reports of their own conflict resolution styles with siblings were clearly related to level and types of their more general adjustment levels. A series of regressions support Grych and Fincham's model for internalizing problems (and avoidant resolution style) in adolescents; only minimal support was found with externalizing problems (and attacking resolution style). Gender-specific patterns of intergenerational transmission of resolution styles were found and are discussed. 25 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    adjustment problems;  marital conflicts;  family violence;  child witnesses of family violence;  generational cycle of family violence;  conflict resolution;  family violence research;  sequelae

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.apa.org/

 

 

TITLE:    Child Rearing Perspectives of Grandparent Caregivers.

 

AUTHOR:    Osby, O.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Illinois Univ., Chicago. Jane Addams Coll. of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:    In: Gleason, J.; Hairston, C. F. (Editors). Kinship Care: Improving Practice Through Research. Child Welfare League of America, Washington, DC., 1999;  p. 776

 

ABSTRACT:    Ten grandparent kinship caregivers were interviewed for this study to examine the reasons for placement and the world views of grandparents who take on parenting responsibilities for their grandchildren. The ethnographic interview facilitated information-sharing about the grandparents' background, life experiences, child rearing beliefs, and values regarding family and home. Perceptions of the legal and child welfare systems and recommendations for reform were also solicited. Mostreported that they agreed to take care of their grandchild or great-grandchild because of the substance abuse or maltreatment behavior of the child's parents. Many of the grandparents had taken care of the child before. Some believed that their role in life was to care for children, while others resisted the responsibility. Few could name other relatives who could care for the children. Caregivers who did have support from family members were the most satisfied with their role. Other caregivers had no support from the family, friends, church, or community and felt very isolated. Many of the grandparents expressed frustration with the court process and the rights retained by the parents. Some felt that the rules and regulations for kinship care providers were too restrictive and that their parenting experience was not valued. This world view analysis can be used to inform assessment procedures, formulate a relevant service plan, and create innovative interventions. 13 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    kinship care;  grandparents;  child rearing;  parenting;  parental attitudes;  child welfare services;  family support systems;  case studies

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.cwla.org

 

 

TITLE:    Who Decides? Predicting Caseworkers' Adoption and Guardianship Discussions With Kinship Caregivers.

 

AUTHOR:    Gleeson, J. P.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Illinois Univ., Chicago. Jane Addams Coll. of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:    In: Gleason, J.; Hairston, C. F. (Editors). Kinship Care: Improving Practice Through Research. Child Welfare League of America, Washington, DC., 1999;  p. 779

 

ABSTRACT:    Data collected during the Achieving Permanency for Children in Kinship Foster Care project were analyzed for this study of the factors that influence caseworkers to discuss permanency options with kinship caregivers. Forty-one caseworkers were interviewed about 77 cases in which children in state custody were living in a kinship foster home. Most of the children qualified for the federal special needs adoption subsidy. Caseworkers were asked about the history of each case; permanency planning status; caseworker contact with biological parents, kinship care providers, and the child; services provided; supervision and consultation; and the caseworker's views of the situation. Independent variables included: caregiver age andmarital status; number of siblings of the child living in the kinship foster home; child age; number of years in kinship placement; caseworker's perception of assistance needed by the caregiver; and the presence of an adoption plan. Caseworkers reportedthat they discussed adoption with almost all of the kinship providers, except when reunification was imminent or when the caseworker believed that the caregiver needed the support of the child welfare system. Caseworkers were less likely to inform caregivers about private guardianship, especially when the kinship parents were caring for multiple children. This was attributed to the limitations on AFDC subsidies for legal guardians of multiple children. The policy implications of these findings arediscussed in the chapter. 24 references and 3 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    decision making;  adoption;  kinship care;  guardianship;  caseworkers;  predictor variables;  permanency planning;  subsidized guardianship

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.cwla.org

 

 

TITLE:    Remembering Trauma: A Characterological Perspective.

 

AUTHOR:    Piers, C. C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Austen Riggs Center, Stockbridge, MA.

 

SOURCE:    In: Williams, L. M. and Banyard, V. L. (Editors). Trauma and Memory. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., 1999;  pp. 57-65

 

ABSTRACT:    This chapter criticizes the current focus on dissociation and trauma in therapy and suggests that therapists also consider the character of the patient. It asserts that character, or the individual's perceptions and mannerisms, affects the way a person reacts and responds to trauma. While dissociation theory proposes that symptomatic behaviors are caused by reminders of past trauma that are stored in the patient's mind, the characterological framework attributes maladaptive symptoms to a conflicted character. Although trauma has an impact on development, specific responses to trauma depend on other factors, including the child's system for organizing experiences, as well as the developmental, family, and social environment. The chapter reviews the memory process and describes the typical presentations of patients with a history of trauma. Implications for therapeutic intervention are discussed. 36 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    memory;  trauma;  dissociation;  psychotherapy;  therapists role;  psychopathology;  psychological characteristics;  personality

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:    Subjects of Child Protective Investigations: Survey Results and Case Characteristics.

 

AUTHOR:    Hartley, S.;  Stutzman, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Florida State Office of Program Analysis and Government Accountability, Tallahassee.

 

SOURCE:    Florida State Office of Program Analysis and Government Accountabilty, Tallahassee, December 1998;  82 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:    This study examined how child abuse investigations conducted in Florida affected the ability of parents to control and discipline their child. Data were collected from a review of 600 closed cases and a survey of 203 parents investigated by the Department of Children and Families. The respondents were asked about their experience during the child protection investigation, their perceptions of the investigation process, the effects of the investigation on their parental authority and on child behavior, and their feelings about child protection and the Department of Children and Families. The majority of respondents indicated that the investigator listened to them, treated their family with courtesy, was fair and objective, and thoroughly explained the investigation process. However, less than half reported that they knew if their case was closed. Twenty-two percent of the parents noted that the investigation process had a positive effect on their parental authority, while 59 percent said that there was no impact on their ability to control their child. Child behavior changed in 39 percent of the families. Although almost all of the respondents believed that the state has a responsibility to protect children, only 46 percent thought that the investigation process focused on appropriate cases. Numerous figures and tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    investigations;  sequelae;  surveys;  family characteristics;  child behavior;  parental reactions;  discipline;  florida

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Technical Report

 

 

TITLE:    Maternal Factors Associated With Sexually Abused Children's Psychosocial Adjustment.

 

AUTHOR:    Deblinger, E.;  Steer, R.;  Lippmann, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Maltreatment

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Stratford. Center for Children's Support.

 

SOURCE:    4(1): pp. 13-20;  Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., February 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This article reports on the potential influence of maternal adjustment and parenting style on children's psychological adjustment following sexual abuse. Standardized parent and child self-report instruments were administered to 100 sexually abused children between ages 7 and 13 and their non-offending mothers. The results of a series of multiple regression analyses indicated that the maternal self-reported depression significantly contributed to the expression of both posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and parent-reported internalizing behavior problems in sexually abused children. Children's perceptions of their mothers' parenting style as rejecting rather than accepting contributed to the children's self-reported levels of depression. Children's perceptions of maternal use of guilt and anxiety-provoking parenting methods contributed to increased levels of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and parent-reported externalizing behavior problems. These findings are discussed in terms of their research and treatment implications. 2 tables; numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    mother child relationships;  depression;  sexual abuse;  maternal behavior;  posttraumatic stress disorder;  parenting skills;  self report inventories;  social adjustment

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:    Coping With Sexual Abuse: Development and Evaluation of a Videotape Intervention for Nonoffending Parents.

 

AUTHOR:    Jinich, S.;  Litrownik, A. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    California Univ., San Diego.

 

SOURCE:    23(2): pp. 175-190;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science, February 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This NCCAN-funded study was conducted to develop, apply, and evaluate a videotape intervention that targeted the development of supportive behaviors in mothers of children who were being examined because of suspected molestation; and to examine the relationship between mothers' reported responses to and beliefs about the molestation and their children's perception of support. Eighty-seven mothers who had children 4 to 12 years of age were recruited and randomly assigned to view either a treatment or control videotape during the time when their child was being examined. Observers who were blinded to this assignment observed and rated parent-child interactions in the waiting room prior to and again after the mothers viewed the videotape. One week after the brief intervention, 64 of the mothers and 30 of the children were interviewed. Mothers who viewed the treatment tape were more likely to engage in supportive behaviors with their child immediately after viewing the tape, and were able to identify more supportive behaviors at the 1-week follow-up. In addition, mothers' reports of how they responded to the molestation (including perceived blame) was related to child perceptions of parental support. The findings indicate that children who have been sexually molested are sensitive to the initial reactions of their nonoffending parent to the disclosure. In addition, there is some evidence that cost-effective interventions can be implemented during the early disclosure period. 21 references, 2 figures, and 3 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    sexual abuse;  intervention strategies;  nonabusive parents;  parent education;  parental reactions;  coping skills;  videotaping;  therapeutic effectiveness

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Male Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Qualitative Study and Issues for Clinical Consideration.

 

AUTHOR:    Gill, M.;  Tutty, L. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Sexual Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Calgary Counselling Centre, Alberta (Canada).

 

SOURCE:    7(3): pp. 19-33;  Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This qualitative study explored the effects of childhood sexual abuse with 10 adult male survivors. The men who participated in the research were largely motivated by their perception that North American society does not acknowledge the sexual abuse of boys. The non-acceptance of the sexual abuse of boys and social expectations of men as in control and aggressive significantly affected the sexual identity, as well as the emotional and sexual relationships, of the study participants as adults. The implications of these issues for clinical intervention are described. Therapists are advised to facilitate disclosure of abuse and the acknowledgement of the long-term effects of that abuse. Narrative therapy can be used to address cultural expectations of men and enhance self-esteem. Finally, relationship issues, including abusive behavior by the survivor, should be resolved as the survivor becomes more comfortable with his identity. 43 references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    adults abused as children;  male victims;  sexual abuse;  child abuse research;  sequelae;  qualitative research;  interviews;  emotional problems

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:    The Treatment Histories and Service Involvement of Physically and Sexually Abusive Families: Description, Correspondence, and Clinical Correlates.

 

AUTHOR:    Kolko, D. J.;  Selelyo, J.;  Brown, E. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Pittsburgh Univ. School of Medicine, PA. Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic.

 

SOURCE:    23(5): pp. 459-476;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science Ltd., May 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This NCCAN-funded study examines the treatment histories, and the service needs, concerns, and involvement of cases referred to Child Protective Services (CPS) following an allegation of child physical or sexual abuse in an effort to document their services experiences. Standardized clinical assessments were conducted with child victims and their caregivers at intake and at a second assessment following an initial service about 4 to 8 months later. Group differences due to informant type and abuse allegation were examined at each assessment and across time. Thirty percent of the caregivers and children had a history of psychiatric hospitalization. Reports from both informants at intake identified a range of perceived service needs, treatment goals, and obstacles to service participation. At the post- service assessment, children and their caregivers reported high rates of family (54 percent, 51 percent) and parent counseling (50 percent, 51 percent), and lower rates for child treatment (13 percent, 18 percent). Some significant differences between the two abuse subgroups were found in their patterns of service involvement and in their ratings of service goals and obstacles. Four variables predicted overall family service use at intake: child is Caucasian, low child anxiety, high parental distress, and parental abuse history as a child. These findings extend initial descriptions of the service involvement of CPS families and bear implications for both practice and research on the delivery of services in CPS. 52 references and 6 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    family services;  service delivery;  characteristics of abuser;  family characteristics;  psychological needs;  predictor variables;  child welfare research;  utilization

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Inappropriate Child Rearing Practices as Perceived by Jewish Immigrant Parents From the Former Societ Union.

 

AUTHOR:    Shor, R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Hebrew Univ., Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem (Israel). Paul Baerwald School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:    23(5): pp. 487-499;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science Ltd., May 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This study explored the perceptions of Jewish immigrant parents from the Former Soviet Union about appropriate and inappropriate child rearing practices and help seeking preferences in situations of children at risk. Interviews with 273 immigrant parents were conducted in Israel. A semi- structured questionnaire included seven vignettes which related to three areas of parental behaviors: lack of provision of child's needs; corporal punishment; and psychological punishment. In addition, open-ended questions were included about the participants' personal beliefs regarding the use of physical punishment towards children. The findings suggest a concrete and practical approach towards child rearing practices, support for the utilization of certain types of corporal and psychological punishment, consideration of the gender of the child regarding corporal punishment, a perception of children as self sufficient at a fairly young age, and a tendency not to cooperate with outsiders in situations of children at risk. Even though Jewish immigrants from the Former Soviet Union might be in a new country for several years, their background may still have a significant role in their child rearing practices and help seeking patterns. Awareness of their perceptions could provide information which is significant for the accurate assessment of situational abuse and neglect among the immigrants and for defining appropriate treatment objectives and means for achieving change. 24 references and 5 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    israel;  child rearing;  parental attitudes;  immigrants;  cultural values;  corporal punishment;  intervention strategies;  child welfare research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Juvenile Sex Abusers: Perceptions of Social Work Practitioners.

