TITLE:                    The Relevance of Narrative Research With Children Who Witness War and Children Who Witness Woman Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:               Berman, H.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University of Western Ontario, London (Canada). School of Nursing.

 

SOURCE:                3(1): pp. 107-125;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 2000;  p. 253

 

ABSTRACT:           This article highlights findings from a recent critical narrative study comparing the experiences of children of war and children exposed to domestic violence. The sample consisted of 15 children of war and 16 children of battered women, ages 10-17. Although both groups of children reported similar symptoms of trauma, such as loneliness, problems eating and sleeping, headaches and intrusive thoughts and fears, their perceptions of their experiences were significantly different. The children of war had fond memories of their life before the war and viewed the war as a temporary situation. The children who witnessed domestic violence often were unable to identify periods of happiness and contentment in their life. Children of warwere clear that they were on the right side of a conflict between good and bad, while children exposed to spouse abuse could not take sides in their conflict. The relevance of narrative research with this population is discussed and implications for researchers and clinicians are presented. 55 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         research methodology;  child witnesses of family violence;  trauma;  community violence;  child abuse research;  qualitative research;  posttraumatic stress disorder;  sequelae

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Parents With Mental Retardation.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    Virginia Commonwealth Dept. of Social Services, Richmond. Child Protective Services

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Virginia Child Protection Newsletter

 

SOURCE:                57: pp. 1-11, 13;  Virginia Commonwealth Dept. of Social Services, Richmond. Child Protective Services Unit., Winter 2000;  p. 271

 

ABSTRACT:           This briefing examines the factors that place the children of mentally retarded parents at risk for maltreatment. Although estimates of the incidence of child abuse and neglect are difficult to calculate, studies have identified eight problems that influence the ability of parents with mental retardation to provide adequate care to their children: lack of reading skills; communication problems; concrete thinking; limited ability to provide cognitive and emotional stimulation; impairments in learning and memory; social skills deficits; and lack of internal control and motivational problems. Parents with mental retardation also have low incomes, inadequate housing, and poor health, and are vulnerable to crime and exploitation. The children of parents with mental retardation have been found to be developmentally delayed as a result of environmental and parent characteristics, as well as limited socialization. However, some intensive parent training programs have been proven to improve the skills of parents with mental retardation. Effective interventions are usually family-centered, long-term, are tailored to the special learning needs of the participants, and engage parents in their communities. Policy makers are advised to recognize the need for long-term support and emphasize the positive characteristics of the parents. Examples of innovative programs are described in the newsletter. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         retarded parents;  parenting skills;  incidence;  risk factors;  sequelae;  research reviews;  adults abused as children;  intervention strategies

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Special Issue

 

 

TITLE:                    Assessing the Value of Structured Protocols for Forensic Interviews of Alleged Child Abuse

 

AUTHOR:               Orbach, Y.;  Hershkowitz, I.;  Lamb, M. E.;  Sternberg, K. J.;  et al.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

 

SOURCE:                24(6): pp. 733-752;  Elsevier Science, Ltd., New York, NY., June 2000;  p. 273

 

ABSTRACT:           This study evaluated the effectiveness of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Investigative Interview Protocol, a structured protocol of universally recommended guidelines for forensic interviews. The protocol was designed to maximize the amount of information obtained using recall memory probes, which are likely to elicit more accurate information than recognition memory probes. Forensic investigators were trained to use the protocol while conducting feedback-monitored simulation interviews. The utility of the protocol was then evaluated by comparing 55 protocol interviews with 50 prior interviews by the same investigators, matched with respect to characteristics likely to affect the richness of the children's accounts. The comparison was based on an analysis of the investigators' utterance types, distribution, and timing, as well as quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the information produced. As predicted, protocol interviews containedmore open-ended prompts overall as well as before the first option-posing utterance than non-protocol interviews did. More details were obtained using open-ended invitations and fewer were obtained using focused questions in protocol interviews than in non-protocol interviews, although the total number of details elicited did not differ significantly. In both conditions, older children provided more details than younger children did. The findings confirmed that implementation of professionally recommended practices affected the behavior of interviewers in both the pre-substantive and substantive phases of their interviews and enhanced the quality (i.e., likely accuracy) of information elicited from alleged victims. 101 references and 6 tables.(Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         interviews;  investigations;  child witnesses;  protocols;  validity;  sexual abuse;  measures

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Counselling Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:               Draucker, C. B.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Kent State Univ., OH. Coll. of Nursing.

 

SOURCE:                Second Edition. Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA., 2000;  p. 292

 

ABSTRACT:           This book describes strategies for counseling adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse and helping them through the healing process. Emphasis is placed on the importance of disclosure, analysis of the abuse experience, reinterpreting the abuse, understanding the context of the abuse, making life changes, and coping with the resolution of the abuse. The text describes issues and intervention approaches for a wide range of types of sexual abuse. Case studies illustrate the concepts presented throughout the book. The implications of the false memory debate for counseling are also discussed. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         adults abused as children;  sexual abuse;  therapeutic intervention;  individual therapy;  group therapy;  false memory syndrome;  disclosure;  counseling

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    The Abused Child as Parent: The Structure and Content of Physically Abused Mothers' Perceptions of Their Babies.

 

AUTHOR:               Gara, M. A.;  Allen, L. A.;  Herzog, E. P.;  Woolfolk, R. L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    New Jersey Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry, Piscataway. Dept. of Psychiatry.

 

SOURCE:                24(5): pp. 627-639;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., May 2000;  p. 355

 

ABSTRACT:           Does a mother's history of being physically abused as a child have a discernable impact on the structure and content of her perceptions and beliefs concerning her own child? This study attempted to provide an empirical answer. The studycontacted 185 as potential participants in the longitudinal study; 103 agreed to participate. They were classified as abused' or not-abused' based on their responses to a standard questionnaire. The methodology involved free-response memories and current description of babies, self, and significant others such as parents, when their babies were six months, one year, and two years old. The two groups were compared with respect to the age of baby, race, and socioeconomic status. Results showed thatabused mothers were found to differ significantly from control mothers in the structure and content of their free-response perceptions of their own babies. Specifically, abused mothers lagged behind controls in how well differentiated were their negative perceptions of their babies. Conversely, abused mothers were comparable to controls with respect to differentiation of positive perceptions of babies. The authors assert that the findings constitute a discovery about the structural organization of social cognition in mothers at risk for child abuse. Five figures; 27 references. (Author abstract modified.)

 

KEY TERMS:         child abuse history;  abusive parents;  children at risk;  longitudinal studies;  perceptions;  data collection;  data analysis;  social cognition

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Childhood History of Abuse and Child Abuse Potential in Adolescent Mothers: A Longitudinal

 

AUTHOR:               De Paul, J.;  Domenech, L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Basque Univ., San Sebastian (Spain). Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                24(5): pp. 701-713;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., May 2000;  p. 360

 

ABSTRACT:           The authors describe a longitudinal study to determine whether adolescent mothers of newborns are at higher risk for child abuse than adult mothers of newborns. The study also examined whether adolescent mothers with memories of child abuse and/or memories of childhood emotional withdrawal have a higher risk for child abuse. The sample consisted of 48 mothers--24 adolescents and 24 adults--from Spain whose participation started in the 5th to 7th month of their pregnancy and continued until the child was 18 months old. During pregnancy, memories of child abuse were evaluated. Risk for child abuse was evaluated when the child was one month, six months, 12 months, and 18 months old. Results showed that while adolescent and adult mothersshowed no differences in memories of childhood physical or emotional abuse, adolescent mothers showed higher child abuse potential and depression scores than adult mothers. Mothers with memories of severe physical punishment showed higher child abuse potential scores and mothers with memories of physical punishment producing physical damage showed higher child abuse potential and depression scores. A statistically significant age of the mother by physical punishment producing physical damage interaction was found for depression. Conclusions supported the original predictions that the potential for abuse was significantly greater in adolescent mothers than in adult mothers, and in mothers who had been victims of physical abuse than in those who had not. At also appeared that, among adolescent mothers, that those who had been victims of abuse represented a higher risk group for child abuse. Two tables; four figures; numerous references. (Author abstract modified.)

 

KEY TERMS:         child abuse history;  children at risk;  adolescent mothers;  longitudinal studies;  spain;  data collection;  data analysis;  risk factors

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Amnesia for Summer Camps and High School Graduation: Memory Work Increases Reports of Prior Periods of Remembering Loss.

 

AUTHOR:               Read, J. D.;  Lindsay, D. S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Traumatic Stress

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Lethbridge Univ., AL (Canada).

 

SOURCE:                13(1): pp. 129-147;  Kluwer Academic-Plenum Publishers, Dordrecht (The Netherlands)., January 2000;  p. 380

 

ABSTRACT:           Claims regarding amnesia for childhood sexual abuse have often been based on studies of adults' responses to questions of the form, Was there ever a period of time when you remembered less of the abuse than you do now? In this +; experiment, 43 adult participants, average age of 42 years old, rated their current and prior memories of several nontraumatic childhood/adolescent related events. Reports of prior periods of less memory were fairly common. Participants then engaged in +; reminiscence or enhanced retrieval activities directed toward remembering more about a selected target event. Following retrieval, 35 percent of the reminiscence condition participants reported prior poor memory for the target event, as did 70 percent of+; the enhanced condition. These results highlight the need for appropriate control conditions in retrospective studies of amnesia for childhood trauma. 49 references, 1 figure, and 1 table. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  adults abused as children;  repression;  research methodology;  trauma;  amnesia;  child abuse research;  individual therapy

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wkap.nl

 

 

TITLE:                    Questioning the Child Witness: What Can We Conclude From the Research Thus Far?

 

AUTHOR:               Quas, J. A.;  Goodman, G. S.;  Ghetti, S.;  Redlich, A. D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Trauma, Violence, and Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    California Univ., Irvine. Dept. of Psychology and Social Behavior.

 

SOURCE:                1(3): pp. 223-249;  Sage Publications Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA., July 2000;  p. 461

 

ABSTRACT:           In recent years increasing numbers of studies have investigated children's memory, suggestibility, and false event reports. This article highlights key findings from and implications of this research for interviewing child witnesses. First, developmental changes in children s memory and suggestibility are discussed, spanning from the early childhood years through middle childhood, suggesting that the most consistent and robust predictor of differences in children's performance is age. Second, theory and research concerning relations between emotional distress and children's memory are reviewed, with an emphasis on methodological differences that have led to varied results across studies and sheds light on the degree to which emotional distress helps versus hinders children ' memory and suggestibility. Third is a description of factors associated with the context of an interview that may influence children's susceptibility to false suggestions, in particular discussing the implications of questioning tactics and contextual features of forensic interviews. Fourth, recent studies are discussed concerning individual differences in children's mnemonic capabilities, suggestibility, and false memories. Finally, recommendations are provided about what can and cannot be concluded from research on questioning child witnesses, with an eye on aiding professionals in understanding the research and its capabilities and limitations. Numerous references. (Author abstract modified.)

 

KEY TERMS:         child witnesses;  research;  false allegations;  memory;  suggestibility;  stress;  risk factors;  literature review

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    Sympathy for the Devil: False Memories, the Media, and the Mind Controllers. The Afterword to Secret Survivors.

 

AUTHOR:               Blume, E. S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Treating Abuse Today

 

SOURCE:                9(3): pp. 8-39;  Survivors and Victims Empowered, Lancaster, PA., 2000;  p. 492

 

ABSTRACT:           This article takes a decidedly political approach to the issues surrounding false memory syndrome. The author, a proponent of the validity of survivors' repression of traumatic events, had published a book about the topic ten years earlier; this article is a rebuttal to critics of the book and a counterpoint to opponents who have attempted to discredit the theory. The arguments are described as not an academic debate between two well-meaning groups equally invested in ascertaining truth, but rather as a political fight between a group of people who are threatened by disclosures of sexual abuse and a group of well-meaning, ill-organized, underfinanced and often naive academics who expected fair play in the debate. The author accuses critics of false memory syndrome, termed backlashers or simply lashers, of perpetuating a big lie and engaging in a campaign of harassment, fear, and character assassination against trauma clinicians. The article describes tactics used by these groups and concludes with a personal attack against one particular (unnamed) lasher, accusing the person of advocating pedophilia and incest. The author insists that these views are not typical of just the fringe elements of the backlash movement.

 

KEY TERMS:         false memory syndrome;  sexual abuse;  incest;  ritual abuse;  mass

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Sexual Abuse Litigation: A Practical Resource for Attorneys, Clinicians, and Advocates.

 

AUTHOR:               Rix, R. (Editor)

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

SOURCE:                Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 2000;  p. 607

 

ABSTRACT:           The articles in this reference provide an overview of considerations in the legal representation of adults who were sexually abused in childhood. The majority of the text focuses on lawsuits filed by adults who have repressed memories of abuse. Chapters present a history of trauma research and delayed discovery statutes and review sexual abuse litigation, the admissibility of scientific evidence regarding delayed memories, and accessing insurance for payment of damages. The role of expert witnesses and the importance of collaboration with clinicians are also described. Appendices include a state by state analysis of requirements regarding statutes of limitations in cases of child sexual abuse; questions for plaintiff forensic experts; and selections of the testimony of Elizabeth Loftus, PhD about memory and suggestibility.

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  lawsuits;  adults abused as children;  lawyers responsibility;  memory;  expert witnesses;  false memory syndrome;  evidence presentation

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Grandparent Education.

 

AUTHOR:               Chenoweth, L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Texas Women's Univ., Denton. Dept. of Family Sciences.

 

SOURCE:                In: Hayslip, B.; Goldberg-Glen, R. (Editors). Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: Theoretical, Empirical and Clinical Perspectives. Springer Publishing Co., Inc., New York, NY., 2000;  p. 630

 

ABSTRACT:           Grandparents usually model their behavior on their childhood memories of their own grandparents. However, grandparents who are thrust into the custodial, primary caregiver role, have no such preparation or example for their new position. Custodial grandparents need support and education to cope with the special challenges of their children and grandchildren and to improve their attitudes about the situation. Effective grandparent education programs should be strength-based, culturally responsive, and focused on support. Elements may include needs assessment, a targeted audience, and programs about self-care, communication, guidance, and advocacy. Information can be disseminated through small groups, at home, in the print media, and on the Internet. 47 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         kinship care;  grandparents;  parent education;  program models;  parental role;  cultural competency;  needs assessment;  service delivery

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.springerpub.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Loss and Grief in Adoption: The Impact of Contact.

 

AUTHOR:               Courtney, A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Adoption and Fostering

 

SOURCE:                24(2): pp. 33-44;  British Agencies for Adoption and Fostering, London (United Kingdom)., 2000;  p. 732

 

ABSTRACT:           Adopted children experience the loss of significant attachment relationships, based on the internal working models of their parents that were formed from birth. Their memories of their relationship with their parents can strongly affectthem throughout childhood. This article suggests that before children can move on to the next stage of mourning their losses, those original models have to be understood. One method for resolving the birth parent-child relationship is to incorporate thebirth parent in some way into the daily life and relationships of the child after he or she is adopted. The likely effect of contact is discussed in the article, as is the role of the adoptive parent and possible therapeutic intervention. 45 references.(Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         attachment;  adjustment problems;  post adoption contact;  birth families;  visitation;  loss;  therapeutic intervention;  sequelae

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.baaf.org.uk

 

 

TITLE:                    Child Characteristics Which Impact Accuracy of Recall and Suggestibility in Preschoolers: Is Age the Best Predictor?

 

AUTHOR:               Geddie, L.;  Fradin, S.;  Beer, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    East Carolina Univ., Greenville, NC. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                24(2): pp. 223-235;  Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY., February 2000

 

ABSTRACT:           This study determined whether individual difference factors of metamemory, intelligence, and temperament can improve the ability to predict accuracy of recall and suggestibility in preschoolers. Fifty-six children ranging in age from 43 months to 83 months were recruited from 13 child care centers in a rural southwestern town. Children participated in a circus day event conducted by 2 female undergraduate psychology students dressed as clowns. About 10 days after the event, children were interviewed regarding their experiences. Bivariate correlations and multiple regression analyses were performed in order to determine which factors were related and unique contributors to accuracy of memory and suggestibility. Of principal importance is the finding that child characteristics such as metamemory ability, intellectual functioning, and temperament may indeed be helpful in determining a child's capacity to accurately recall information in an interview, although for the most part age is the best predictor. Findings also underscore the importance of considering a child's socioeconomic status and race when planning and conducting interviews with young children. Possible explanations for these findings as well as implications for future research and clinical application are discussed. 2 tables and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         preschool children;  memory;  suggestibility;  individual characteristics;  predictor variables;  interviews;  intelligence

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Texture Response Patterns Associated With Sexual Trauma of Childhood and Adult Onset: Developmental and Recovered Memory Implications.

 

AUTHOR:               Leavitt, F.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Rush Medical Coll., Chicago, IL. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                24(2): pp. 251-257;  Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY., February 2000

 

ABSTRACT:           Reduced texture sensitivity on the Rorschach is proposed as a sequela of early sexual abuse that is unlikely to be contaminated by situational variables. If this conceptualization has merit, texture attributes offer a roadmap for studying vying claims in the recovered memory debate. To explore this possibility, the authors of this study examined the extent to which intense preoccupation with sexual trauma of childhood and of adult onset was related to reduced texture productivity. Texture productivity was measured in 4 groups comprised of 108 patients using the Rorschach. Twenty-seven patients with recovered memory were compared with 27 patients with continuous memory of childhood sexual trauma, 27 post trauma stress patients with sexual trauma of adult onset, and 27 non-abused patients. The study replicated previous findings of reduced texture productivity among patients who always remembered sexual trauma of childhood-onset. The same texture deficiency pattern was observed among patients who recovered memory of childhood sexual abuse. This pattern was not observed in post-traumatic stress disorder patients intensely preoccupied with sexual trauma of adult onset despite the fact that they mimicked the recovered memory group in respect to enduring preoccupation with distressing thoughts of sexual abuse. The findings indicate that intrusive memories of sexual trauma do not shape patients' response to textural cues on the Rorschach. Variations in texture productivity are primarily moderated by age of trauma onset. Dismissal of claims of recovered memories on the intense sexual preoccupation is not warranted. 2 tables and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  posttraumatic stress disorder;  memory;  trauma;  sequelae

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Adult Survivors of Sexual Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:               Gold, S. N.;  Brown, L. S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Nova Southeastern Univ., Fort Lauderdale, FL. Trauma Resolution Integration Program.

 

SOURCE:                In: Ammerman, R. T.; Hersen, M. (Editors). Assessment of Family Violence: A Clinical and Legal Sourcebook, Second Edition. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA., 1999;  p. 181

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter provides an introduction to considerations for assessing adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Evaluators are cautioned that the assessment of this population requires extensive specialized knowledge about psychological trauma, interpersonal violence and abuse, posttraumatic stress, and dissociative symptomatology. The chapter reviews general aspects of assessment of adult survivors, including establishing rapport and maintaining conceptual clarity. Strategies for assessing current difficulties, dysfunctional coping strategies, abuse history, the context of the childhood sexual abuse, and the strengths and resources of survivors are also discussed. In addition to these areas addressed by clinical assessors, forensic evaluators must also investigate groups for civil liability and the reliability of the survivor's testimony. They must find evidence to confirm or refute the survivor's report from reports of covictims, autobiographical material by the survivor during the time of the abuse, school and childhood medical records, reports of peers of the survivor, and sexual history of the alleged perpetrator. Sources of possible contamination of the survivor's memory must also be identified, including the circumstances of delayed recall. A case study is presented in the chapter to illustrate assessment issues.

