TITLE:                    Recovered Memories: Context and Controversy.

 

AUTHOR:               Lein, J.;  Aukamp, A. W.;  Fournier, R. R.;  Weeks, B. L. et al.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Social Work

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    North Central Human Service Center, Minot, ND.

 

SOURCE:                44(5): pp. 481-490;  National Association of Social Workers, Inc., Washington, DC., September 1999

 

ABSTRACT:           Written in response to the article, Recovered Memory Therapy: A Dubious Practice Technique, by J.T. Stocks in a previous issue of the journal, these articles and letters outline research and experience that supports the use of therapy intended to help patients remember incidents of childhood sexual abuse. Stocks' positions criticizing recovered memory techniques are compared to those of the False Memory Syndrome Foundation that helps accused parents defend themselves against allegations made on the basis of recovered memories. The group accuses therapists of implanting false memories in their patients. Repressed memories have also been questioned on the basis of neurological distortions. However, research in this area focuses on brain functions regarding traumatic memory as it operates in the amygdala in the brain, rather than where normal memories are processed in the hippocampus. The articles assert that the original article did not provide adequate evidence in support of its positions and that recovered memory therapy is an appropriate intervention with patients suspected of a history of child sexual abuse. More discussion is needed by professionals to resolve the controversy about recovered memories. 6 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  repression;  therapeutic effectiveness;  false memory syndrome;  sexual abuse;  adults abused as children;  sequelae;  social work

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.naswpress.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Enactment and the Treatment of Abuse Survivors.

 

AUTHOR:               Plakun, E. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Harvard Review of Psychiatry

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Erik H. Erikson Institute for Education, Stockbridge, MA.

 

SOURCE:                5(6): pp. 318-325;  Mosby Inc., St. Louis, MO., March-April 1998;  p. 577

 

ABSTRACT:           Regardless of the approach employed, treatment of patients with histories of sexual or other abuse is a challenge. One reason for this is the vulnerability to enactment inherent in therapeutic work with such patients. Enactment is a +; recently elaborated psychoanalytic notion, defined as a pattern of nonverbal interactional behavior between the two parties in a therapeutic situation, having unconscious meaning for both. It involves mutual projective identification between therapist +; and patient. This paper clarifies the nature of enactment (conceptualized here as involving either refusal or actualization of the transference by the therapist) and its treatment implications. Transference-countertransference enactment paradigms +; encountered in work with survivors of abuse are presented. The therapeutic consequences of failing to recognize and respond to such enactments in work with these patients are explored. Unrecognized enactments may lead therapists unwittingly to abdicate +; the therapeutic role by becoming abusive, abused or vicariously traumatized, excessively guilty, seductive, overinvolved, and/or exhortatory or to implant false memories. Ways of utilizing enactment to advance treatment are also described and +; illustrated. 28 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         adults abused as children;  individual therapy;  clinical intervention;  physician patient relationships;  interpersonal relationships;  therapists responsibility;  therapists role;  therapeutic effectiveness

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    The Nature of Memory: Controversies About Retrieved Memories and the Law of Evidence.

 

AUTHOR:               Woodall, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Psychiatry and the Law

 

SOURCE:                26(2): pp. 151-218;  New York, NY, Federal Legal Publications, Inc., Summer 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           The psychological debate about the nature of memory has taken center stage in Canadian courtrooms. Retrieved-memory cases have sparked a controversy within the mental health and legal disciplines. Some experts argue that early memories of abuse that have been repressed cannot be fully retrieved in adulthood without major distortion. Others say that such memories could not be repressed at all, while still others contend that false memories may easily be implanted by therapists. While the very nature of memory is intangible, Canadian courts must find ways, by altering evidentiary procedures, to come closer to probabilities of truth. Questions of the nature of memory lead into theories of consciousness. Thus courts face the difficult task of seeking the truth about the past when the past itself is filtered through memory. Since memory necessarily involves the rewriting of personal identity through the subjective reinterpretation of the past, traditional procedures in the law of evidence must be reexamined and ultimately relaxed in the context of retrieved-memory cases. The article reviews recent decisions in criminal and civil court. 55 references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  repression;  canada;  false memory syndrome;  rules of evidence;  legal processes;  courts responsibility;  evidence presentation

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Hypnosis and False Memories: A Contemporary Myth.

 

AUTHOR:               Hammond, D. C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Paradigm

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Utah Univ., Salt Lake City. Sex and Marital Therapy Clinic.

 

SOURCE:                1(2): pp. 8-9, 17;  Three Springs, Inc., Huntsville, AL, Summer 1997

 

ABSTRACT:           This article reviews research about the effects of hypnosis on memory to highlight the inaccuracies of the false memory myth. Proponents of the false memory movement allege that hypnosis can be used to implant false memories and confabulate real memories. However, research cited by the movement is inaccurate because it usually involves experiments with college students and memories that have no emotional connection. Procedures used in this research also do not mirror the real-life clinical environment. However, well designed research has found that hypnosis can increase accuracy and confidence in memory. The research indicates that the risk for suggestibility is no greater with hypnosis than with other interview techniques. Therapists are advised to use hypnosis with caution and to avoid suggestive questioning during any type of therapy. Recommendations for careful use of hypnotherapy are provided in the article. 3 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         hypnotherapy;  memory;  false memory syndrome;  research reviews;  sexual abuse;  suggestibility

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.threesprings.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    How Suggestible Are Preschool Children? Cognitive and Social Factors.

 

AUTHOR:               Ceci, S. J.;  Huffman, M. C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Dept. of Human Development and Family Studies.

 

SOURCE:                36(7): pp. 948-958;  Baltimore, MD, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, July 1997

 

ABSTRACT:           This article summarizes findings from a series of studies about the cognitive and social boundary conditions that can undermine the accuracy of young children's reporting. Care was taken to include events and interviewing variables that more accurately reflect the experiences of children in real-world investigations of alleged sexual abuse. Videotaped interviews with preschool children were presented to experts to determine how adept they are at distinguishing between true and false accounts. All of the studies were designed to investigate the susceptibility to suggestion in young preschool children. The difference between studies was the form of that suggestion and the nature of these outcomes over time and-or successive interviews. Very young preschool children (aged 3 and 4 years) were significantly more vulnerable to suggestions than were older preschool children (aged 5 and 6 years). The number of interviews and the length of the interval over which they were presented resulted in the greatest level of suggestibility. While some types of events (negative, genital, salient) were more difficult to implant in children's statements, some children appeared to internalize the false suggestions and resisted debriefing. These children's false statements were quite convincing to professionals, who were unable to distinguish between true and false accounts. 33 references and 8 figures. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         preschool children;  suggestibility;  credibility;  evidence collection;  cognitive interviews;  individual characteristics

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wwilkins.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Memory and Abuse: Remembering and Healing the Effects of Trauma.

 

AUTHOR:               Whitfield, C. L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1995

 

SOURCE:                Deerfield Beach, FL, Health Communications, Inc., 1995;  393 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This book explores the topic of traumatic memory. Chapters consider the false memory debate, including factors that influence memory, negative impact of maltreatment on memory, differences between ordinary and traumatic memory, and recovery of memory. Chapters present information on false memories of abuse and the characteristics of abusers; guidelines for distinguishing between retractors who were actually abused and those who have actual untrue memories; the defense mechanisms of repression, dissociation, and denial; and methods of verifying and corroborating memories of abuse. Chapters also describe clinical findings that corroborate traumatic memory, present proposed explanations for delayed memory of abuse supported by false memory syndrome (FMS) advocates, discuss problems related to troubled helping professionals, offer clinical guidelines for assisting with memories of trauma, and present the legal case histories of several traumatic forgetting-based lawsuits. Remaining chapters examine the claim by FMS advocates that false memories are easily implanted in vulnerable individuals, identify the risk factors and diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder, describe somatic or body memories of traumatic stress, explain the process of recovery, suggest ways of beginning to remember childhood abuse, offer guidelines for survivors who are trying to validate their childhood experiences, and address some aspects of the relationship between spirituality and memory. A list of resources is also included. Appendixes provide information on memory and sexual abuse-related issues. 761 references, 30 figures, and 38 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  false memory syndrome;  repression;  dissociation;  corroboration;  lawsuits;  posttraumatic stress disorder;  adults abused as children

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

 

TITLE:                    The False Memory Debate: Social Science or Social Backlash?

 

AUTHOR:               Herman, J. L.;  Harvey, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1995

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA. Dept. of Psychiatry.

 

SOURCE:                In: Falconer, R., et al. (Editors). Trauma, Amnesia, and the Denial of Abuse. Family Violence and Sexual Assault Institute, Tyler, TX, 1995;  pp. 137-139

 

ABSTRACT:           In this chapter on false memories of childhood sexual abuse, documented evidence of the nature and prevalence of sexual assault in the United States, complete amnesia for childhood trauma, and delayed recall of traumatic events following a period of amnesia is presented. The causes of delayed recall are identified. The circumstances under which memories may surface are discussed. The author refutes the argument that overly eager therapists are capable of implanting memories of abuse in a nonabused individual. Concerns about the risk of suggestion when hypnotherapy is used are addressed. The author also presents assumptions about false memories that would be needed to generalize findings about false memories to adult survivors.

 

KEY TERMS:         trauma;  memory;  amnesia;  sexual abuse;  adults abused as children;  repression;  false memory syndrome

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

 

TITLE:                    A Critical Examination of the False Memory Syndrome.

 

AUTHOR:               Barstow, D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1995

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Renewed Hope Counseling Center, Oklahoma City, OK.

 

SOURCE:                In: Falconer, R., et al. (Editors). Trauma, Amnesia, and the Denial of Abuse. Family Violence and Sexual Assault Institute, Tyler, TX, 1995;  pp. 141-143

 

ABSTRACT:           This article examines false memory syndrome by identifying the concepts that the term denotes, providing definitions of the terms memory and syndrome, and explaining the steps that must occur for an individual to have a memory. The concept of confabulation is explained. The importance of distinguishing between what false memory denotes and what some individuals desire it to connote is discussed. Examples that proponents of false memory syndrome have used to support their position are presented, and situations that can be used to demonstrate that false memories cannot be induced or implanted are provided. In addition, the author considers the potential harm that proponents of false memory syndrome can cause to sexual abuse survivors. 4 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  syndromes;  sexual abuse;  repression;  adults abused as children;  false memory syndrome

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

 

TITLE:                    Truth in Memory.

 

AUTHOR:               Olio, K. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1994

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    American Psychologist

 

SOURCE:                pp. 442-443;  American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, May 1994

 

ABSTRACT:           This commentary responds to an article about false memories of sexual abuse victims published in May 1993. The commentary questions the research and scientific evidence used in the article to support conclusions that memories of sexual abuse and other symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder can be suggested and implanted in the memory of a person. Some research has indicated that peripheral details of memories may be distorted or wrong, but significant events can not be implanted. In addition, other research in the Loftus article is based on highly suggestible subjects or a single subject, and so can not be generalized to the population. 8 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  false allegations;  research reviews;  adults abused as children

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.apa.org

 

 

TITLE:                    The Repressed Memory Controversy.

 

AUTHOR:               Loftus, E. F.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1994

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    American Psychologist

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Washington Univ.

 

SOURCE:                pp. 443-445;  American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, May 1994

 

ABSTRACT:           This article defends previously published statements that expressed concerns that recovered memories of sexual abuse may actually be false memories, influenced by the suggestion of the therapist. Techniques used to recover repressed memories are reviewed and cases of false memories implanted by therapists are described. To avoid influencing the memory of patients, therapists are urged to focus on increasing functioning, rather than memories of the past, and remain unbiased and objective during therapy. Hypnosis should be used with caution, and the patient should not participate in group therapy or bibliotherapy until certain that abuse occurred. 23 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  false allegations;  research reviews;  adults abused as children;  therapists role

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.apa.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Birth Control for Child Abusers: Statutory Concerns and Privacy Issues in Court-Enforced Contraception.

 

AUTHOR:               Wylie, E.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1993

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Review of Litigation

 

SOURCE:                12(2): pp. 489-512, Spring 1993

 

ABSTRACT:           This article examines legal and constitutional issues associated with a court decision that involved the sentencing of a woman convicted of child abuse to 3 years' probation contingent upon her being implanted with Norplant, a birth control device. Background on the origins, development, and medical aspects of Norplant is reviewed. The article considers the legal validity of imposing this type of sentence on a criminal defendant. Also examined is the role of the judge in ordering the use of Norplant, whether ordering Norplant falls within the purposes and desired outcomes of probation, and the impact that this decision can have on the behavior of the woman involved. Finally, the author explores public policy questions of whether the imposition of Norplant violates the constitutional right of a woman to procreate. 113 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         court case dispositions;  dispositional alternatives;  probation;  judicial sentencing discretion;  birth control;  contraception;  contraceptives

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    A Critical Examination of the False Memory Syndrome.

 

AUTHOR:               Barstow, D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1993

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Family Violence and Sexual Assault Bulletin

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Renewed Hope Counseling Service, Oklahoma City, OK.

 

SOURCE:                9(4): pp. 21-23;  Family Violence and Sexual Assualt Institute, Euless, TX, 1993

 

ABSTRACT:           This article examines false memory syndrome by identifying the concepts that the term denotes, providing definitions of the terms memory and syndrome, and explaining the steps that must occur for an individual to have a memory. The importance of distinguishing between what false memory actually denotes and what it is sometimes said to connote is discussed. Examples that proponents of false memory syndrome have used to support their position are presented, and situations that can be used to demonstrate that false memories cannot be induced or implanted are provided. In addition, the potential harm that proponents of false memory syndrome can cause to sexual abuse survivors is considered. 4 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         false allegations;  syndromes;  sexual abuse;  adults abused as children

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Needle Implantation Ascribed to Tikoloshe.

 

AUTHOR:               Hadley, G. P.;  Bosenberg, A. T.;  Wiersma, R.;  Grant, H.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1993

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Lancet

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Natal Univ., Durban (South Africa). Dept. of Paediatric Surgery.

 

SOURCE:                342(8882): p. 1304;  New York, NY, The Lancet, Ltd., November 20, 1993

 

ABSTRACT:           This article describes the cases of 6 Zulu children into whom sewing needles were inserted, allegedly by the tikoloshe, an elf-like nocturnal creature that causes mischief through an ill-defined relationship with the witch doctor. The detection of the needles and the children's subsequent treatment are briefly explained. In addition, the pattern of the abuse with the tikoloshe substituting for an unknown abuser is discussed, and the need for a full investigation in such cases is stressed. It is suggested that blaming these events on the tikoloshe may allow mothers to accept the events without alienating the children's caregivers, who are usually grandmothers or neighbors. 1 reference and 1 figure.

 

KEY TERMS:         south africa;  medical aspects of child abuse;  medical treatment;  injury patterns;  abdominal injuries;  soft tissue injuries;  culture;  radiologic examinations

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Norplant: The New Scarlet Letter?

 

AUTHOR:               Flannery, M. T.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1992

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Contemporary Health Law and Policy

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Philadelphia Law Dept., PA.

 

SOURCE:                8: pp. 201-226;  Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC. Columbus School of Law., Spring 1992

 

ABSTRACT:           This article explores the use of Norplant, a female contraceptive, as a punitive tool in sentencing convicted child abusers. Norplant's mode of operation and side effects are discussed, and the social controversies surrounding its use are considered in both a factual and legal context. These controversies are the coercive use of Norplant as a means of controlling minority populations, the court-ordered implantation of Norplant in drug-addicted women, and the mandatory use of Norplant for convicted child abusers. The standards that need to be used if courts are to implement the mandatory use of Norplant in cases of convicted child abusers are analyzed. Such standards must include clear and convincing proof of prospective abuse or neglect, and the only possible standards are those used by courts to terminate parental rights to existing children. The present status of the law concerning the use of sterilization as a condition for sentence reduction is reviewed, focusing on both mandatory and voluntary sterilization. The conclusion is reached that implantation of Norplant is a violation of the fundamental right to procreate but that if it is offered within the scope of a plea bargain or as a probation condition and collateral rights concerning its effect have been voluntarily waived, then it is a valid means of solving problems related to a defendant's ability to raise children. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         contraceptives;  civil liberties;  birth control;  dispositional alternatives;  judicial decisions;  violation of personal rights;  maternal rights;  mandatory sentencing

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wshein.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Bone Scintigraphy in the Diagnosis and Management of Traumatic Injury.

 

AUTHOR:               Matin, P.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1983

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Seminars in Nuclear Medicine

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Roseville Community Hospital, Calif. Dept. of Nuclear Medicine.

 

SOURCE:                13(2): pp. 104-122;  Philadelphia, PA, W. B. Saunders Co., April 1983

 

ABSTRACT:           The use of imaging with bone-seeking nuclear medicine radiopharmaceuticals to identify fractures and other injuries to bones is discussed in this literature review. The technique is a very sensitive, noninvasive means of detecting a wide spectrum of skeletal disorders. It has become 1 of the most useful procedures in medical practice and is now 1 of the most often requested nuclear medicine studies. Scintigraphs can detect occult skeletal injuries in cases in which x-rays have initially failed to diagnose an injury. Bone imaging is also useful in differentiating between delayed healing and nonunion of a fracture site, evaluating new bone growth following surgical implantation of bone grafts, and providing a diagnostic clue to possible joint and soft tissue abnormalities. It is also useful for detecting a wide variety of childhood injuries, including the battered child syndrome. Infants and young children can be imaged without the administration of sedatives or tranquilizers if the child is kept awake and without feedings until immediately prior to imaging. The lights in the camera room are turned out, the doors closed, and all unnecessary personnel asked to leave the room. Whenever possible, the mother holds the child during imaging. The child usually falls asleep long enough for good quality images to be obtained. In a number of organ abnormalities and other situations, bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals may accumulate in soft tissues or specific organs other than the bone. 103 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         diagnostic tests;  radiologic examinations;  fractures;  skeletal injuries;  physical abuse

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wbsaunders.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Loss of Columella and Septum From an Unusual Form of Child Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:               Orton, C. I.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1975

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    London Hospital, (England).

 

SOURCE:                56(3): pp. 345-346;  Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Hagerstown, MD., September 1975

 

ABSTRACT:           Trauma associated with child abuse is determined to be one of the leading causes of loss of the columella. At examination, 1 child presented with loss of the lower two-thirds of the columella along with gross destruction of the nasal septum and superficial scarring of the upper lip. The patient's older brother had an identical septal lesion; however, the columella was intact and recessed. Clinical, radiological, and serological examinations revealed no other abnormalities. Upon further questioning, the mother admitted to scouring the children's noses with a hair pin; her psychotic preoccupation with nasal hygiene began when her children were infants and lasted until they were 6 and 8 years of age, when the mother underwent intensive psychotherapy. Plastic surgery using bilateral flaps of the upper lip was performed in both cases. A silicone rubber strut reaching from the nasal bridge to the tip was implanted in the younger patient in an attempt to coax growth of the soft nasal tissue. It was noted that attention should be paid to maxillary development, since nasal hypoplasia due to septal cartilage damage may result in maxillary hypoplasia. 6 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         facial injuries;  soft tissue injuries;  case reports

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://services.lww.com/services