 

AUTHOR:    Ladwa-Thomas, U.;  Sanders, R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse Review

 

SOURCE:    8(1): pp. 55-62;  New York, NY, John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., January-February 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    Seven child protection social workers with previous experience of working with adolescent sex offenders were interviewed to explore their definitions of abusive behavior, views as to the causes of young people abusing others, social work intervention, and personal resources needed to work with young abusers. There were 11 cases recalled, involving work with 13 perpetrators, 12 male and 1 female. While the limitations of the retrospective and subjective nature of this approach and the study very small sample are appreciated, there is considerable value in reflecting on previous practice with the benefit of current knowledge. The final section of the paper discusses means of improving practice in working with adolescent sex offenders and child protection training. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:    adolescent sex offenders;  social workers;  sexually abusive children;  child protection;  professional training

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.wiley.com

 

 

TITLE:    Violent Families.

 

AUTHOR:    Sternberg, K. J.;  Lamb, M. E.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

 

SOURCE:    In: Lamb, M. E. (Editor). Parenting and Child Development in Nontraditional Families. Mahwah, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 1999;  pp. 305-325

 

ABSTRACT:    This chapter begins with a discussion of incidence and prevalence statistics concerning child maltreatment, spouse abuse, and their co-occurrence. This information underscores how many children are exposed to family violence and also shows how difficult it is to understand the phenomenon of family violence in its full complexity. Next, the authors review studies designed to compare parent-child interactions in violent and non-violent families. This section emphasizes research depicting children's perceptions of their parents and highlights the need to discriminate between perpetrating and non-perpetrating parents. The authors conclude that family violence is almost certainly harmful but professionals are only now becoming aware of the many faces of family violence, and this knowledge is forcing psychologists to begin addressing more complex questions about its effects on family functioning and child development. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:    spouse abuse;  parent child relationships;  family violence;  prevalence;  abusive parents;  perception;  child development

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.erlbaum.com

 

 

TITLE:    Familial Support as Perceived by Adult Victims of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:    Stroud, D. D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:    11(2): pp. 159-175;  New York, NY, Kluwer Academic-Plenum Publishers, April 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    With the increasing popularity of family therapies in cases of childhood sexual abuse, many studies have discussed the importance of familial support in the successful recovery of victims. Therefore, systematic study exploring family support of victims was undertaken to shed light on the level of family support perceived by adult victims of childhood sexual abuse. It was anticipated that victims of intrafamilial sexual abuse would report more family dissatisfaction and perceive less family support than extrafamilial victims. Sixty-six undergraduate students were recruited as subjects and administered a demographics and child sexual abuse survey. As hypothesized, intrafamilial victims reported significantly less father, parent, and brother support. Additionally, the gender of the victim played a significant role: male victims reported less father, parent and sister support, and less family protectiveness after disclosure compared to female victims. Based on the results, clinicians should be aware that issues of gender and relatedness may play a significant part in the effectiveness of their childhood sexual abuse clients' family support systems. An appendix provides the family support questionnaire used in the study. 4 tables and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    family therapy;  adults abused as children;  sexual abuse;  perception;  questionnaires;  victims;  family support systems

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.wkap.com

 

 

TITLE:    Pathways in the Offending Process of Extrafamilial Sexual Child Molesters.

 

AUTHOR:    Proulx, J.;  Perreault, C.;  Ouimet, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Montreal Univ., Quebec (Canada). School of Criminology.

 

SOURCE:    11(2): pp. 117-129;  New York, NY, Kluwer Academic-Plenum Publishers, April 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This study investigated specific pathways in the offending process of extrafamilial sexual child molesters. Forty-four Canadian men who had committed at least one sexual offense against a nonfamilial prepubescent child were included in this study and were classified using cluster analysis. Thirty subjects using the coercive pathway had generally used psychoactive substances before their offenses. Furthermore, they had sexually abused a female victim without perceived vulnerability and whom they had already known. These offenders had not planned their offense, which was of short duration (less than 15 minutes), and involved coital activities and coercion (verbal and/or physical). Fourteen subjects using the noncoercive pathway had generally used pornography and deviant sexual fantasies before their offenses. Moreover, they had molested a male victim, in whom they perceived a psychosocial vulnerability and who was not familiar to them. These molesters had planned their offense, which was of longer duration (more than 15 minutes) and involved noncoital activities without coercion. These 2 pathways were compared. 6 tables and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    sex offenders;  sexual abuse;  male victims;  female victims;  pornography;  canada

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.wkap.com

 

 

TITLE:    Dimensions of Marital Conflict and Children's Social Problem-Solving Skills.

 

AUTHOR:    Goodman, S. H.;  Barfoot, B.;  Frye, A. A.;  Belli, A. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Family Psychology

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:    13(1): pp. 33-45;  Washington, DC, American Psychological Association, Inc., March 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    Marital conflict has been shown to be negatively associated with child functioning. This study examined the relationships of negative and positive aspects of marital conflict and frequency of conflict with children's social problem-solving skills, as measured by effectiveness of alternative solutions. Mothers, fathers, and children reported on marital conflict. Instruments used to assess conflict included the Interparental Conflict Questionnaire, the Conflict Tactics Scale, the Marital Conflict Outcome Instrument, the Children's Perception of Interparental Conflict, and the Alternative Solutions Test. Mothers' higher negative conflict characteristics, in the context of greater frequency of conflict, and less frequent positive conflict characteristics, in the context of lower frequency of conflict, were significantly associated with their children's less effective social problem-solving solutions. For fathers, none of the negative but one of the positive conflict characteristics was significantly associated with their children's more effective social problem-solving solutions, regardless of the frequency of marital conflict. Children's perceptions of their parents' conflict were not significant predictors of their social problem-solving skills. Findings are interpreted in the framework of children's modeling aggressive conflict. 4 tables and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    problem solving;  marital conflicts;  conflict tactics scales;  social skills;  questionnaires

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.apa.org/

 

 

TITLE:    Services for Child Maltreatment: Challenges for Research and Practice.

 

AUTHOR:    Faver, C. A.;  Crawford, S. L.;  Combs-Orme, T.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Children and Youth Services Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Tennessee Univ., Knoxville. Coll. of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:    21(2): pp. 89-109;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science, Inc., February 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    With the shrinking funds for child welfare allocated primarily to investigation and foster care, prevention and treatment services for child abuse are increasingly nonexistent, inaccessible, or inappropriate. Prior research on help-seeking and service utilization has given scant attention to maltreating and at-risk families, who pose special challenges for service delivery for several reasons: maltreating families often do not recognize the development of problems in the parenting relationship; even if problems are recognized, the stigma associated with child maltreatment makes families reluctant to seek help; and service providers and client families often have different beliefs about what services are needed. A review of literature on help-seeking and service utilization among populations at risk, in light of the social context of child maltreatment, suggest that research to identify specific parental concerns is needed in order to link prevention and treatment services to other services devised to meet clients' perceived needs. In addition, longitudinal research is needed to focus on the effects of social networks on the use of formal services and on the links between utilization of formal and informal services. Numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    families at risk;  child welfare;  literature reviews;  direct service providers;  longitudinal studies;  worker client relationships;  parent child relationships

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Psychological Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on Male Inmates: The Importance of Perception.

 

AUTHOR:    Fondacaro, K. M.;  Holt, J. C.;  Powell, T. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Vermont Univ., Burlington. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:    23(4): pp. 361-369;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science, April 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This study examined the association between childhood sexual victimization and adult psychiatric disorders among male inmates. It further assessed the association between the perception of an event (as sexual abuse or not) and psychiatric diagnoses. A sample of 211 randomly-selected male inmates were interviewed. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule was used to assess psychiatric diagnoses. An additional questionnaire assessing childhood sexual abuse and perception of childhood sexual abuse was also administered. Forty percent of the inmates met standard criteria for childhood sexual abuse, which far exceeded rates found in the general population. Significant differences were found between inmates who had a history of childhood sexual abuse and those that did not for a variety of psychiatric diagnoses. Forty-one percent of those who met criteria for childhood sexual abuse did not consider themselves to have been abused. Those who did not consider themselves to have been abused had higher rates of alcohol abuse and dependence, while those who considered themselves to have been abused had higher rates of posttraumatic stress and obsessive-compulsive disorder. This study emphasizes the importance of perception or cognitive appraisal of the sexual experience (as abusive or not) and the need for further study regarding the potential mediating role of cognitive appraisal. Other implications of these findings include the need for primary prevention programs designed to reduce childhood sexual abuse, and inmate rehabilitation programs with an emphasis on the connection between victimization and criminality. 2 tables and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    sexual abuse;  imprisonment;  psychiatric diagnoses;  questionnaires;  posttraumatic stress disorder;  perception

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Effects of Parental Verbal Aggression on Children's Self-Esteem and School Marks.

 

AUTHOR:    Solomon, C. R.;  Serres, F.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Montreal Univ., Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:    23(4): pp. 339-351;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science, April 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This study distinguished the effects of verbal abuse from those of corporal punishment and investigated whether parental verbal violence had negative effects on children's self-esteem and academic achievements. One hundred and forty-four 10-year old French Canadian children completed the Harter Self-perception Profile for Children questionnaire and a questionnaire concerning their mothers' and fathers' verbal aggression towards them and their use of physical punishment. The researchers used school records to obtain subjects' marks in French and mathematics. Six children had never been the targets of either verbal aggression or physical punishment. Thirty-four children had been subjected to both types of aggression. Verbal aggression alone was found to be in significant negative correlation with 3 of 6 components of self-esteem. Verbal aggression alone was found to be in significant negative correlation with French marks. In addition children who had been subject to greater verbal aggression had lower self-esteem and lower marks in French than children who had been subject to lesser verbal aggression. They were also significantly negatively affected in a fourth component of self-esteem. Parental verbal aggression alone as separate and distinct from physical punishment contributes to lowering children's self-esteem and school achievements. Given the extent of the use of verbal aggression by ordinary parents the authors suggested a need for parent education on the topic of positive methods of child rearing. The questionnaire that concerned the childrens' mothers and fathers aggression towards them is included in the appendix. 3 tables and numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:    verbal abuse;  corporal punishment;  canada;  questionnaires;  school children;  self esteem;  academic achievement;  parent education

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Characteristics of Children Who Experience Positive or Negative Reactions to a Sexual Abuse Prevention Program.

 

AUTHOR:    Casper, R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Sexual Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Dept. of Social Psychology.

 

SOURCE:    7(4): pp. 97-112;  Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This study evaluated a sexual abuse prevention classroom program to identify characteristics of children who benefitted from the program or became afraid of unwanted touch. Utilizing a pre- and post-test design, 542 second through sixth grade students completed measures including abuse-related knowledge, locus of control, and anxiety. Knowledge increased; age, lower anxiety, and an internal locus of control were positively associated with higher scores after participating in the program. Prior exposure to the program resulted in higher knowledge scores. Children whose parents had talked with them about sexual abuse actually learned more, perceived the program as more effective, and were less worried about sexual abuse occurring, as compared to those children whose parents had not talked with them. Further analyses identified those characteristics associated with children reporting that they benefited from the program or became more afraid after participating in the program. Such findings will enable parents and school personnel to take preventive measures to minimize negative impact and maximize learning. 8 tables and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    program evaluation;  prevention programs;  fear;  school children;  anxiety;  learning;  sexual abuse

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:    Perceptions of Couple Functioning Among Female Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:    DiLillo, D.;  Long, P. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Sexual Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:    7(4): pp. 59-76;  Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    A sample of 51 college women retrospectively reporting a history of childhood sexual abuse and 91 women failing to report such a history was examined in order to investigate the relationship between victimization history and survivors' self-reports of functioning in adult intimate relationships. Specifically, relationship satisfaction, communication, and trust were examined in heterosexual relationships of at least 6 months' duration. As hypothesized, even when demographic differences between groups were controlled, survivors reported significantly less relationship satisfaction, poorer communication, and lower levels of trust in their partners than did women with no history of sexual abuse. The implications of these results are discussed with regard to clinical applications and future research. Numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    sexual abuse;  husband wife relationships;  adults abused as children;  child abuse history;  communication;  partners of abused adults

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:    Psychosocial Resources and Academic Performance in Abused Children.

 

AUTHOR:    Kinard, E. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Children and Youth Services Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    New Hampshire Univ., Durham. Family Research Lab.