 

KEY TERMS:         adults abused as children;  sexual abuse;  assessment;  measures;  sequelae;  child abuse history;  forensic psychiatry;  legal processes

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.josseybass.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Memories of Childhood Abuse: Dissociation, Amnesia, and Corroboration.

 

AUTHOR:               Chu, J. A.;  Frey, L. M.;  Ganzel, B. L.;  Matthews, J. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    American Journal of Psychiatry

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA. Dissociative Disorders and Trauma Program.

 

SOURCE:                165(5): pp. 749-755;  American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC., May 1999;  p. 217

 

ABSTRACT:           This study investigated the relationship between self-reported childhood abuse and dissociative symptoms and amnesia. The presence or absence of corroboration of recovered memories of childhood abuse was also studied. Ninety female patients admitted to a unit specializing in the treatment of trauma-related disorders completed instruments that measured dissociative symptoms and elicited details concerning childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, and witnessing abuse. They also underwent a structured interview that asked about amnesia for traumatic experiences, the circumstances of recovered memory, the role of suggestion in recovered memories, and independent corroboration of the memories. Participants reporting any type of childhood abuse demonstrated elevated levels of dissociative symptoms that were significantly higher than those in subjects not reporting abuse. Higher dissociative symptoms were correlated with early age at onset of physical and sexual abuse and more frequent sexual abuse. A substantial proportion of participants with all types of abuse reported partial or complete amnesia for abuse memories. For physical and sexual abuse, early age at onset was correlated with greater levels of amnesia. Participantswho reported recovering memories of abuse generally recalled these experiences while at home, alone, or with family or friends. Although some participants were in treatment at the time, very few were in therapy sessions during their first memory recovery. Suggestion was generally denied as a factor in memory recovery. A majority of participants were able to find strong corroboration of their recovered memories. Childhood abuse, particularly chronic abuse beginning at early ages, is related to the development of high levels of dissociative symptoms, including amnesia for abuse memories. This study strongly suggests that psychotherapy usually is not associated with memory recovery and that independent corroboration of recovered memories of abuse is often present. 39 references and 6 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  adults abused as children;  sequelae;  dissociation;  amnesia;  corroboration;  child abuse research;  trauma

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Does Childhood Sexual Abuse Cause Borderline Personality Disorder?

 

AUTHOR:               Bailey, J. M.;  Shriver, A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                25(1): pp. 45-57;  Taylor and Francis, Levittown, PA., 1999;  p. 219

 

ABSTRACT:           This article reports the findings of a survey of psychologists about the likelihood that patients with various personality disorders would engage in behaviors relevant to several alternative interpretations. Relative to patients with other personality disorders and to the typical outpatient, patients with borderline personality disorder were rated as especially likely to misinterpret or misremember social interactions, to lie manipulatively and convincingly, and to have voluntarily entered destructive sexual relationships, possibly even at young ages. The article offers several alternative explanations for the link between childhood sexual abuse and borderline personality disorder, including reports of sexual abuse made because theindividual with borderline personality disorder misinterpreted the situation or intentionally misreported it for some reason; that memories were suggested; and that studies that include adolescents in the sample skew findings regarding sexual activity. Methodological implications of the study are also discussed in the article. 46 references and 1 table. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  sequelae;  adults abused as children;  personality disorders;  personality problems;  models;  child abuse research;  interpersonal relationships

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.taylorandfrancis.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Overcoming Obstacles to Just Evaluation and Successful Prosecution of Multivictim Cases.

 

AUTHOR:               Dalenberg, C. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Trauma Research Institute, San Diego, CA.

 

SOURCE:                2(2): pp. 141-163;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 1999;  p. 324

 

ABSTRACT:           The multivictim case presents special difficulties for the child protection system, including enhanced probability of multiple interviews and potential contamination of children s narratives by a variety of sources. Further, multivictimcases have been empirically shown to be more likely to involve severely abused children, fantastic claims, and other complicating factors. This paper presents several complications likely to arise in such cases and a number of potential routes to mitigate the problems that occur. The complications include the impact of repeated interviews and delayed interviews, the use of leading questions, bizarre detail disclosed by the child, allegations of extreme trauma or abuse, contamination of testimony,the involvement of the child s therapist, advocacy groups and the media, and accusations against the interviewer. 46 references and 6 tables. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         multivictim cases;  investigations;  barriers;  memory;  interviews;  protocols;  testimony;  suggestibility

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Neural Correlates of Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse In Women With and Without Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

 

AUTHOR:               Bremner, J. D.;  Narayan, M.;  Staib, L. H.;  Southwick, S. M.;  et al.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    American Journal of Psychiatry

 

SOURCE:                156(11): pp. 1787-1795;  American Journal of Psychiatry, Washington, DC., November 1999;  p. 391

 

ABSTRACT:           The purpose of this study was to measure neural correlates of memories of childhood abuse in sexually abused women with and without the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Twenty-two women with a history of childhood sexual abuse underwent injection of [O]]H2O, followed by positron emission tomography imaging of the brain while they listened to neutral and traumatic (personalized childhood sexual abuse events) scripts. Brain blood flow during exposure to traumatic and neutral scripts was compared for sexually abuse women with and without PTSD. Memories of childhood sexual abuse were associated with greater increases in blood flow in portions of anterior prefrontal cortex (superior and middle frontal gyri areas 6 and 9), posterior cingulated (area 31), and motor cortex in sexually abused women with PTSD than in sexually abused women without PTSD. Abuse memories were associated with alternations in blood flow in medial prefrontal cortex, with decreased blood flow in subcallosal gyrus (area 25), and a failure of activation in anterior cingulated (area 32). There was also decreased blood flow in right hippocampus, fusiform/inferior temporal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, and visual association cortex in women with PTSD relative to women without PTSD. These findings implicate dysfunction of medial prefrontal cortex (subcallocal gyrus and anterior cingulated), hippocampus, and visual association cortex in pathological memories of childhood abuse in women with PTSD. Increased activation in posterior cingulated and motor cortex was seen in women with PTSD. Dysfunction in these brain areas may underlie PTSD symptoms provoked by traumatic reminders in subjects with PTSD. 61 references, 3 figures, and 4 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  adults abused as children;  posttraumatic stress disorder;  memory;  neurology;  neurological impairments;  sequelae;  female victims

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Brief Research Report: Age Factors Affecting the Believability of Repressed Memories of Child Sexual Assault.

 

AUTHOR:               Golding, J. M.;  Sanchez, R. P.;  Sego, S. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Law and Human Behavior

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Kentucky Univ., Lexington. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                23(2): pp. 257-268;  Kluwer Academic-Plenum Publishing, Dordrecht (The Netherlands)., April 1999;  p. 562

 

ABSTRACT:           Two experiments investigated how mock jurors react to testimony involving a claim of repressed memory in a case involving child sexual assault. Participants read a fictional civil trial summary presented in one of three conditions: +; immediate condition - the alleged victim testified immediately after the incident; repressed condition - the alleged victim reported the assault 1-39 years later, after remembering it for the first time; or not-repressed condition - the alleged victim +; reported the assault 1-39 years later, but the memory of the assault had been present for those years. When there was any type of delayed reporting, either the age of the alleged victim at the time of the assault was constant and her age at reporting +; varied (Experiment 1) or the age of the alleged victim at the time of the assault varied and her age at reporting remained constant (Experiment 2). The results showed that a delay in reporting an incident adversely affected believability of the alleged +; victim and led to fewer rulings in support of the plaintiff compared to reporting it immediately; longer delays in reporting generally led to lower alleged victim believability and fewer decisions in support of the plaintiff than shorter delays; the age +; of the alleged victim at the time of the incident was a critical variable in determining belief of the alleged victim; and men generally rated believability of the alleged victim lower and ruled in favor of the plaintiff less often than women. The +; results are discussed in terms of the psychosocial factors affecting the perception of delayed reporting in a child sexual assault trial. 21 references and 2 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         age factors;  sexual abuse;  repression;  adults abused as

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wkap.nl

 

 

TITLE:                    Media Impact on Biased Perceptual Processing of Threat-Relevant Imagery Among Patients Who Recovered Memory of Childhood Sexual Abuse Prior to the Onset of Treatment.

 

AUTHOR:               Leavitt, F.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Sexual Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Rush Medical Coll., Chicago, IL. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                8(4): pp. 91-102;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 1999;  p. 570

 

ABSTRACT:           Several recent studies have indicated that patients who report a history of sexual abuse on the basis of recovered or delayed recall of memory process Rorschach stimuli in ways that substantially deviate from non-abused patients. They +; exhibited sensitivity to threat-relevant imagery that was highly similar to the biased perceptual processing found among patients with continuously held memories of sexual abuse. In the present study, perceptual processing of threat-relevant imagery was +; examined as an artifact of media exposure in 40 patients who recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse as adults and in 40 patients who were not sexually abused. The two patient samples were divided into high and low media groups on the basis of a +; composite measure of media exposure. The results indicated that information gained from media exposure was unrelated to patients responses to Rorschach stimuli. Recovered memory patients produced threat-relevant imagery that is reminiscent of trauma +; irrespective of the level of media exposure; non-abused patients did not. That this imagery remained essentially unnoticed by even the most active consumers of the sexual abuse media among non-abused patients suggests that the popular media does not play+; a contagious role in the perceptual process of threat-relevant imagery. 23 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  repression;  adults abused as children;  sexual abuse;  sequelae;  psychological evaluation;  mass media;  child abuse research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Adult Birth Siblings: Who Are They and Why Do They Search?

 

AUTHOR:               Pavlovic, A.;  Mullender, A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University Coll., Northampton (United Kingdom). Dept. of Sociology.

 

SOURCE:                In: Mullender, A. (Editor). We Are Family: Sibling Relationships in Placement and Beyond. British Agencies for Adoption and Fostering, London (United Kingdom)., 1999;  p. 603

 

ABSTRACT:           Twenty-four individuals searching for siblings through the Adoption Contact Register for England and Wales were interviewed about their motivations for searching for siblings, the meaning of sibling relationships, and the implications of sibling relationships for policy and practice. The participants were from a wide range of care experiences, including conventional families, stepfamilies, kinship care, adoption, foster care, group homes, and orphanages. Although sibling status did not matter to the individuals seeking half- or stepsiblings, it was important to those looking for full siblings (both parents in common). Participants described the following elements in their attempts to identify what it means to be a sibling: blood ties; lifelong relationships; shared history; childhood memories of siblings; the need to resolve a personal emotional issue; and parental feelings toward the missing sibling. The intense feelings of loss experienced by the searchers demonstrates the need to reform legal and social work practices to preserve sibling relationships. 5 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         siblings;  sibling relationships;  birth families;  adopted adults;  reunions;  search for birth children;  adoption research;  reunion registries

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.baaf.org.uk

 

 

TITLE:                    Defense Styles of Women Who Have Experienced Child Sexual Abuse: A Comparative Community Study.

 

AUTHOR:               Romans, S. E.;  Martin, J. L.;  Morris, E. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand). Dept. of Psychological Medicine.

 

SOURCE:                In: Williams, L. M. and Banyard, V. L. (Editors). Trauma and Memory. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., 1999;  pp. 291-198

 

ABSTRACT:           Participants in a women's health survey were reinterviewed for this follow-up study to examine the differences in coping styles between women who were sexually abused as children and women who were not sexually abused. The Defense Style Questionnaire was administered to 173 women in the abuse group and 178 women from the nonabuse group of the original study conducted six years earlier. The instrument categorized 20 different styles of coping, including mature defenses, neurotic defenses, and immature defenses. Overall, there were no significant differences in the defenses used by abused and nonabused women. However, women who experienced intercourse during their abuse were significantly more likely to use immature defenses. Differences in the age of the women are also reported. 27 references and 2 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         adults abused as children;  trauma;  memory;  sexual abuse;  defense mechanisms;  coping skills

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    Coping With Traumatic Stress Interfers With the Memory of the Event: A New Conceptual Mechanism for the Protective Effects of Stress Control.

 

AUTHOR:               Drugan, R. C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    New Hampshire Univ., Durham. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                In: Williams, L. M. and Banyard, V. L. (Editors). Trauma and Memory. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., 1999;  pp. 245-256

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter reviews research on the effects of stress on brain functioning to demonstrate that the action of coping with trauma may enhance resilience, while the failure to cope may lead to depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. The discussion reviews the role of endogenous systems believed to moderate stress, including norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, and gamma-amniobutyric acid. Of these benzodiazepine gamma- amnibutyric (GABA) acid is proposed as the most likely source of behavioral and pharmacological reductions of stress. For example, coping is thought to trigger GABA-enhancing substances which may cause a certain degree of amnesia about the traumatic event. In addition, studies of the role of neuroasteroids indicate that a steroid synthesis inhibitor will help to improve memory. The chapter presents a model of the progression of stable memories through increased GABA levels, self-reflection, and recall of the traumatic event. Theories about the relationship between stress, coping, memory, and risk for substance abuse are discussed. Numerous references and 2 figures.

 

KEY TERMS:         trauma;  memory;  stress;  coping skills;  stress management;  sequelae;  posttraumatic stress disorder;  etiology

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    Neuropsychological Sequelae of Chronically Psychologically Traumatized Children: Specific Findings in Memory and Higher Cognitive Functions.

 

AUTHOR:               Palmer, L. K.;  Frantz, C. E.;  Armsworth, M. W.;  Swank, P. et al.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Seton Hall Univ., South Orange, NJ.

 

SOURCE:                In: Williams, L. M. and Banyard, V. L. (Editors). Trauma and Memory. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., 1999;  pp. 229-244

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter reports the findings of a study of the effects of abuse on the developing brain functions of children. Twenty sexually abused school aged girls were compared with 20 nonabused school-aged girls to test the hypothesis that the groups would differ on memory and higher cognitive functions because of the neuropsychological effects of abuse. Measures included the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist, the Neuropsychological History Form, the History of Victimization Questionnaire, and a battery of neuropsychological tests for memory, learning, attention, and intelligence. Abused girls differed from nonabused subjects on verbal intelligence, recording significantly lower scores in that domain of cognitive functioning. Significant differences were also found on anxiety and depression. There appeared to be no differences in memory functioning. Reasons for these results are examined in the chapter. Limitations of the study and recommendations for further research are discussed. Numerous references and 2 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         neurology;  psychology;  sequelae;  memory;  trauma;  cognitive development;  posttraumatic stress disorder;  child development

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    Traumatic Memories Lost and Found: Can Lost Memories of Abuse Be Found in the Brain?

 

AUTHOR:               Bremner, J. D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Yale Univ., New Haven, CT. School of Medicine.

 

SOURCE:                In: Williams, L. M. and Banyard, V. L. (Editors). Trauma and Memory. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., 1999;  pp. 217-227

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter examines the neuroanatomical mechanisms of memory and the effects of stress on memory to demonstrate the differences between brain functioning in normal people and in chronically stressed individuals. These differences may account for the phenomena of repressed memories and delayed recall of traumatic events. Research has found evidence of hippocampal dysfunction, problems with conditioned fear response and amygdala functioning, high levels of neuropeptides, and abnormal encoding patterns in patients diagnosed with post traumatic stress disorder. These abnormalities may result in memory fragmentation, delayed or impaired recall, unconscious avoidance dues associated with trauma, and other changes in memory patterns. Clinical applications of these findings are discussed. 66 references and 1 table.

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  trauma;  neurology;  psychological stress;  posttraumatic stress disorder;  research reviews;  sequelae;  repression

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    From Victim to Survivor: Recovered Memories and Identity Transformation.

 

AUTHOR:               Warner, S.;  Feltey, K. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University of Akron, OH.

 

SOURCE:                In: Williams, L. M. and Banyard, V. L. (Editors). Trauma and Memory. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., 1999;  pp. 161-172

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter reviews the preliminary findings of a study of the memory recovery process and the transformation in identity from victim to survivor of childhood sexual abuse. Four women who reported recovered memories of abuse were interviewed about their lives before they recalled the abuse, the role of therapy in recovering memories, the impact of the recovered memories on their lives, and the overall effect of the memory process. An analysis of the patterns in responses revealed that all of the women were vaguely uncomfortable about their childhoods before they remembered their abuse. The women also reported depression, dysfunctional families, and a gradual process of remembering the abuse. Memory fragments and flashbacks were common. Therapy, especially specialized group therapy, helped the women cope with their experiences. They all reported greater satisfaction with their lives since they recovered their memories and have re-defined themselves as survivors, speaking publicly about their stories to raise awareness of the problem. (13 references.)

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  trauma;  sequelae;  adults abused as children;  repression;  theories;  self concept;  qualitative research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    Participation in Retrospective Child Sexual Abuse Research: Beneficial or Harmful? What Women Think Six Years Later.

 

AUTHOR:               Martin, J. L.;  Perrott, K.;  Morris, E. M.;  Romans, S. E.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Otago Medical School, Dunedin (New Zealand).

 

SOURCE:                In: Williams, L. M. and Banyard, V. L. (Editors). Trauma and Memory. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., 1999;  pp. 149-159

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter describes the findings of a qualitative study that measured the impact of participation in sexual abuse research. A total of 354 women were interviewed 6 years after they participated in a study about the prevalence and effects of child sexual abuse. The sample included women with and without a history of child sexual abuse. Interviews focused on memories of the last interview and comfort with discussing sexual abuse experiences. Women without a history of child sexual abuse were highly comfortable discussing abuse, while survivors of sexual abuse were moderately comfortable with the topic. Half of all the women indicated that the original interview was a positive experience and 21 participants reported that it was a negative experience. Abused women were more likely to rate the interview as positive. Ethical implications of these findings for future research are discussed. 12 references and 3 figures.

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  adults abused as children;  research methodology;  sequelae;  interviews;  memory;  trauma;  ethics

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    Sexual Abuse History With and Without Self-Report of Memory Loss: Differences in Psychopathology, Personality, and Dissociation.

 

AUTHOR:               Sheiman, J. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Kutztown Univ., PA.

 

SOURCE:                In: Williams, L. M. and Banyard, V. L. (Editors). Trauma and Memory. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., 1999;  pp. 139-148

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter reports the findings of a study that compared the personality and psychological characteristics of survivors of child sexual abuse who had some memory loss about their abuse with survivors who had no memory problems. It was hypothesized that individuals who experienced dissociation or memory loss would have higher levels of hypochondriasis, depression, hysteria, and psychopathic deviation than survivors with no memory loss and participants without a sexual abuse history. The sample included 31 survivors of sexual abuse with no memory loss of their abuse, 14 survivors who had some memory loss, and 105 participants with no sexual abuse history. All of the study participants completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, second edition, the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The results revealed significant differences between abused and nonabused participants on depression, psychopathic deviate, paranoia, and psychasthenia, while only survivors with memory loss had higher scores on hypochondriasis and hysteria. No differences were found between the sexual abuse memory groups on depression and psychopathic deviate measures. 15 references, 1 figure, and 5 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         adults abused as children;  memory;  trauma;  psychopathology;  dissociation;  personality;  sexual abuse;  psychological characteristics

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    Bulimia Nervosa, PTSD, and Forgetting: Results from the National Women's Study.