 

SOURCE:    21(5): pp. 351-376;  New York, NY, Pergamon, May 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    Using the stress-social support-functioning model and the social network model of child development, this paper examined the impact of child abuse, maternal perceived social support, competence, depression, child perceived social support, and sociodemographic characteristics on child academic functioning. The sample consisted of 165 abused children and their mothers and a matched comparison group of 169 nonabused children and their mothers. Mothers and children were interviewed at 2 points, 1 year apart, and the children were between the ages of 7 and 11 years old at the time of the first interview. At time 1, lower achievement test scores were significantly predicted by abuse, lower perceived support from mothers, lower maternal education, male gender, and younger age. At time 2, abuse significantly predicted lower achievement scores on 2 of the 3 subtests even after controlling for time 1 scores. Abused children had lower grades in academic subjects, more days absent, more placements in special education programs, more retention in grade, and more school problems than did nonabused children. These findings held after controlling for maternal education, maternal employment, and child gender. An appendix provides the variables and coding scales used in the study questionnaires. 5 tables and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    academic achievement;  child development;  depression;  maternal behavior;  school children;  support systems;  interviews

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Can You Forgive Her?: Legal Ambivalence Toward Infanticide.

 

AUTHOR:    Lewicki, K.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Southern California Interdisciplinary Law Journal

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University of Southern California, Los Angeles. Gould School of Law.

 

SOURCE:    8(2): pp. 683-710;  University of Southern California, Los Angeles. Gould School of Law, Spring 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This article compares infanticide trials in the 1600s and 1700s to the present time to illustrate the impact of social beliefs about women on the outcomes of legal proceedings. Throughout history, women who kill their children have been viewed as a threat to male control, family stability, and community image. The article summarizes news items reported during the late 1600s and early 1700s in the Old Bailey Sessions Papers, a sensationalist publication that described the alleged crimes and the verdicts of the British court. An analysis of the news stories reveals the evolution of the treatment of women in court, from automatic conviction and execution to consideration of the defendant's testimony and possible acquittal. During the 1600s, unmarried women who gave birth alone and whose child died were almost always judged to be guilty of infanticide. Two defenses were usually successful: that the woman had purchased or made linen in preparation for the baby's birth and that she was not able to obtain assistance with the delivery of the child. These defenses changed trial procedures to facilitate narrative testimony by the defendant. The article explains how court procedures and the attitudes of society changed during the study period. The inter-relationship between infanticide and perceptions of community responsibility is emphasized.

 

KEY TERMS:    historical perspective;  infanticide;  social attitudes;  social values;  england;  mothers;  prosecution;  legal processes

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Worker Judgements of Seriousness About and Reporting of Suspected Child Maltreatment.

 

AUTHOR:    Ashton, V.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    New York City Univ., Jamaica. York Coll. Dept. of Social Sciences.

 

SOURCE:    23(6): pp. 539-548;  New York, NY, Pergamon Press, June 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This study examined the relationship between judgements about the seriousness of incidents of suspected maltreatment and the reporting of those incidents. Eighty-six graduate social work students were given 12 vignettes depicting problematic parental behaviors. Students were asked to rate each vignette according to how serious they perceived the parental behavior to be with 1 being not serious and 7 being very serious. Students were also asked to indicate whether or not they would report the incident to child protective services. Data were analyzed by case and by individual. All 12 vignettes were serious with mean incident ratings ranging from a low of 6.0 to a high of 6.9. However, not all incidents were reported with similar frequency. Only incidents that were collectively very serious were reported by nearly all respondents. Among worker characteristics, the worker's judgement of seriousness was the only predictor of reporting. The results suggest that beginning human service workers are unsure of their legal responsibility to report suspected maltreatment. The results also point to a need for closer collaboration between mandated reporters and child protective services. 44 references and 2 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    child abuse reporting;  social workers attitudes;  social workers responsibility;  child welfare research;  decision making;  assessment;  mandatory reporting

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Funding Realities: Child Abuse Diagnostic Evaluations in the Health Care Setting.

 

AUTHOR:    Giardino, A. P.;  Montoya, L. A.;  Richardson, A. C.;  Leventhal, J. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Pennsylvania Univ. School of Medicine, Philadelphia. Dept. of Pediatrics.

 

SOURCE:    23(6): pp. 531-538;  New York, NY, Pergamon Press, June 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This study examines staffing, funding sources, reimbursement, and financing of medically-oriented child protection teams. A 16-item questionnaire on the composition, size, and services of the team, program costs, revenue sources, reimbursement rates, and perceptions of funding stability was mailed to a sample of 118 medically-oriented child protection teams. After excluding 10 programs, an overall response rate of 68 percent was obtained. Teams varied in configuration, services, charges, and funding. Over 50 percent identified funding as being important, yet demonstrated varying levels of awareness of budget and reimbursement issues. Many generally relied on patient care reimbursement from health care and government payers. Some programs seemed to be doing well financially while others were struggling. Approximately one-third of the respondents indicated that funding was unstable. Many programs are innovatively knitting together patch-works of funding and support to serve children and families in need. Team leaders should increase their knowledge of fiscal issues in order to be effective advocates at the institutional level for continued team support. A potential way of accomplishing this would be to utilize the existing structure of a national professional association and its national meeting to provide a forum for relatively successful programs to showcase their ideal models of team financing. 23 references and 1 table. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    child abuse;  diagnoses;  multidisciplinary teams;  child protective services;  health personnel;  funding;  insurance;  program administration

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Culture-Specific Views of Child Maltreatment and Parenting Styles in a Pacific-Island Community.

 

AUTHOR:    Collier, A. F.;  McClure, F. H.;  Collier, J.;  Otto, C.;  Polloi, A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Ministry of Health, Republic of Palau.

 

SOURCE:    23(3): pp. 239-244;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science, Ltd., 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This article discusses findings from a study that was undertaken to assess how teachers in the Republic of Palau perceived the severity of potentially abusive incidents and what types of recommendations, if any, they would have for situations judged as severely abusive. Study participants included 141 teachers that were given: (1) a questionnaire consisting of 25 vignettes describing parent/child interactions that were potentially abusive and asked to rate the severity of abuse and recommended interventions for each vignette; and (2) a 40-item parenting styles questionnaire to evaluate attitudes about child-rearing practices. Teachers identified and recommended interventions for more severe forms of abuse at rates similar to other international samples. For less severe parental misconduct, teachers were reluctant to involve nonfamily and outside agencies. Sexual abuse was rated as the most serious type of abuse and when identified, intervention was highly recommended. Some traditional Palauan parenting practices that might be considered maltreatment by other cultures were not considered abusive. For parenting styles, older individuals were more likely to use guilt induction and less likely to use methods of acceptance. Aggressive disciplinary styles were less likely to perceive abusive situations as harmful. The results indicate that cultural values and practices play important roles in shaping the definition and interpretation of child maltreatment. 22 references and 6 tables. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    ethnic studies;  questionnaires;  perception;  sexual abuse;  cultural competency;  cultural values;  teachers

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Measuring the Turbulence of English Children's Homes.

 

AUTHOR:    Sinclair, I.;  Gibbs, I.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Children and Youth Services Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    York Univ., (United Kingdom).

 

SOURCE:    21(1): pp. 57-74;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science, Inc., January 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This article describes a study of 48 residential treatment homes in England designed to measure the turbulence of the homes. Wide variations in the way the homes were perceived by their residents and staff and the degree in which their residents ran away or got into trouble with the police is presented. Three main hypotheses providing the basis of the concept of turbulence are outlined. Methods used to test the hypotheses are discussed. Multivariate analysis suggests that the differences in behavior between homes were not fully explained by intake and provided a measure of the degree to which residents in a home were behaving in a more delinquent manner than might be expected. The measure was associated with the way staff and residents perceived the home and both perceptions and behavior were included in the overall measure of the home's turbulence. Results pointing toward development of a comprehensive theory that can explain behavior interconnections in residential treatment settings is presented. 6 tables, 2 vignettes, 23 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    residential treatment;  children;  behavior patterns;  england;  perception

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    The Discovery Process.

 

AUTHOR:    Yager, J.;  Knight, L.;  Arnold, L.;  Kempe, R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Denver Children's Home, CO.

 

SOURCE:    In: Ryan, G.; Lindstrom, B. R.; Indart, G.; Yager, J.; et al. (Editors). Web of Meaning: A Developmental-Contextual Approach in Sexual Abuse Treatment. Brandon, VT, Safer Society Press, 1999;  pp. 68-92

 

ABSTRACT:    This chapter explores treatment issues for childhood sexual abuse victims. It describes the search for the developmental-conceptual framework that enables the therapist to reflect an empathic understanding of the significance of the sexual abuse for the client. The authors refer to this therapeutic search as the process of discovery. The process is first described in terms relevant to older children, adolescents, and adults who are active and verbal partners in the therapeutic process; the implications for younger or less verbal clients are discussed later. The developmental history of an individual influences how he or she perceives and makes sense of abuse. These perceptions and beliefs profoundly influence subsequent life experiences and directly affect the course of treatment, during which the therapist is evaluating and assigning meaning to the client's behavior. The chapter discusses the interaction between the client and the therapist. The client's experience of the interaction will either facilitate or block the discovery process of past abuse. As the client reveals his or her world within the therapeutic relationship, the therapist uses empathic responses while listening and organizing data. Case studies are used to illustrate how a matrix incorporating sexual abuse in the context of a whole life experience can be used to guide the therapeutic process. The chapter concludes that all therapeutic work must be done through the medium of the relationship between therapist and client. With children, the relationship the therapist offers may become very important over time, as what the therapist can offer in terms of safety, trustworthiness, and empathy becomes more apparent. 2 tables and numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:    sexual abuse;  development;  victimization;  therapists;  therapists role;  perception;  therapeutic environment

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.safersociety.org

 

 

TITLE:    The Experience and Effect of Sexual Abuse and Trauma.

 

AUTHOR:    Indart, G.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

SOURCE:    In: Ryan, G.; Lindstrom, B. R.; Indart, G.; Yager, J.; et al. (Editors). Web of Meaning: A Developmental-Contextual Approach in Sexual Abuse Treatment. Brandon, VT, Safer Society Press, 1999;  pp. 49-67

 

ABSTRACT:    This chapter begins with a theoretical discussion of defining trauma. Two types of traumas are described. Type 1 traumas are conditions that follow an unexpected unanticipated external blow. Children experiencing type 1 traumas show no impairment in their ability to retrieve detailed and full memories of the incident. Type 2 traumas are the conditions that follow longstanding or repeated exposure to traumatic events. The repeatedly abused and traumatized child often seen in long-term residential care exhibits the effects of type 2 trauma. These children have constructed and internalized a negative working model of themselves and the world prior to the sexual abuse experience, considering themselves as unworthy and unlovable and others as unresponsive and unreliable. The injuries inflicted to their self-development may have been profound and chronic from early in life or may have been acute events that arrested or distorted normative developmental tasks. For these children, the experience of sexual abuse may further reinforce and compound their negative view of self and others. Next, the author explores the impact of sexual abuse, the behavioral manifestations and sequelae of sexual abuse, and describes the ways that victims of sexual abuse attempt to cope with this experience. Defense mechanisms and their accompanying behavioral manifestations are normal, adaptive human responses to stress, designed to ensure psychological survival. Victims use defenses in an attempt to alleviate the stress of feeling vulnerable and to regain a sense of control following experiences perceived as overwhelming and uncontrollable. These defenses, along with their behavioral manifestations, serve as a protective barrier against feeling vulnerable and out of control. The patterns become dysfunctional only when the behavior is abusive or the stressor is not resolved. Case studies exemplify the ideas conveyed in the chapter. 1 table, 1 figure, and numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:    trauma;  sexual abuse;  victimization;  sequelae;  coping skills;  child development;  self defense;  case studies

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.safersociety.org

 

 

TITLE:    Attachment, Separation, and Abuse Outcomes: Influence of Early Life Experience and the Family of Origin.

 

AUTHOR:    Lindstrom, B. R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Namaqua Center, Loveland, CO.

 

SOURCE:    In: Ryan, G.; Lindstrom, B. R.; Indart, G.; Yager, J.; et al. (Editors). Web of Meaning: A Developmental-Contextual Approach in Sexual Abuse Treatment. Brandon, VT, Safer Society Press, 1999;  pp. 32-48

 

ABSTRACT:    This chapter focuses on understanding each child's attachment history and subsequent developmental pathways to provide a theoretical model for a developmental understanding of the unique impact and differential outcomes of childhood sexual abuse. The author hypothesized that the quality of the child's early attachments would be a primary determinant of the developing sense of self and others. The internalization (or internal representation) of primary attachment relationships becomes the basis for the child's unique view of the world and understanding of later life experiences and relationships--including the experience of sexual victimization. Variables that might affect the quality of attachment relationships in the first few years of life and the coping styles evident in the child's role models seemed particularly relevant. These variables include the following: endowment, family of origin, and early childhood experiences. Attachment is the result of an interaction among what the child brings to his or her earliest relationships (endowment), what the caretakers bring to these relationships (family of origin), and the quality of subsequent experiences (early childhood experience). Each of these factors influence and is influenced by the child's attempts to master the developmental tasks of infancy and early childhood, including the development of basic trust, personal competence, and autonomy. The child's negotiation of these early developmental steps is likely to influence the ability to cope with subsequent life experiences or traumas. In particular, the child's perception of the abuse as congruent or dystonic with his or her former view of self and of the world and the models of coping available to the child appear to be critical issues in the treatment process and outcomes. 1 table and numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:    sexual abuse;  outcomes;  attachment;  child development;  attachment behavior;  family relationships

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.safersociety.org

 

 

TITLE:    Developing a Contextual Matrix.

 

AUTHOR:    Ryan, G.;  Bilbrey, C.;  Dick, J.;  Fuente, T. et al.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Colorado Univ., Denver. Kempe Children's Center.

 

SOURCE:    In: Ryan, G.; Lindstrom, B. R.; Indart, G.; Yager, J.; et al. (Editors). Web of Meaning: A Developmental-Contextual Approach in Sexual Abuse Treatment. Brandon, VT, Safer Society Press, 1999;  pp. 19-31

 

ABSTRACT:    This chapter describes the development of a contextual matrix used for differential outcomes for victims of childhood sexual abuse. The authors divided the experience of sexual abuse into these variables: experience of sexual abuse, disclosure, outcomes, and long-term outcomes. The authors make the case that each sexual abuse victim has had a unique experience and they hypothesized which variables in the child, the family, and the prior life experience might be most relevant and influential in shaping how the child perceives and accommodates sexual abuse in the context of his or her view of the world. Many of these variables were drawn from the experiences of clinicians treating adolescents and adults, looking retrospectively at risk factors and protective factors. The authors finalized the matrix by including early life factors and thus it became a map to plot different developmental pathways that traverse (rather than begin with) the experience of sexual abuse. Using this contextual view supports a more personal and holistic approach to child victims. Although victims may share common issues, the ways they manage and interpret those issues cannot by assumed. The authors argue that clinicians must put aside personal bias and be open to explore the meaning of sexual victimization in the context of the client's life experience. 3 tables and numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:    sexual abuse;  outcomes;  victimization;  risk factors;  disclosure;  development;  models

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.safersociety.org

 

 

TITLE:    Does Resolution of Interadult Conflict Ameliorate Children's Anger and Distress Across Covert, Verbal, and Physical Disputes?

 

AUTHOR:    Reiter, S. L.;  El-Sheikh, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Emotional Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Cleveland Clinic Foundation, OH.

 

SOURCE:    1(3): pp. 1-21;  Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    Children's emotional responses to interadult arguments were examined in an effort to explicate the role of resolution of conflict in influencing children's responding across covert (such as silent treatment), verbal, and physical forms of disputes and aggression. Sixty 4 to 7 year-olds viewed videotaped segments of arguments between a male and female and were then interviewed. Across covert, verbal, and physical disputes, children perceived the actors as more angry, and reported experiencing more negative affect and less happy emotions during unresolved versus resolved arguments. Further, resolution ameliorated children's reports of feeling: sad during covert arguments, angry and fearful during verbal conflict, and angry and sad during physical disputes. Results extend findings regarding the ameliorative effects of resolution of verbal conflict on children's distress and anger to the contexts of covert and physical interadult disputes. 3 tables and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    anger;  aggression;  fear;  marital conflicts;  family violence;  emotions

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:    Parenting Behaviors and Perceived Parenting Competence of Child Sexual Abuse Survivors.

 

AUTHOR:    Zuravin, S. J.;  Fontanella, C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Maryland Univ., Baltimore. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:    23(7): pp. 623-632;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science Ltd., July 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This paper reports data testing 2 alternative hypotheses: the relationship between child sexual abuse and subsequent parenting attitudes and behaviors is a function of the third variable, growing up experiences other than child sexual abuse; and maternal depression mediates the relationship between child sexual abuse and the same parenting variables. The study was a retrospective survey of 516 very low-income, urban mothers. Parenting was assessed with 3 measures: the parenting competence scale and the verbal and severe violence subscales of the conflict tactics scale. Findings for 2 of the dependent variables, perceived parenting competence and severe violence, supported the third variable hypothesis. The mediational hypothesis was not supported for any of the parenting indicators. The variables that figured prominently in accounting for the parenting outcomes were 3 growing up experiences, being physically neglected during the growing up years increased the likelihood of poor parenting outcomes while perceived parental support and being physically abused decreased the likelihood of such outcomes. Findings regarding the third variable hypothesis are discrepant from those of one earlier study that tested this hypothesis, suggesting that before conclusions can be drawn regarding the effect of child sexual abuse on parenting, further research is needed. 3 tables and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    sexual abuse;  parental attitudes;  parenting skills;  adults abused as children;  depression;  conflict tactics scales;  outcomes;  maternal behavior

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Predictors of Parents' Physical Disciplinary Practices.

 

AUTHOR:    Rodriguez, C. M.;  Sutherland, D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Arizona State Univ. West, Phoenix. Dept. of Social and Behavioral Sciences.

 

SOURCE:    23(7): pp. 651-657;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science Ltd., July 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This study examined how childhood history of discipline related to ratings of how severe and typical punishments were; and predicted parents' use of discipline techniques. The influence of child culpability on these ratings was also investigated. Ninety-nine New Zealand parents rated 12 physical discipline scenarios varying in discipline severity and perceived child culpability. Parents judged how severe and typical they considered the disciplines depicted in the scenarios and reported on how often they had experienced such discipline as children and how often they had used them with their own children. When the child was perceived to be at fault, parents rated the discipline depicted as less severe, considered the technique more typical, reported they had been similarly disciplined more frequently, and applied such discipline to their child more frequently. Childhood history of a discipline was related to the parent's use of that method, and the parents judged techniques they used with their own children as less severe and more typical of methods of discipline. History of discipline and severity judgments were the best predictors of parents' disciplinary practices. Although the findings support the cycle of violence history, more complex potential pathways to abusive parenting, including the variables in this study, are proposed. 2 tables and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    new zealand;  corporal punishment;  discipline;  predictor variables;  punishment;  physical abuse;  generational cycle of family violence;  family violence history

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Concept-Mapping the Challenges Faced by Foster Parents.

 

AUTHOR:    Brown, J.;  Calder, P.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Children and Youth Services Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Alberta Univ., Edmonton, (Canada). Dept. of Educational Psychology.

 

SOURCE:    21(6): pp. 481-495;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science, June 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This study describes the challenges faced by foster parents. Forty-nine individuals from 30 foster families were asked to describe their challenges in response to the question of what would make them consider stopping foster parenting. Responses to this question were subjected to non-parametric statistical thematic analysis that yielded 4 themes. The first theme described the challenges of working with the staff of child welfare services. The second theme described challenges related to indications that foster parents perceived about their work having low value in the perception of others, especially child welfare services. The third theme was descriptive of threats to family and personal safety, including physical, emotional, and legal. The fourth theme described personal, familial, and stress-related challenges that could cause thoughts of quitting foster parenting. These themes were consistent with the empirical literature. The results of this study lend credibility to the existing literature on the challenges faced by foster parents. There is a basis of knowledge to address major challenges faced by foster parents despite the clear presence of significant difficulties with the retention of foster parents, foster care drift, and concerns about the safety of children in the care of child welfare services. 1 table, 1 figure, and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    foster parents;  child welfare workers;  child welfare services;  statistical analysis;  stress;  personal safety;  foster care workers

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.elsevier.com

 

 

TITLE:    I Never Told Anyone This Before: Managing the Initial Disclosure of Sexual Abuse Re-Collections.

 

AUTHOR:    Gasker, J. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

SOURCE:    Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1999;  180 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:    This book provides guidelines for responding ethically and therapeutically to memories of sexual abuse disclosed by clients. The text explains how to create an appropriate environment for traumatic memories while avoiding actions that could be perceived as generating false memories. Theoretical perspectives of memory and sexual abuse are reviewed and terminology that is client-centered and empirically-based is proposed. Strategies for integrating traumatic incidents into the life story of clients and validating abuse recollections are described in the group context. Other chapters outline the elements of effective therapy and examine the special considerations of working with people from rural areas, homosexuals or bisexuals, and senior citizens. Examples of the disclosure process and therapeutic response are provided throughout the book. Numerous references, 4 figures, and 3 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    sexual abuse;  disclosure;  memory;  therapists role;  therapists responsibility;  false memory syndrome;  best practices;  intervention strategies

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:    Use of Physical Force as an Offense Characteristic in Subtyping Juvenile Sexual Offenders.

 

AUTHOR:    Butz, C.;  Spaccarelli, S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Illinois Univ., Chicago. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:    11(3): pp. 217-232;  New York, NY, Kluwer Academic Plenum Publishers, July 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    Juvenile sexual offenders were grouped based on whether they had ever used physical force or threats of force to commit an offense using self-reports on the Multiphasic Sex Inventory (MSI) and clinical records review. Subjects were 101 male offenders, 12 to 19 years, residing at a residential treatment facility. Cross-tabulation of self-report and records review were done to define three groups of offenders: rapists (i.e., those who used force); nonrapists; and deniers. These three groups were compared using the MSI and Nesness on other variables assessing offense patterns, sexual deviance, delinquent attitudes, perceived social competence, and offense- related cognitions. Rapists reported significantly more sexual assault fantasy-predatory behavior, greater preoccupation with children, and more paraphilias than did nonrapists and deniers. In comparison to deniers, rapists also reported more obsessive thinking about sex, and a greater willingness to participate in treatment. These findings are discussed with a focus on the apparent validity and usefulness of subtyping juvenile offenders based on whether or not they have used physical force or threats of force in committing a sexual offense. 24 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    sex offenders;  adolescent sex offenders;  characteristics of abuser;  sexual assault;  physical abuse;  rape;  sexual deviations;  child abuse research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.wkap.com

 

 

TITLE:    A Multi-Dimensional Approach to Evaluating Family Preservation Programs.

 

AUTHOR:    Ford, C. A.;  Okojie, F. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Family Preservation Journal

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Jackson State Univ., MS.

 

SOURCE:    4(1): pp. 31-60;  Dubuque, IA, Eddie Bowers Publishing, Inc., 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This study evaluates the effectiveness of family preservation programs funded by the Mississippi Department of Human Services. The 18 family preservation programs throughout Mississippi consisted of services that were designed from a culturally competent delivery system, client-driven, built on client strengths, rendered by both family preservation and family support programs, and stressed flexibility and creativity. This venture encompassed scrutiny and assessment of improvements in child functioning, positive changes in parental functioning and family functioning, and the decrease in foster care placement. Further, this evaluation assessed client and staff satisfaction. Two hundred and thirty seven clients were randomly selected from the total population of 1,691. The reason for referral for the majority of clients was parenting, counseling, or GED preparation. The evaluation also included an assessment of the perceived impact this program had on the community. Results indicate that the family preservation programs were effective in improving the self-esteem of participants, family cohesion, and adaptability. There were no significant changes in child placement, adolescent births, or abuse rates. Client and staff satisfaction were high on all quality dimensions. The majority of the sample of community members felt that the family preservation programs were effective in the community. 12 tables, 9 figures, and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    mississippi;  family preservation;  program evaluation;  cultural competency;  family services;  community attitudes

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Map and Track: State Initiatives to Encourage Responsible Fatherhood.

 

AUTHOR:    Bernard, S.;  Knitzer, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    National Center for Children in Poverty, New York, NY.

 

SOURCE:    1999 Edition. National Center for Children in Poverty, New York, NY., 1999;  216 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:    This 1999 report on State programs to encourage responsible fatherhood is organized into 5 chapters and provides 2 sets of information. National and State-by-State indicators give a profile of fathers and fatherhood in each State, examining such indicators as family structure, employment, educational attainment, poverty status, and State activity in collecting child support. The other set of information provides aggregate and State-by-State information on the policies and practices regarding responsible fatherhood. The introduction of the report gives a societal view of fatherhood and describes the process by which public perception can change regarding responsible fatherhood. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the framework and the methods used to collect the data of the report. Chapter 2 provides demographic findings and offers a qualitative look at the changing face of fatherhood nationally, highlighting particular subgroups of fathers. Chapter 3 summarizes the program and policy information gathered from the States and explores a set of emerging issues. Chapter 4 focuses on profiles of 3 States, 1 county, and 1 city providing leadership with fatherhood initiatives that reflect attention to a range of fathers and both the economic and nurturing aspects of fatherhood. The last chapter profiles individual States and gives a State-by-State overview of policies and initiatives reported by them. 8 appendices, and numerous figures, sidebars, and references.

 

KEY TERMS:    fathers;  father child relationships;  state programs;  policy formation;  indicators;  poverty

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://cpmcnet.columbia.edu/dept/nccp/

 

 

TITLE:    Grandmothers Providing Care for Grandchildren: Consequences of Various Levels of Caregiving.

 

AUTHOR:    Bowers, B F.;  Myers, B. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Family Relations

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Centre Coll., Danville, KY.