 

AUTHOR:               Brewerton, T. D.;  Dansky, B. S.;  Kilpatrick, D. G.;  O'Neil, P. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Medical Univ. of South Carolina, Charleston. Dept. of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences.

 

SOURCE:                In: Williams, L. M. and Banyard, V. L. (Editors). Trauma and Memory. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., 1999;  pp. 127-138

 

ABSTRACT:           This study analyzed data from the third wave of the National Women's Study to investigate the relationships between forgetting trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bulimia nervosa. A total of 3,006 women were interviewed and screened for bulimia, victimization, post-traumatic stress disorder, psychogenic amnesia, major depression, and alcohol and drug addiction. Eleven percent of the women indicated that they had forgotten some parts of traumatic events. Women diagnosed with bulimia nervosa were significantly more likely to report memory problems. Recall difficulties also were related to posttraumatic stress disorder, obesity, weight fluctuations, purging, and major depression. 38 references and 6 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         bulimia;  posttraumatic stress disorder;  memory;  trauma;  repression;  dissociation;  sequelae

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    Memories for Child Sexual Abuse and Mental Health Functioning: Findings on a Sample of Women and Implications for Future Research.

 

AUTHOR:               Banyard, V. L.;  Williams, L. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    New Hampshire Univ., Durham. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                In: Williams, L. M. and Banyard, V. L. (Editors). Trauma and Memory. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., 1999;  pp. 115-125

 

ABSTRACT:           This NCCAN-funded study examined the effects of trauma on memories of child sexual abuse to determine the value of dissociation for mental health functioning. The sample included 129 women who had documented histories of child sexual abuse 17 years previously. Thirty-eight percent of the participants reported no memories of the target abuse event. All of the participants were interviewed about family relationships, substance abuse, sexual history, psychological functioning, and history of abuse. Participants who did not remember begin abused were not told about it. Women who did recall their sexual abuse were asked about the clarity of their memories and if they had ever forgotten it. Women who had forgotten their abuse at some time were grouped with the participants who had no recall of abuse into the memory problems group and their psychological functioning was compared with women who always remembered abuse. Overall, there were no significant differences in the mental health of the women with and without memory problems. However, women who were older when the abuse occurred reported more symptoms. Implications for future research are discussed. 33 references and 6 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         trauma;  memory;  sexual abuse;  mental health;  adults abused as children;  child development;  repression;  dissociation

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    Remembering Incest: The Complexities of This Process and Implications for Civil Statutes of Limitations.

 

AUTHOR:               Dorado, J. S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

SOURCE:                In: Williams, L. M. and Banyard, V. L. (Editors). Trauma and Memory. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., 1999;  pp. 93-111

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter reports the findings of a study of the experiences of seven incest survivors to demonstrate the failure of the legal system to consider the process of recovering traumatic memories. Each study participant was interviewed for at least six hours about her victimization, the memory process, and her reactions to the memory of abuse. Qualitative data analyses revealed that memories often began with a precursor, or memory fragment that did not make sense when first remembered. The first recognized memories consisted of images of the perpetrator and feelings during the abuse. Two of the participants dissociated again after the first memories of abuse, making the memory process even more complex. These processes of remembering incest are different than other memories and are often not as clearly identified as assumed by the Michigan statute of limitations. The occurrence of memory fragments and periods of dissociation should be considered in the state statute. Implications for policy and research are discussed. 29 references and 1 figure.

 

KEY TERMS:         incest;  memory;  trauma;  statute of limitations;  legal processes;  lawsuits;  adults abused as children;  michigan

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    Memory, Research, and the Law: Future Directions.

 

AUTHOR:               Conte, J. R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Washington Univ., Seattle. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                In: Williams, L. M. and Banyard, V. L. (Editors). Trauma and Memory. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., 1999;  pp. 77-92

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter reviews the evidence presented in a hearing on two court cases involving recovered memories of childhood trauma. The arguments presented in State of New Hampshire v. Joel Hungerford and State of New Hampshire v. John Morahan focused on the legitimacy of repressed memories. Three expert witnesses for the defense testified in a joint hearing about suggestibility, creation of pseudomemories, the lack of proof of repression, and therapy as suggestion. The chapter compares the nature of the testimony against standards established in Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals in 1993 for expert witnesses. It concludes that the evidence refuting the existence of repression fails to meet guidelines for scientific testing and peer review, methodological standards, and acceptance in the scientific community. Recommendations for improved research methodologies are discussed. 29 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         trauma;  memory;  repression;  adults abused as children;  false memory syndrome;  research methodology;  research needs;  expert testimony

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    Ethical Considerations in the Teaching of Trauma and Dissociation: Student Exposure and Unexpected Memory.

 

AUTHOR:               Miller, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    New York Univ., New York. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                In: Williams, L. M. and Banyard, V. L. (Editors). Trauma and Memory. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., 1999;  pp. 67-75

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter reviews the effects of trauma studies on students in professional education courses and describes strategies for ensuring that the classroom is a safe environment for individuals who may be reminded of childhood trauma. The nature of trauma curriculum for social work, psychology, and psychiatry promotes an empathic identification with victims of childhood trauma, which often results in self-examinations of the students' own childhoods. Some students may recover memories of abuse during this phase of the training and react with disclosure, dissociation, or disorganization. However, the classroom is not a private clinical setting and the instructor is not the students' therapist. The instructor must keep his or her role clear, being sensitive to the class affect and responding appropriately to disclosures made in class and outside of class. Students should be supported and encouraged to seek assistance from the student health agency or private therapists. Other recommendations for maintaining safety in the learning environment are discussed. 39 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         ethics;  professional training;  trauma;  dissociation;  social workers;  psychologists;  disclosure;  adults abused as children

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    Remembering Trauma: A Characterological Perspective.

 

AUTHOR:               Piers, C. C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Austen Riggs Center, Stockbridge, MA.

 

SOURCE:                In: Williams, L. M. and Banyard, V. L. (Editors). Trauma and Memory. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., 1999;  pp. 57-65

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter criticizes the current focus on dissociation and trauma in therapy and suggests that therapists also consider the character of the patient. It asserts that character, or the individual's perceptions and mannerisms, affects the way a person reacts and responds to trauma. While dissociation theory proposes that symptomatic behaviors are caused by reminders of past trauma that are stored in the patient's mind, the characterological framework attributes maladaptive symptoms to a conflicted character. Although trauma has an impact on development, specific responses to trauma depend on other factors, including the child's system for organizing experiences, as well as the developmental, family, and social environment. The chapter reviews the memory process and describes the typical presentations of patients with a history of trauma. Implications for therapeutic intervention are discussed. 36 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  trauma;  dissociation;  psychotherapy;  therapists role;  psychopathology;  psychological characteristics;  personality

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    Recollections of Sexual Abuse: Treatment Principles and Guidelines.

 

AUTHOR:               Courtois, C. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Psychiatric Institute, Washington, DC.

 

SOURCE:                New York, NY, W. W. Norton and Co., 1999;  455 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This book reviews current knowledge about repressed memories and provides guidelines for treating psychotherapy patients who have memories of sexual abuse. It includes an in-depth analysis of the repressed memory controversy and its implications for practice. The first two chapters place the recovered memory debate within a sociohistorical context, as well as in the present. Remaining chapters examine the effects of trauma and child sexual abuse on memory and outline a philosophy and principles for practice. Chapter Six presents a model of posttrauma treatment that focuses on the relief of symptoms and the restoration of functioning. The multimodal model involves a sequence of specific tasks ranging from personal safety to improvement of self image, coping skills, and pharmacotherapy. Issues to be addressed during each phase of treatment are identified. Clinical guidelines and risk management issues are described in subsequent chapters. The final chapter addresses countertransference issues and applies a treatment decision model to ten scenarios. Highlights of selected reports by professional task forces and model forms are included in the appendices. Numerous references, 4 figures, and 14 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  adults abused as children;  memory;  psychological evaluation;  repression;  psychotherapy;  practice protocols;  therapeutic intervention

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wwnorton.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Through the Eyes of a Child: EMDR with Children.

 

AUTHOR:               Tinker, R.;  Wilson, S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

SOURCE:                New York, NY, W. W. Norton and Co., 1999;  302 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This book explains how to apply the techniques of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) to therapy with traumatized children. The approach relies on eye movements and hand taps to help children cope with disturbing events or behaviors. The movements or taps initiate a positive cognition for the patient to use in response to a negative target memory. Emphasis is placed on establishing a safe place for the child. Intended for practitioners who have been trained in the use of EMDR, the book describes modifications in the therapy for children at each developmental level. Phases of EMDR are outlined, including client history and treatment planning; preparation; assessment; desensitization; installation; body scan; closure; and reevaluation. The text provides guidelines for conducting the first session with the child and implementing the strategies in simple, as well as complex trauma cases. Troubleshooting tips and recommendations for application to different diagnostic categories and symptoms are reviewed. Case examples are used throughout the book to illustrate the protocols and strategies suggested. Numerous references, 10 figures, and 5 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         therapeutic intervention;  intervention strategies;  trauma;  childrens therapy;  psychotherapy;  protocols;  child development;  diagnoses

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wwnorton.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Family Violence.

 

AUTHOR:               Gelles, R. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                In: Hampton, R. L. (Editor). Family Violence: Prevention and Treatment. Second Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., 1999;  pp. 1-32

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter defines family violence as a broad concept of maltreatment that includes harmful but not necessarily physically violent acts. Family violence also refers to maltreatment between individuals who may not actually be members of a family such as violence in dating relationships. The chapter reviews the development of family violence research and issues of research methodology. The 3 main sources of data on family violence include clinical data, official report data, and social surveys. Next, sociological and psychological theories developed to explain family violence are described and include social learning theory, resource theory, exchange theory, sociobiological theory, feminist theory, and an ecological perspective. Controversies in the study of family violence include abused husbands; intergenerationally transmitted violence; whether child abuse is over-reported; effectiveness of child sexual abuse prevention programs; effectiveness of family preservation services; the battered woman syndrome; deterrence of mandatory arrest; and lost and recovered memories of sexual abuse. The author concludes by suggesting 5 steps to help prevent family and intimate violence. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         family violence;  family violence research;  ecological theories;  biosocial theories;  psychological theories;  research methodology;  prevention

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    Degrees of Memory of Childhood Sexual Abuse Among Women Survivors in Therapy.

 

AUTHOR:               Gold, S. N.;  Hughes, D. M.;  Swingle, J. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Family Violence

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Nova Southeastern Univ., Fort Lauderdale, FL. Center for Psychological Studies.

 

SOURCE:                14(1): pp. 35-46;  New York, NY, Kluwer Academic-Plenum Publishers, March 1999

 

ABSTRACT:           Past and current memory for childhood sexual abuse reported by a clinical sample of 160 women survivors was assessed utilizing a structured clinical interview. Response alternatives for memory were ordered along a continuum. To minimize treatment effects, participants were interviewed as early in the outpatient therapy as possible. Fairly complete recollection both in the past and currently was reported by 26.3 percent of the sample, 36.9 percent apparently lost and subsequently recovered sexual abuse memories, and 36.9 percent endorsed intermediate degrees of memory. Only 2.5 percent indicated a decrease in degree of recollection over time. Age at onset was the only abuse characteristic found to differentiate participants with fairly complete memory from the rest of the sample. Findings are interpreted as illustrating that conclusions about memory for abuse are highly dependent on the way inquiries are conceptualized and worded. Limitations of the study are reviewed. 1 table, 2 figures, and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  outpatient treatment;  interviews;  sexual abuse;  adults abused as children

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wkap.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Enhancing Children's Memory Through Cognitive Interviewing: An Assessment Technique for Social Work Practice.

 

AUTHOR:               Aldridge, N. C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Georgia Univ., Athens. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                16(2): pp. 101-126;  New York, NY, Kluwer Academic-Human Sciences Press, April 1999

 

ABSTRACT:           This article summarizes current research on cognitive interviewing and discusses the theoretical rationale for the use of the mnemonic strategies, the enhancement in the cognitive interviewing technique, and the modifications and revisions conducted from using the cognitive interview with children ages 7 to 12 years. The cognitive interview is a memory retrieval procedure consisting of four general retrievals mnemonics which was developed to assist police officers in interviewing and interrogating witnesses. The cognitive interview has been accepted as one of the most successful interview techniques used in real-life investigations. The major conclusions drawn from the research are that the cognitive interview can enhance the completeness and accuracy of recollections by children and can offer a valuable technique for social workers interviewing and evaluating children who are victims or witnesses to crimes. 86 references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  assessment;  cognitive interviews;  child witnesses;  social workers;  investigations;  interviews;  research reviews

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wkap.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Children's Recall of Medical Experiences: The Impact of Stress.

 

AUTHOR:               Brown, D. A.;  Salmon, K.;  Pipe, M.;  Rutter, M. et al.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Otago Univ., Dunedin (New Zealand). Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                23(3): pp. 209-216;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science, Ltd., 1999

 

ABSTRACT:           This article discusses a study that compares children's reports of 2 medical events, to assess the effects of the type of event on children's recall. The study also compares the effect of props on children's event reports. Twenty children between the ages of 37 and 67 months were interviewed following either a voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) or a pediatric assessment (PA) at a hospital. Interviews were conducted between 8 and 8 days after the event an included a doll and prop items. Ratings of stress were significantly higher for children who underwent the VCUG that those who underwent the PA. Children who experienced the VCUG procedure reported more correct information than the children who experienced the PA. Age was correlated with the total amount of correct information reported. Stress levels were correlated with both errors and accuracy of information. Children who experienced a stressful medical procedure remembered more than children who experienced a neutral medical event, although this increase in amount recalled was at the expense of accuracy. These findings suggest that stress impacts negatively on recall; however, the unique structured nature of the VCUG procedure compared to the PA, and the familiarity of the PA prop items to the children who experienced the VCUG procedure, may also have contributed to differences in recall of the 2 events. 30 references and 1 table. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         child witnesses;  memory;  testimony;  stress

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    The Experience and Effect of Sexual Abuse and Trauma.

 

AUTHOR:               Indart, G.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

SOURCE:                In: Ryan, G.; Lindstrom, B. R.; Indart, G.; Yager, J.; et al. (Editors). Web of Meaning: A Developmental-Contextual Approach in Sexual Abuse Treatment. Brandon, VT, Safer Society Press, 1999;  pp. 49-67

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter begins with a theoretical discussion of defining trauma. Two types of traumas are described. Type 1 traumas are conditions that follow an unexpected unanticipated external blow. Children experiencing type 1 traumas show no impairment in their ability to retrieve detailed and full memories of the incident. Type 2 traumas are the conditions that follow longstanding or repeated exposure to traumatic events. The repeatedly abused and traumatized child often seen in long-term residential care exhibits the effects of type 2 trauma. These children have constructed and internalized a negative working model of themselves and the world prior to the sexual abuse experience, considering themselves as unworthy and unlovable and others as unresponsive and unreliable. The injuries inflicted to their self-development may have been profound and chronic from early in life or may have been acute events that arrested or distorted normative developmental tasks. For these children, the experience of sexual abuse may further reinforce and compound their negative view of self and others. Next, the author explores the impact of sexual abuse, the behavioral manifestations and sequelae of sexual abuse, and describes the ways that victims of sexual abuse attempt to cope with this experience. Defense mechanisms and their accompanying behavioral manifestations are normal, adaptive human responses to stress, designed to ensure psychological survival. Victims use defenses in an attempt to alleviate the stress of feeling vulnerable and to regain a sense of control following experiences perceived as overwhelming and uncontrollable. These defenses, along with their behavioral manifestations, serve as a protective barrier against feeling vulnerable and out of control. The patterns become dysfunctional only when the behavior is abusive or the stressor is not resolved. Case studies exemplify the ideas conveyed in the chapter. 1 table, 1 figure, and numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         trauma;  sexual abuse;  victimization;  sequelae;  coping skills;  child development;  self defense;  case studies

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.safersociety.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Feeling Good Again: A Workbook for Children Who've Been Sexually Abused.

 

AUTHOR:               Wasserman, B.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

SOURCE:                Brandon, VT, Safer Society Press, 1999;  288 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This workbook for children who have been sexually abused is written for children ages 6 and older. It is designed to be used with a child's counselor in aiding a child to disclose the abuse and to be able to take control of his or her life. Focusing on treatment issues and questions that children are likely to have about their abuse, the workbook should be used as a guide and combined with other materials that teach children about their sexuality and other concepts they need to know as result of the abuse. Topics include safety and protection, dealing with various emotions, memories of the abuse, family issues, and changing behavior. Section 1 of the workbook contains 12 chapters while section 2 consists of these 4 sections: dealing with feelings, from victim to survivor, feeling good again, and more questions. Workbook exercises include many activities include coloring and drawing, completing sentences, and answering questions. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  emotions;  school children;  victims;  counselors;  abused children

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.safersociety.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Breaking the Silence: Group Therapy for Childhood Sexual Abuse. A Practioner's Manual.

 

AUTHOR:               Margolin, J. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ. Graduate School of Applied and Professional Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                Binhamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1999;  167 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This handbook describes a 15 session group therapy program for adult survivors of sexual abuse. Step-by-step procedures for establishing the group and leading participants through the recovery process are explained. The first half of the book reviews the prevalence and effects of sexual abuse, the impact of abuse on the development of a belief system, treatment approaches, models of group treatment, group organization and structure, needs assessment, and the special considerations of males in groups. This section also outlines the framework of the group psychoeducational program, which integrates presentations by the group leaders with discussion by participants about their experience. The goals of the group are to help survivors identify and express their feelings, act to protect their needs, and improve their functioning. The second section of the book reviews the topics of group sessions: introduction to the program; trust and safety; exploration of emotions and beliefs; disclosure; aftermath of abuse; family dynamics; sexuality and intimacy; processing memories; exploring the meaning (unstructured sessions); and termination of the group. The final chapter addresses the issues of ethnicity, confrontation, psychiatric disorders and chemical dependency, transference and countertransference, and partners of abuse survivors. 5 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  group therapy;  adults abused as children;  therapeutic intervention;  intervention strategies;  program models;  curricula;  therapists role

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    I Never Told Anyone This Before: Managing the Initial Disclosure of Sexual Abuse Re-Collections.

 

AUTHOR:               Gasker, J. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

SOURCE:                Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1999;  180 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This book provides guidelines for responding ethically and therapeutically to memories of sexual abuse disclosed by clients. The text explains how to create an appropriate environment for traumatic memories while avoiding actions that could be perceived as generating false memories. Theoretical perspectives of memory and sexual abuse are reviewed and terminology that is client-centered and empirically-based is proposed. Strategies for integrating traumatic incidents into the life story of clients and validating abuse recollections are described in the group context. Other chapters outline the elements of effective therapy and examine the special considerations of working with people from rural areas, homosexuals or bisexuals, and senior citizens. Examples of the disclosure process and therapeutic response are provided throughout the book. Numerous references, 4 figures, and 3 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  disclosure;  memory;  therapists role;  therapists responsibility;  false memory syndrome;  best practices;  intervention strategies

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    The Neurology of Traumatic Dissociative Amnesia: Commentary and Literature Review.