 

SOURCE:    48(3): pp. 303-311;  National Council on Family Relations, Minneapolis, MN, July 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This article explores the differences between grandmothers who provide different levels of caretaking for a grandchild. One-hundred and one grandmothers participated in the study. Twenty-three provided full time care for a grandchild; 33 provided part-time care for a grandchild; and 45 visited a grandchild regularly but had no caretaking responsibilities for that grandchild. Grandmothers completed an 8-part questionnaire. The components included the Child Behavior Checklist, a standardized measure of the number of behavior problems in children; the Zarit Burden Interview, a measure of caretaker burden in grandmothers providing full- or part-time care for their children; the Satisfaction with Grandparenting scale, used to assess the grandmothers' satisfaction with grandparenting; the Parenting Stress Index, used to measure stress with the grandmother-grandchild relationship for full- and part-time caretaking grandmothers; the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List, used to assess grandmothers' perceived availability of social resources; and the Life Satisfaction Index A, used to assess the respondent's overall feelings of being satisfied with her life. Results showed that the grandchild's behavior problems made the largest impact on the grandmother, increasing her feelings of burden and parenting stress and decreasing her grandparenting satisfaction. In addition, full-time caretaking grandmothers experienced more burden and parenting stress and less grandparenting satisfaction than part-time caretaking grandmothers. Full-time caretaking grandmothers also reported less life satisfaction than other grandmothers in the study. An area that deserves attention in future studies is how the relationship with the adult child, the grandchild's parent, influences the stress, burden, and satisfaction associated with full-time caretaking. 4 tables and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    caretakers;  grandparents;  parental stress;  psychological stress;  behavior problems;  questionnaires;  behavior rating scales

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.ncfr.com

 

 

TITLE:    Massachusetts Court Order Separating Siblings Raises Questions About Child's Best Interests..

 

AUTHOR:    Melina, L. R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Adopted Child

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Adopted Child, Moscow, ID.

 

SOURCE:    18(2): pp. 1-4;  Adopted Child, Moscow, ID, February 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This article describes a contested adoption case in which a foster mother sought to adopt two siblings. The events of the case are reviewed in detail: two siblings, Hugo and Gloria, cared for by the same foster mother, Enid, were separated when the boy's biologic father sought a hearing to award custody of Hugo--younger than his sister by two years--to the boy's biologic aunt. The Department of Social Services (DSS), and hence, the foster mother, were granted temporary custody during the hearings, until the judge decided that placement with the boy's aunt was in the child's best interests. The judge's decision created an open adoption. The decision was upheld upon appeal to the State Supreme Court, and Hugo was sent to live with his aunt during the process of appeal to the US Supreme Court. The article explores the reasons for this series of decisions and events, and focuses on the perceptions and motivations of those involved. For instance, it is suggested that foster parenting is generally less respected than adoption, and that the judge's opinion may have been swayed by a perceived class difference between the aunt and the foster mother. Also, once cases go to court, the process becomes unnecessarily adversarial. An ethics-based initiative is being developed at the Evan B. Donaldson Adoption Institute to understand underlying values in adoption practice and determine how they can influence decisions. The project may provide tools, models, or protocols to help practitioners and courts as they struggle with difficult cases like this one.

 

KEY TERMS:    siblings;  kinship adoption;  best interests of the child;  contested adoption;  court improvement projects;  ethics

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.raisingadoptedchildren.com

 

 

TITLE:    Adopting Parenthood: An Enduring Transformation Marking Identity and Intimacy Capacities.

 

AUTHOR:    Shahmoon-Shanok, R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Zero to Three

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Jewish Board of Family and Children's Services, New York, NY. Institute for Clinical Studies of Infants, Toddlers and Parents.

 

SOURCE:    19(4): pp. 32-36;  National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families, Washington, DC, February-March 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This article examines the turning points prospective adoptive parents experience in reaching the decision to adopt, focusing particularly on identity and intimacy. As part of a larger study to explore the impact of prospective parenthood on mothers' and couples' identity and intimacy processes, ten adoptive women--all middle class, educated, heterosexual volunteers--responded to several questionnaires and were interviewed over several hours, shortly before receiving their child. Several husbands also participated. Turning points in their decision to adopt as well as the exploration of adoption alternatives--also referred to as marker processes--included infertility and accompanying reactions, such as humiliation, grief, and marital stress. Identity and timing issues are also examined, touching on women's biology and other issues. Impending adoptive motherhood and relationships with others is considered, focusing on the synchrony, or lack thereof, in the shift of how one sees oneself and how others view them. Marker processes of adoption are reviewed, further examining the shifts in perception. Case studies are used to illustrate the turning points. The author concludes that by the time that adoptive parents meet their child, they have already gone through several deeply felt marker experiences requiring vast energy, attention, emotion and adaptation. Resource information, 18 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    adoption;  parenting;  identity;  infertility;  adoption preparation

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.zerotothree.org

 

 

TITLE:    Neighborhood and Household Factors in the Etiology of Child Maltreatment.

 

AUTHOR:    Korbin, J. E.;  Coulton, C. J.;  Chard, S.;  Su, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH. Dept. of Anthropology.

 

SOURCE:    Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH. Dept. of Anthropology., March 1999;  195 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:    This NCCAN-funded study examined the association between neighborhood characteristics and the risk for child abuse and neglect. Data were collected from a survey of 400 neighborhood residents, sampled within blocks. Measures obtained information about potential for child abuse, neighborhood abuse rates, structural characteristics of the neighborhood, childhood history of maltreatment, perceived social support, and beliefs and opinions about child maltreatment. Findings revealed that residents in the poorer neighborhoods rated their neighborhoods as high disorder and low parental control of children. Individuals from all neighborhoods had similar definitions of child maltreatment. However, the residents did have different perceptions of the causes of violence and the role of family stress, substance abuse, and moral values. Future research studies should include multi-level research designs, multiple measures of maltreatment, different intervention strategies, processes of case investigations and outcomes, and the effectiveness of community-building for child protection. Numerous references, 7 figures, and 26 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    etiology;  child abuse research;  family characteristics;  neighborhoods;  risk factors;  predictor variables;  community characteristics;  ecological factors

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Final Report

 

 

TITLE:    Community-Based Approaches in Preventing Child Maltreatment.

 

AUTHOR:    Tomison, A. M.;  Wise, S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Issues in Child Abuse Prevention

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    National Child Protection Clearinghouse, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Australian Institute of Family Studies.

 

SOURCE:    (11): pp. 1-20;  National Child Protecion Clearinghouse, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Australian Institute of Family Studies., August 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This paper provides a review of the theoretical constructs underpinning recent efforts to prevent child maltreatment holistically, and identifies a current emphasis on health promotion strategies and efforts to develop healthy, resilient communities. Three major interventions, perceived to be key components of any attempt to reduce maltreatment at the societal and community levels, are described: early intervention projects; cross-sectoral collaboration; and whole of community initiatives. Overall, the developmental prevention approach appears to be most effective as it acknowledges the inter- relationship between risk and resilience, and develops solutions to address the former and promote the latter. Numerous references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    prevention programs;  program models;  community programs;  community based services;  early intervention programs;  interagency collaboration;  resilience;  holistic theories

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.aifs.org.au

 

 

TITLE:    State of the Children of the District of Columbia: Strategies for Building a Community Ethic: Findings and Recommendations of the Center for Child Protection and Family Support, Inc.

 

AUTHOR:    Thomas, J. N.;  Baxley, G. B.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Center for Child Protection and Family Support, Inc., Washington, DC.

 

SOURCE:    Center for Child Protection and Family Support, Inc., Washington, DC., April 15, 1999;  55 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:    The Center for Child Protection and Family Support, Inc. conducted a citywide survey and focus groups in the District of Columbia to determine what citizens know about child abuse and neglect and how involved they would like to be in the prevention of maltreatment. The study was part of an effort to promote the creation and institutionalization of a community ethic that accepts responsibility for resolving the problem of child abuse and neglect. Focus groups were conducted with representatives from existing community collaboratives, youth aged 12-17, teachers and school personnel, frontline health and youth workers, and citizens. Groups were asked about the definition of child maltreatment, the nature and extent of the problems, knowledge about available services, and public awareness and training needs. Overall, the findings of the focus groups indicated that greater collaboration is necessary between school personnel and teachers and that more services are needed for families. The city-wide telephone survey requested comments from 70 individuals about their definitions of child abuse and child neglect, their perception about child maltreatment and sources of information in their community, previous involvement in reporting abuse and neglect, causes of maltreatment, consequence of maltreatment, the quality of child protective services, and knowledge about the neighborhood child welfare collaborative. Survey participants did not intervene in situations of child abuse and neglect, although they agreed that citizens play an important role in child abuse prevention. They also reported that the media should focus on the positive achievements of children and that there should be more public awareness activities about the role of citizens in child protection. Lessons learned from the report and recommendations for citizens, policy makers, and community providers are included. 10 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    district of columbia;  community programs;  ethics;  child protective services;  public opinion;  social attitudes;  prevention;  community intervention projects

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Technical Report

 

 

TITLE:    Supervised Visitation: A Profile of Providers.

 

AUTHOR:    Thoennes, N.;  Pearson, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Family and Conciliation Courts Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Center for Policy Research, Denver, CO.

 

SOURCE:    37(4): pp. 460-477;  Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA., October 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    Surveys with 95 administrators of supervised visitation programs, 51 family court judges, and 40 administrators of child protective services agencies provide a national picture of supervised visitation services, their utility, and areas of unmet need. Although the programs are perceived to fill an important need, they struggle to survive financially, particularly those that handle family court cases. In addition, because many programs operate without adequate access to the assessment and treatment services that some families need, judges frequently want visitation supervisors to assist them in determining suitable custody and visitation arrangements, a role that supervised visitation programs do not feel is appropriate. Many different types of entities provide effective supervised visitation services; many different service formats work. Architects of new programs should fashion services that use local resources to maximum advantage. 11 references, 3 figures, and 7 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    home visitation programs;  program models;  program descriptions;  service delivery;  program evaluation;  assessment;  child welfare research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:    State Court Assessments 1995-1998: Dependency Proceedings: Representing Clients.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    ABA Center on Children and the Law, Washington, DC.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

SOURCE:    Volume 1. ABA Center on Children and the Law, Washington, DC., 1999;  117 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:    This report summarizes information about legal representation in child protection cases as reported by the 49 jurisdictions participating in the federal court improvement project, established by the 1993 Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act. It outlines state statutes regarding legal representation and provides an overview of rate of representation, appointment process, training and background requirements, duties of attorneys, compensation, and caseloads. The quality of attorney representation is also examined in a review of advance preparation for hearings, responsibilities in court, continuity of representation, special issues, and perceptions of stakeholders. Finally, the report considers the training, caseloads, and quality of court appointed special advocate and non-attorney guardian ad litem programs. State practices are compared to guidelines recommended by the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges, with the support of the American Bar Association and the National Conference of Chief Justices and standards published by the American Bar Association. Examples of adequate and inadequate practices are provided. 12 figures.

 

KEY TERMS:    lawyers role;  lawyers responsibility;  guardians ad litem;  court appointed special advocates;  child protection;  court improvement projects;  best practices;  program evaluation

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Technical Report

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.abanet.org/child/home.html

 

 

TITLE:    Psychological and Educational Resilience.

 

AUTHOR:    Wang, M. C.;  Haertel, G. D.;  Walberg, H. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Center for Research in Human Development and Education.

 

SOURCE:    In: Reynolds, A. J.; Walberg, H. J.; and Weissberg, R. P. (Editors). Promoting Positive Outcomes. //Issues in Children's and Families Lives//. Volume 2. Child Welfare League of America, Inc., Washington, DC., 1999;  pp.329-365

 

ABSTRACT:    Recent research about the resilience of children and youth is focusing on how findings can enhance the learning abilities of children at risk. Children from economically disadvantaged families and communities who score well on achievement tests have been found to have high self-concepts and educational goals, had greater perceptions of internal control, and more interaction with parents. Low to moderate stress has also been found to improve school performance. Other important influences include: parent support; peer group; classroom management; student and teacher social interaction; quantity of instruction and classroom climate; curriculum design; and school culture. The chapter details the impact of learner characteristics, home and community characteristics, classroom practices, curriculum design, schoolwide practices, and state and district policies that affect learning and educational resilience. Risk factors are also identified. Suggestions for future research focus on the impact of various factors on educational outcomes and methods for coordinating community and school resources to enhance those characteristics. Longitudinal, large scale studies are especially needed to determine the long term effects of resilience initiatives. 70 references, 1 figure, and 4 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    resilience;  psychological characteristics;  educational research;  research reviews;  coping skills;  ecological theories;  ecological factors;  schools role

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.cwla.org

 

 

TITLE:    Children and Family Policy in Europe.

 

AUTHOR:    Dingwall, R.;  Lewis, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Children and Youth Services Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Nottingham Univ. (United Kingdom).

 

SOURCE:    21(11-12): pp. 905-914;  Elsevier Science, Ltd., New York, NY., November-December 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This commentary highlights the key findings and conclusions of the articles presented in a special journal issue about child welfare policy in Europe. The majority of the articles describe policy in the United Kingdom and North America. The discussions reveal a wide variation in European policies, although all countries are ultimately subject to the decisions of the European Court of Justice and the European Court of Human Rights. Overall, most European countries support government intervention in child welfare and have maintained that approach despite economic and political pressures. The paper compares European attitudes with policies developed in the United States, particularly regarding the transition of 18 to 25 year olds to independence and the juvenile justice system. One article in the special issue asserts that the United States perceives problems related to youth independence from the perspective of the parents, while European approaches the issue in the context of the implications for children and young adults. Youth in Europe are not being provided the additional support mandated by the Children Act 1989 and are instead expected to receive assistance from their parents until the age of 25. Lack of parental resources has contributed to homelessness and vagrancy among youth. A separate article traces the outcomes of juvenile justice systems in Scotland and Massachusetts. Both systems were very similar in the 1970s. However, Massachusetts developed a more punitive approach and Scotland maintained a rehabilitation philosophy throughout the 1980s and 1990s. Implications for both countries and Europe are discussed, as well as the influence of economic and political factors. 10 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    europe;  policy formation;  social policies;  child welfare;  program models;  independent living;  juvenile courts;  literature reviews

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Perceived Social Skills and Social Competence in Maltreated Children.

 

AUTHOR:    Kinard, E. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    American Journal of Orthopsychiatry

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    New Hampshire Univ. Horton Social Science Center, Durham. Family Research Lab.

 

SOURCE:    69(4): pp. 465-481;  American Orthopsychiatric Association, New York, NY., October 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    The relative effects of child maltreatment, perceived social support, and other risk factors on measures of peer relations were assessed at two points in time, one year apart. Sample groups included 165 pairs of maltreated children and their mothers and 169 pairs of nonmaltreated children and their mothers. Maltreatment was not found to be related to children's self-reports of social skills or social acceptance, but mothers of maltreated children rated their children as significantly less competent than did mothers of nonmaltreated children. Lower perceived support from peers consistently predicted poorer peer relationships on all measures of peer relations. 66 references and 5 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    sequelae;  child abuse;  social skills;  social adjustment;  risk factors;  interpersonal relationships;  peer relationships;  child abuse research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    The Comprehensive Childhood Maltreatment Inventory: Early Development and Reliability Analyses.

 

AUTHOR:    Riddle, K. P.;  Aponte, J. F.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Louisville Univ., KY. Psychology Dept.

 

SOURCE:    23(11): pp. 1103-1115;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., November 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    The goal of this study was to develop a reliable measure of childhood maltreatment that could be used to evaluate retrospective memories among adults across a broad range of potentially abusive caregiver behaviors. These behaviors were organized into 31 items that query age at onset, frequency across 4 developmental periods, relationships of the perpetrator(s), and respondents' perception of the experience. Additional factors directly relevant to each of the individual 4 categories of childhood maltreatment were also queried. Preliminary data collected from 95 college students find the measure to have excellent test-retest reliability, and 2 of 4 subscales to possess adequate internal consistency. Reasons for low internal consistency for the Physical Maltreatment and Physical Neglect categories and the relative importance of test- retest reliability as compared to internal consistency in a questionnaire of this type are discussed. 48 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    adults abused as children;  measures;  assessment;  reliability;  validity;  sequelae;  predictor variables;  parental behavior

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Reporting Crimes Against Juveniles.

 

AUTHOR:    Finkelhor, D.;  Ormrod, R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    New Hampshire Univ., Durham. Crimes Against Children Research Center.

 

SOURCE:    Office of Justice Programs, Washington, DC. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention., November 1999;  8 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:    Data from the National Crime Victimization survey indicate that a significant number of crimes against juveniles are unreported. Youth participating in the survey noted that only 28 percent of violent crimes and 10 percent of thefts against them were reported to police. Sixteen percent of violent crimes and 29 percent of thefts were reported to another authority, such as school personnel. Violent sexual assault was reported at the same rate as adults. However, juveniles were less likely than adults to report high value thefts. Reasons for the underreporting are not clear, but may be due to juveniles' perceptions of the lack of interest of adults in crimes committed against young people, and reluctance of adolescents to involve adults in their problems, and parents' fears about the safety of their children who report crimes. Police officials are urged to communicate their interest in reports from juveniles, train officers and other professionals to work with youth, increase awareness about the definition of criminal offenses, and provide incentives to report. 5 references, 5 figures, and 1 table.

 

KEY TERMS:    statistical data;  child abuse reporting;  underreporting;  victimization;  sexual assault;  prevalence;  incidence;  child abuse research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Technical Report

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.ncjrs.org

 

 

TITLE:    Reality Testing in Adult Women Who Report Childhood Sexual And Physical Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:    Sacco, M. L.;  Farber, B. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. Teachers Coll.

 

SOURCE:    23(11): pp. 1193-1203;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., November 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This study investigated the differential effects of sexual and physical abuse in childhood on the quality of reality testing (perceptual disorders and dissociative symptoms) in later adult life. Two hundred and fifty nine female volunteers between the ages of 18 and 30 recruited from college campuses completed self-report measures assessing sexual and physical abuse in childhood as well as current perceptual impairments (reality distortion, uncertainty of perceptions, hallucinations and delusions, and psychoticism) and dissociation (amnesia, absorption and imaginative involvement, and depersonalization and derealization). Women who report abuse in childhood dissociate more than nonabused women, although they do not experience more perceptual distortions. Duration of abuse, age of onset of abuse, number of perpetrators, and relationship of perpetrator to victim predicted difficulties in many aspects of reality testing. Women who report both childhood sexual and physical abuse are especially prone to acknowledge dissociative phenomena. These findings suggest that college women who report abuse continue to experience adaptable accuracy in their reality testing but, in comparison to their cohorts who have not been abused, more often become distant from the world and their own sensory experiences. These results confirm and extend research done on clinical samples and suggest that the enduring effects of abuse on reality testing are manifest in the nonclinical population as well. 3 tables and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    dissociation;  perception;  physical abuse;  sexual abuse;  adults abused as children;  testing

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Conceptualization, Reporting and Underreporting of Child Abuse in Hong Kong.

 

AUTHOR:    Lau, J. T. F.;  Liu, J. L. Y.;  Yu, A.;  Wong, C. K.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Chinese Univ., Hong Kong. Centre for Clinical Trials and Epidemiological Research.

 

SOURCE:    23(11): pp. 1159-1174;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., November 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This cross sectional telephone survey of 1,001 randomly selected subjects was undertaken to understand the conceptualization of child abuse and attitudes on reporting behaviors of Hong Kong adults. The study found a discrepancy between perceived prevalence and the ability to name different child abuse types without prompting. A total of 79.9 percent named physical abuse, while 41.2 percent felt it was common; 6.8 percent named sexual abuse, while 23.5 percent felt it was common. Most respondents classified severe physical abuse situations as abusive (such as severely injuring a child). Other scenarios such as mildly injuring a child' and neglect and psychological abuse scenarios (such as leaving a young child alone at home or shouting at a child often) were often not classified as abusive. As regards to case-reporting behavior, only about 40 percent would report abuse cases to authorities. Those who would not report abuse were less likely to classify abuse situations as abusive and more likely to think that seeking help is difficult, troublesome, and unhelpful. The official reported prevalence figures for child abuse in Hong Kong should be interpreted with care, because underreporting is likely to be serious. Hong Kong people's conceptualization and awareness of what comprises child abuse is found to differ from official definitions. They are reluctant to report abuse cases, due to their perceived low efficacy of case reporting. Both the difference in conceptualization and the reluctance to report might partly be attributable to Chinese culture. Educational programs on child abuse in Hong Kong should take a 2-pronged approach, by promoting awareness on the one hand, and perceived efficacy of case reporting on the other. 6 tables and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    attitudes;  perception;  asia;  child abuse reporting;  prevalence;  cultural factors;  surveys;  china

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Perceptions Held by General Practitioners in England Regarding Their Training Needs in Child Abuse and Neglect.

 

AUTHOR:    Bannon, M. J.;  Carter, Y. H.;  Barwell, F.;  Hicks, C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Northwick Park Hospital, Middlesex (England). Child Health Unit.

 

SOURCE:    8: pp. 276-283;  John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY., 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This study determined the perceived training needs in child protection of a representative sample of general practitioner physicians in Great Britain by means of a mailed, confidential questionnaire survey. The questionnaire consisted of 3 parts. Part 1 contained 30 items derived from key issues which emerged from a series of previously held focus group discussions. Respondents assessed each item along a 5-point scale in terms of training in child protection. Part 2 comprised open questions where respondents could record their self-perceived training requirements in this area. Part 3 consisted of biographical details about the respondents. A total of 3,102 questionnaires were sent, representing 10 percent of general practitioners in Great Britain. A total of 1,000 valid questionnaires were received. The perceived training requirements were reactive rather than proactive in that they are mostly concerned with how physicians should respond to instances of abuse in a manner which promotes the safety of children, while at the same time protecting doctors from criticism or litigation. General practitioners seemed to be concerned about the legal implications of becoming involved in the child protection process. Attendance by physicians at child protection conferences resulted in further training needs. The study concludes that a fresh approach is needed to include a variety of educational methods aimed at general practitioners. 1 table and numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:    physicians;  perception;  professional training;  great britain;  questionnaires;  child protection

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.wiley.com

 

 

TITLE:    The Minimizing Style: Perceptions of Psychological Abuse and Quality of Past and Current Relationships.

 

AUTHOR:    Varia, R.;  Abidin, R. R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Texas Univ., San Antonio. Health Science Center.

 

SOURCE:    23(11): pp. 1041-1055;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., November 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This study expanded and elaborated on the results of the authors' previous study to better understand what historical parenting factors may contribute in creating a minimizing perception of childhood psychological abuse. The study also examined the association between perceptual styles and adult ratings of adult relationship satisfaction. Ninety individuals from a non-clinical sample completed self-report questionnaires regarding psychological maltreatment and adult relationship satisfaction. Three groups were created and compared using analysis of variance. The groups were non-abused (consistent reporters of no abuse), acknowledgers (consistent reporters of abuse), and minimizers (reporters of abuse, but do not label themselves as having been abused). Results indicated a continuum effect with the non-abused individuals reporting the highest level of maternal warmth and affection, the acknowledgers reporting the lowest, with the minimizers in the middle. The non-abused group reported the healthiest adjustment in terms of adult relationship satisfaction. While minimizers and acknowledgers reported similar levels of psychologically abusive experiences, acknowledgers reported more difficulties with adult relationships. This study highlights the importance of studying minimizers, a group which describes abusive events but minimizes the meaning and scope of these experiences. The relatively higher levels of maternal care which the minimizers reported is hypothesized to be associated with their perceptions that they were not abused and acted as a protective factor associated with better quality adult relationships. The varying degrees of nurturance and care in the early family environment of abused individuals is speculated to be associated with distinct perceptual styles. 3 tables and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    psychological abuse;  perception;  parenting;  psychosocial deprivation;  questionnaires;  interpersonal relationships

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Locus of Control and Adjustment in Female Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:    Porter, C. A.;  Long, P. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Sexual Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:    8(1): pp. 3-25;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    A sample of 84 college women retrospectively reporting childhood sexual abuse (including 19 experiencing more severe abuse and 65 experiencing less severe abuse) and 285 women failing to report such a history participated in a study designed to investigate the relationship between victimization history and locus of control and the role of locus of control in predicting the adjustment of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Analyses failed to detect differences in the locus of control of victims and nonvictims, and no relationship was found between a woman's perception of control over the victimization experience and her later locus of control. Results did reveal that locus of control and victimization status interacted in predicting women's symptom severity as well as problems such as depression, anxiety, and hostility. Women with a severe abuse history with an internal locus of control reported some what lower levels of distress than other women. Women with severe abuse and an external locus of control reported extremely elevated levels of distress, levels of distress greater than women in any other group. Implications of these results and recommendations for future research are discussed. 3 tables, 1 figure, and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    adults abused as children;  sexual abuse;  adjustment problems;  victimization;  child abuse history;  depression;  hostility;  anxiety

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:    Stressed Parents With Infants: Reassessing Physical Abuse Risk Factors.

 

AUTHOR:    Cadzow, S. P.;  Armstrong, K. L.;  Fraser, J. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Royal Children's Hospital, Brisbane, QLD (Australia).