 

AUTHOR:               Joseph, R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Brain Research Laboratory, San Jose, CA.

 

SOURCE:                23(8): pp. 715-727;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science Ltd., August 1999

 

ABSTRACT:           A survey of the research on emotional trauma, learning, memory loss, glucocosteroid stress hormones, and the hippocampus was conducted to examine the relationship between traumatic emotional stress, hippocampal injury, memory loss, and traumatic amnesia. Research findings document and experimentally demonstrate that prolonged and high levels of stress, fear, and arousal commonly induce learning deficits and memory loss ranging from the minimal to the profound. As stress and arousal levels dramatically increase, learning and memory deteriorate in accordance with the classic inverse U-shaped curve. These memory deficits are due to disturbances in hippocampal activation and arousal, and the corticosteroid secretion which can suppress neural activity associated with learning and memory and induce hippocampal atrophy. Risk and predisposing factors include a history of previous emotional trauma or neurological injury involving the temporal lobe and hippocampus, the repetitive and prolonged nature of the trauma, and age and individual differences in baseline arousal and level of cortisol. Although some victims may be unable to forget, amnesia or partial memory loss is not uncommon following severe stress and emotional trauma. Even well publicized national traumas may induce significant forgetting. Memory loss is a consequence of glucocosteroids and stress-induced disturbances involving the hippocampus, a structure which normally plays an important role in the storage of various events in long-term memory. Numerous references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         dissociation;  amnesia;  memory;  trauma;  neurology;  literature reviews;  neurological impairments;  child abuse research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Childhood Abuse Recollections in a Nonclinical Population: Forgetting and Secrecy.

 

AUTHOR:               Fish, V.;  Scott, C. G.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Family Therapy Center of Madison, WI.

 

SOURCE:                23(8): pp. 791-802;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science Ltd., August 1999

 

ABSTRACT:           This study investigated the relationship of interrupted memories of childhood abuse with the secrecy of the abuse. Fifteen hundred people were randomly selected from the membership of the American Counseling Association and sent a questionnaire regarding childhood abuse history. Four hundred and twenty-three usable questionnaires were returned and analyzed. Thirty-two percent of the sample reported childhood abuse. Fifty-two percent of those reporting abuse also noted periods of forgetting some or all of the abuse. On the 2 survey items assessing secrecy, 76 percent of respondents reporting childhood abuse indicated there had been a time when no one but themselves and their abuser know about the abuse; 47 percent indicated that an abuser tried to get them to keep the abuse secret. Forty percent endorsed both secrecy items. Respondents who reported forgetting abuse also reported one or both elements of secrecy more frequently than those who reported continuous memories of abuse. These findings are consistent with those of other studies that suggest that, among adults reporting childhood abuse, the experience of forgetting some of all abuse is common. Secrecy of the abuse appears to be associated with the experience of forgetting childhood abuse for many individuals. The article concludes with suggestions for future research. 9 tables and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         adults abused as children;  memory;  questionnaires;  child abuse history

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Self-Help for the Helpers: Preventing Vicarious Traumatization.

 

AUTHOR:               Ryan, K.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                In: Webb, N. B. (Editor). Play Therapy With Children in Crisis: Individual, Group, and Family Treatment. Second Edition. Guilford Publications, Inc., New York, NY., August 1999;  pp. 471-491

 

ABSTRACT:           Therapists who are treating child victims of trauma may experience symptoms themselves, specifically in the dimensions of frame of reference, self-capacities, ego resources, psychological needs and related cognitive schemas, and memory system. Similar to countertransference, these symptoms are identified as vicarious traumatization and can have a negative effect on the therapist and the client. The therapist must participate in a parallel treatment such as trauma therapy supervision in order to integrate and transform his or her feelings. A supervisor or colleague knowledgeable about child therapy should be consulted to address reactions to trauma and assist with the processing of conscious and unconscious feelings. Other coping strategies include: continue professional contacts; limit exposure to trauma; participate in personal psychotherapy; seek out caring relationships and experiences outside of work; create boundaries between work and personal life; obtain support; and confront traumatic imagery. A transcript of a consultation group meeting is provided in the chapter. 23 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         childrens therapy;  intervention strategies;  therapists role;  trauma;  therapists;  coping skills

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.guilford.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Recovered Memory Therapy: Responses to All.

 

AUTHOR:               Stocks, J. T.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Social Work

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Michigan State Univ., Lansing. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                44(5): pp. 491-499;  National Association of Social Workers, Inc., Washington, DC., September 1999

 

ABSTRACT:           Research about the validity of recovered memories of child sexual abuse is reviewed in this article to refute criticisms published in a previous article. Responses are provided to eight researchers and experts who expressed concerns that the original article failed to provide evidence for the position that recovered memory work does not necessarily result in valid information about abuse. The original article and the response reiterate that recovered memory therapy can yield true and false memories. However, there is no way to determine which memories really happened and which were suggested by therapists. There is also no evidence that recovered memory therapy promotes healing in patients. In fact, the research suggests that such therapy is harmful to clients. 42 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  repression;  therapeutic effectiveness;  false memory syndrome;  validity;  research methodology;  false allegations;  research reviews

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.naswpress.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Recovered Memories: Context and Controversy.

 

AUTHOR:               Lein, J.;  Aukamp, A. W.;  Fournier, R. R.;  Weeks, B. L. et al.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Social Work

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    North Central Human Service Center, Minot, ND.

 

SOURCE:                44(5): pp. 481-490;  National Association of Social Workers, Inc., Washington, DC., September 1999

 

ABSTRACT:           Written in response to the article, Recovered Memory Therapy: A Dubious Practice Technique, by J.T. Stocks in a previous issue of the journal, these articles and letters outline research and experience that supports the use of therapy intended to help patients remember incidents of childhood sexual abuse. Stocks' positions criticizing recovered memory techniques are compared to those of the False Memory Syndrome Foundation that helps accused parents defend themselves against allegations made on the basis of recovered memories. The group accuses therapists of implanting false memories in their patients. Repressed memories have also been questioned on the basis of neurological distortions. However, research in this area focuses on brain functions regarding traumatic memory as it operates in the amygdala in the brain, rather than where normal memories are processed in the hippocampus. The articles assert that the original article did not provide adequate evidence in support of its positions and that recovered memory therapy is an appropriate intervention with patients suspected of a history of child sexual abuse. More discussion is needed by professionals to resolve the controversy about recovered memories. 6 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  repression;  therapeutic effectiveness;  false memory syndrome;  sexual abuse;  adults abused as children;  sequelae;  social work

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.naswpress.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Trauma and Delayed Memory: A Review of the Repressed Memories Literature.

 

AUTHOR:               Flathman, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Sexual Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond. Student Counseling Center.

 

SOURCE:                8(2): pp. 1-23;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 1999

 

ABSTRACT:           This review aims to draw balanced conclusions about trauma and memory from the intensely polarized debate currently raging over repressed' memories, or better, delayed memories (DM). Research suggests that: emotion impacts memory; psychogenic amnesia can be a reaction to unusual levels of trauma; memory is malleable and delayed memories are prone to errors; however, inaccuracies in traumatic memories are more likely to be in peripheral details than central details. Also reviewed are infantile amnesia, clinical surveys on DM, and two psychoanalytic perspectives on DM. Treatment recommendations are culled from the literature. In order that the debate over adult DM not divert attention from the reality of child abuse and its damage, child abuse issues begin and end the review. 77 references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         literature reviews;  repression;  memory;  trauma;  amnesia;  child abuse research;  sequelae;  adults abused as children

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Psychological Effects of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:               Green, S. C.;  Wonderlich, S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    ASAPT Update

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Alliance for Sexual Abuse Prevention and Treatment, Fargo, ND.

 

SOURCE:                7(2): pp. 2-8;  Alliance for Sexual Abuse Prevention and Treatment, Fargo, ND., June 1999

 

ABSTRACT:           This article reviews the impact of childhood sexual abuse on the physical health of the victim. Research findings about the neurological, medical, and behavioral effects of sexual abuse are summarized. Studies have found a link between childhood sexual abuse and the occurrence of neuroendocrine dysregulation, brain and memory function, hippocampal function, hemispheric lateralization, immune system problems, somatization, gastrointestinal illnesses, sexual and reproductive problems, eating disorders, substance abuse, and self-injurious behaviors. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of childhood sexual abuse when patients present with these problems, but should not suggest that these medical difficulties will definitely develop. 95 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  sequelae;  medical aspects of child abuse;  research reviews;  neurological impairments;  chronic brain damage;  memory;  behavior problems

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Children's Eyewitness Memory for a Repeated Event.

 

AUTHOR:               McNichol, S.;  Shute, R.;  Tucker, A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Coach House, Norwood, SA (Australia). Sexual Offenders Treatment Assessment Programme.

 

SOURCE:                23(11): pp. 1127-1139;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., November 1999

 

ABSTRACT:           This study examined a significant issue for chronic sexual abuse investigations: Children's eyewitness testimony about repeated events. The few previous studies focused on preschoolers and none used the present methodology of presenting repeated events differing slightly in their details, as would happen in chronic abuse. One group of 6- and 7-year olds played individually with an experimenter on one occasion; the other group experienced three such events, with some details remaining the same and others changing. In a phased interview, children were questioned about the initial event. For details which stayed the same, the children who experienced three events had more accurate memories. They had poorer memories than the single-event group for details which were changed in the later events; however, this was due to interference errors, with errors of omission and commission being lower than in the single-event group. Children conveyed clearly that inappropriate touching did not occur. Children who experience repeated events have increased recall for repeated details but confuse the timing of details which change across events. The findings support previous suggestions that it is unrealistic to expect children to be able to report repeated events without some confusion about timing of details and that children are resistant to misleading questions about abuse. 23 references and 1 table. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  child witnesses;  credibility;  competency;  sexual abuse;  suggestibility;  child abuse research;  testimony

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    The Comprehensive Childhood Maltreatment Inventory: Early Development and Reliability Analyses.

 

AUTHOR:               Riddle, K. P.;  Aponte, J. F.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Louisville Univ., KY. Psychology Dept.

 

SOURCE:                23(11): pp. 1103-1115;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., November 1999

 

ABSTRACT:           The goal of this study was to develop a reliable measure of childhood maltreatment that could be used to evaluate retrospective memories among adults across a broad range of potentially abusive caregiver behaviors. These behaviors were organized into 31 items that query age at onset, frequency across 4 developmental periods, relationships of the perpetrator(s), and respondents' perception of the experience. Additional factors directly relevant to each of the individual 4 categories of childhood maltreatment were also queried. Preliminary data collected from 95 college students find the measure to have excellent test-retest reliability, and 2 of 4 subscales to possess adequate internal consistency. Reasons for low internal consistency for the Physical Maltreatment and Physical Neglect categories and the relative importance of test- retest reliability as compared to internal consistency in a questionnaire of this type are discussed. 48 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         adults abused as children;  measures;  assessment;  reliability;  validity;  sequelae;  predictor variables;  parental behavior

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Applying the Realities of Child Development to Legal Representation: A Quick Reference for Lawyers and Judges.

 

AUTHOR:               Donaido, B. T.;  Wilen, S. R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Michigan Child Welfare Law Journal

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Michigan Univ. Law School, Ann Arbor.

 

SOURCE:                3(2): pp. 2-11;  Michigan Univ. Law School, Ann Arbor. Michigan Child Welfare Law Resource Center., Spring-Summer 1999

 

ABSTRACT:           This article outlines the important milestones of child development that attorneys and judges should consider in any case involving children. Lawyers should interview the child his or her parents, and others to determine whether the child is in the normal range of development and what type of developmental problems he or she may have. The assessment should address prenatal medical care, motor skills, medical problems, school performance, peer and family relationships, home environment, parental physical or psychological problems, hobbies and interests, general temperament, fears and worries, self-concept, memories, and professional diagnoses. Developmental milestones are identified in the article by age group, from birth to age 18 years. Symptoms of common deviations are also described, including attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, mood disorders, and anxiety disorders.

 

KEY TERMS:         child development;  legal processes;  lawyers role;  judicial role;  competency;  child custody;  criminal justice system;  child development deviations

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    The Impact of Dissociation, Trauma, and Stress Arousal on the Memory and Suggestibility of Physically and Sexually Abused, and Neglected Children.

 

AUTHOR:               Eisen, M.;  Qin, J.;  Goodman, G. S.;  Savis, S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    California State Univ., Los Angeles.

 

SOURCE:                California State Univ., Los Angeles, May 1999;  328 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This final report details the findings of two studies of the effects of age and stress on children's memory. The first study investigated the relationships between age, stress arousal, trauma-related pathology, intellectual performance, and event memory in a group of 328 suspected victims of child maltreatment. The study was unique in that all testing occurred in the context of actual forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory for an anogenital examination- venipuncture, neutral event, and psychological consultation was examined. Ratings of the detail and consistency of children's disclosures of abuse in forensic and clinical interviews were also analyzed. Typical age differences in memory were uncovered. Maltreated children's performance in response to abuse-related misleading questions was comparable to the performance of comparison, nonabused children. Findings were mixed regarding relations of dissociative tendencies and post- traumatic stress disorder to children's memory, in part because of measurement difficulties. Clinicians' ratings of psychopathology were significantly related to memory performance. Other predictors of children's event memory and abuse disclosure patterns were explored. The second study was designed to assess effects of age, abuse history, and stress arousal on children's memory and suggestibility. One hundred eighty-nine 3- to 17-year olds undergoing evaluations of alleged maltreatment were questioned about an anogenital examination and-or clinical interview. Results indicated that older compared to younger children exhibited more accurate memory performance and greater resistance to suggestions. Age was also significantly related to interviewers' ratings of the amount of detail in children's abuse reports. General psychopathology, dissociation, short-term memory, and intellectual ability were inconsistent predictors of children's memory and suggestibility, whereas stress arousal was consistently unrelated to children's memory performance. Implications for understanding children's eyewitness memory are discussed. Numerous references and 39 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  child witnesses;  competency;  suggestibility;  trauma;  posttraumatic stress disorder;  dissociation;  sequelae

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Final Report

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.calstatela.edu

 

 

TITLE:                    Planting False Childhood Memories in Children: The Role of Event Plausibility.

 

AUTHOR:               Pezdek, K.;  Hodge, D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Development

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Claremont Graduate Univ., CA. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                70(4): pp. 887-895;  Blackwell Publishers, Inc., Malden, MA, July-August 1999

 

ABSTRACT:           This experiment tested and supported the hypothesis that events will be suggestively planted in children's memory to the degree that the suggested event is plausible and script-relevant knowledge exists in memory. Nineteen 5- to 7-year-old children and 20 9- to 12-year-old children were read descriptions of two true events and two false events, reported to have occurred when they were 4 years old. One false event described the child lost in a mall while shopping (the plausible false event); the other false event described the child receiving a rectal enema (the implausible false event). The majority of the 39 children (54 percent) did not remember either false event. However, whereas 14 children recalled the plausible but not the implausible false event, only one child recalled the implausible but not the plausible false event; this difference was statistically significant. Three additional children (all in the younger age group) recalled both false events. Although this pattern of results was consistent for both age groups, the differences were significant for the younger children only. A framework is outlined specifying the cognitive processes underlying suggestively planting false events in memory. 17 references and 2 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  suggestibility;  child witnesses;  false allegations;  child abuse research;  leading questions;  credibility;  cognitive interviews

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.blackwellscience.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Kinship Fostering and Child Protection.

 

AUTHOR:               Foulds, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Derby City Social Services Dept. (United Kingdom).

 

SOURCE:                In: Greeff, R. and Campling, J. (Editors). Fostering Kinship: An International Perspective on Kinship Foster Care. Ashgate Publishing Co., Brookfield, VT., 1999;  pp. 69-84

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter describes situations in which kinship care or parental contact may place children at risk for further abuse or harm. Social workers are advised to consider evidence of denial of abuse or indications of sexual abuse accommodation syndrome when making decisions about placements. Some family members may deny that the abuse took place, or the child may deny emotions and memories of abuse. Children might also exhibit ambivalent feelings, unhealthy attachments, or the need to appease their abusers. In these cases, the child may be best placed in a non- family arrangement. Social workers should be aware of the effects of sexual abuse and generational cycles of abuse. 22 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         child protection;  kinship care;  great britain;  risk factors;  sexual abuse;  sexual abuse accommodation syndrome;  denial;  generational cycle of child abuse

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.ashgate.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Children in Satanic Rituals.

 

AUTHOR:               Palermo, G. B.;  Del Re, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Medical Coll. of Wisconsin, Milwakee. Dept. of Psychiatry.

 

SOURCE:                In: Palermo, G. B. and Del Re, M. Satanism: Psychiatric and Legal Views. Charles C. Thomas, Publisher, Ltd., Springfield, IL., November 9, 1999;  pp. 68-85

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter describes the characteristics of ritual abuse and reviews considerations for determining the validity of allegations. Typical Satanist practices are summarized, from the delivery of newborns to the process of alienation and subjugation during childhood. Memories of these experiences are often repressed and when recovered during psychotherapy are thought to be unbelievable and unsubstantiated. Although hypnosis has been used to successfully prompt real memories of abuse, it has also resulted in false memories and a debate among clinicians, social scientists, and legal professionals about the actual existence of Satanic cults and abuse. The chapter advises that testimony about Satanic abuse be thoroughly investigated before admission in court.