 

SOURCE:    23(9): pp. 845-853;  Elsevier Science, Ltd., New York, New York., September 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This study examined the relationship between a range of potentially adverse psychosocial, family, and demographic characteristics identified in the immediate postpartum period and child physical abuse potential at 7 months. Data collected as part of a randomized controlled trial of a nurse home visitation program for at-risk families with newborns was used. A total of 181 women were recruited in the immediate postpartum period. At 7 months, 151 participants were available for evaluation. Potential for child physical abuse was assessed using the Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory. Significant risk indicators identified by univariate analysis were financial stress, elevated Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) scores, education level less than 10 years, concern regarding the provision of housing, and domestic violence characterized by verbal and social abuse. There was no association between child abuse potential and single parenthood, poverty, young maternal age, history of childhood abuse, or psychiatric history. Two variables were found to be of independent significance using a logistic regression model, elevated EPDS, and perceived difficulty making ends meet. The findings indicate that perceived stress relating to finances, accommodation, and relationships in the immediate postpartum period are associated with heightened child physical abuse potential at 7 months. Elevated EPDS in the early postpartum period is also a risk indicator. The outcome of this study suggests that perinatal assessment of child abuse risk is possible and simple and is related to perceived stressors at the time surrounding delivery. This is independent of a range of demographic variables traditionally thought to predict high risk. 4 tables and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    infants;  risk factors;  physical abuse;  parental stress;  home visitation programs;  families at risk;  indicators;  family characteristics

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Coping Strategies and Social Support as Mediators of Consequences in Child Sexual Abuse Victims.

 

AUTHOR:    Tremblay, C.;  Herbert, M.;  Piche, C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Universite Laval, Ste-Foy, QC (Canada).

 

SOURCE:    23(9): pp. 929-945;  Elsevier Science, Ltd., New York, NY., September 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This study evaluated the mediator role of coping strategies and social support on the adaptation of children following childhood sexual abuse. Empirical studies indicate that short-term consequences of child sexual abuse are multiple and varied. While abuse-related characteristics were first studied to explain the variability of child sexual abuse outcome, more recently, the influence of other variables such as coping strategies and social support have been considered. Fifty sexually abused children between 7 and 12 years old participated in this study. The Child Behavior Checklist and the Perceived Competence Scale for Children were used to measure victims' adjustment. Coping strategies were evaluated by the Self-Report Coping Scale and the children completed the Perceived Social Support. A History of Victimization was used to gather abuse-related characteristics from medical records. Results indicate that sexually abused children exhibit internalizing and externalizing behavior problems following childhood sexual abuse. Coping strategies and social support exert direct effects on victim's adjustment instead of the mediator influences originally expected. Among abuse-related variables, only the perpetrator's identity is directly related to internalizing symptoms. The absence of mediational effects of coping and social support is discussed in light of the measures used and the cross-sectional nature of the study. Results highlight the importance of parental implication and the consideration of coping strategies in designing therapeutic interventions with this population. 1 table, 2 figures, and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    sexual abuse;  coping skills;  support systems;  sequelae;  behavior rating scales;  resilience;  symptoms

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Service and Support Needs of Non-Offending Parents in Cases of Intrafamilial Sexual Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:    Massat, C. R.;  Lundy, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Sexual Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Illinois Univ., Chicago. Jane Addams Coll. of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:    8(2): pp. 41-56;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This article examines the helpfulness and availability of formal and informal services and supports available to 104 non-offending parents in cases of incest. The non-offending parents reported on the formal and informal supports available to them. In most cases, parents completed a written questionnaire, followed by an interview. Though findings include high overall satisfaction with the services that were provided, parents report a gap between their needs and the availability of services. Two measures were used to collect the data: the Maternal Sense of Helpfulness Index (MSSI), and the Helpfulness Index. The MSSI is a 21-item instrument which includes both broad components of social support as well as elements of support related to the parental role. The Helpfulness Index consists of 71 items and contains 2 sections. The first section involves questions regarding persons who may or may not have been helpful to the non-offending parent. The second section covers the perceived helpfulness and need for various services. These data are from the first wave of data collection in a 4-year study of non-offending parents and their sexually abused children. 2 tables and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    nonabusive parents;  sexual abuse;  incest;  family services;  service delivery;  social services;  family support systems

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:    The Tangible and Intangible Rewards of Fostering for Carers.

 

AUTHOR:    Butler, S.;  Charles, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Adoption and Fostering

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Nottingham Univ., (England).

 

SOURCE:    23(3): pp. 48-58;  British Agencies for Adoption and Fostering, London (England)., Autumn 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    Six foster parents and five youth were interviewed about their experience with placement disruption, placement preparation, perceptions during placement about communication and family dynamics, and coping strategies used after breakdown of the foster relationship. Emphasis is placed on the role of the tangible and intangible rewards expected by foster parents. The foster parents reported receiving satisfaction from tangible rewards such as payment, training and preparation, and support provided by social workers. They placed more importance on the intangible rewards that they believed they would experience as a foster parent. They were emotionally invested in their foster children and anticipated that with love and care, the youth would be grateful and appreciate them as parents. The foster parents also noted their belief that the foster youth would respond to their care by changing their behavior and becoming part of the family. Failure to meet expectations for intangible rewards led to a decrease in the foster parents' satisfaction with their role, blame attributed to social services agencies, perceptions of their inability to make a difference, negative attitudes toward birth parents, and negative effects on their own families. Implications of these findings for foster care agency practice are discussed. 35 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    foster parents;  foster parent retention;  recruitment;  child welfare research;  parental expectations;  parental attitudes;  placement disruption;  family preservation

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.baaf.org.uk

 

 

TITLE:    Focus on the Abuser.

 

AUTHOR:    Shujaat, Q. (Editor).

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Sahil Against Child Sexual Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Sahil Against Child Sexual Abuse, Islamabad (Pakistan).

 

SOURCE:    (13): pp. 1-19;  Sahil, Islamabad (Pakiston)., July-September 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    Printed in English and Sindhi, this newsletter describes the characteristics of sex offenders and the prevalence of sexual abuse in Pakistan. Topics include: family background of abusers; relationship to victim; method of luring victims; denials; sexual abuse reporting; and public perceptions of abusers. Emphasis is placed on educating parents and children about the realities of sexual abuse and preventing the occurrence of the crime. Statistical data collected in Pakistan during the first six months of 1999 reveal that 72 percent of abusers were acquaintances of the victim. Out of 476 cases, 43 children were murdered after being assaulted. One hundred fifty-three children were sodomized. Seventy percent of the reported cases were from urban areas. 7 figures and 17 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    sex offenders;  characteristics of abuser;  child abuse research;  sexual abuse reporting;  statistical data;  homicide;  prevalence;  asia

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Special Issue

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.sahil.org

 

 

TITLE:    Sexual Offender Views About Treatment: A Client Survey.

 

AUTHOR:    Day, A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Sexual Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    South Australia Univ., Adelaide. School of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:    8(2): pp. 93-103;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    A group of 40 clients receiving treatment for sexual offending were surveyed for their views regarding their treatment. The treatment program provides group therapy with a cognitive-behavioral approach, induction, psycho-education, relapse prevention, and follow-up. Clients were asked about their legal status and views about the program structure. Their responses indicate that, as a group, their perceptions about treatment are similar to other client groups, suggesting that service users in offender programs may have an important role in the development of effective treatments. 21 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    sex offenders;  sex offenders therapy;  child abuse research;  therapeutic effectiveness;  program evaluation;  group therapy;  behavior therapy;  attitudes

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:    Parent-Child Communication and Adolescent Self-Esteem in Separated, Intercountry Adoptive and Intact Non-Adoptive Families.

 

AUTHOR:    Lanz, M.;  Iafrate, R.;  Rosnati, R.;  Scabini, E.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Adolescence

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Catholic Univ. Milan (Italy). Centre of Studies and Research on Family.

 

SOURCE:    22(6): pp. 785-794;  Academic Press, San Diego, CA., December 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    The purpose of this study was to verify whether there are some differences in parent-child communication and in adolescent self-esteem among adoptive, separated and intact non-adoptive families and to investigate the extent to which parent-child communication is related to adolescent self-esteem in the three types of families. The study sample was composed of 450 adolescents aged between 11 and 17 years (160 from intact non- adoptive families, 140 from separated or divorced families, and 150 from intercountry adoptive families). Subjects completed the Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale by Barnes and Olson, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and some socio-demographic items. The results show that adolescents from separated families have more difficulties in their relationships with both the mother and the father than their peers, and that adoptive children perceive a more positive communication with their parents than biological children. Moreover, adoptees showed lower self-esteem than the other two groups of adolescents. Lastly, it emerged that male and female adolescents' self-esteem is related to positive communication with both parents in intact non-adoptive families, while no link was significant for male and female children of divorced parents or for adoptees. 51 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    parent child relationships;  birth children;  interpersonal relationships;  adolescents;  self esteem;  adoptive families;  adoption outcomes;  communication;  adoption research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Preventing Institutional Abuse: An Exploration of Children's Rights, Needs and Participation in Residential Care.

 

AUTHOR:    Myers, J.;  O'Neill, T.;  Jones, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Leicester Univ. (England). Dept. of Child Protection Studies.

 

SOURCE:    Violence Against Children Study Group, Huddersfield (England). Children, Child Abuse and Child Protection: Placing Children Centrally. John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., New York, NY., 1999;  pp. 193-210

 

ABSTRACT:    This chapter reviews literature about the effectiveness of strategies designed to prevent the abuse of children residing in institutions. Elements of quality programs are identified, specifically those based on a child-centered philosophy. Research has revealed several factors that contribute to abuse perpetrated within institutions, including inadequate inspections, feelings of powerlessness among staff, policies that condone the control and restraint of children, lack of clarity of mission, and autocratic management styles. Suggested reforms emphasize the importance of positive perceptions of residential care and policies that protect the rights of children promoted by the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and the British Children Act of 1989. The chapter recommends an approach that empowers children and yet enforces clear boundaries to protect them. Management should seek to identify and address basic needs for physical, cognitive, emotional, and social development, as well as needs for affection and respect. The children's rights perspective also encourages the participation of children in decision making. Key components of participation include access to information, advocacy, and appeal processes. 49 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    institutional abuse and neglect;  administrative policies;  prevention;  childrens rights;  residential care;  great britain;  childrens services;  literature reviews

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.wiley.com

 

 

TITLE:    'Being There': Residential Care of Children and Young People.

 

AUTHOR:    Horrocks, C.;  Karban, K.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Huddersfield Univ. (England).

 

SOURCE:    Violence Against Children Study Group, Huddersfield (England). Children, Child Abuse and Child Protection: Placing Children Centrally. John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., New York, NY., 1999;  pp. 161-173

 

ABSTRACT:    This chapter considers the role of residential care in the continuum of child protection services and how care can be improved to better meet the needs of children and youth. Youth in residential care in Great Britain tend to be older than 13 years with emotional and behavior problems and experiences with abuse, family relationship difficulties, poverty, single parent households, and criminal behavior. Reports of scandals and failure to meet the long term needs of youth have contributed to the perception of residential care institutions as inferior to foster care. A survey of young people in residential care identified three basic needs that should be addressed in residential care: attention from carers; understanding of another person; and freedom. The youth are extremely vulnerable to problems, such as lack of control and coercion. Residential care institutions can meet the needs of youth by addressing their perceived needs, providing treatment and support for resolving problems, and creating opportunities to enhance development. 35 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    residential care;  great britain;  child protection;  historical perspective;  policy formation;  service delivery;  needs assessment;  quality of care

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.wiley.com

 

 

TITLE:    Mommie Dearest? Prosecuting Cases of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy.

 

AUTHOR:    Goldman, L. H.;  Yorker, B. C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Criminal Justice

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Atlanta Legal Aid Society, GA.

 

SOURCE:    13: pp. 26-33;  ABA Press, Chicago, IL., Winter 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This article reviews recent research findings about Munchausen syndrome by proxy and describes their implications for the prosecution of caregivers who fabricate medical or psychological symptoms in children to gain attention for themselves. Most perpetrators of Munchausen syndrome by proxy are mothers who are perceived as attentive to the child. Many have some knowledge of health care. Motivations include a need for attention or sense of power over health care professionals, or need for sympathy from others. Victims are typically younger than six years old. Prosecutions of Munchausen syndrome by proxy can be based on direct evidence, such as eyewitness reports or videotapes, circumstantial evidence about the characteristics of the illness, and expert testimony. Although the admissibility of expert testimony has been questioned by courts, prosecutors may be able to present a witness to describe the nature of the syndrome as an explanation for the mother's behavior. The prosecutor should also be prepared to respond to character witnesses who will testify that the mother is intelligent and caring. Evidence of repetitive behavior, including abuse of other children, can be helpful. The jury must be educated about the modus operandi and characteristics of Munchausen syndrome in order to overcome their initial feelings of denial about the ability of a mother to hurt her child. 7 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    prosecution;  criminal charges;  munchausen syndrome by proxy;  research reviews;  evidence collection;  evidence presentation;  expert testimony;  characteristics of abuser

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.abanet.org

 

 

TITLE:    Impediments to Implementing a Child-Centred Approach.

 

AUTHOR:    Wattam, C.;  Parton, N.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University of Central Lancashire (England).