 

KEY TERMS:         ritual abuse;  sexual abuse;  public policy;  credibility;  memory;  multiple personality disorder;  testimony;  characteristics of abused

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

 

TITLE:                    FALSE ALLEGATIONS AND FALSE MEMORY SYNDROME: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

SOURCE:                NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:         false memory syndrome;  trauma;  memory;  social policies;  policy formation;  political factors;  public opinion;  social attitudes;  dissociation;  amnesia;  evidence;  multiple personality disorder;  false allegations;  neurology;  adults abused as children;  repression;  validity;  sexual abuse;  research reviews;  suggestibility;  theories;  therapeutic intervention;  therapists role;  research methodology;  psychotherapy;  models;  mental health;  child witnesses;  child development;  literature reviews;  individual characteristics;  credibility

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:                    GENERATIONAL CYCLE OF ABUSE: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

SOURCE:                NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:         child sexual abuse;  adults abused as children;  spouse abuse;  child abuse history;  mother child relationships;  sexually abusive children;  depression;  interviews;  prenatal child abuse;  prenatal care;  prenatal influences;  drug exposed infants;  alcohol abuse;  substance abusing mothers;  substance abuse;  intervention;  behavior problems;  generational cycle of family violence;  child witnesses of family violence;  violence;  environmental influences;  neurology;  emotional development;  battering relationships;  battered women;  male batterers;  dissociation;  attachment;  psychological characteristics;  prevalence;  incidence;  statistical data;  characteristics of abused;  characteristics of abuser;  predictor variables;  generational cycle of child abuse;  sequelae;  risk factors;  trauma;  marital conflicts;  longitudinal studies

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:                    CHILDREN WHO WITNESS VIOLENCE: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

SOURCE:                NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:         child witnesses;  alcohol abuse;  child witnesses of family violence;  spouse abuse;  etiology;  battering relationships;  battered women;  batterers attitudes;  assessment;  bettered women;  multiproblem families;  psychological evaluation;  evaluation methods;  confidentiality;  child abuse reporting;  passive abusers;  nonabusive parents;  criminal charges;  intervention strategies;  parental behavior;  child neglect;  social skills;  emotional development;  preschool children;  sequelae;  posttraumatic stress disorder;  resilience;  coping skills;  childrens services;  homeless shelters;  marital conflicts;  risk factors;  child psychiatry;  adults abused as children;  substance abuse;  depression;  health status;  suicide;  aggressive behavior;  prevention programs;  group therapy;  childrens therapy;  program evaluation;  therapeutic effectiveness;  family violence;  community violence;  prevention;  school violence;  child development;  psychological stress;  research needs;  intervention;  outcomes;  research reviews;  woman abuse;  social adjustment;  theories;  research methodology;  generational cycle of family violence;  family therapy;  family relationships;  parenting;  police role;  behavior problems;  data collection;  measures;  family environment;  adjustment problems;  individual characteristics;  psychological characteristics;  cognitive development;  family violence research;  sibling abuse;  spousal violence;  psychological abuse;  physical abuse;  schools;  academic achievement;  Juvenile delinquency;  homicide;  longitudinal studies;  federal statutory law;  state statutory law;  child custody;  visitation;  child welfare reform;  child abuse research;  symptoms;  sexual abuse;  prostitution;  adolescents;  family characteristics;  substance abusing parents

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:                    THE LINK BETWEEN CHILD ABUSE AND ANIMAL ABUSE: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

SOURCE:                NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:         family violence;  animal cruelty;  child witnesses of family violence;  interagency collaboration;  crisis intervention;  community intervention projects;  abusive children;  generational cycle of family violence;  etiology;  sequelae;  family violence research;  interpersonal relationships;  literature reviews;  historical perspectives;  child abuse;  medical services;  child health;  institutional abuse and neglect;  spouse abuse;  feminism;  models;  sexual abuse;  policy formation;  child advocacy;  child abuse reporting;  predictor variables;  physicians role;  prevention;  physical abuse;  corporal punishment;  prevalence;  child witnesses;  felony;  adults abused as children;  antisocial behavior;  interdisciplinary approach;  interagency cooperation;  assessment;  psychological evaluation;  measures;  intervention strategies

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:                    INTERVIEWING CHILD WITNESSES: Selected articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

SOURCE:                NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  trauma;  suggestibility;  child witnesses;  interviews;  literature reviews;  research methodology;  validity;  repression;  research reviews;  neurology;  false memory syndrome;  therapists role;  sexual exploitation;  investigations;  sexual abuse;  child pornography;  victims;  perpetrators;  sex offenders;  competency;  credibility;  child development;  assessment;  preschool children;  protocols;  child abuse research;  case studies;  measures;  individual characteristics;  false allegations;  leading questions;  abuse allegations;  risk factors;  guidelines

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:                    Legislation Regarding the Use of Closed-Circuit Television Testimony in Criminal Child Abuse Proceedings (Current through December 31, 1999): Ohio.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Witnesses Number 20

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES  Administration for Children and Families  Administration on Children, Youth and Families  Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION  330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565  Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE  99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321

 

SOURCE:                In: The Use of Closed-Circuit Television Testimony

 

KEY TERMS:         Statute;  Ohio;  Abuse;  Child;  Child Abuse;  Closed-Circuit;  Criminal Child Abuse;  Criminal;  face to face;  juvenile;  Legislation;  penetration;  Proceedings;  Television;  Testimony;  trauma

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Statutes

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.ndaa-apri.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Legislation Regarding the Use of Special Hearsay Exceptions for Criminal Child Abuse Cases (Current through December 31, 1999): Alabama.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Witnesses Number 23

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES  Administration for Children and Families  Administration on Children, Youth and Families  Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION  330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565  Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE  99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321

 

SOURCE:                In: Special Child Hearsay Exceptions

 

KEY TERMS:         Statute;  Alabama;  Abuse;  Child;  Child Abuse;  Child Abuse Cases;  conduct;  Criminal Child Abuse;  Criminal;  defendant;  jurisdiction;  Legislation;  offense;  ring of veracity;  Special Hearsay Exceptions;  trauma

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Statutes

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.ndaa-apri.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Legislation Regarding the Use of Special Hearsay Exceptions for Criminal Child Abuse Cases (Current through December 31, 1999): Delaware.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Witnesses Number 23

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES  Administration for Children and Families  Administration on Children, Youth and Families  Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION  330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565  Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE  99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321

 

SOURCE:                In: Special Child Hearsay Exceptions

 

KEY TERMS:         Statute;  Delaware;  Abuse;  Child;  Child Abuse;  Child Abuse Cases;  Criminal Child Abuse;  Criminal;  defendant;  jurisdiction;  Legislation;  offense;  Special Hearsay Exceptions;  trauma

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Statutes

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.ndaa-apri.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Child Abuse Crimes: Child Homicide (Current through December 31, 1999): District of Columbia.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Crimes Number 29

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES  Administration for Children and Families  Administration on Children, Youth and Families  Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION  330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565  Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE  99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321

 

SOURCE:                In: Child Homicide

 

KEY TERMS:         Statute;  District of Columbia;  Abuse;  Child;  Child Abuse;  Child Abuse Crimes;  Child Homicide

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Statutes

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.ndaa-apri.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Enactment and the Treatment of Abuse Survivors.

 

AUTHOR:               Plakun, E. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Harvard Review of Psychiatry

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Erik H. Erikson Institute for Education, Stockbridge, MA.

 

SOURCE:                5(6): pp. 318-325;  Mosby Inc., St. Louis, MO., March-April 1998;  p. 577

 

ABSTRACT:           Regardless of the approach employed, treatment of patients with histories of sexual or other abuse is a challenge. One reason for this is the vulnerability to enactment inherent in therapeutic work with such patients. Enactment is a +; recently elaborated psychoanalytic notion, defined as a pattern of nonverbal interactional behavior between the two parties in a therapeutic situation, having unconscious meaning for both. It involves mutual projective identification between therapist +; and patient. This paper clarifies the nature of enactment (conceptualized here as involving either refusal or actualization of the transference by the therapist) and its treatment implications. Transference-countertransference enactment paradigms +; encountered in work with survivors of abuse are presented. The therapeutic consequences of failing to recognize and respond to such enactments in work with these patients are explored. Unrecognized enactments may lead therapists unwittingly to abdicate +; the therapeutic role by becoming abusive, abused or vicariously traumatized, excessively guilty, seductive, overinvolved, and/or exhortatory or to implant false memories. Ways of utilizing enactment to advance treatment are also described and +; illustrated. 28 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         adults abused as children;  individual therapy;  clinical intervention;  physician patient relationships;  interpersonal relationships;  therapists responsibility;  therapists role;  therapeutic effectiveness

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    What Do We Know From Brain Research?

 

AUTHOR:               Wolfe, P.;  Brandt, R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Educational Leadership

 

SOURCE:                56(3): pp. 8-13;  Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandria, VA., November 1998;  p. 731

 

ABSTRACT:           Although neuroscience is in its infancy, several findings from the research are relevant to educational practice. First, brain research has established that the environment has an impact on brain development and that several functions can develop simultaneously. The most conducive environment for development includes positive emotional support, a nutritious diet, appropriate levels of stimulation and challenge, and opportunities for active, social learning. The second key finding is that intelligence is not determined at birth. Early intervention programs with disadvantaged children have been proven to raise intelligence scores. The third finding is that the development of certain abilities is most efficient during specific periods.For example, vision usually develops by age three years and language skills form before the child is ten years old. The fourth finding is that emotion can affect learning ability. Strong emotions increase memory for an event. However, emotions that are too intense may decrease the efficiency of the brain's thought processes. Other areas under investigation by neuroscience include the effect of nutrition on functioning and the chemical processes that affect mood, personality and behavior. 8 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         child development;  brain development;  early brain development;  academic ability;  intelligence;  neurology;  research reviews;  early intervention programs

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.ascd.org/

 

 

TITLE:                    Clinical and Forensic Interviewing of Children and Families: Guidelines for the Mental Health, Education, Pediatric, and Child Maltreatment Fields.

 

AUTHOR:               Sattler, J. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    San Diego State Univ., CA.

 

SOURCE:                Third Edition. La Mesa, CA, Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc., 1998;  1151 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This comprehensive reference provides guidelines for interviewing children and families. The first section explains the general techniques of interviewing and reporting, including environmental factors, initial interviews, post-assessment interviews, reliability and validity of interviews, and writing the interview report. The second section describes considerations for conducting interviews with individuals of specific minority groups, while the third section describes interview issues for children with psychological and behavioral disorders and families facing adoption, divorce, or homelessness. Section Four applies the general interview guidelines to pediatric situations and assessment of children with health-related disorders and brain injuries. The final section addresses issues related to child maltreatment. Specific topics include definition and types of child abuse and neglect, reporting procedures, characteristics of offenders, disclosure process, effects of maltreatment, memory and suggestibility, and approaches for interviewing children, the family, and the alleged offender. Numerous references, figures, and tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         interviews;  assessment;  risk assessment;  psychological interviews;  evaluation methods;  forensic psychiatry;  child witnesses;  family characteristics

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

 

TITLE:                    From Victims to Survivors: Reclaimed Voices of Women Sexually Abused in Childhood by Females.

 

AUTHOR:               Mitchell, J.;  Morse, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

SOURCE:                Bristol, PA, Accelerated Development, 1998;  312 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This book provides an overview of the effects and treatment of sexual abuse perpetrated by females. The text is based on data obtained from 80 women who were sexually abused by a female during childhood. All of the women participated in a written survey about their family background, childhood environment, onset and frequency of abuse, type of abuse, childhood functioning, disclosure, interpersonal relationships, and adult relationships and functioning. Their narrative responses are interspersed throughout the book, in discussions of sexual abuse, adult symptomatology, dissociative identity disorder, memory, Munchausen-by-Proxy Syndrome, self-injury, survivors' sexuality and identity development, motivations of female perpetrators, and confrontation. The effectiveness of various verbal and nonverbal treatment modalities is also described. Numerous references and figures.

 

KEY TERMS:         adults abused as children;  sexual abuse;  female victims;  female sex offenders;  sequelae;  therapeutic intervention;  sex offenders therapy

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.taylorandfrancis.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Activity Manual for Adolescents.

 

AUTHOR:               Karp, C. L.;  Butler, T. L.;  Bergstrom, S. C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Desert Hills Center for Youth and Families, Tucson, AZ.

 

SOURCE:                Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., 1998;  112 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This workbook for physically, sexually, and emotionally abused teens guides them through a four-phase recovery process. Used in combination with counseling, the worksheets help teens establish therapeutic rapport, explore their trauma, repair their sense of self, and become future oriented. A total of 61 activities address image building and goal setting for therapy; feelings; boundaries; trust; secrets; nightmares and memories; overcoming guilt and shame; working through sadness and fear; and self-affirmations. An overview of normal adolescent social and sexual development is provided in the first chapter.

 

KEY TERMS:         adolescents;  sexual abuse;  sequelae;  child development;  individual therapy;  group therapy

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    Treatment Strategies for Abused Adolescents: From Victim to Survivor.

 

AUTHOR:               Karp, C. L.;  Butler, T. L.;  Bergstrom, S. C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Desert Hills Center for Youth and Families, Tucson, AZ.

 

SOURCE:                Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., 1998;  215 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This treatment manual outlines an approach for helping abused adolescents recover from the impact of abuse. Abuse-focused strategies and techniques are described for guiding teens through a four-phase recovery process that includes building the therapeutic relationship, processing the abuse, repairing the sense of self, and becoming more future-oriented. Emphasis is placed on special considerations of development during adolescence. Chapters address adolescent social and sexual development; image building and goal setting; feelings; boundaries; trust and safety; secrets; nightmares and memories; overcoming guilt and shame; working through sadness, fear, and anger; and self-affirmations. Each chapter provides case examples to illustrate practical applications of the strategies in individual and group therapy. A companion workbook for adolescents is available. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         adolescents;  intervention strategies;  individual therapy;  group therapy;  empowerment;  self esteem

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    Adult Attachment and Longterm Effects in Survivors of Incest.

 

AUTHOR:               Alexander, P. C.;  Anderson, C. L.;  Brand, B.;  Schaeffer, C. M. et al.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Maryland Univ., College Park. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                22(1): pp. 45-61;  Oxford (Great Britain), Elsevier Science, Ltd., January 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           This study tested the hypothesis that adult attachment is related to distress and personality disorders in incest survivors. Adult female incest survivors recruited from the community participated in a structured interview and completed measures of current functioning and personality. Complete data from 92 cases out of the total sample of 112 were analyzed. Analyses of variance suggested that attachment, as represented by a category, was significantly related to personality structure, with fearful individuals showing more avoidant, self- defeating, and borderline tendencies than secure or dismissing individuals. Results of hierarchical regression analyses suggested that attachment, as represented by four dimensions, was significantly associated with personality structure, depression and distress, and abuse severity with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (intrusive thoughts and avoidance of memories) and depression. Numerous references and 3 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         adults abused as children;  sequelae;  incest;  attachment

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Memory, Trauma Treatment, and the Law.

 

AUTHOR:               Brown, D.;  Scheflin, A. W.;  Hammond, D. C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

 

SOURCE:                New York, NY, W. W. Norton and Co., 1998;  798 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This comprehensive reference for clinicians, researchers, and legal professionals provides an overview of the legal aspects of recovered memory, hypnosis, and trauma therapy. Research findings and case law regarding memory are summarized, including the accuracy of recovered memories, emotion and memory, autobiographical memory, flashbulb memory, memories of trauma, suggestibility, and hypnosis. Current practices in treatment are described and an ethical standard of care is proposed. The false logic of the false memory controversy is specifically addressed. Chapters also cover malpractice suits against therapists, the legal treatment of repressed memory, and differences between true and false memories. 3 figures and 21 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  trauma;  hypnotherapy;  false memory syndrome;  legal problems;  legal processes;  legal definitions

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wwnorton.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Anatomical Dolls: Uses and Controversies.

 

AUTHOR:               Faller, K. C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. Dept. of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                Presented at: The 14th National Symposium on Child Sexual Abuse, Huntsville, AL, March 17, 1998;  pp. 494-503

 

ABSTRACT:           This paper summarizes research findings about the suggestibility and appropriate use of anatomical dolls. Research findings indicate that the dolls do not elicit sexualized behavior in most nonabused children. However, some children previously exposed to pornography or sexual activity do use the dolls to demonstrate sexual intercourse. A majority of studies have found that anatomical dolls increase the accuracy of children's answers during assessment, although the method is not significantly better than non-anatomical dolls or other props. Experts agree that the anatomical dolls are most appropriate as a comforter, an ice breaker, an anatomical model, a demonstration aid, a memory stimulus, a diagnostic screen, and a diagnostic test. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         anatomical dolls;  suggestibility;  sexual behavior;  assessment;  literature reviews

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Proceedings Paper

 

 

TITLE:                    The Effect of Multiple Victimization on Children's Cognition.

 

AUTHOR:               Murray, C. C.;  Son, L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma

 

SOURCE:                2(1): pp. 131-146;  Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           This article reviews the impact of multiple forms of abuse on the cognitive development of children. Emphasis is placed on the effects of trauma on the attention and perception, memory, and assimilation and accommodation of children. Normal stages of cognitive development are described for infants, preschool children, school-aged children, and adolescents, with recommendations for therapeutic intervention at each level of development. Therapists are urged to consider the logical processes and preferred domains of each individual child when treating victims of multiple trauma. 42 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         sequelae;  child development;  cognitive development;  trauma;  intervention strategies

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Truth in Memory.

 

AUTHOR:               Lynn, S. J. (Editor).;  McConkey, K. M. (Editor).

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    New York State Univ., Binghamton. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                New York, NY, Guilford Publications, Inc., 1998;  527 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This book examines theories and empirical evidence about the accuracy of memory. Conflicting views are presented about the recovery of memories and the validity of false memory syndrome. Six sections review conceptual issues for understanding memory; early autobiographical memories; suggestions and suggestibility in children; research findings about the role of psychotherapy in recovering memories; myths promulgated in the media, academia, and the law; and methods for increasing the truth of repressed and recovered memories. Specific topics include: the influence of expectations on memory; frameworks for understanding errors in memory; assessment of early memories; creation of unlikely memories; suggestibility in maltreated children; interviews with child witnesses; hypnosis; traumatic memories; and memories of ritual abuse and other extraordinary events. Numerous references, 10 figures, and 17 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  suggestibility;  repression;  dissociation;  therapists role;  false allegations;  ritual abuse;  psychological theories

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.guilford.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Exhumed Memory.

 

AUTHOR:               Kihlstrom, J. F.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    California Univ., Berkeley. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                In: Lynn, S. J. and McConkey, K. M. (Editors). Truth in Memory. New York, NY, Guilford Publications, Inc., 1998;  pp. 3-31

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter provides a history of memory work in psychotherapy, highlighting attempts to recover memories that may or may not be accurate. The first records of recovered memories in psychotherapy were made in 1893, when psychologists observed that hysteria could be cured when the patients remembered the specific traumatic event that caused their illness. Memories have been important throughout the development of psychoanalysis, especially Freud's interpretations of the thoughts and images of memories. Hypnoanalysis and narcosynthesis were used to recover memories of war trauma during both World Wars; however, there is little empirical evidence of the effectiveness of either method to revive accurate memories. In practice, memories recovered by hypnosis and drugs are believed to be valid because of the intensity of the emotion felt by the patient. The chapter reviews recent research about the validity of repressed memories and concludes that some memories may be distorted or confabulated. Patients with these distorted memories sometimes develop false memory syndrome, a strong belief in the false memory that alters their entire lifestyle and relationships. Therapists are advised to proceed with caution when assessing memories, as there are no definitive methods for determining whether a memory is true. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  repression;  psychotherapy;  false memory syndrome;  assessment

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.guilford.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Truth in Memory: Caveat Emptor.

 

AUTHOR:               Payne, D. G.;  Blackwell, J. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    New York State Univ., Binghamton. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                In: Lynn, S. J. and McConkey, K. M. (Editors). Truth in Memory. New York, NY, Guilford Publications, Inc., 1998;  pp. 32-61

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter explains the memory process and describes how memories may be distorted from the historical truth. Beliefs about memories and the normal functioning of memory and common metaphors of memory are reviewed. The vast majority of people believe that every event is permanently stored in the brain, but may not always be immediately accessible unless assisted by hypnosis or other techniques. However, research indicates that not all memories are permanent or able to be recovered. The chapter also describes common errors in human memory, such as misremembering details, remembering events that did not happen, or incorrectly attributing information to a source. A perception-reperception model of memory is presented as an alternative to the popular storehouse metaphor to explain how memory functions. The process of remembering is more than locating a record of a past event somewhere within the storehouse of the brain. It involves re-perceiving and re- sensing the event being recalled. Experiences and interactions with the external world influence our perceptions and how they are interpreted later. Metaphors and advantages and disadvantages of the model are discussed. Numerous references, 5 figures, and 1 table.

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  repression;  credibility;  suggestibility;  cognitive development

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.guilford.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Expectancy Effects in Reconstructive Memory: When the Past Is Just What We Expected.

 

AUTHOR:               Hirt, E. R.;  McDonald, H. E.;  Markman, K. D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                In: Lynn, S. J. and McConkey, K. M. (Editors). Truth in Memory. New York, NY, Guilford Publications, Inc., 1998;  pp. 62-89

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter explains the impact of psychoencoding and expectations on the memory process. In certain situations, expectations and theories may bias the reconstructive memory process. For example, participants in a self-help group may expect that they have improved, and inaccurately recall their previous level of skills as lower than it actually was. Hirt's model of reconstructive memory asserts that memory retrieval relies on the integration of information from the present (outcome), the expected relationship between the past and the present, and the trace of the actual memory. The chapter summarizes empirical evidence that examines the role of memory traces and biases in memory recall. Variables such as the time between encoding of the event and the receipt of the expectancy, perceiver's goals during encoding, motivation for accuracy, and mismatches between motivation and expectancy were shown to determine how much weight is given to the memory trace and the degree to which expectancy influenced the memory. Motivational goals included the desire to remember with accuracy and the desire to retrieve a particular memory (whether it is accurate or not). Implications for research and psychotherapy are discussed. Numerous references and 2 figures.

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  repression;  cognitive development;  psychological theories

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.guilford.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Psychotherapy and Reports of Early Sexual Trauma: A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Memory Errors.

 

AUTHOR:               Nash, M. R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Tennessee Univ., Knoxville. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                In: Lynn, S. J. and McConkey, K. M. (Editors). Truth in Memory. New York, NY, Guilford Publications, Inc., 1998;  pp. 90-106

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter examines mnemonic errors that can lead to either false positive or false negative memories of traumatic events during childhood. Problems of false positive (reports of events which did not actually occur) and false negatives (the failure to remember events which did occur) have different factors and may occur in the same psychotherapy patient. The chapter reviews theoretical and empirical literature regarding the existence of false positives, or pseudomemories, and false negatives, sometimes referred to as repression or dissociation. Memory research, developmental psychopathology, and contemporary psychoanalytical theory offer evidence that false positives do occur, sometimes with suggestion from hypnosis or therapy. There is also proof of false negatives, especially when some type of trauma has interfered with the memory encoding process. Two cases are presented in the chapter to demonstrate the success of hypnosis in revealing false positive and repressed memories. 79 references and 1 figure.

 

KEY TERMS:         psychotherapy;  memory;  sexual abuse;  cognitive development;  psychological theories;  suggestibility;  false allegations

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.guilford.com

 

 

TITLE:                    The Assessment, Validity, and Determinants of Early Memory Reports: A Critical Review.

 

AUTHOR:               Malinoski, P.;  Lynn, S. J.;  Sivec, H.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Ohio Univ., Athens. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                In: Lynn, S. J. and McConkey, K. M. (Editors). Truth in Memory. New York, NY, Guilford Publications, Inc., 1998;  pp. 109-136

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter reviews research about the validity and assessment of early childhood memories. The age of earliest memories and individual differences in recollection are described. Variations among depressed adults, offenders and juvenile delinquents, borderline and psychotic samples, alcoholics, and intelligence are summarized. The chapter highlights methodological issues in the research, including classification of earliest memories, atheoretical or inadequate research paradigms, clinical versus statistical significance, and the lack of normative data. Overall, the research indicates that early memories are actually subjective reconstructions of events and may not be accurate reports of the truth. Current functioning, affect, and personality have been found to influence recall. Few research studies have measured or verified the accuracy of early childhood memories. Future directions for research are discussed. 2 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         adults abused as children;  trauma;  memory;  assessment;  validity;  literature reviews;  research methodology;  child development

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.guilford.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Tales from the Crib: Age Regression and the Creation of Unlikely Memories.

 

AUTHOR:               DuBreuil, S. C.;  Garry, M.;  Loftus, E. F.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Washington Univ., Seattle.

 

SOURCE:                In: Lynn, S. J. and McConkey, K. M. (Editors). Truth in Memory. New York, NY, Guilford Publications, Inc., 1998;  pp. 137-160

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter explains the clinical techniques of age regression and how those methods may influence patients to develop childhood memories of events that did not actually occur. The chapter reports the findings of a study of the impact of age regression on 36 randomly selected subjects. All of the subjects were told they had a particular personality profile and were probably participants in psychological experiments involving hanging mobiles- half of the subjects during infancy, and half of the subjects in kindergarten. All were given inaccurate information about how memories are retrieved, and then age regressed to their test age (the day after birth or kindergarten). Of the twenty subjects age regressed to infancy, 18 had memories of being in a hospital nursery. About one-third of those subjects indicated that they believed their reports were accurate, half were not sure if their reports actually happened, and the remained believed that their reports were probably fantasy. All of the subjects regressed to kindergarten age had memories of kindergarten. Three-quarters of the kindergarten subjects believed that their reports definitely were real, and one-quarter thought that their memories were probably real. However, 60 percent of infant subjects incorporated the test suggestion of a mobile in the room, while only 25 percent of kindergarten subjects integrated the mobile into their memory. Possible explanations of these results are suggested, including source confusion and demand- related response. 63 references and 1 table.

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  suggestibility;  hypnotherapy;  individual characteristics;  therapeutic intervention;  therapists role

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.guilford.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Memory and Suggestibility in Maltreated Children: New Research Relevant to Evaluating Allegations of Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:               Eisen, M. L.;  Goodman, G. S.;  Qin, J.;  Davis, S. L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    California State Univ., Los Angeles. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                In: Lynn, S. J. and McConkey, K. M. (Editors). Truth in Memory. New York, NY, Guilford Publications, Inc., 1998;  pp. 163-189

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter reviews research about the accuracy of children's memories and reports the findings of an NCCAN study of how children are influenced by suggestion. Individual differences in age, intelligence, dissociation, general psychopathology, and stress were specifically examined. The sample consisted of 214 children referred for assessment of child abuse and neglect. All of the children completed measures of intellectual functioning, child functioning, memory, and dissociation and approximately one-half of the sample were tested on their memory of an anogenital examination performed 3 days earlier. Children with confirmed physical and sexual abuse and neglect were compared with children who were referred with no evidence of maltreatment. Although younger children (aged 3.5 years old) made more errors on the anogenital memory test than older children (ages 6-10 and 11-15), they demonstrated greater resistance to misleading questions about the behavior of the doctor and nurse during the examination. Overall, the Global Adaptive Functioning Test successfully predicted the accuracy of the children's memories. Numerous references and 3 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  suggestibility;  child development;  childrens therapy;  characteristics of abused

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.guilford.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Interviewing the Child Witness: Maximizing Completeness and Minimizing Error.

 

AUTHOR:               Saywitz, K. J.;  Geiselman, R. E.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    California Univ., Los Angeles. Dept. of Psychiatry.

 

SOURCE:                In: Lynn, S. J. and McConkey, K. M. (Editors). Truth in Memory. New York, NY, Guilford Publications, Inc., 1998;  pp. 190-223

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter describes two experimental techniques for interviewing children to enhance the completeness and accuracy of their testimony. Factors that contribute to incomplete reports are outlined, including encoding and storage processes, the context of the questioning, communication and language skills, limited abilities for retrieving memories, and lack of knowledge about the legal system. Researchers have developed two techniques to counteract the negative affects of these factors and improve the completeness of children's statements. Narrative elaboration involves instructing children in the interview process and teaching them strategies for reporting. Cognitive interviewing is an interview format which utilizes proven memory retrieval mnemonics for remembering numbers, names, descriptions of people, and other characteristics of events. Both types of interview strategies have been successfully used in experiments. The chapter concludes with general guidelines for interviewing children using retrieval strategies, open-ended questions, focused questions, and short answer questions. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         child witnesses;  interviews;  leading questions;  memory;  suggestibility;  competency;  child development

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.guilford.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Hypnosis and Pseudomemory: Understanding the Findings and Their Implications.

 

AUTHOR:               McConkey, K. M.;  Barnier, A. J.;  Sheehan, P. W.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia). School of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                In: Lynn, S. J. and McConkey, K. M. (Editors). Truth in Memory. New York, NY, Guilford Publications, Inc., 1998;  pp. 227-259

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter describes hypnotic pseudomemory, or false memories intentionally suggested during hypnosis. The discussion traces the history of the clinical use of hypnosis and summarizes research about memory and the effects of hypnosis. Hypnosis was first used in therapy to treat phobias and anxieties, by reconstructing traumatic events. Contemporary therapists use hypnosis in a similar manner to replace negative memories with safer images. Experimental studies of hypnotic pseudomemory have found that some people are more likely than others to accept and report false memories suggested during hypnosis. The propensity to be influenced by hypnosis usually depends on the individual characteristics, situational factors, and memory processes, as well as rapport with the therapist. Future research should focus on the role of hypnotizability, the relevance of hypnosis, the impact of demand characteristics, the role of the context of the interview, and the duration of the hypnotically suggested memory. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  false allegations;  hypnotherapy;  suggestibility

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.guilford.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Repressed Memories of Ritualistic and Religion-Related Child Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:               Qin, J.;  Goodman, G. S.;  Bottoms, B. L.;  Shaver, P. R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    California Univ., Davis. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                In: Lynn, S. J. and McConkey, K. M. (Editors). Truth in Memory. New York, NY, Guilford Publications, Inc., 1998;  pp. 260-283

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter reports the findings of two NCCAN-funded surveys about the nature of allegations of ritual- and religion-related abuse and the attitudes of clinicians about those cases. The first survey received responses from 720 clinicians who had treated at least one case involving alleged ritual- or religion- related abuse. Of the 490 cases of abuse reported by adult survivors, 43 had repressed the memory of the abuse. Most of the patients (repressed and nonrepressed) first presented with symptoms of depression and many had suicidal ideation. Slightly more than two-thirds of the repression cases were also diagnosed with multiple personality disorder. Corroborative evidence was obtained for only four of the patients with repressed memories. The therapists responding to the survey indicated that they believed the allegations of their patients in most cases. A follow-up survey was conducted with a sample of clinicians from the initial study, as well as clinicians who had not treated a patient reporting ritual or religion abuse, and a random sample of other therapists. The therapists in this sample indicated that almost all of the cases of repression involved allegations of sexual abuse. Clinicians who believed in the veracity of repressed memories also believed allegations of ritualistic abuse. Implications for practice are discussed. 61 references and 3 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         repression;  memory;  ritual abuse;  religion;  adults abused as children;  therapists;  psychologists attitudes

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.guilford.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Abducted by Aliens: Spurious Memories of Interplanetary Masochism.

 

AUTHOR:               Newman, L. S.;  Baumeister, R. F.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Illinois Univ., Chicago. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                In: Lynn, S. J. and McConkey, K. M. (Editors). Truth in Memory. New York, NY, Guilford Publications, Inc., 1998;  pp. 284-303

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter describes the common characteristics of reports of abductions by aliens and explains the motivations of alleged victims. Most abduction reports include no memory of transfer to spacecraft or return, but do describe a physical examination. The physical examination is usually painful with probing various parts of the body, taking blood samples, and sexual contact. Alleged victims typically do not remember the incident immediately, until they investigate the source of lost time, unexplained scars, or strange feelings. They often consult experts in alien abductions or hypnotists to help reconstruct the memory. However, the process of reconstruction often results in the creation of false memories rather than the recovery of real memories as people prone to fantasy are vulnerable to suggestions by UFO experts. Alleged victims also demonstrate signs of sexual masochism, such as desire for escape from self-awareness, desire for pain, loss of control, and humiliation. Evidence of the link between masochism and alien abduction stories is summarized in the chapter. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  false allegations;  suggestibility;  hypnotherapy

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.guilford.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Reflections on the Traumatic Memories of Dissociative Identity Disorder Patients.

 

AUTHOR:               Kluft, R. P.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Temple Univ. School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA. Dept. of Psychiatry.

 

SOURCE:                In: Lynn, S. J. and McConkey, K. M. (Editors). Truth in Memory. New York, NY, Guilford Publications, Inc., 1998;  pp. 304-322

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter describes the role of hypnosis in helping dissociative identity disorder (DID) patients recover traumatic memories. The controversy regarding memories recovered by hypnosis is reviewed, suggesting that generalizations about the propensity of hypnosis to create false memories are misleading. The quality of memories retrieved through hypnosis can be influenced by types of questions, as well as the hypnotizability of the subject, and the context of the intervention. Rather than using evidence of confabulations to discredit and eliminate the use of hypnotherapy, the research should serve to caution against certain strategies and guide techniques to promote more accurate memories. Several clinical case studies are offered to demonstrate the interaction between autobiographical memories and the development of multiple personalities. Numerous references and 4 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  dissociation;  multiple personality disorder;  trauma;  hypnotherapy

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.guilford.com

 

 

TITLE:                    From Memories of Abuse to the Abuse of Memories.

 

AUTHOR:               Laurence, J.;  Day, D.;  Gaston, L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Concordia Univ., Montreal (Canada). Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                In: Lynn, S. J. and McConkey, K. M. (Editors). Truth in Memory. New York, NY, Guilford Publications, Inc., 1998;  pp. 323-346

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter examines the malleable nature of memory, asserting that human memory, by nature, is not reliable and should not be the major focus of therapy. Research studies are cited to support the hypothesis that memories are constantly reinterpreted and affected by experience and expectation. Details and sequence are easily distorted and new memories are frequently created for events that never occurred. Contrary to what Freud believed, memories are not recorded permanently in the brain. The majority of contemporary therapists hold this mistaken view as well, and are likely to diagnose repression or dissociation when a patient cannot remember a traumatic event that the therapist is sure caused the present symptoms. Too much emphasis is placed on self-awareness and understanding of events. The chapter explains the therapists role in interpreting and misinterpreting memories and social attitudes that perpetuate the occurrence of pseudomemories. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  repression;  suggestibility;  adults abused as children;  therapists role;  social attitudes

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.guilford.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Memory, Media, and the Creation of Mass Confusion.

 

AUTHOR:               Heaton, J. A.;  Wilson, N. L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Ohio Univ., Athens.

 

SOURCE:                In: Lynn, S. J. and McConkey, K. M. (Editors). Truth in Memory. New York, NY, Guilford Publications, Inc., 1998;  pp. 349-371

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter explores the commercialization of the recovered memory debate. Mass media, especially television talk shows and movies, have raised public awareness of repression, but have distorted reality while producers and directors seek to dramatize the story for viewers. The inaccurate portrayal of multiple personality disorder, in particular, has confounded and confused the study of repressed memories. For example, movies such as The Three Faces of Eve and Sybil present fictional stories in the style of a factual documentary and misrepresent memory retrieval and its relationship to emotional functioning. The cases are oversimplified and the therapeutic process abbreviated. Television daytime talk shows also exploit mental health issues by promoting disclosures without critical assessment. Talk shows blur fact and fiction, create a sense of crisis about the issue, reward disclosure, frighten viewers with checklists of symptoms that are not based on empirical research, and utilize so-called mental health experts whose credentials are not cited. Recommendations for examining and managing the influence of the media are outlined at the end of the chapter. 18 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  mass media;  myths;  public awareness;  social attitudes

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.guilford.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Textbook Models of Multiple Personality: Source, Bias, and Social Consequences.

 

AUTHOR:               Arrigo, J. M.;  Pezdek, K.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Claremont Graduate Univ., CA. School of Behavioral and Organizational Science.

 

SOURCE:                In: Lynn, S. J. and McConkey, K. M. (Editors). Truth in Memory. New York, NY, Guilford Publications, Inc., 1998;  pp. 372-393

 

ABSTRACT:           Textbook descriptions of multiple personality disorder (MPD) were reviewed for consistency with cited sources and available scientific literature. Content and citation analyses were also performed to examine the selection of sources used to support common models of MPD and qualitative analyses compared the treatment of three major MPD cases. A review of PsycLIT abstracts published during the same period as the textbooks revealed strong support for the trauma model of MPD, which explains that MPD is caused by external, severe abusive stressors. However, the textbooks also described other models of MPD, including trait MPD, caused by an internal defect; fake MPD, or deception; and measurable MPD, which identifies the characteristics of people with MPD. Further analysis revealed that the textbooks were not consistent or complete in summarizing the cited research, especially information about trauma MPD. Likewise, the textbooks were inconsistent in fidelity to sources that reported popular MPD cases, including Bianchi, Eve, and Sybil. The social consequences of inaccuracies in textbooks are discussed. 49 references, 1 figure, and 4 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         multiple personality disorder;  memory;  repression;  dissociation;  social policies;  professional training;  literature reviews

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.guilford.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Recovered Memories in the Courtroom.

 

AUTHOR:               Underwager, R.;  Wakefield, H.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Institute for Psychological Therapies, Northfield, MN.

 

SOURCE:                In: Lynn, S. J. and McConkey, K. M. (Editors). Truth in Memory. New York, NY, Guilford Publications, Inc., 1998;  pp. 394-434

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter applies the Daubert test for admissibility of evidence into court proceedings to the presentation of expert testimony regarding recovered memories. In the ruling for Daubert versus Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, the United States Supreme Court required judges to determine admissibility of evidence based on its acceptance as scientific knowledge and relevance to the case. Criteria for consideration as scientific knowledge include testability of the evidence, peer review and publication, known rate of error, and consensus within the scientific community. Several supreme courts and trial courts have found little scientific support for repressed memories and dismissed cases involving recovery. However, the criteria are not objective and may be misinterpreted by biased judges who elect to consider the totality of the circumstances of the evidence. The chapter reviews the nature of memory and summarizes findings from the research about suggestibility and the creation of pseudomemories. The scientific evidence of repression, dissociation and posttraumatic stress disorder, dissociative identity disorder, and body memories are discussed. The chapter also describes civil litigation, statutes of limitations, and strategies for assessing claims of repressed memories. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  repression;  courts;  legal processes;  expert testimony;  false memory syndrome;  lawsuits;  rules of evidence

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.guilford.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Psychotherapy Without Repressed Memory: A Parsimonious Alternative Based on Contemporary Memory Research.

 

AUTHOR:               Bonanno, G. A.;  Keuler, D. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                In: Lynn, S. J. and McConkey, K. M. (Editors). Truth in Memory. New York, NY, Guilford Publications, Inc., 1998;  pp. 437-463

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter describes a model of memory and psychotherapy based on theories of experimental cognitive psychology. The model is presented as an alternative strategy to therapy based on repressed memories. A history of the repression construct is provided, highlighting conceptual problems with the model that assumes that all memories are stored in the brain, but may become difficult to access because of trauma. The repression model asserts that repressed memories manifest themselves in conversion disorders and somatic symptoms that can only be treated by recovering the repressed memory. However, scientific evidence indicates that memories are not stored intact, but are in fact, subject to an encoding process that results in varying degrees of accessibility and distortion. Cognitive psychology advises therapists to recognize the nature of memory and use the process of narrative revision to help the patient integrate fragments of memory into a healthier construct. Narrative revision requires respectful listening by the therapist to identify the underlying meaning of the patient's statements. The therapist should specify interpretations as tentative or intuitive, rather than conclusive, guiding the patient to tell and retell events to help them organize their recollections. Implications of the approach for dissociation and psychosomatic manifestations of trauma are discussed. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         repression;  memory;  psychotherapy;  intervention strategies;  therapeutic intervention;  cognitive development

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.guilford.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Practical Truths in Memory.

 

AUTHOR:               Gruneberg, M. M.;  Herrmann, D. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University of Wales, Swansea (Wales). Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                In: Lynn, S. J. and McConkey, K. M. (Editors). Truth in Memory. New York, NY, Guilford Publications, Inc., 1998;  pp. 464-480

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter provides an overview of the applied memory movement, which focuses on the practical aspects of memory research. Problems with experimental control and generalizing from laboratory experiments to real life are discussed. The everyday-applied memory movement proposes to overcome these methodological issues by conducting series of studies in real- life and then drawing conclusions from a meta-analysis of all findings. This technique has been used to yield significant findings in the areas of eyewitness research, repressed memory, memory improvement, and cognitive rehabilitation. The chapter summarizes these achievements and presents a case study of successful application. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  research reviews;  validity;  research methodology;  repression

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.guilford.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Depolarizing Views on Recovered Memory Experiences.

 

AUTHOR:               Lindsay, D. S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University of Victoria, British Columbia (Canada). Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                In: Lynn, S. J. and McConkey, K. M. (Editors). Truth in Memory. New York, NY, Guilford Publications, Inc., 1998;  pp. 481-494

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter provides an overview of both sides of the recovered memory controversy, emphasizing a more balanced approach to believing memories while being cautious about encouraging false memories. Fueled by popular media and a simplification of the phenomena, therapists are polarized about the existence and validity of recovered memories. The chapter reviews research findings about repression, and the mechanisms of ordinary forgetting and the creation of illusory memories. There is little scientific evidence for the theory that memories of sexual abuse can be repressed and then recovered fully years later. However, it is possible that certain sexual abuse incidents experienced during childhood can be simply forgotten during the normal memory storage and retrieval process. There is strong evidence that suggestion can prompt people to develop illusory memories or false beliefs of events that did not actually occur. The chapter proposes that recovered memory experiences be conceptualized along a continuum of accuracy. While some recovered memories are plausible, especially when there has been no memory work involved, others are relatively implausible, such as memories of bizarre abuse over a long period of time recovered after extensive memory work. 36 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  repression;  false allegations;  research reviews;  therapists role;  social attitudes

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.guilford.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR): New Hope for Children Suffering from Trauma and Loss.

 

AUTHOR:               Greenwald, R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry

 

SOURCE:                3(2): pp. 279-287;  Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., April 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is a recently developed method for working through traumatic memories and related psychological problems. Recent literature reviews find strong support for EMDR's value in trauma therapy. The first studies using EMDR with children and adolescents yield similar findings. A case is presented to illustrate the procedure as used in clinical practice. EMDR appears to be a promising new resource for helping children and adolescents recover from trauma and loss. 32 references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         trauma;  therapeutic intervention;  psychological theories;  psychological studies;  memory

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Social and Scientific Influences on the Study of Suggestibility: A Historic Perspective.

 

AUTHOR:               Davis, S. L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Maltreatment

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Illinois Univ., Chicago.

 

SOURCE:                3(2): pp. 186-194;  Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., May 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           This article traces the history of research about children's suggestibility and highlights the relationship between societal beliefs and scientific study. Early research investigated suggestibility during hypnosis and conformity, specifically for the purposes of medical treatment and education, rather than eyewitness reports of events. Suggestibility in eyewitness testimony was first examined in the 1880s, as scientists observed the phenomenon of retroactive hallucination (false memory created by suggestions) and collective suggested hallucinations. During the early 1900's, research on suggestibility was designed to support societal beliefs that children were highly suggestible and incompetent to testify in court. Modern research focuses primarily on determining the accuracy of children's reports of victimization. Emphasis is placed on identifying children's capabilities and vulnerabilities as witnesses and interview strategies that decrease suggestibility. The historical analysis indicates that research on children's suggestibility has been highly influenced by the needs and beliefs of society during each particular period. However, modern research has improved the practicality of information with theoretically-based methodology. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         child witnesses;  testimony;  suggestibility;  victimization;  interviews;  research reviews;  research methodology

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com

 

 

TITLE:                    The Delayed Memory Controversy in an Epidemiological Framework.

 

AUTHOR:               Fish, V.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Maltreatment

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Family Therapy Center, Madison, WI.

 

SOURCE:                3(3): pp. 204-223;  Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., August 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           This article presents estimates for certain epidemiological variables based on available research and a range of suppositions. Epidemiological concerns about base rates, true and false positives, and the possibility of an epidemic of therapy-induced false memories are frequently raised in the debate over delayed memories of childhood sexual abuse. Most references to epidemiological concepts emphasize the potential problem of false positives arising from therapists' assessments of childhood sexual abuse but neglect the potential problem of false negatives. A more balanced epidemiological analysis that includes estimations of the risks of both false positives and false negatives is more relevant to clinical concerns and better identifies gaps in our understanding of this area. The evidence suggests that the rate of false negatives for childhood sexual abuse history poses a larger epidemiological problem than the rate of false positives. Numerous references and 1 table. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         epidemiology;  therapists;  sexual abuse;  memory;  false allegations

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Interviewing Child Witnesses: A Developmental Perspective.

 

AUTHOR:               Saywitz, K.;  Camparo, L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA. Dept. of Psychiatry.

 

SOURCE:                22(8): pp. 825-843;  Oxford (Great Britain), Elsevier Science, Ltd., August 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           This article reviews suggestions derived from the clinical and experimental literatures for interviewing child witnesses. The article identifies methods for which there is experimental support as well as key issues about which the available research offers little guidance. In a field brimming with polarization rather than integration, the author's goal is to locate and discuss practices that overlap with both clinical consensus and a growing body of research on child development. To accomplish this goal, the first half of the article considers general guidelines for questioning children at an age-appropriate level and in a manner that minimizes the potential for distortion. The second half of the article outlines the phases of forensic interview in a step-by-step fashion. The suggestions presented highlight a developmental perspective designed to facilitate children's memory and communicative competence, to address children's fears, and to facilitate an honest exchange of reliable information. Numerous references and 4 figures. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         interviews;  child witnesses;  child development

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    On Memories of Childhood Abuse: A Phenomenological Study.

 

AUTHOR:               Dale, P.;  Allen, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, East Sussex (Great Britain).

 

SOURCE:                22(8): pp. 799-812;  Oxford (Great Britain), Elsevier Science, Ltd., August 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           This article discusses the phenomenon of memories and reported recovered memories of childhood abuse and examines ways in which clients and therapists assess the veridicality of such memories. Qualitative methodology utilizing phenomenological inquiry was used for this study. A sub-sample of 36 in-depth interviews with clients, therapists, and therapists who considered themselves to have been abused as children were conducted and the data were analyzed according to Grounded Theory principles. Participants described six types of abuse- memory experiences that were organized into three main categories: (1) continual knowledge of abuse (69.5 percent); (2) unexpected abuse-memories recovered from a prior state of partial knowledge of abuse (16.5 percent); and (3) abuse- memories recovered from a prior state of no knowledge of abuse (30 percent). It seems that most people who were abused as children have always had continual knowledge of this and that people also experience the recovery of memories of abuse about which they were previously unaware. There is a danger that the specific controversy surrounding false memories may become over- generalized contributing to increased public skepticism about the prevalence and negative impact of child abuse, and the potential effectiveness of appropriate therapeutic services. 60 references and 4 tables. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  adults abused as children;  sampling studies;  therapists

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Childhood Trauma Remembered: A Report on the Current Scientific Knowledge Base and Its Applications.

 

AUTHOR:               Roth, S.;  Friedman, M. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Sexual Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Duke Univ., Durham, NC.

 

SOURCE:                7(1): pp. 83-109;  Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           This article was developed by the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies to inform professionals and the public about the complex and important issues that are involved in the current controversy about memories of childhood sexual abuse. It addresses the questions of childhood trauma, traumatic memory, the memory process, clinical issues and forensic implications pertaining to this controversy. The research suggests that memory storage and retrieval processes are complex and that traumatic memories may be stored differently than regular memories. Possible explanations for how traumatic memories are forgotten include: failure to encode; dissociation; simple forgetting; repression; conditioned extinction; state dependent learning; and long-term depression. These mechanisms are currently under investigation by researchers. 36 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         adults abused as children;  sexual abuse;  memory;  trauma;  research reviews;  child abuse research;  forensic psychiatry;  clinical intervention

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Risk Management in Treating Child Sexual Abuse Victims and Adult Survivors.

 

AUTHOR:               Scheflin, A. W.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Sexual Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Santa Clara Univ., CA. School of Law.

 

SOURCE:                7(1): pp. 111-121;  Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           This commentary reviews some of the issues involved in lawsuits against therapists working with child sexual abuse issues. Before the 1990s, mental health professionals were rarely sued. Today, hundreds and hundreds of cases have been brought against therapists, specifically challenging their techniques for recovering memories. Risk management strategies are needed to prevent malpractice litigation in these types of cases. Therapists are advised to limit therapy to the therapy room and not be responsible for investigating the memories reported. They should also study the literature on memory, amnesia, child sexual abuse, trauma, and suggestibility completely and take thorough notes during every session. Informed consent forms should be signed by all patients to disclose possible risks of therapy. 23 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         risk management;  lawsuits;  civil liability;  mental health personnel;  therapists;  therapists role;  therapeutic intervention;  suggestibility

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Rebuilding Shattered Lives: The Responsible Treatment of Complex Post-Traumatic and Dissociative Disorders.

 

AUTHOR:               Chu, J. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

 

SOURCE:                New York, NY, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1998;  284 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This book describes a method for assessing and treating patients severely traumatized by childhood abuse. The balanced treatment strategy emphasizes the importance of acknowledging the experiences of patients and understanding the processes of memory and psychological reality. Trauma-related symptomatology in dissociation, posttraumatic stress disorder, and personality disorders are explored. Part One of the book explains the nature and effects of childhood abuse, with chapters that review the repetition compulsion, borderline personality disorder, and the nature of memories of abuse. Part Two focuses on treatment principles for complex trauma-related disorders. Stage-oriented treatment, self-care, methods for controlling post-traumatic and dissociative symptoms, relational issues, and boundary and limit setting are specifically discussed. The final section highlights special topics, such as the use of rational treatment strategies, hospitalization and psychopharmacology, and treatment for chronically disempowered survivors of abuse. Controversies surrounding dissociation are also reviewed. Vignettes and case examples are provided throughout the book. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         clinical intervention;  therapeutic intervention;  posttraumatic stress disorder;  dissociation;  intervention strategies;  adults abused as children;  assessment

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wiley.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Recovered Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Clinicians' Practices and Beliefs.

 

AUTHOR:               Palm, K. M.;  Gibson, P.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Professional Psychology: Research and Practice

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Nevada Univ., Reno. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                29(3): pp. 257-261;  American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, June 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           Eighty-eight clinicians completed a survey designed to determine the prevalence of recovered memory for child sexual abuse in their clinical practices and to assess whether the recovered memory controversy had affected their treatment of female child sexual abuse victims. Despite the publicity the debate over memories of child sexual abuse has attracted, few cases of so-called recovered memory were reported. Participants reported a total of 33 female clients who were victims of childhood sexual abuse. Eleven percent of those clients had no memory of that abuse before entering therapy. The therapists noted that they had an average of five clients during the past five years who had recovered memories. More than half of the participants indicated that they believe their clients had denied the memory of abuse because the memory was too painful, or the person experienced dissociation or repression. Journaling was used by about one-third of the therapists to trigger memories. Other retrieval techniques included interpretation of physical symptoms (24 percent), instructions to work on memory (23 percent), and dream interpretation (22 percent). Thirty-five percent of the survey participants noted that they believed that recovered memories might be real, but that memory is fallible. When faced with a client whose memories the therapist does not think are real, the therapists usually assess the client's motivation and process the feelings or meanings of the memory. 20 references and 7 tables. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  adults abused as children;  repression;  memory;  false memory syndrome;  false allegations;  psychologists attitudes;  prevalence

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.apa.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Working with Adult Clients Who May Have Experienced Childhood Abuse: Recommendations for Assessment and Practice.

 

AUTHOR:               Enns, C. Z.;  Campbell, J.;  Courtois, C. A.;  Gottlieb, M. C. et al.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Professional Psychology: Research and Practice

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Cornell College, Mount Vernon, IA. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                29(3): pp. 245-256;  Washington, DC, American Psychological Association, June 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           This article proposes components of optimal practice for working with adult clients who may have been abused as children. The recommendations are organized around the following themes: (1) competence; (2) assessment and treatment planning; (3) psychotherapy process and technique; (4) memory issues; (5) and ethics. The authors emphasize the importance of a collaborative therapeutic relationship and urge clinicians to proceed cautiously when encountering treatment issues for which scientific knowledge and consensus are still evolving. Appendix, 95 references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         adults abused as children;  assessment;  memory

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.apa.org

 

 

TITLE:                    The Abused Child: Psychodynamic Understanding and Treatment.

 

AUTHOR:               Heineman, T. V.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    California Univ., San Francisco.

 

SOURCE:                New York, NY, Guilford Press, 1998;  255 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This book examines the psychic impact of child abuse and discusses strategies for developing ways of working in depth with traumatized individuals of all ages. Chapter 1 addresses the definition of abuse and who makes that determination. Chapter 2 examines the growth and development of a child and how behavior must be studied in order to evaluate and provide proper treatment. Chapter 3 continues the discussion of child behavior and focuses on children's interactions with adults and other children. Chapter 4 discusses the understanding and meaning of abuse symptoms. Chapter 5 examines memory and disclosure. Chapter 6 examines the dissociation many children feel concerning abuse. Chapter 7 describes the difficulties that language can present between child and therapist. Chapter 8 discusses the significance of good guys and bad guys. Chapter 9 describes the helplessness and uncertainty that many parents feels when bringing a child to therapy. Chapter 10 describes the unconscious transmission of abuse that parents sometimes inflict on their children. Chapter 11 examines the evaluation and assessment of a child's treatment and describes the legal and psychodynamic considerations. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         emotional abuse;  physical abuse;  sexual abuse;  therapists role;  parental role;  psychotherapy

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.guilford.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Visiting the Scene of the Crime: Effects on Children's Recall of Alleged Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:               Hershkowitz, I.;  Orbach, Y.;  Lamb, M. E.;  Sternberg, K. J. et al.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Haifa Univ. (Israel).

 

SOURCE:                In press: Legal and Criminological Psychology, 1998;  p. 26 pp

 

ABSTRACT:           This report presents the findings of a study designed to determine whether the contextual cues provided by visits to the scene of alleged incidents would facilitate the recall of information by alleged victims of child sexual abuse. Fifty-one 4 to 13 year olds who had reported being victims of sexual abuse were interviewed in an investigator's office and then at the scene of the alleged abuse. Analysis focused on the effects of age, number of reported incidents, familiarity of the scene, familiarity of the alleged perpetrator, and delay between incident and interview on the number of details provided in the office interview and at the scene. On average, the children reported 304 details, with 23 percent of these provided at the scene. Contrary to prediction, contextual cues were not more effective for younger children, when the scene or alleged perpetrator were unfamiliar, or when the delay between alleged incident and interview was longer. Physical context reinstatement did appear to elicit additional details from alleged victims and facilitated the investigators' efforts to visualize and understand the alleged events. Many specific predictions about the role of contextual cues were not supported by the data. 60 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  memory;  interviews;  abuse allegations;  investigations

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Unpublished Paper

 

 

TITLE:                    Lifetime Exposure to Interparental Physical and Verbal Aggression and Symptom Expression in College Students.

 

AUTHOR:               Blumenthal, D. R.;  Neemann, J.;  Murphy, C. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Violence and Victims

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Maryland Univ., Baltimore. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                13(2): pp. 175-196;  New York, NY, Springer Publishing Co., Summer 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           This article examines a study that investigated relations between lifetime exposure to interparental aggression, and (1) anxiety, depression, anger; (2) interpersonal problems; and (3) symptoms of trauma, in a sample of young adults. Participants were 326 (219 female, 107 male) undergraduates from an eastern university. Participants reported on their demographic backgrounds, memories of interparental verbal and physical aggression, past experiences of severe stressors (including child physical and sexual abuse and community violence), and recent symptoms. Results demonstrate that exposure to interparental violence is associated with elevations in depression, anxiety, interpersonal problems, and trauma symptoms. Further analyses indicated that interparental verbal aggression predicted all symptom areas and was a stronger predictor than interparental violence. The impact of both forms of aggression was attenuated and in some cases negated by controlling for the effects of other severe stressors. 7 tables, numerous references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         physical abuse;  verbal abuse;  parental stress;  parental behavior;  aggression

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Sexual Revictimization: Risk Factors and Prevention.

 

AUTHOR:               Cloitre, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    New York-Cornell Medical Center, NY. Payne Whitney Clinic.

 

SOURCE:                In: Follette, V. M.; Ruzek, J. I.; and Abueg, F. R. (Editors). Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies for Trauma. New York, NY, Guilford Publications, Inc., 1998;  pp. 278-304

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter identifies risk factors for revictimization among women who were sexually abused as children and proposes a treatment model designed to reduce additional sexual assaults. The treatment specifically addresses risk factors found in the research to be related to affect regulation, such as alexithymia, dissociation, emotional flooding and numbing, and alcohol and drug use, as well as interpersonal relatedness and posttraumatic stress disorder. A two-phase treatment approach is recommended to help the client first develop skills in affect and interpersonal regulation and then to cope with traumatic memories. The first phase is typically conducted over eight sessions and involves skills training in identifying feelings, copying the distress and controlling negative affect, and using assertiveness in certain interpersonal situations. Phase Two uses prolonged exposure treatment methods to confront traumatic memories and deal with posttraumatic stress symptoms. The case example of a woman who was assaulted multiple times in childhood and adulthood is used to illustrate the application of the treatment model. Specific interventions are described in the case study. 45 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual assault;  posttraumatic stress disorder;  clinical intervention;  intervention strategies;  adults abused as children;  revictimization;  risk factors;  prevention

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.guilford.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Survey of Young Adults.

 

AUTHOR:               Epstein, M. A.;  Bottoms, B. L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Illinois Univ., Chicago. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                22(12): pp. 1217-1238;  Oxford (Great Britain), Elsevier Science, Ltd., December 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           This study explored the prevalence of, characteristics of, and factors associated with forgetting childhood sexual abuse memories in a large, nonclinical sample of 1,712 college students. Respondents were surveyed about the nature and severity of their childhood abuse, the continuity of their abuse memories, and their experiences with others suggesting to them that they might have been abused. Of the 283 respondents who reported childhood abuse, 30 percent indicated that they had temporarily forgotten their childhood sexual abuse. Forgetting was largely unassociated with victim or abuse characteristics. Compared to individuals who always remembered their abuse, however, individuals who temporarily forgot were more likely to report that someone had suggested to them that they might have experienced abuse. Those who received such suggestions were particularly likely to suspect that they may have experienced childhood sexual abuse that they do not yet remember. Forgetting may be less common than implied by earlier estimates from clinical samples, yet it is not uncommon. Also, a sizable minority of the population is wondering whether they have experienced unremembered abuse, and these suspicions are linked to having encountered suggestions from others. The implications of these findings for understanding the phenomenon sometimes labeled repression are discussed. 109 references and 2 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         adults abused as children;  sexual abuse;  memory;  prevalence;  repression;  suggestibility;  characteristics of abused

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Repression: A Mistaken Impression?

 

AUTHOR:               Loftus, E.;  Joslyn, S.;  Polage, D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Development and Psychopathology

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Washington Univ., Seattle.

 

SOURCE:                10: pp. 781-792;  New York, NY, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           This article examines 3 kinds of memory distortions that indicate repression in a clinical context, including distortions related to the nature of the event, distortions related to the repression of memories, and distortions about the actual occurrence of the event. For example, the event occurred and it was forgotten, but not repressed. In addition, people may be wrong about experiencing a period of forgetting (i.e. the event occurred but was never forgotten). Finally, people may believe that a particular traumatic event occurred and was repressed when, in fact, it did not happen in the first place. The authors suggest that under certain circumstances, some combination of these distortions could lead to situations that are mistakenly interpreted as repression. 61 references and 1 table. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         repression;  sexual abuse;  adults abused as children;  memory

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Trauma, Memory, and Suggestibility in Children.

 

AUTHOR:               Eisen, M. L.;  Goodman, G. S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Development and Psychopathology

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    California Univ., Los Angeles. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                10: pp. 717-738;  New York, NY, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           This article examines factors hypothesized to affect children's memory for traumatic events. Theoretical ideas on the processing and remembering of trauma are presented and critiqued. A review of research on how psychopathology may generally influence and dissociation and posttraumatic stress disorder may specifically influence children's memory and suggestibility is provided. Child maltreatment is addressed as it relates to interviewing children about traumatic life experiences. Current developmental, cognitive, social, and clinical theories and research are discussed throughout the article to illustrate issues related to children's memory. Numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  trauma;  posttraumatic stress disorder;  psychopathology;  psychological interviews

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Recovered Memory Therapy: A Dubious Practice Technique.

 

AUTHOR:               Stocks, J. T.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Social Work

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                43(5): pp. 423-436;  Washington, DC, National Association of Social Workers, September 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           This article examines the validity of memory work as well as the evidence for the efficacy of therapeutic interventions based in the recovery of childhood sexual abuse memories. Body work, hypnosis, dream interpretation, flashbacks, journaling, guided imagery, truth serum, and survivors' groups are described. Evidence suggests that both true and false memories can be recovered using memory work techniques, and there is no evidence that reliable discriminations can be made between them. Similarly, there is no empirical evidence to suggest that recovered memory therapy results in improved outcomes for participating clients. The article reviews current treatment outcome research and suggests that participation in recovered memory therapy may be harmful to clients. Numerous references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  repression;  therapeutic effectiveness;  adults abused as children;  sexual abuse;  research reviews;  therapeutic intervention

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.naswpress.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Family of Origin History, Psychological Distress, Quality of Childhood Memory, and Content of First and Recoverd Childhood Memories.

 

AUTHOR:               Melchert, T. P.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                22(12): pp. 1203-1216;  Oxford (Great Britain), Elsevier Science, Ltd., December 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           This study tested several hypotheses that may help account for the large amount of variation that individuals report in the general quality of their childhood memory and the valence of the memories that many individuals report recovering from their childhoods. It was hypothesized that family of origin dysfunction would be associated with poorer childhood memory, that the content of recovered childhood memories would be disproportionately negative because of negative memories, and that the content of recovered childhood memories would be disproportionately negative because they include a significant number of memories which had been repressed or dissociated. Questionnaires were administered to 553 college students, 27 percent of whom reported a history of child abuse. The participants reported substantial variation in the general quality of their childhood memories and also a wide variety of different types of experiences for both their first childhood memories and the recovered childhood memories. Weak associations were found between family of origin dysfunction and poorer general quality of childhood memory, but the study as a whole resulted in few significant findings. Only weak support was found for some of the factors that have been hypothesized to distort autobiographical memory. The substantial individual variation in childhood memory that has been reported by college student samples remains poorly understood. 43 references and 5 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         adults abused as children;  repression;  memory;  validity;  child abuse research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Stress, Memory, and Emotion: Developmental Considerations From the Study of Child Maltreatment.

 

AUTHOR:               Pollak, S.;  Cicchetti, D.;  Klorman, R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Development and Psychopathology

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                10: pp. 811-828;  New York, NY, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           Emotion and memory are examined within a developmental framework. The point of departure for this discussion is the study of maltreated children whose traumatic experiences have been linked to difficulties in emotional development. It is suggested that cognitive processes such as memory and attention serve to link experience with emotion and emotion with psychopathology. Thus, an information processing approach is used to explain the development of maltreated children's adaptive and maladaptive coping responses. It is argued that maltreated children's association of affective stimuli with traumatic experiences and memories selectively alters the meaning of emotions for these children. More generally, the role of experience and learning as a component of emotional development is emphasized. 98 references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         sequelae;  child development;  stress;  emotional development;  emotional problems;  cognitive development;  coping skills;  trauma

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Recovered Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Implications for Clinical Practice.

 

AUTHOR:               Brandon, S.;  Boakes, J.;  Glaser, D.;  Green, R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    British Journal of Psychiatry

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Leicester Univ. (Great Britian).

 

SOURCE:                172: pp. 296-307;  London (England), Royal Coll. of Psychiatrists, April 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           This article describes the findings of a small working group of psychotherapists that reviewed their own experiences with recovered memories of sexual abuse and visited meetings and centers with expertise in the field. The group also interviewed people who retracted their accusations and conducted a comprehensive review of the literature. The review concluded that there is a vast amount of literature but little acceptable research. Opinions are expressed with great conviction but often unsupported by evidence. The issue of false or recovered memories should not be allowed to confuse the recognition and treatment of sexually abused children. When memories are recovered' after long periods of amnesia, particularly when extraordinary means were used to secure the recovery of memory, there is a high probability that the memories are false, i.e., of incidents that had not occurred. Some guidelines which should enable practitioners to avoid the pitfalls of memory recovery are offered. 100 references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  repression;  sexual abuse;  adults abused as children;  therapeutic intervention;  therapists role;  literature reviews;  false memory syndrome

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk

 

 

TITLE:                    The Contributions of Source Misattributions, Acquiescence, and Response Bias to Children's False Memories.

 

AUTHOR:               McBrien, C. M.;  Dagenbach, D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    American Journal of Psychology

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC.

 

SOURCE:                3(4): pp. 509-528;  Champaign, IL, Univ. of Illinois Press, Winter 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           Two studies examined the nature of the false recollections that preschool children experience after imaginary events. The first replicated earlier findings suggesting that some young children respond to the events as though they had actually happened. However, events that had not been studied or thought about also were included in the test phase, and children indicated that many of these had happened to them as well. This suggested that something other than source misattribution for imagined events occurred for at least some children. A second study assessed whether children's affirmative responses to queries about imagined events reflected retrieval of the imagined event, acquiescence, or a yes response bias. Evidence of contributions to false assents from the retrieval of imagined events and yes response bias was strong, but the contribution of acquiescence was minimal. 14 references and 6 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         false allegations;  suggestibility;  preschool children;  memory;  child witnesses;  leading questions;  psychological characteristics;  false memory syndrome

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Recovered Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Searching for the Middle Ground in Clinical Practice.

 

AUTHOR:               Prout, P. I.;  Dobson, K. S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Canadian Psychology

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Calgary Univ. (Canada).

 

SOURCE:                39(4): pp. 258-265;  Ottawa, ON (Canada), Canadian Psychological Association, November 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           This paper briefly examines the debate regarding adult memories of childhood sexual abuse and suggests a reasoned clinical response. The perspective related to false memories of abuse, as well as that of advocates of recovered memories, are considered. It is concluded that although there is considerable rhetoric on this topic, there is little definitive information to support one position or the other. A middle ground perspective, that recognizes both the legitimacy of childhood abuse and its negative influences, as well as the possibility of poor clinical practice leading to false reports of abuse, is advocated. Implications of this middle ground perspective for clinical practice, training, and research are discussed. 40 references and 1 table. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         repression;  memory;  adults abused as children;  sexual abuse;  false memory syndrome;  clinical intervention;  therapeutic intervention;  therapists responsibility

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    The Nature of Memory: Controversies About Retrieved Memories and the Law of Evidence.

 

AUTHOR:               Woodall, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Psychiatry and the Law

 

SOURCE:                26(2): pp. 151-218;  New York, NY, Federal Legal Publications, Inc., Summer 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           The psychological debate about the nature of memory has taken center stage in Canadian courtrooms. Retrieved-memory cases have sparked a controversy within the mental health and legal disciplines. Some experts argue that early memories of abuse that have been repressed cannot be fully retrieved in adulthood without major distortion. Others say that such memories could not be repressed at all, while still others contend that false memories may easily be implanted by therapists. While the very nature of memory is intangible, Canadian courts must find ways, by altering evidentiary procedures, to come closer to probabilities of truth. Questions of the nature of memory lead into theories of consciousness. Thus courts face the difficult task of seeking the truth about the past when the past itself is filtered through memory. Since memory necessarily involves the rewriting of personal identity through the subjective reinterpretation of the past, traditional procedures in the law of evidence must be reexamined and ultimately relaxed in the context of retrieved-memory cases. The article reviews recent decisions in criminal and civil court. 55 references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  repression;  canada;  false memory syndrome;  rules of evidence;  legal processes;  courts responsibility;  evidence presentation

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    The Ultimate Challenge: A Revolutionary, Sane and Sensible Response to Ritualistic and Cult-Related Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:               Woodsum, G. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

SOURCE:                Laramie, WY, Action Resources International, 1998;  338 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This book describes the characteristics of ritualistic and cult-related abuse and provides a framework for recovery. The text dispels myths about ritualistic and cult abuse and examines the brainwashing process used by abusers. Indicators of real ritualistic or cult-related abuse are identified and methods for recognizing the effects of programming are reviewed. The second section of the book offers recommendations for helping survivors recover from ritualistic and cult-abuse and achieve a full and satisfying life. These chapters address methods for breaking the cycle of programming, regression work to recover memories, safety assessment, and the role of supportive children, partners, family, and friends. Emphasis is placed on applying therapeutic techniques in the context of the process of programming and the mindset of the offender and the victim. Disadvantages of traditional techniques, such as hypnosis, medication, hospitalization, and group work are highlighted. The final chapter focuses on the prevention of ritualistic and cult-related abuse and the lessons of hope to be learned from survivors. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         intervention strategies;  therapeutic intervention;  ritual abuse;  cults;  sexual abuse;  etiology;  sequelae;  partners of abused adults

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

 

TITLE:                    Almost All in the Family: Emotionally Abusive Attachments.

 

AUTHOR:               Sable, P.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Emotional Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University of Southern California, Los Angeles. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                1(2): pp. 51-67;  Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           An ethological framework of attachment is applied to recognizing and helping adults who have had, or currently have, emotionally abusive affectional relationships. Conceptualized as constant and unrelenting verbal assault, disconfirmation of needs and feelings, and frightening threats of abandonment, the condition is distinguished from physical battering and other forms of violence. The article's discussion is limited to aspects of emotional abuse that affect the abused individual and not features of the abuser, nor of social inequalities, such as racism or sexism. Treatment provides a secure base for exploring emotionally abusive experiences, and the meaning given to them, in order to modify internal representations and form more secure attachment bonds. The approach points to the profound effects that experiences such as emotional abuse can have on personality development, altering perceptions and memories, and increasing vulnerability to psychological disturbance. Clinical examples illustrate ideas. Implications for prevention and suggestions for future research are discussed. By identifying and affirming responses to dysfunctional behavior, and clarifying the context in which it developed, clients can be helped to move away from abusive affectional ties and toward the capacity to form more secure attachments. Numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         emotional abuse;  trauma;  attachment;  bonding;  family relationships;  prevention

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Moral Justifications for Limits on Expert Testimony.

 

AUTHOR:               Lavin, M.;  Sales, B. D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Arizona Univ., Tempe. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                In: Ceci, S. J. and Hembrooke, H. Expert Witnesses in Child Abuse Cases: What Can and Should Be Said in Court. Washington, DC, American Psychological Association, 1998;  pp. 59-81

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter discusses moral justifications for limits on expert testimony. The authors begin by considering what is involved in the claim that a psychologist is an expert and has an expertise that is worth sharing in court. Next, the article considers whether what the law allows psychologists to do is too lenient to match the constraints that morality places on expert testimony. This analysis does not depend on any particular understanding of morality. Instead, the authors use the most prevalent approaches to morality--consequentialist, deontological, and Aristotelian virtue moralities. Third, the authors consider whether the American Psychological Association's ethics code can be interpreted to coincide with their conclusions about the restrictions that morality places on expert testimony by psychologists in the courts. The final section explores the practical implications of these analyses. Examples are used from the recovered-memory controversy and controversies in expert testimony regarding allegations of child abuse. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         ethics;  expert witnesses;  trial courts;  expert testimony;  psychologists;  legal processes;  memory

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.apa.org

 

 

TITLE:                    The Trials and Tribulations of a Novice Expert Witness.

 

AUTHOR:               Bruck, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                In: Ceci, S. J. and Hembrooke, H. Expert Witnesses in Child Abuse Cases: What Can and Should Be Said in Court. Washington, DC, American Psychological Association, 1998;  pp. 85-104

 

ABSTRACT:           The author of this chapter presents her retrospective memories, aided by transcripts of courtroom testimony, of her first 2 experiences as an expert witness in criminal trials. Both cases involved allegations of sexual abuse made by young children against their day-care workers and other adults. In both cases, the author appeared as an unpaid expert for the defense. She wrote this chapter as a warning to the novice about the pitfalls of performing this service. The author also emphasizes the necessity of having knowledgeable experts accurately present the science in the courtroom. She notes that it would be unfortunate for any scientist whose area of expertise is relevant to the case to retreat to the laboratory because of the unpleasantries of the courtroom. With some warning and preparation, one can learn to deal with the negative situations described in the article in a professional and impersonal manner. She concludes that scientists have an obligation to educate and provide the court with the most current review of their field as is relevant to the case at hand. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  defense;  day care services;  expert witnesses;  trial courts;  expert testimony

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.apa.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Tales of Sexual Panic in the Legal Academy: The Assault on Reverse Incest Suits.

 

AUTHOR:               Greer, E.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Case Western Reserve Law Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Southern New England School of Law.

 

SOURCE:                48(3): pp. 513-558;  Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH. School of Law, Spring 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           This article critiques an earlier article on reverse incest lawsuits. These lawsuits consist of action taken against therapists who encourage recollections of, and lawsuits based upon, repressed memories of childhood incest by those accused as being the perpetrators. The article consists of the following 5 sections: the doctrinal agenda of legal dominance feminism, the reality of the Ramona case (a reverse incest case) versus the ideological reading, the reality of Sullivan versus Cheshier (another reverse incest case) versus the ideological reading, the relevant empirical knowledge undermines the model of retrieved incest memory litigation, and some doctrinal conclusions from the reverse incest imbroglio. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         incest;  false memory syndrome;  therapists;  feminism;  court doctrine

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wshein.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Attorneys as Gatekeepers to the Court: The Potential Liability of Attorneys Bringing Suits Based on Recovered Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:               Bowman, C. G.;  Mertz, E.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Hofstra Law Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL. School of Law.

 

SOURCE:                27(2): pp. 223-284;  Hofstra Univ. School of Law, Hempstead, NY. Hofstra Law Review Association, Winter 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           This article examines the liability of attorneys for damages incurred by lawsuits involving repressed memories of child sexual abuse. Two cases are analyzed to illustrate the harmfulness of allegations of sexual abuse to the wrongfully accused -- in one, allegations against a priest were later recanted, and in the other, parents accused of sexually abusing their daughter sued her attorney for compensation for their injuries. The plaintiffs' attorneys in both cases were accused of failure to ensure that their suit was based on fact. The article summarizes current scientific conclusions about the reliability of repressed memories and reviews a variety of legal remedies that can be used when a lawsuit is deemed to be malicious, frivolous, or unfounded. These include favorable termination, lack of probable cause, malice, motions for sanctions, defamation, and invasion of privacy and intentional infliction of emotional distress. Traditional doctrine and application to child sexual abuse cases are explained for each remedy. The article suggests that the most appropriate action would be based on defamation, especially in cases in which the attorney publicizes the case. Emphasis is placed on balancing the needs of individuals who were truly abused as children with the risks of accusing innocent people.

 

KEY TERMS:         lawyers role;  liability;  civil liability;  lawsuits;  sexual abuse;  adults abused as children;  memory;  false allegations

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wshein.com

 

 

TITLE:                    The Early Identification of Women With Substance Abuse Problems.

 

AUTHOR:               White, W. L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Chestnut Health Systems, Bloomington, IL. Lighthouse Institute.

 

SOURCE:                Chestnut Health Systems, Bloomington, IL. Lighthouse Institute, February 25, 1998;  5 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This paper outlines the risk factors for substance abuse in women and describes the development of drug and alcohol addiction. The conclusions are based on the histories of women in Project SAFE, a treatment program for substance abusing mothers who have abused or neglected their children. Addicted women in the project reported family histories of alcohol and drug problems and emotional disorders, sexual abuse, early onset of alcohol and drug use, and excessive use beginning with a significant life event. The progression of alcoholism was indicated by increased tolerance to alcohol, personality change, increased drinking before menstrual periods, memory blackouts, binges and tremors, drinking in secrecy, and devaluing relationships. Cocaine addiction is characterized by impaired sleep and eating, increased contact with people who can access the drug, using cocaine more frequently during a binge, transition to intravenous administration or smoking, and selling cocaine or trading sex to obtain free amounts. Women develop psychological defenses that deny the consequences of their substance abuse and allow them to continue in their addition. Most women deny or minimize the effects of the addition on their parenting skills. Addiction can be detected by withdrawal syndromes, laboratory findings, and the presentation of alcohol and drug-related medical problems. In addition, liver pathology, gynecological disorders, obstetric complications, and risk of breast cancer are found in women with alcoholism.

 

KEY TERMS:         substance abusing mothers;  identification;  risk factors;  family characteristics;  substance abuse;  symptoms;  diagnoses;  assessment

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Technical Report

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.chestnut.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Recovered Memory of Child Sexual Trauma: A Documented Case From a Longitudinal Study.

 

AUTHOR:               Duggal, S.;  Sroufe, L. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998