 

SOURCE:    In: Parton, N. and Wattam, C. (Editors). Child Sexual Abuse: Responding to the Experiences of Children. Wiley and Son, New York, NY., 1999;  pp. 1-18

 

ABSTRACT:    This chapter discusses impediments to implementing a child-centered approach to childhood sexual abuse. The authors advocate an integrated multi-agency response to ensure that work with family members and associates involved in child sexual abuse cases always begin from the child's perspective. However, in practice, responses to perpetrators, children, and their caretakers generally remain separate. Work with perpetrators is not perceived as being central to the child protection response offered by children's welfare departments, but something which is important for other agencies, such as probation to deal with. While child sexual abuse work needs to be multidisciplinary, the experiences of and impacts on the child need to be recognized. Prosecution of perpetrators of child sexual abuse brings a number of difficulties for the child and his or her family, particularly where the child is the main source of evidence. Another impediment to a child-centered response to child sexual abuse is a basic disposition to question children's accounts. Although there is substantial evidence that children rarely make false allegations about child sexual abuse, the propensity to challenge what children say in relation to sexual assaults perpetrated on them, and to explore the potential for lying, remains part of everyday practice. The chapter ends by noting that child-centered approaches must address structural imbalances which children encounter concerning gender, ethnicity, culture, class, and disability. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:    sexual abuse;  multidisciplinary teams;  perpetrators;  culture;  child welfare;  prosecution

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.wiley.com

 

 

TITLE:    CLERGY'S ROLE IN ADDRESSING CHILD ABUSE: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

SOURCE:    NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:    abused children;  surveys;  mandatory reporting;  clergys responsibility;  child abuse reporting;  confidentiality;  privileged communications;  professional privilege;  constitutional challenges;  policy formation;  clergys role;  therapists role;  african americans;  service delivery;  churches role;  church programs;  cultural competency;  child welfare services;  family support systems;  spouse abuse;  battered women;  jews;  detection;  abusive husbands;  counseling;  family violence;  social policies;  religion;  accountability

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:    CHILD NEGLECT RESEARCH: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

SOURCE:    NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:    child abuse research;  decision making;  child neglect;  definitions;  risk factors;  neglected children;  policy formation;  child neglect research;  child protection;  outcomes;  evaluation;  prevention;  research methodology;  intervention;  ecological factors;  child development;  cognitive development;  emotional neglect;  physical neglect;  sequelae;  literature reviews;  models;  family environment;  parenting skills;  predictor variables;  family support systems;  parental behavior;  family life;  family characteristics;  home environment;  sexual abuse;  physical abuse;  longitudinal studies;  research reviews;  child welfare research;  foster care;  independent living;  family reunification;  attachment;  fathers;  family structure;  families at risk;  individual therapy;  group therapy;  prevalence;  intervention strategies;  risk assessment;  etiology

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:    CPS RISK ASSESSMENT AND DECISION MAKING: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

SOURCE:    NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:    child neglect;  risk assessment;  child protective services;  evaluation;  community based services;  sexual abuse;  assessment;  credibility;  disclosure;  research methodology;  decision making;  child protection;  social work;  outcomes;  policy formation;  child welfare;  family centered services;  detection;  symptoms;  child welfare services;  NCCAN;  social workers attitudes;  interviews;  child welfare research;  washington;  physical abuse;  service delivery;  resource materials;  characteristics of abuser;  investigations;  child welfare workers;  risk factors;  computer based training;  social workers;  models;  protocols;  diagnoses;  probability;  evaluation methods;  predictor variables;  well being;  validity;  reliability;  measures;  family group conferencing;  family preservation;  mediation;  family role;  new zealand;  incest;  child welfare reform;  case assessment;  intervention strategies;  indicators;  managed care;  outcome based accountability;  child abuse research;  female sex offenders;  police attitudes;  sex roles;  spouse abuse;  interagency collaboration;  multiproblem families;  maine;  abuse allegations;  proof;  evidence;  standards;  child protection laws;  state surveys

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:    DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES AND CHILD MALTREATMENT: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

SOURCE:    NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:    program evaluation;  foster parents training;  drug exposed infants;  addicted infants;  program models;  competency based training;  parenting skills;  foster parent recruitment;  foster care;  sequelae;  child development;  visitation;  health status;  kinship care;  program planning;  concurrent planning;  shared family care;  evaluation methods;  services delivery;  early intervention programs;  child placement;  outcomes;  prevalence;  behavior problems;  child welfare research;  prenatal child abuse;  prenatal care;  prenatal influences;  alcohol abuse;  substance abusing mothers;  substance abuse;  intervention;  substance abusing parents;  postnatal drug exposure;  child welfare services;  intervention strategies;  drug abuse;  cocaine;  child health;  neurological impairments;  predictor variables;  hospitalized children;  hospitalization;  health services;  legal rights;  fetal rights;  maternal rights;  state case law;  nonpunitive approach;  drug treatment programs;  mental retardation;  cognitive development;  social policies;  criminal charges;  criminal laws;  legal processes;  foster parents;  child abuse research;  qualitative research;  identification;  policy formation;  interagency cooperation;  risk factors;  assessment;  nurses role;  nurseries;  hiv;  family preservation;  family services;  foster families;  community based services;  home visitation programs;  state laws;  prosecution

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:    HEALTH CARE OF CHILDREN IN FOSTER CARE: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

SOURCE:    NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:    foster care;  drug exposed infants;  addicted infants;  sequelae;  child development;  visitation;  health status;  kinship care;  foster children;  service delivery;  health services;  mental health services;  welfare reform;  managed care;  policy formation;  program planning;  early intervention programs;  child health;  outcomes;  multidisciplinary teams;  interagency collaboration;  model programs;  child health services;  child welfare services;  public agencies;  developmental disabilities;  children with disabilities;  special needs;  program models;  physicians role;  physical examination;  assessment;  emotionally disturbed children;  emotional development;  emotional problems;  risk factors;  intervention strategies;  psychological characteristics;  out of home care;  psychopathology;  state surveys;  behavior;  mental health;  california;  statewide planning;  systems reform;  demonstration programs;  infants;  therapeutic intervention;  child placement;  decision making;  case management;  child welfare workers;  professional training;  behavior problems;  intervention;  models;  family centered services;  quality of care;  medicaid;  massachusetts;  texas;  utah;  financial assistance;  social policies;  school children;  mental disorders;  interviews;  diagnoses;  perception;  caretakers;  medical services;  family characteristics;  children at risk

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:    OUT OF HOME CARE: FOSTER FAMILY CARE (Excludes Kinship Care and Independent Living): Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

SOURCE:    NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:     

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:     

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:     

 

 

TITLE:    GENERATIONAL CYCLE OF ABUSE: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

SOURCE:    NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:    child sexual abuse;  adults abused as children;  spouse abuse;  child abuse history;  mother child relationships;  sexually abusive children;  depression;  interviews;  prenatal child abuse;  prenatal care;  prenatal influences;  drug exposed infants;  alcohol abuse;  substance abusing mothers;  substance abuse;  intervention;  behavior problems;  generational cycle of family violence;  child witnesses of family violence;  violence;  environmental influences;  neurology;  emotional development;  battering relationships;  battered women;  male batterers;  dissociation;  attachment;  psychological characteristics;  prevalence;  incidence;  statistical data;  characteristics of abused;  characteristics of abuser;  predictor variables;  generational cycle of child abuse;  sequelae;  risk factors;  trauma;  marital conflicts;  longitudinal studies

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:    CHILDREN WHO WITNESS VIOLENCE: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

SOURCE:    NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:    child witnesses;  alcohol abuse;  child witnesses of family violence;  spouse abuse;  etiology;  battering relationships;  battered women;  batterers attitudes;  assessment;  bettered women;  multiproblem families;  psychological evaluation;  evaluation methods;  confidentiality;  child abuse reporting;  passive abusers;  nonabusive parents;  criminal charges;  intervention strategies;  parental behavior;  child neglect;  social skills;  emotional development;  preschool children;  sequelae;  posttraumatic stress disorder;  resilience;  coping skills;  childrens services;  homeless shelters;  marital conflicts;  risk factors;  child psychiatry;  adults abused as children;  substance abuse;  depression;  health status;  suicide;  aggressive behavior;  prevention programs;  group therapy;  childrens therapy;  program evaluation;  therapeutic effectiveness;  family violence;  community violence;  prevention;  school violence;  child development;  psychological stress;  research needs;  intervention;  outcomes;  research reviews;  woman abuse;  social adjustment;  theories;  research methodology;  generational cycle of family violence;  family therapy;  family relationships;  parenting;  police role;  behavior problems;  data collection;  measures;  family environment;  adjustment problems;  individual characteristics;  psychological characteristics;  cognitive development;  family violence research;  sibling abuse;  spousal violence;  psychological abuse;  physical abuse;  schools;  academic achievement;  Juvenile delinquency;  homicide;  longitudinal studies;  federal statutory law;  state statutory law;  child custody;  visitation;  child welfare reform;  child abuse research;  symptoms;  sexual abuse;  prostitution;  adolescents;  family characteristics;  substance abusing parents

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:    OUT OF HOME CARE: KINSHIP CARE(Excludes Foster Care and Residential/Group Care): Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

SOURCE:    NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:    kinship care;  policy formation;  child welfare research;  foster care;  adoption;  program models;  child welfare services;  outcomes;  grandparents;  hispanics;  service delivery;  utilization review;  needs;  predictor variables;  cultural factors;  foster parents;  professional personnel;  program evaluation;  permanency planning;  child placement;  systems reform;  foster children;  adjustment problems;  independent living;  homelessness;  adolescents;  behavior problems;  prevalence;  aggressive behavior;  depression;  delinquent behavior;  parental role;  parents attitudes;  parents characteristics;  demographics;  african americans;  research reviews;  family characteristics;  professional training;  child welfare workers;  curricula;  competency based training;  assessment;  intervention strategies;  child welfare reform;  family group conferencing;  foster care maintenance;  state laws;  guardianship;  termination of parental rights;  state case law;  family preservation;  licensing;  illinois;  sociocultural patterns;  asia;  africa;  north america;  drug exposed infants;  sequelae;  legal processes;  child custody;  legal guardianships;  standby guardianship;  social policies;  welfare reform;  federal programs;  funding;  interagency collaboration;  lawyers role;  courts role;  financial assistance;  professional societies;  program development;  program descriptions;  family support systems;  private sector;  case management;  out of home care;  child welfare;  afdc;  historical perspective;  research needs;  surveys;  minnesota;  perception;  quality of care;  california;  caretakers;  parenting skills;  family relationships;  social skills;  social characteristics;  models;  parental surrogates

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:    NONADVERSARIAL CASE RESOLUTION: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

SOURCE:    NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:    court reform;  juvenile courts;  court improvement projects;  program evaluation;  permanency planning;  expedited permanency planning;  multidisciplinary teams;  mediation;  new york;  family group conferencing;  demonstration programs;  pilot programs;  program models;  empowerment;  strengths assessment;  nonadversarial case resolution;  intervention strategies;  decision making;  family centered services;  family role;  kinship care;  cultural sensitivity;  cultural competency;  african americans;  adoption;  foster care;  child welfare reform;  funding;  subsidized guardianship;  model programs;  family courts;  alternative dispute resolution;  case management;  child welfare agencies;  child welfare services;  models;  ethics;  courts role;  lawyers role;  family preservation;  new zealand;  child placement;  minority groups;  outcomes;  research methodology;  michigan;  california;  dependency;  substance abusing parents;  court appointed special advocates;  professional training;  judges;  community based services;  child protective services;  texas;  service delivery;  family problems;  family environment;  family services;  program descriptions;  practice protocols;  program planning

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:    EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED CHILDREN: SERVICE DELIVERY: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

SOURCE:    NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:    service delivery;  service coordination;  case management;  psychology;  program descriptions;  program development;  literature reviews;  emotionally disturbed children;  mental health services;  family centered services;  systems development;  models;  mental disorders;  emotional problems;  prevalence;  community based services;  needs assessment;  state surveys;  staff development;  personnel needs;  financial assistance;  federal aid;  north carolina;  private financial support;  grants;  managed care;  Program models;  out of home care;  outcomes;  evaluation;  residential care;  program costs;  wraparound services;  foster care;  runaway children;  intervention strategies;  behavior problems;  family programs;  parental advocacy;  child welfare research;  respite care;  welfare reform;  federal statutory law;  federal programs;  state federal aid;  poverty;  residential treatment;  permanency planning;  family preservation;  family reunification;  program evaluation;  worker client relationships;  direct service providers;  parents;  empowerment;  research reviews;  treatment foster care;  crisis intervention;  family services;  sequelae;  antisocial behavior;  child protective services;  family characteristics;  washington;  interagency cooperation;  home programs;  community resources;  family support systems;  foster children;  juvenile delinquency;  oregon;  demography;  statistical data;  trend analysis;  child welfare;  elderly;  case plans;  cultural differences;  minority groups;  cultural values;  symptoms;  child advocacy;  foster parents;  childrens therapy;  model programs;  program planning;  homebuilders;  missouri;  outpatient treatment;  social skills;  case studies;  adolescents

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee