TITLE:                    Media Impact on Biased Perceptual Processing of Threat-Relevant Imagery Among Patients Who Recovered Memory of Childhood Sexual Abuse Prior to the Onset of Treatment.


AUTHOR:               Leavitt, F.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Sexual Abuse


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Rush Medical Coll., Chicago, IL. Dept. of Psychology.


SOURCE:                8(4): pp. 91-102;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 1999;  p. 570


ABSTRACT:           Several recent studies have indicated that patients who report a history of sexual abuse on the basis of recovered or delayed recall of memory process Rorschach stimuli in ways that substantially deviate from non-abused patients. They +; exhibited sensitivity to threat-relevant imagery that was highly similar to the biased perceptual processing found among patients with continuously held memories of sexual abuse. In the present study, perceptual processing of threat-relevant imagery was +; examined as an artifact of media exposure in 40 patients who recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse as adults and in 40 patients who were not sexually abused. The two patient samples were divided into high and low media groups on the basis of a +; composite measure of media exposure. The results indicated that information gained from media exposure was unrelated to patients responses to Rorschach stimuli. Recovered memory patients produced threat-relevant imagery that is reminiscent of trauma +; irrespective of the level of media exposure; non-abused patients did not. That this imagery remained essentially unnoticed by even the most active consumers of the sexual abuse media among non-abused patients suggests that the popular media does not play+; a contagious role in the perceptual process of threat-relevant imagery. 23 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract)


KEY TERMS:         memory;  repression;  adults abused as children;  sexual abuse;  sequelae;  psychological evaluation;  mass media;  child abuse research


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com



TITLE:                    Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996: Confronting the Challenges of Virtual Reality.


AUTHOR:               Lee, L. W.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Southern California Interdisciplinary Law Journal


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University of Southern California, Los Angeles.


SOURCE:                8(2): pp. 639-681;  University of Southern California, Los Angeles. Gould School of Law, Spring 1999


ABSTRACT:           This article assesses the relevance of the Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996 for addressing the problem of computer-transmitted and computer-generated child pornography. A review of the United States Supreme Court rulings in New York versus Ferber and Osborne versus Ohio, and research about the negative impact of child pornography indicates that the law effectively balances First Amendment rights with the need to protect children from exploitation. The detailed constitutional analysis examines the framework established by the Supreme Court in the Ferber and Osborne cases, specifically the definition of child pornography and the state's compelling interest in regulating communication it deems as pornographic. The article also addresses concerns that the act will criminalize imagination and art. It recommends that a good defense be available to health care practitioners who need to access pornographic images for legitimate reasons involving research and treatment of child sexual abuse.


KEY TERMS:         child pornography;  internet crimes;  federal statutory law;  federal case law;  us supreme court;  prosecution;  criminal charges;  legal definitions


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article



TITLE:                    Self-Help for the Helpers: Preventing Vicarious Traumatization.


AUTHOR:               Ryan, K.




AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond. School of Social Work.


SOURCE:                In: Webb, N. B. (Editor). Play Therapy With Children in Crisis: Individual, Group, and Family Treatment. Second Edition. Guilford Publications, Inc., New York, NY., August 1999;  pp. 471-491


ABSTRACT:           Therapists who are treating child victims of trauma may experience symptoms themselves, specifically in the dimensions of frame of reference, self-capacities, ego resources, psychological needs and related cognitive schemas, and memory system. Similar to countertransference, these symptoms are identified as vicarious traumatization and can have a negative effect on the therapist and the client. The therapist must participate in a parallel treatment such as trauma therapy supervision in order to integrate and transform his or her feelings. A supervisor or colleague knowledgeable about child therapy should be consulted to address reactions to trauma and assist with the processing of conscious and unconscious feelings. Other coping strategies include: continue professional contacts; limit exposure to trauma; participate in personal psychotherapy; seek out caring relationships and experiences outside of work; create boundaries between work and personal life; obtain support; and confront traumatic imagery. A transcript of a consultation group meeting is provided in the chapter. 23 references.


KEY TERMS:         childrens therapy;  intervention strategies;  therapists role;  trauma;  therapists;  coping skills


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book


INTERNET URL:   http://www.guilford.com



TITLE:                    Reality Testing in Adult Women Who Report Childhood Sexual And Physical Abuse.


AUTHOR:               Sacco, M. L.;  Farber, B. A.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. Teachers Coll.


SOURCE:                23(11): pp. 1193-1203;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., November 1999


ABSTRACT:           This study investigated the differential effects of sexual and physical abuse in childhood on the quality of reality testing (perceptual disorders and dissociative symptoms) in later adult life. Two hundred and fifty nine female volunteers between the ages of 18 and 30 recruited from college campuses completed self-report measures assessing sexual and physical abuse in childhood as well as current perceptual impairments (reality distortion, uncertainty of perceptions, hallucinations and delusions, and psychoticism) and dissociation (amnesia, absorption and imaginative involvement, and depersonalization and derealization). Women who report abuse in childhood dissociate more than nonabused women, although they do not experience more perceptual distortions. Duration of abuse, age of onset of abuse, number of perpetrators, and relationship of perpetrator to victim predicted difficulties in many aspects of reality testing. Women who report both childhood sexual and physical abuse are especially prone to acknowledge dissociative phenomena. These findings suggest that college women who report abuse continue to experience adaptable accuracy in their reality testing but, in comparison to their cohorts who have not been abused, more often become distant from the world and their own sensory experiences. These results confirm and extend research done on clinical samples and suggest that the enduring effects of abuse on reality testing are manifest in the nonclinical population as well. 3 tables and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)


KEY TERMS:         dissociation;  perception;  physical abuse;  sexual abuse;  adults abused as children;  testing


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article



TITLE:                    TREATMENT MODELS: Selected Articles.




SOURCE:                NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999


KEY TERMS:         sex offenders therapy;  assessment;  program evaluation;  therapeutic effectiveness;  therapeutic intervention;  program models;  intervention strategies;  group therapy;  childrens therapy;  family therapy;  family services;  physical abuse;  models;  child abuse research;  treatment programs;  research methodology;  research needs;  child welfare services;  substance abusing parents;  drug treatment programs;  model programs;  interdisciplinary approach;  program planning;  battered women;  generational cycle of family violence;  home visitation programs;  behavior problems;  sexual abuse;  therapists;  abusive children;  adolescent sex offenders;  literature reviews;  ecological theories;  art therapy;  cognitive development;  sequelae;  behavior theories;  adolescents;  treatment foster care;  juvenile delinquency;  prevention;  program descriptions;  foster parents training


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Annotated Bibliography


INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com


INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch



TITLE:                    Trauma and the Self: A Theoretical and Clinical Perspective.


AUTHOR:               Pearlman, L. A.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Emotional Abuse


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Traumatic Stress Institute-Center for Adult and Adolescent Psychotherapy, South Windsor, CT.


SOURCE:                1(1): pp. 7-25;  Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1998


ABSTRACT:           This article applies the constructivist self development theory (CSDT) to examine the traumatic impact of childhood abuse and neglect on the self. CSDT theory, which integrates psychoanalytic theory with theories of social cognition, provides a framework for considering the inner abilities that maintain a cohesive, consistent sense of self. The article outlines the psychological and behavioral sequelae of undeveloped self capacities resulting from emotional trauma, including connection, affect regulation, and self-worth. It then provides a detailed approach to the psychotherapeutic development of self capacities. Interventions such as self- talk, guided imagery, identification of shame, differentiation of feelings, and behavioral management can help survivors learn to value themselves and develop an integrated identity. 42 references. (Author abstract modified)


KEY TERMS:         sequelae;  models;  trauma;  self concept;  self esteem;  psychotherapy


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com



TITLE:                    Women Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Healing Through Group Work; Beyond Survival.


AUTHOR:               Chew, J.




AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Calgary Univ., Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Educational Psychology.


SOURCE:                Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1998;  175 pp.


ABSTRACT:           This book provides step-by-step guidelines for conducting a group therapy program for women who experienced childhood sexual abuse. The 13 session program combines Ericksonian and solution-oriented approaches with a feminist perspective. Elements of the therapy include narrative therapy, group discussion, mini-lectures, structured exercises, guided imagery, and journal writing. Sessions cover: course introduction; safety and strength; boundaries; building strength and enhancing resourcefulness; telling personal stories; use of anger and power; restoring dignity and positive sense of self; trust and future relationships; spirituality; and planning for the future. The final chapter describes self-care and well-being for the therapist. 2 figures.


KEY TERMS:         female victims;  adults abused as children;  sexual abuse;  group therapy;  therapeutic intervention




INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com



TITLE:                    Keeping Children Safe: Rhetoric and Reality.


AUTHOR:               Allen, E. E.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Juvenile Justice


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, Arlington, VA.


SOURCE:                5(1): pp. 16-23;  Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (DOJ), Washington, DC, May 1998


ABSTRACT:           This article reviews data from a variety of sources to examine whether prevention strategies that emphasize stranger awareness reflect the actual dangers to children. Some research has found that up to 90 percent of sexual abuse offenses are perpetrated by offenders who are known to the child, including family members. Twenty-nine percent of rape victims are younger than 11 years old, and the typical victim of abduction and murder is a child who comes from a middle-class, stable family. Most experts on sexual assault note that the primary problem with stranger danger messages is that children do not understand who is considered a stranger. Many imagine that a stranger looks scary, not like a neighbor or another familiar person. A study of 155 nonfamily abductions by the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children revealed that the child knew his or her abductor in 89 percent of the cases in which the child was recovered alive. More than two-thirds of the children who were recovered deceased knew their abductors. These data can be used to modify prevention messages to more accurately inform children and their families. In addition to increasing awareness of the potential for offenses by acquaintances, children should be taught to tell an adult when someone makes them uncomfortable and that they have the right to say no to adults in certain situations. 17 references and 2 tables.


KEY TERMS:         child safety;  primary prevention;  research reviews;  statistical data;  characteristics of abused;  characteristics of abuser


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.ncjrs.org



TITLE:                    Community and Professional Definitions of Child Neglect.


AUTHOR:               Dubowitz. H.;  Klockner, A.;  Starr, R. H.;  Black, M. M.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Maltreatment


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Maryland Univ., Baltimore. School of Medicine.


SOURCE:                3(3): pp. 235-243;  Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., August 1998


ABSTRACT:           This article examines the views on child neglect among African American and White community members of middle and low socioeconomic status and contrasts their views with those of professionals in the field of child maltreatment. Vignettes concerning an imaginary 18-month-old child were factor analyzed into Physical and Psychological Care scales. There were small but significant differences, with both middle-class African American and White community groups showing greater concern for psychological care than the lower class African American group. Both groups of African Americans were more concerned than middle-class Whites about physical care. Overall, there is considerable agreement among the community samples in their views of what circumstances are harmful to children; professionals in the field appear to have a higher threshold for concern. 32 references and 2 tables. (Author abstract)


KEY TERMS:         child neglect;  african americans;  caucasians;  socioeconomic influences


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com



TITLE:                    Integrating Cognitive Strategies into Behavioral Treatment for Abusive Parents and Families with Aggressive Adolescents.


AUTHOR:               Stern, S. B.;  Azar, S. T.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Boston Univ., MA. School of Social Work.


SOURCE:                3(3): pp. 387-403;  Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., July 1998


ABSTRACT:           This article describes the cognitive problems that mark two parenting populations: abusive parents and parents of aggressive adolescents. Research is summarized characterizing the nature of these difficulties for both populations in distorted expectations and attributions, poor cognitive problem- solving capacities, and poor anger control and stress management skills. The article then outlines promising cognitive strategies to address these difficulties, including role playing and imagery, restructuring, reframing, education about child development, communication skills training, problem-solving training, journaling, and relaxation training. The article suggests that these strategies will enhance currently available behavioral approaches and address the complex tasks of parenting more fully. Numerous references and 1 table. (Author abstract modified)


KEY TERMS:         behavior therapy;  cognitive development;  aggressive behavior;  adolescents;  adolescent psychology;  parental therapy;  intervention strategies


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com



TITLE:                    Reliability and Credibility of Young Children's Reports: From Research to Policy and Practice.


AUTHOR:               Bruck, M.;  Ceci, S. J.;  Hembrooke, H.




JOURNAL TITLE:    American Psychologist


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada). Dept. of Psychology.


SOURCE:                53(2): pp. 136-151;  American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, February 1998


ABSTRACT:           This article reviews issues, concerns, and research regarding the interviewing of young child witnesses. The article focuses on research on suggestibility and the influence of various interviewing techniques on the reliability and credibility of young children's reports. Interviewer bias, guided imagery, peer pressure, visualization techniques, repetition of misinformation, and selective reinforcement are described as potential sources of false allegations. Research indicates that children are able to provide reliable and accurate reports of events when the interviewer is neutral and there exists no motivation for the child to report false information. However, children can be swayed by suggestive interviewing techniques and older children are as susceptible to suggestion as preschool children. Implications for future research and for policy are discussed. 90 references. (Author abstract modified)


KEY TERMS:         child witnesses;  interviews;  credibility;  reliability;  suggestibility;  methods;  leading questions


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.apa.org



TITLE:                    Recovered Memory Therapy: A Dubious Practice Technique.


AUTHOR:               Stocks, J. T.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Social Work


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. School of Social Work.


SOURCE:                43(5): pp. 423-436;  Washington, DC, National Association of Social Workers, September 1998


ABSTRACT:           This article examines the validity of memory work as well as the evidence for the efficacy of therapeutic interventions based in the recovery of childhood sexual abuse memories. Body work, hypnosis, dream interpretation, flashbacks, journaling, guided imagery, truth serum, and survivors' groups are described. Evidence suggests that both true and false memories can be recovered using memory work techniques, and there is no evidence that reliable discriminations can be made between them. Similarly, there is no empirical evidence to suggest that recovered memory therapy results in improved outcomes for participating clients. The article reviews current treatment outcome research and suggests that participation in recovered memory therapy may be harmful to clients. Numerous references. (Author abstract)


KEY TERMS:         memory;  repression;  therapeutic effectiveness;  adults abused as children;  sexual abuse;  research reviews;  therapeutic intervention


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.naswpress.org



TITLE:                    The Contributions of Source Misattributions, Acquiescence, and Response Bias to Children's False Memories.


AUTHOR:               McBrien, C. M.;  Dagenbach, D.




JOURNAL TITLE:    American Journal of Psychology


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC.


SOURCE:                3(4): pp. 509-528;  Champaign, IL, Univ. of Illinois Press, Winter 1998


ABSTRACT:           Two studies examined the nature of the false recollections that preschool children experience after imaginary events. The first replicated earlier findings suggesting that some young children respond to the events as though they had actually happened. However, events that had not been studied or thought about also were included in the test phase, and children indicated that many of these had happened to them as well. This suggested that something other than source misattribution for imagined events occurred for at least some children. A second study assessed whether children's affirmative responses to queries about imagined events reflected retrieval of the imagined event, acquiescence, or a yes response bias. Evidence of contributions to false assents from the retrieval of imagined events and yes response bias was strong, but the contribution of acquiescence was minimal. 14 references and 6 tables. (Author abstract)


KEY TERMS:         false allegations;  suggestibility;  preschool children;  memory;  child witnesses;  leading questions;  psychological characteristics;  false memory syndrome


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article



TITLE:                    Aspects of a Preventive Approach to Support Children of Alcoholics.


AUTHOR:               Christensen, E.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse Review


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Danish National Institute of Social Research, Copenhagen (Denmark).


SOURCE:                6(1): pp. 24-34;  Chichester (Great Britain), John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., March 1997


ABSTRACT:           Thirty-two children aged 5 to 16 years and their parents were interviewed about what it is like to be a child in a family where one or both parents have alcohol problems. The study found that parents imagine that the children do not know about their alcohol abuse and, at the same time, documented that the children were aware of it. The children tried to stop their parents from drinking by telling them to stop. When this did not work, the children withdrew. They did not talk about the problems outside the family as they were afraid they would be rejected by society. The children made it clear that it was important for children in families with alcoholism to receive attention. The best place to get attention and help was, from the children's point of view, the treatment institution where the parents received help. The reasons for this were the importance to the children that those helping them should be knowledgeable about alcoholism and for the children to be sure the parents would be helped as well. 4 references and 2 tables. (Author abstract)


KEY TERMS:         prevention programs;  substance abusing parents;  alcoholism;  alcohol abuse;  childrens services;  alcohol education;  needs assessment;  denmark


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.wiley.com



TITLE:                    Inaccuracies in Children's Testimony: Memory, Suggestibility, or Obedience to Authority?


AUTHOR:               Meyer, J. F.




AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Rutgers Univ., Camden, NJ. Dept. of Sociology.


SOURCE:                Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1997;  175 pp.


ABSTRACT:           This book integrates literature on memory, suggestibility, and obedience to authority to provide a comprehensive perspective of the reasons for inaccuracies in children's testimony. Chapters review research about recall; questioning techniques; the effects of stress, prompting, and imagination; suggestibility; limitations of research; and the applications of Milgram's theory of obedience to authority for children in court. Strategies recommended for improving the accuracy of children's testimony include: learn from previous mistakes; avoid leading questions; use indirect and nonverbal techniques; rehearse testimony with the child; reduce perceived authority of the interviewer; educate children about court procedures; train children to answer questions; and teach children to recognize leading questions. Numerous references and 1 table.


KEY TERMS:         child witnesses;  credibility;  testimony;  suggestibility;  memory;  competency




INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com



TITLE:                    Empowering Techniques of Play Therapy: A Method for Working With Sexually Abused Children.


AUTHOR:               Griffith, M.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Mental Health Counseling


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Butler Univ., Indianapolis, IN. School of Counseling, Marital and Family Therapy, and School Psychology.


SOURCE:                19(2): pp. 130-142;  American Counseling Association, Alexandria, VA, April 1997


ABSTRACT:           This article presents a therapeutic model in which the mental health counselor functions as a play therapist with children who have been sexually abused. Play therapy, as addressed in this article, is based on existential, client-centered, and developmental theories. The purpose of play therapy is to relieve the emotional distress of sexual abuse through a variety of expressive play materials and imagination and is based on the notion that play is a child's natural medium of self-expression. Through the power of the therapeutic relationship and the belief of the mental health counselor in the child's strengths and potential for change and growth, self-esteem and empowerment within the child increases. An appendix reviews the stages of therapy and the role of the play therapist. A second appendix provides an example of a treatment plan for play therapy. Numerous references. (Author abstract modified)


KEY TERMS:         play therapy;  sexual abuse;  therapeutic intervention;  abused children;  models;  counselors


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.counseling.org



TITLE:                    Philadelphia's Progressive Orphanage: The Carson Valley School.


AUTHOR:               Contosta, D. R.




AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Chestnut Hill Coll., Philadelphia, PA. Dept. of History.


SOURCE:                University Park, PA, Pennsylvania State Univ. Press, November 1997;  269 pp.


ABSTRACT:           This book gives a historical perspective of the Carson Valley School, a progressive orphanage located near Philadelphia. For more than 75 years, the school has served the needs of orphaned girls and other dependent children. A legacy of the progressive education movement of the early decades of the twentieth century, the school was formally opened in 1918 as the Carson College for Orphan Girls. The institution was originally endowed by the $5 million estate of Philadelphia trolley magnate Robert Carson, who had stipulated in his will that it could receive only white, parentless girls. Over the decades the school leaders were able to remove these restrictions, and the first black girls were admitted in 1967. By the 1970s, the school was admitting children regardless of race or gender, as well as neglected and dependent youths. This book details how the Carson Valley School has been shaped by a multitude of social, cultural, and political forces and how many of the reforms of the Progressive era remain in place today. Also described are how the Carson Valley School has responded to the social, cultural, and political challenges with flexibility and imagination. For instance, the institution had to shorten the length of time that children resided on campus, both because of cutbacks in public funds and because of the goal of placing dependent children in the least restrictive environments. Thus, while residents were staying at Carson Valley School for an average of 3 or 4 years in the mid-1970s, most remained for less than a year 2 decades later. This book shows how Carson Valley School has contributed to the renewed debate about orphanages and dependent child care. 50 photographs and numerous references.


KEY TERMS:         orphanages;  residential schools;  pennsylvania;  child welfare;  education





TITLE:                    Counseling Adult Male Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Review of Treatment


AUTHOR:               Winder, J. H.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Mental Health Counseling


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Southern Univ., New Orleans, LA. Educational Talent Search Program.


SOURCE:                18(2): pp. 123-134;  American Mental Health Counselors Association, Alexandria, VA., April 1996;  p. 667


ABSTRACT:           Adult male survivors of childhood sexual abuse differ from female survivors in the way that they express their trauma. Women usually internalize their emotions about the abuse, while men typically act out their aggression and anger. Menwho were sexually abused during childhood also must resolve conflicts between their abuse experience and social expectations for masculinity and male sexual identity. Counselors should consider the specific needs of male victims when treating clients inadulthood. The following techniques have been identified in the literature as effective for the treatment of male survivors: gestalt work and psychodrama; bibliotherapy; hypnosis, visualization, and guided imagery; journal writing; cognitive-behavioral techniques; family-of-origin techniques; and transactional analysis. 32 references.


KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  male victims;  adults abused as children;  therapeutic intervention;  program models;  literature reviews;  counseling;  intervention strategies


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.amhca.org/



TITLE:                    Kinship Care: The African American Response to Family Preservation.


AUTHOR:               Scannapieco, M.;  Jackson, S.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Social Work


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Maryland Univ., Baltimore. School of Social Work.


SOURCE:                41(2): pp. 190-196;  Washington, DC, National Association of Social Workers, March 1996


ABSTRACT:           This article discusses increased kinship care as a resilient response by the African American community to child abuse and neglect. The strengths and resilience of the African American family can be attributed in part to a strong kinship network. In this manner, the African American community is preserving the family. The article reviews the historical response of African American families to separation and loss and outlines current challenges for families in the community, including poverty, AIDS, child abuse and neglect, and reductions in services. This community clearly needs support through imaginative social work policies and practice. The article proposes that social service agencies adopt a culturally based perspective and include all family members in placement planning. 45 references. (Author abstract modified)


KEY TERMS:         kinship care;  african americans;  cultural values;  family preservation;  community role;  extended families;  permanency planning


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.naswpress.org



TITLE:                    How to Keep Your C.O.O.L. with Your Kids: Learning to Be Better Parents by Controlling Our Own Lives.


AUTHOR:               Makarowski, L.




SOURCE:                New York, NY, Perigee Books, 1996;  222 pp.


ABSTRACT:           This book provides suggestions for parents to control their anger when dealing with their child's behavior problems. Special consideration is given to parental responses to children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The C.O.O.L. strategy involves Considering the consequences of anger; Observing body signals objectively; Organizing alternatives for problem solving; and Looking toward the future, while learning from the past. Parents are urged to consider their response before a problem develops so that they are prepared to cope calmly and in a loving way. Chapters address physical reactions to stressful situations, identification of anger triggers, cycles of change, goal setting, relaxation techniques, imagery, anger management, modification of the child's behavior, discipline, bad habits, lying, reinforcement, and compromise. Self-assessment exercises are provided, as well as examples of the techniques described. 1 figure.


KEY TERMS:         parenting skills;  anger;  behavior modification;  attention deficit disorder;  hyperactivity;  behavior problems





TITLE:                    Meeting Defenses in Sexual Abuse Cases.


AUTHOR:               Morgan, J. T.;  Brickman, J.






AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    DeKalb County Office of the District Attorney, GA.


SOURCE:                5(3): p. 1, 3, 8;  National Resource Center on Child Sexual Abuse, Huntsville, AL, May-June 1996


ABSTRACT:           Everyone involved in the prosecution of a child sexual abuse case must be prepared to argue and present evidence to counter the defense of the alleged perpetrator. There are 11 common defenses: imagination of the child; misinterpretation; mental or emotional problems of the child; accidental contact; victim has a history of lying; divorce or custody situation; retaliation by the mother; inadequate evidence; incomplete or erroneous police work; mutual consent; and conspiracy. Prosecutors are advised to question the child about details to corroborate their story and increase credibility. In addition, police investigation procedures should be thorough to avoid any question about the collection of evidence. Accusations of lying and conspiracy can be met by establishing the lack of motive for alleging abuse.


KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  prosecution;  district attorneys;  defense;  police operating procedures;  testimony;  legal processes


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch



TITLE:                    Remembering Childhood Sexual Abuse: A National Survey of Psychologists' Clinical Practices, Beliefs, and Personal Experiences.


AUTHOR:               Polusny, M. A.;  Follette, V. M.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Professional Psychology: Research and Practice


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Nevada Univ., Reno. Dept. of Psychology.


SOURCE:                27(1): pp. 41-52;  American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, February 1996


ABSTRACT:           A national survey of 1,000 psychologists, to which 223 responded, assessed professionals' clinical practices and beliefs about the treatment of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), personal CSA history, and the phenomenon of clients remembering CSA in therapy. Results indicated that over 25 percent of therapists reported using guided imagery, dream interpretation, bibliotherapy regarding sexual abuse, referral to sexual abuse survivors' group, and free association of childhood memories as memory retrieval techniques with clients who had no specific memory of CSA. However, the majority of therapists reported that they had not seen any cases of adult clients entering therapy with no memory of CSA and subsequently recalling abuse in the course of therapy. A personal history of CSA was not associated with most clinical practices related to treating sexual abuse survivors. The implications for training and establishing scientific standards of psychological practice are discussed. 58 references and 4 tables. (Author abstract)


KEY TERMS:         memory;  psychological evaluation;  sexual abuse;  adults abused as children;  psychologists attitudes;  psychologists role


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.apa.org



TITLE:                    Child Abuse and Dissociative Identity Disorder - Multiple Personality Disorder: The Documentation of Childhood Maltreatment and the Corroboration of Symptoms.


AUTHOR:               Swica, Y.;  Lewis, D. O.;  Lewis, M.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    New York Univ. School of Medicine, New York. Dept. of Psychiatry.


SOURCE:                5(2): pp. 431-447;  Philadelphia, PA, W. B. Saunders Co., April 1996


ABSTRACT:           This study analyzed the documentation of severe child maltreatment in the histories of six violent offenders to demonstrate the relationship between child abuse and dissociative identity disorder or multiple personality disorder (DID-MPD). All six men were diagnosed with DID-MPD after their convictions during a neuropsychiatric evaluation that assessed states of awareness, time loss, memory, imagination, moods, auditory experiences, visual experiences, changes in skills or handwriting, changes in temperament, and use of different names. The evaluations also collected in-depth information about medical, family, social, and educational histories to document childhood maltreatment experience. Social service records provided evidence of physical and sexual abuse in all six cases. Childhood symptoms of DID as reported in historical records and interviews included auditory hallucinations, trance-like states and amnesia, imaginary companions, fugue states, and spacing out. Documentation of adult symptoms was obtained during the clinical evaluation as well as from police records, psychiatrists, coworkers, family members, acquaintances, and the subjects themselves. Evaluations found that two of the subjects had no memory of childhood abuse and the remainder had only limited memories of maltreatment. Two did not remember committing the violent offense for which they were convicted and the recollections of the others changed. Implications of these findings for diagnosis and treatment are discussed. 24 references, 2 figures, and 4 tables.


KEY TERMS:         case studies;  dissociation;  multiple personality disorder;  diagnoses;  adults abused as children;  corroboration;  memory;  etiology


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article



TITLE:                    With Eyes Wide Open: A Workbook for Parents Adopting International Children Over Age One.


AUTHOR:               Miller, M.;  Ward, N.




AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Children's Home Society of Minnesota, St. Paul.


SOURCE:                Children's Home Society of Minnesota, St. Paul, 1996;  155 pp.


ABSTRACT:           This workbook is written for parents preparing to adopt a child from abroad with life experiences, i.e. a child 12 months old or older who is already searching or attempting to attach to a parent figure. The workbook's methodology focuses on trying to reconstruct the child's experiences, to imagine the child's life. The workbook is arranged into 20 topical sections, each incorporating a combination of research, role-playing, discussion, interviews, or writing exercises.


KEY TERMS:         intercountry adoption;  older children;  adoption preparation





TITLE:                    Supporting Family Strengths: Orienting Policy and Practice Toward the 21st Century.


AUTHOR:               Weick, A.;  Saleebey, D.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Families in Society


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Kansas Univ., Lawrence. School of Social Welfare.


SOURCE:                76(3): pp. 141-149;  Milwaukee, WI, Families International, Inc., March 1995


ABSTRACT:           This article suggests that myths of economic self-sufficiency and psychological normalcy have engendered, in both public policy and family treatment, strategies that isolate, punish, and pathologize families. To move beyond these myths, it is necessary to draw more generous definitions of what constitutes family by placing families within the nurturing membrane of community life and actively seeking to support family strengths through imaginative and innovative policies and empowering practices. Approaches that emphasize this family-strengths perspective include family preservation, solution-focused therapy, family-centered practice, feminist orientations, and the ecological perspective. Strengths-based practice will identify the capacities and resources of families; recognize political, racial, and economic influences; help families overcome barriers to community participation; use the family's culture; and empower families to solve problems and make decisions. 48 references. (Author abstract modified)


KEY TERMS:         family support systems;  families;  family role;  community role;  social policies


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article



TITLE:                    How Children Remember and Why They Forget.


AUTHOR:               Perry, N. W.




AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Creighton Univ., Omaha, NE. Dept. of Psychology.


SOURCE:                In: Falconer, R., et al. (Editors). Trauma, Amnesia, and the Denial of Abuse. Family Violence and Sexual Assault Institute, Tyler, TX, 1995;  pp. 83-89


ABSTRACT:           This chapter discusses the capacity of children to remember and explains why they forget. The development of memory, for both children and adults, involves the phases of perceiving an event and paying attention to it, storing information in memory, and recalling and reporting information. Children recall information through recognition, reconstruction, or free recall memory. Strategies used for remembering include rehearsal, imagery, organization, and external and internal cues. The use of these strategies by children is discussed. In addition, factors that influence a child's memory are examined, including the developmental level of the child, the salience of the events and details to be remembered, the ability of the child to use memory strategies, the stress associated with an event, the use of incentives to encourage the child to withhold information about an event, and the suggestibility of the child. 66 references.


KEY TERMS:         memory;  suggestibility;  stress;  cognitive development;  sexual abuse


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book



TITLE:                    The Debate Over Recovered Memory of Sexual Abuse: A Feminist-Psychoanalytic Perspective.


AUTHOR:               Haaken, J.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Psychiatry


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Portland State Univ., OR. Dept. of Psychology.


SOURCE:                58(2): pp. 189-198;  American Psychological Association, Washington, DC., May 1995


ABSTRACT:           This paper presents a feminist-psychoanalytic analysis of the contemporary debate over the veracity of memories of sexual abuse recovered in treatment. Clinical discourse is currently divided between those who argue that recovered memories are veridical accounts of sexual trauma and those who claim that many therapists are creating memories of abuse in their patients. The article provides an analysis of the debate on recovered memory and of the social dynamics underlying it, and discusses how these dynamics have shaped clinical practice. In exploring the clinical issues raised by the debate, Freud's abandonment of seduction theory is reassessed, examining some of the problematic issues in separating fantasy and memory in female psychosexual development. Conflictual aspects of female development are situated in an analysis of patriarchal social relationships that continue to mediate feminine experience. The paper argues that the jettisoning of the concept of fantasy in much of the clinical literature on sexual abuse has contributed to a reification of memory-- that is, as true or false -- and a sacrifice of complexity in the clinical elaboration of women's abusive experiences. In reclaiming the concept of fantasy, a range of meanings located between the imaginary and the real suggested by female narratives of sexual abuse are described. 43 references. (Author abstract modified)


KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  memory;  psychological evaluation;  feminism;  psychoanalytic theories


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.guilford.com



TITLE:                    Fantasy Proneness, Reported Childhood Abuse, and the Relevance of Reported Abuse Onset.


AUTHOR:               Bryant, R. A.




JOURNAL TITLE:    International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    New South Wales Univ. (Australia). School of Psychology.


SOURCE:                43(2): pp. 184-193;  Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., April 1995


ABSTRACT:           This study investigated the relationship between fantasy proneness and the age at which reported childhood sexual abuse occurs. Seventeen adult females who reported having been sexually abused before the age of 7 years, 20 females who reported having been abused after the age of 7 years, and 20 females who reported having never been abused were administered two measures of imaginative involvement: the Tellegen Absorption Scale (TAS) and the Inventory of Childhood Memories and Imaginings (ICMI). Participants who were reportedly abused early in childhood obtained higher scores on the TAS and ICMI than participants who were reportedly abused later in childhood, who in turn obtained higher scores than the control participants. Findings are discussed in terms of factors that mediate fantasy proneness and reports of childhood abuse. 22 references and 2 tables. (Author abstract)


KEY TERMS:         australia;  adults abused as children;  sexual abuse;  sequelae;  fantasies;  child development


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com



TITLE:                    Reweaving Timelines.


AUTHOR:               Stiffler, L. H.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Adoption Therapist


SOURCE:                6(4): pp. 15-18;  Hope Cottage Adoption Center, Dallas, TX., Fall 1995


ABSTRACT:           For adoptees and birth parents in closed adoptions, connections to the past are distorted. The author discusses a method of therapy based on neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) to help with temporal perception and orientation. She describes guided fantasies of being a child who has lost a parent temporarily, and a parent who has lost a child. These mental/emotional exercises help people experience the abandonment a child feels, and the grief a birth parent feels. She also uses an exercise to imagine the reunion of parent and child. When adoptees and birth parents are reunited the history and connections of the intervening years need recognition by the persons involved. A birth mother's development may be stopped at the point of pregnancy. She may have been unable to grieve and resolve the loss of the child, and have denied or repressed many of her feelings. Birth fathers also have deep pain and guilt, and reunions may cause trouble in the birth father's present family. Adoptive parents are haunted by the fear that the birth parents will appear and take away the child's love. They are reminded of their past loss of a biological child. In the NLP method, people mark timelines, and deal with the past, present, and future. They consolidate identity in a flexible brief therapy process. A glossary of terms is provided.


KEY TERMS:         psychotherapy;  closed adoption;  reunions;  psychological aspects;  treatment;  grief;  adoption triads


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article



TITLE:                    The Treatment of Incest Offenders: A Hypnotic Approach: A Brief Communication.


AUTHOR:               Guyer, C. G.;  Van Patten, I. T.




JOURNAL TITLE:    International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis


SOURCE:                43(3): pp. 266-273;  Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., July 1995


ABSTRACT:           This article examines the use of hypnosis as a form of treatment for incest offenders. Incest has become more prominent in public awareness over the past 15 years. The major focus of this interest has been on the incest survivor, whereas the incest offender has received less attention. A hypnotic approach to trating incest offenders is outlined that involves a seven-stage approach. The first phase entails establishing a rapport by learning the offenders history. The next step includes educating and informing the offender of the hypnotic procedures. The third stage focuses on the offender's ability to perform self-hypnosis as well as participate in heterohypnosis. In the fourth phase, emphasis is placed on imagery to explore the offender's motive for committing incest. The next phase is devoted to age regression to gather evidence as to whether the possibility exists that the offender was abuse. The sixth stage involves the instruction of the offender's inner child in order to educate him so that he does not repeat his previous behavior. Posthypnotic suggestions are given during this time to encourage this. The final phase is the progression of the offender to post-incarceration. Again posthypnotic suggestions are used. This time to engender nurturing and common feelings toward children. A case sample is presented and future research directions suggested. 18 references. (Author abstract modified)


KEY TERMS:         offenders;  incest;  treatment;  sexual abuse;  research;  perpetrators


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com



TITLE:                    Family-Based Services. A Solution-Focused Approach.


AUTHOR:               Berg, I. K.




AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Brief Family Therapy Center, Milwaukee, WI.


SOURCE:                New York, NY, W. W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1994;  236 pp.


ABSTRACT:           This book discusses how child welfare and family service workers can apply the principles of brief, solution-focused therapy to family preservation services, home-based family-centered services, and other family-based services. The solution-focused approach emphasizes the strengths and competencies of families and applies previous successes to empower families to solve their problems. Clients who have no past successes can be encouraged to imagine miracles and identify small steps to achieving their goal. This book explains solution-focused therapeutic techniques step-by-step, with numerous case examples. Chapters address the initial stage, problem definition, developing cooperation, setting goals and making contracts, interviewing techniques, conducting a family session, middle phase and termination, and special problems. Sample assessment forms are provided. 36 references and 4 figures.


KEY TERMS:         family therapy;  counseling;  family counseling;  treatment programs




INTERNET URL:   http://web.wwnorton.com



TITLE:                    Child Witnesses: Fragile Voices in the American Legal System.


AUTHOR:               McGough, L. S.




AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Louisiana State Univ. Law School, Baton Rouge.


SOURCE:                New Haven, CT, Yale Univ. Press, 1994;  349 pp.


ABSTRACT:           This book assesses research on the reliability of testimony provided by children in various legal proceedings. The child witness revolution of the 1980s is reviewed. Hypothetical cases drawn from the facts of actual litigated cases are used to provide data on developmental facts that affect children's capability to serve as trial witnesses, such as the development of cognitive skills needed for accurate perception; the relationship between the cognitive and emotional elements of imagination and confabulation; the effect of trauma on a child's ability to recall events accurately; the reliability risks of memory loss and suggestibility resulting from cognitive, emotional, and social causes; and the emotional variables causing a child to mislead interviewers or jurors consciously. The legal processes and rules of evidence affecting the believability of children's testimony are examined, including trial processes for evaluating the credibility of any witness, the hearsay rule and its exceptions, the confrontation clause, and the use of expert assessments. The author analyzes actual trials to illustrate the concepts discussed throughout the book, including the McMartin Preschool prosecution in California, the Morgan-Foretich custody and visitation controversy, and various U.S. Supreme Court child sexual abuse cases. In addition, the author proposes the early videotaping of a child witness's account to minimize the reliability risks posed by a child witness. Appendixes present proposed statutes and list relevant cases and statutes. Numerous references and 6 figures.


KEY TERMS:         child witnesses;  testimony;  cognitive development;  suggestibility;  competency;  rules of evidence;  prosecution;  videotaping





TITLE:                    Understanding and Working with Dissociative Processes in Children.


AUTHOR:               Boat, B. W.




SOURCE:                In: McNamara, J. (Editor). Sexually Reactive Children in Adoption and Foster Care. Greensboro, NC, Family Resources, 1994;  pp. 69-83


ABSTRACT:           This article describes the development of dissociation in severely abused children and outlines approaches for working with dissociative children. Some abused children use dissociation as a method of coping with the trauma of their abuse. This defensive dissociation can become maladaptive and develop into antisocial behavior, inappropriate sexual behavior, or multiple personality disorder. Symptoms of dissociation include recurring amnesic periods; frequent trancelike states; major changes in behavior; referral to self in the third person; imaginary friends; denial of behavior; depression and sleep problems; inappropriate sexual behavior; antisocial behavior; hallucinations; and more than one personality in control. Therapy needs to begin by establishing safety and motivation for change. Treatment should help the child recognize and express feelings appropriately, identify defensive behavior, and address difficult memories. Suggestions for caring for severely abused and dissociative children and encouraging survival skills for traumatized children are included. 4 references.


KEY TERMS:         child behavior;  childrens therapy;  dissociation;  multiple personality disorder;  sexual abuse


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book



TITLE:                    The Possible Role of Source Misattribution in the Creation of False Beliefs Among Preschoolers.


AUTHOR:               Ceci, S. J.;  Loftus, E. F.;  Leichtman, M. D.;  Bruck, M.




JOURNAL TITLE:    International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Dept. of Human Development and Family Studies.


SOURCE:                42(4): pp. 304-320;  Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., October 1994


ABSTRACT:           This article examines source misattributions as a possible factor in the creation of false beliefs among preschool-aged children. The article presents the results from an ongoing program of research which suggest that source misattributions could be a mechanism underlying children's false beliefs about having experienced fictitious events. Findings from this program of research indicate that, although all children are susceptible to making source misattributions, very young children may be disproportionately vulnerable to these kinds of errors. This vulnerability leads younger preschoolers, on occasion, to claim that they remember actually experiencing events that they only thought about or were suggested by others. These results are discussed in the context of the ongoing debate over the veracity and durability of delayed reports of early memories, repressed memories, dissociative states, and the validity risks posed by therapeutic techniques that entail repeated visually guided imagery inductions. 21 references, 2 figures, and 2 tables. (Author abstract)


KEY TERMS:         suggestibility;  preschool children;  false allegations;  memory;  child witnesses


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com



TITLE:                    Abuse, Dissociative Phenomena, and Childhood Multiple Personality Disorder.


AUTHOR:               Lewis, D. O.;  Yeager, C. A.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    New York Univ. School of Medicine, NY. Dept. of Psychiatry.


SOURCE:                3(4): pp. 729-743;  Philadelphia, PA, W. B. Saunders Co., October 1994


ABSTRACT:           This article reviews the symptoms of dissociation in children and explains why the condition may be undetected. Dissociative states, including multiple personality disorder, usually occur as a defense against extraordinary pain or trauma. Symptoms include amnesia, trancelike states, extreme mood and behavior changes, physical complaints that have no apparent medical cause, hysterical paralysis, sleep problems, auditory hallucinations, and imaginary companions. However, these symptoms are also indications of seizure states, mood disorders, schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and borderline personality disorder in adulthood. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of dissociative disorder among patients who exhibit extreme types of physical and psychological problems, family history of dissociative disorder, history of abuse, and differences in writing and drawing styles. Research on the effectiveness of various treatment methods is limited. 34 references.


KEY TERMS:         dissociation;  defense mechanisms;  trauma;  sequelae;  symptoms;  psychological evaluation;  multiple personality disorder;  therapeutic intervention


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article



TITLE:                    Child Abuse Crimes: Computer Crimes (Current through December 31, 1999): New Mexico.






JOURNAL TITLE:    Crimes Number 36


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION, 330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565, Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE, 99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321


SOURCE:                In: Computer Crimes


KEY TERMS:         Statute;  New Mexico;  Abuse;  Child;  Child Abuse;  Child Abuse Crimes;  Computer Crimes;  second degree felony;  third degree felony


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Statutes


INTERNET URL:   http://www.ndaa-apri.org



TITLE:                    The Role of Aversion in Covert Sensitization Treatment of Pedophilia: A Case Report.


AUTHOR:               Stava, L.;  Levin, S. M.;  Schwanz, C.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Sexual Abuse


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Mendota Mental Health Institute, Madison, WI.


SOURCE:                2(3): pp. 1-13;  Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1993


ABSTRACT:           This article presents the findings of a case study in which a cognitive-behavioral procedure, covert sensitization, was used to treat a man with strong pedophilic tendencies. The hypothesis tested was that the effectiveness of covert sensitization depends on aversion imagery and not distraction or habituation. The experiment employed visual and audio stimuli and aversion imagery with the results being measured by penile reaction along with the subject's self-report. The results indicated that aversion imagery was more effective than neutral imagery in reducing penile erection to children. In addition, repeated presentation of the deviant stimulus did not significantly decrease sexual arousal, indicating that habituation was not a factor. It was suggested that factors other than aversiveness might have accounted for the results. Future research is required to isolate and test the effects of these variables. 7 references, 1 table and 3 figures. (Author abstract)


KEY TERMS:         pedophilia;  sex offenders;  treatment;  treatment evaluation;  experimental programs;  sex offenders therapy;  treatment


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com



TITLE:                    Counseling the Families of Abused and Neglected Children.


AUTHOR:               Jenkins, M.




AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Department of Human Services, Majuro (Marshall Islands).


SOURCE:                In: A Step for a Change: Building an Aware and Caring Community. Pacific Basin Child Protection Initiative Project, Training Conference Report, April 26-29, 1993., 1993;  pp. 14-16


ABSTRACT:           This paper presents a summary of a presentation that focused on the role of child protective services and on cultural attitudes toward child abuse and neglect in the Marshall Islands. A historical perspective on child protective services is briefly presented and characteristics that make child protective services models effective are listed. The cultural factors associated with how the people of the Marshall Islands come to terms with child abuse and neglect were illustrated using a story-telling and imagery technique.


KEY TERMS:         trust territories;  child protective services;  child protection organizations;  cultural values;  cultural factors;  cultural sensitivity


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Proceedings Paper


INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch



TITLE:                    Multiple Personality Disorder in Children.


INST. AUTHOR:    Virginia Dept. of Social Services, Richmond. Child Protective Services Unit.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Virginia Child Protection Newsletter


SOURCE:                41: pp. 1-7;  James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA. Dept. of Psychology, Winter 1993


ABSTRACT:           This article describes the clinical features of multiple personality disorder (MPD) in children, commonly thought to be caused by abuse or trauma at an early age; it includes a brief history of MPD. Childhood MPD and related dissociative disorders are difficult to discern, especially if one uses the DSM-III-R criteria designed for adults. Amnesia and trance-like states are more common in children with MPD than in adults so diagnosed; imaginary friends are considered more common and normal in children than adults. Personalities are less clearly defined in children, and standard psychological tests, mainly developed for adults, help little in the diagnosis. Intervention should include removal from the stress inducer and reporting of the potential for abuse to authorities. Treatment should consist of providing a safe, nurturing environment; forming a therapeutic alliance; modifying behavior as needed; systematic meeting of alters; integrating alters; and postintegration therapy and followup. Names and addresses of helpful organizations are given in the margins.


KEY TERMS:         diagnoses;  therapists role;  dissociation;  mental disorders;  psychological stress;  sequelae;  personality disorders;  multiple personality disorder


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article



TITLE:                    Play Therapy in Action: A Casebook for Practitioners.


AUTHOR:               Kottman, T. (Editor).;  Schaefer, C. E. (Editor).




AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Northern Iowa Univ. Dept. of Counselor Education.


SOURCE:                Northvale, NJ, Jason Aronson Inc., 1993;  621 pp.


ABSTRACT:           Eighteen descriptive articles on play therapy offer actual case examples of concrete therapy applications as practiced by professional therapists. Step-by-step guidelines offer insight into modern uses of play therapy to resolve childhood challenges, such as internalizing, externalizing, and posttraumatic situations. Each article includes a brief section on the introduction to and history of the particular theory, the presenting problem and background, theoretical conceptualizations, the process of play therapy, results and follow-up, and discussion. References for further study are included in each article. Articles highlight play therapies based on family, Adler, imagery interaction, ecosystem, time-limited, gestalt, cognitive-behavior, psychodynamics, and games. Therapies include child only as well as family and adult play therapy. The collection is aimed specifically at students of psychotherapy as well as practicing therapists in social work, psychology, and counseling. Numerous references and figures.


KEY TERMS:         psychotherapy;  play therapy;  sequelae;  child development;  posttraumatic stress disorder;  family therapy;  childrens therapy





TITLE:                    The Orphaned Element of the Adoptive Experience.


AUTHOR:               Childs, R.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Adoption Therapist


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Family Center Pact Team, Somerville, MA.


SOURCE:                4(1): pp. 1-4, 15;  Hope Cottage Adoption Center, Dallas, TX., Spring 1993


ABSTRACT:           This article, written by a psychotherapist with experience treating those who are adopted, focuses on the psychological trauma that some adopted individuals feel. The archetypal experience of abandonment at the very beginning of one's life, and the infant's experience of separation and loss act to determine the shape of the adopted individual's life. The author explains the therapeutic approach he uses in treating adopted individuals, who commonly feel anguished by an orphaned element within themselves. The author helps adopted individuals explore their emotions and internal experiences using dreams, fantasy, and active imagination, and describes the analysis of two dreams as examples.


KEY TERMS:         abandonment;  trauma;  psychological needs;  psychological aspects;  psychotherapy


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article



TITLE:                    Somewhere Out There: Parental Claiming in the Preadoption Waiting Period.


AUTHOR:               Sandelowski, M.;  Harris, B. G.;  Holditch-Davis, D.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Contemporary Ethnography


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill. Dept. of Women's and Children's Health.


SOURCE:                21(4): pp. 487-506;  Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., January 1993


ABSTRACT:           This article describes the process of parental claiming in the pre-adoption waiting period, expressed in multiple interviews conducted with 35 infertile couples waiting to adopt a child. Interviews with these couples suggested that, in staking their claim, adoptive couples engaged in cultural presumptions and even prejudices concerning real parents and children and concerning the real differences that exist between adoption and childbearing. Differences between adoptive parents and childbearing couples are contrasted. Interviews revealed the imagining adoptive couples engaged in regarding their future child's conception and birth parents and imagining from selection criteria, as well as imaging from photos and histories provided to them. Vagaries of construction are described, showing great variety. Staking a claim behavior is described among adoptive couples through tactics such as unblooding the tie (undermining the primacy of the blood tie), and righting claims, i.e., why they are the right couple for the child. Conclusions suggest that the pre- adoption waiting period is as potentially rich a period of anticipation for a child as is pregnancy; adopting couples worked to making the process as natural as possible, despite confronting social issues that childbearing and fertile couples could afford to ignore, and that adoptive couples have more than one model from which to draw in staking their claims. Five notes, numerous references.


KEY TERMS:         adoption;  preplacement programs;  research;  waiting parents


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/



TITLE:                    Transfer of Training--As Critical as Teaching Skills.


AUTHOR:               Beland, K.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Committee for Children Prevention Update


SOURCE:                pp. 1-2, Winter 1992


ABSTRACT:           This article discusses transfer of training, the process by which students apply their new skills in real-life situations. Transfer of training, the end goal of any prevention program, does not naturally occur for most programs. A model is presented that provides a framework for targeting transfer of training. It consists of a 3-point plan: imagine the day, reinforce the behavior, and remember the day. Little preparation is required for this transfer of training model. Facilitating transfer of training is as important as teaching the concepts and skills. When children recognize natural reinforcement, they become less dependent on adults for approval and rewards, and they develop self-confidence. 4 references.


KEY TERMS:         prevention;  prevention programs;  models;  program evaluation


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article



TITLE:                    Accepting Parental Responsibility: Future Questioning as a Means to Avoid Foster Home Placement of Children.


AUTHOR:               MacDonald, G. D.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Welfare


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Child and Family Services of Central Manitoba, Carman (Canada).


SOURCE:                71(1): pp. 3-17;  Washington, DC, Child Welfare League of America, Inc., January-February 1992


ABSTRACT:           This article describes the successful application of a technique called future questioning, a means to avoid foster home placement of children. Placement planning coupled with future questioning has been successful in reengaging families where parents have moved toward abdicating their parenting responsibilities. By imagining the consequences of their intended solution in a future time, many families are able to reorganize their lives in the present. In Child and Family Services of Central Manitoba, this technique has proven useful in blocking unnecessary placements and encouraging conflict resolution within the family. Parents who contact the agency seeking foster home placement for their child are immediately offered a counseling alternative. If the parents decline, a placement worker is assigned to them to facilitate their child's transition and the family is told that there will be a series of 4 preplacement planning sessions. Two case reports illustrate this technique. 10 references.


KEY TERMS:         placement;  permanency planning;  foster homes;  treatment programs;  parenting;  family counseling


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.cwla.org



TITLE:                    Religious Denominational Policies on Sexuality.


AUTHOR:               Bullis, R. K.;  Harrigan, M. P.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Families In Society


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond. School of Social Work.


SOURCE:                73(5): pp. 304-312;  Milwaukee, WI, Families International, Inc., May 1992


ABSTRACT:           In an effort to integrate religious thought and clinical practice, this paper describes selected theological positions on sexual behavior taken by American denominations and religious groups. The authors assert that an understanding, if not an appreciation, of such diverse religious and theological policies can assist in both assessment and intervention. They conclude that practitioners with a working knowledge of their clients' religious traditions can use religious imagery, prayer, and the clergy in their interventions. (Author abstract)


KEY TERMS:         sexuality;  social workers;  ethics;  evaluation;  intervention


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article



TITLE:                    Witness and Victim of Multiple Abuses. Collaborative Treatment of 10-Year-Old Randy in a Residential Treatment Center.


AUTHOR:               Doyle, J. S.;  Stoop, D.




AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Berea Children's Home, OH.


SOURCE:                In: Webb, N. B. (Editor). Play Therapy With Children in Crisis. A Casebook for Practitioners. New York, NY, Guilford Press, 1991;  pp. 111-140


ABSTRACT:           This chapter presents the case of a 10-year-old black boy, diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder, who suffered severe abuse and torture and experienced numerous out-of-home placements. The child's inability to cope with these traumas caused him to exhibit dangerous and dysfunctional symptoms and behaviors and resulted in his placement in a secure residential treatment facility. Play therapy with this child included the use of puppets, masks, a cartoon lifeline, guided imagery, and warm-up exercises. Case information presented includes family data, the presenting problem, a summary of the child's first interview with the therapist, a preliminary assessment of and treatment plan for the child, and summaries of and excerpts from various sessions. In addition, play therapy materials are listed, and study questions are presented. Appendices show a cartoon lifeline and a fire puppet. 12 references and numerous illustrations.


KEY TERMS:         childrens therapy;  case reports;  posttraumatic stress disorder;  child behavior;  play therapy;  case assessment;  physical abuse;  ritual abuse


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book


INTERNET URL:   http://www.guilford.com



TITLE:                    A Personal Construct Approach to Art Therapy in the Treatment of Post Sexual Abuse Trauma.


AUTHOR:               Peacock, M. E.




JOURNAL TITLE:    American Journal of Art Therapy


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Jefferson Hospital, Jeffersonville, IN.


SOURCE:                29(4): pp. 100-109;  Norwich Univ., Montpelier, VT. Vermont Coll., May 1991


ABSTRACT:           This article presents a case study of a 40-year-old white female admitted to a private psychiatric facility for treatment of depression. The purpose of the study was to observe and measure changes in the client and to demonstrate the effectiveness of art therapy in the treatment of postsexual abuse trauma (PSAT). The hypothesis in this case study was that art therapy would facilitate increased awareness and expression of feelings, and would alleviate anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem. Personal construct psychology provided a framework for assessment and treatment. Results show that, through art therapy, the client addressed intrusive imagery, released repressed affect related to childhood trauma, reframed and integrated abreacted material, and achieved increased self-awareness and control. Results also indicate positive changes in all areas except depression, but art changes and subjective observation suggest changes in that area as well. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of art therapy and personal construct theory. 26 references and 12 figures. (Author abstract modified)


KEY TERMS:         art therapy;  sexual abuse;  trauma;  adults abused as children;  sequelae;  case studies;  individual therapy;  symptoms


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.bellhowell.infolearning.com



TITLE:                    Developmental Comparisons of Explicit Versus Implicit Imagery and Reality Monitoring.


AUTHOR:               Foley, M. A.;  Durso, F. T.;  Wilder, A.;  Friedman, R.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Experimental Child Psychology


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY.


SOURCE:                51: pp. 1-13;  New York, NY, Academic Press, Inc., 1991


ABSTRACT:           This article examines reality monitoring, a decision process involved in discriminating perceptual memories from those which are self-generated. The present studies compare the effects of spontaneous, implicit imagery generation and controlled, explicit imagery generation on the reality monitoring decisions of children and adults. Six-year-old, 9-year-old, and adult subjects were shown pictures and words; they were asked to give the object's function or to create an image of each object. When deciding later whether each object was presented as a picture or word, subjects were more likely to claim that a word was presented as a picture than conversely. This confusion was evident for simple and complex perceptual materials and extended across 3 age groups. Results indicate that the absence of developmental differences in reality monitoring previously reported is not due simply to the type of imagery involved, and that the representational processes of children and adults are more alike than is commonly believed. 28 references, 2 tables, and 1 figure. (Author abstract)


KEY TERMS:         decision making;  cognitive development;  perception;  perceptual development;  child development;  biosocial theories


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.apnet.com



TITLE:                    Psychical Transformations by a Child of Incest.


AUTHOR:               Apprey, M.




AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Virginia Univ. School of Medicine, Charlottesville.


SOURCE:                In: Kramer, S. and Akhtar, S. (Editors). The Trauma of Transgression. Psychotherapy of Incest Victims. Northvale, NJ, Jason Aronson Inc., 1991;  pp. 115-147


ABSTRACT:           This chapter on psychical transformations discusses the observations that psychoanalytic practitioners must make about the mode in which a patient's history is conveyed, the arrangement of stable mental imagery to mediate discontinuities and gaps in this history, and the way in which psychical arrangements and rearrangements become part of the ego's task. The concept of mystification is considered, and a tool, known as the system of mutual implications, for understanding how patients fill in epistemic gaps is described. Ambitendent tropes or figurations underlying a system of mutual implications in the story of incest are identified, including the juxtaposition of the smallness of the child to his or her interest in the sexuality of adults, the juxtaposition of the physical strength of the adult incest perpetrator to his or her emotional weakness or emotional immaturity, and the juxtaposition of the actual occurrence of incest with theory. A case report involving a pregnant 16-year-old whose main concern was to find her biological father is presented. This adolescent, unbeknownst to her, was 1 of 3 children who were the products of a long-term incestuous relationship between their mother and their uncle. The adolescent had a personal theory to fill in the gaps in her sense of self-continuity. This theory revolved around the fantasy that light-skinned blacks must not be trusted because they are sneaky. The juxtapositions in the system of mutual implications illustrated by this case are discussed. 19 references.


KEY TERMS:         incest;  child development;  psychoanalysis;  case reports;  adolescent pregnancy;  psychoanalytic theories;  therapeutic effectiveness


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book



TITLE:                    Storytelling, Hypnosis, and the Treatment of Sexually Abused Children.


AUTHOR:               Rhue, J. W.;  Lynn, S. J.




JOURNAL TITLE:    International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Ohio Univ., Athens. College of Osteopathic Medicine.


SOURCE:                39(4): pp. 198-214;  Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., October 1991


ABSTRACT:           This article describes an assessment and therapy program for sexually abused children using hypnotherapeutic techniques that center on storytelling. Storytelling presents the therapist with an opportunity to use comforting suggestions, symbolism, and metaphor to provide the emotional distance necessary to deal with the trauma of abuse. Hypnotherapy proceeds in a stepwise manner from the building of a sense of safety and security, to imaginative sharing, to the introduction of reality events, to the final step of addressing complex emotional issues of loss, trust, love, and guilt brought about by the abuse. Throughout the process, the therapist emphasizes connection making and is aware and respectful of the child's resistance and need for support to explore the trauma. The transcript from portions of two therapeutic sessions with a sexually abused 8-year-old girl is presented to illustrate how a variety of storytelling techniques can be used to modulate affect, foster perceptions of control and mastery, and facilitate the entry into previously unexplored areas of inquiry. 58 references. (Author abstract modified)


KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  childrens therapy;  hypnotherapy;  case reports;  treatment;  trauma


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com



TITLE:                    Voices From the Silence: Use of Imagery With Incest Survivors.


AUTHOR:               Hyde, N. D.




SOURCE:                In: Laidlaw, T. A., Malmo, C., and Associates. Healing Voices. Feminist Approaches to Therapy With Women. //Jossey-Bass Social and Behavioral Science Series//. San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1990;  pp. 163-193


ABSTRACT:           This chapter focuses on the use of imaging in psychotherapy with female incest survivors. A brief overview of imagery literature is given. The use of feminist theory as a frame for clinical practice is discussed. Issues that therapists must consider in introducing and using imagery with incest survivors are reviewed. Dealing with flashbacks, guided imagery, nondirective imagery, and summoning internal allies for healing are described. Clients' reactions to imagery are described. 26 references.


KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  incest;  treatment;  psychotherapy;  victims;  adults abused as children;  therapists role


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book


INTERNET URL:   http://www.josseybass.com



TITLE:                    Legal Response to Child Sexual Abuse in Day Care.


AUTHOR:               Williams, L. M.;  Farrell, R. A.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Criminal Justice and Behavior


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    New Hampshire Univ., Durham. Family Research Lab.


SOURCE:                17(3): pp. 284-302;  Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., September 1990


ABSTRACT:           This article describes a study that focused on the effects of offense characteristics on the legal response to alleged incidents of child sexual abuse in day care. A sample of 43 alleged incidents of sexual abuse in day care was analyzed to examine whether cases fitting the popular stereotype of child molestation were more likely to elicit a formal response, whereas those at variance with the imagery required that aggravating conditions be present before formal actions were taken. Results point to the combined importance of the race and sex of the victim, number of victims, type of sex act, and the sex of the alleged perpetrator in decisions to arrest and convict offenders in cases of child sexual abuse in day care. Offenses resulting in arrest generally involved white children and oral sex acts. Cases involving only black girls resulted in arrest only where oral sex by an offender designated as a pedophile was alleged. In offenses involving male victims, the influence of oral sex acts on the decision to arrest appeared to be related to the sex of the perpetrator, and oral sex seemed to be necessary for an arrest to occur in more ambiguous situations when the perpetrator was female. Similar results emerged in the analysis of the determinants of conviction. In fact, all the configurations resulting in conviction involved oral sex with multiple white girls. In addition, the presence of force was required to obtain convictions of females and pedophiles. The absence of force and oral sex seemed to have militated against conviction in cases involving lone boys, black girls, and female perpetrators. This overall pattern of decisionmaking supports the argument concerning the operation of an offense stereotype in legal decisionmaking. 29 references and 5 tables. (Author abstract modified)


KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  decision making;  child abuse research;  day care programs;  demography;  arrests


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com



TITLE:                    The Specific Vulnerability of Children.


AUTHOR:               Summit, R. C.




AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA. Community Consultative Service.


SOURCE:                In: Oates, R. K. (Editor). Understanding and Managing Child Sexual Abuse. Sydney (Australia), Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich Group Pty Limited., 1990;  pp. 59-74


ABSTRACT:           This chapter examines the vulnerability of children and how adults can understand and protect that vulnerability. Adults need to stop denying the existence of sexual abuse so that they can identify offenders and protect their children. It is difficult for protective adults to imagine a situation in which another adult takes advantage of a vulnerable child. Adults hesitate to believe a disclosure of abuse, as demonstrated in court procedures that question the accuracy of children's accusations. The fit among children, child molesters, and unprotective adults is described, emphasizing the need to create an environment of protection and trust for children.


KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  characteristics of abused;  characteristics of abuser;  psychological characteristics


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book



TITLE:                    Vicarious Traumatization: The Emotional Costs of Working with Survivors.


AUTHOR:               McCann, L.;  Pearlman, L. A.






AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Traumatic Stress Institute


SOURCE:                3(4): pp. 3-4;  Chicago, IL, American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children, Fall 1990


ABSTRACT:           This article uses Constructivist Self Development Theory to explain how therapists can be traumatized themselves while treating survivors of child sexual and physical abuse. Vicarious traumatization can cause disruptions in identity and frame of reference schemas, disruptions in central psychological needs and related cognitive schemas, and disruptions in imagery. To counteract these effects, therapists are advised to share their feelings with other trauma therapists and balance trauma work with other activities. They should take care of themselves by setting limits during work time and sharing love and fun with friends and family in their personal life. Therapists should be realistic about what they can accomplish and acknowledge their achievements. 5 references.


KEY TERMS:         therapists;  trauma;  professional personnel;  professional training


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.apsac.org



TITLE:                    Getting Around the Boulder in the Road: Using Imagery to Cope with Fertility Problems.


AUTHOR:               Zoldbrod, A. P.




SOURCE:                Center for Reproductive Problems, Lexington, MA, February 1990;  25 pp.


ABSTRACT:           This guide is targeted towards fertility counselors and infertile couples. The author maintains that mental imagery can regulate a person's emotions. She advocates a method of stress control which consists of presenting oneself with soothing images that will help decrease upsetting images. The author suggests six ways to acquire more positive imagery: practice, relax, concentrate, use all of the senses, use present tense, lie down. She asks her subjects to analyze their spontaneous imagery in order to understand it. She offers a series of exercises to help couples explore their feelings, and exercises for exploring the alternatives of child-free living and adoption through imagery. The author believes imagery to be an important tool for self-exploration and healing.


KEY TERMS:         infertility;  guidelines;  treatment;  emotional problems


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Booklet



TITLE:                    The Response of Young, Non-Sexually Abused Children to Anatomically Correct Dolls.


AUTHOR:               Glaser, D.;  Collins, C.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Guy's Hospital, London (England). Dept. of Child Psychiatry.


SOURCE:                30(4): pp. 547-560;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science, Inc., July 1989


ABSTRACT:           This article presents a study in which 91 children aged 3 to 6 years were observed and videotaped playing with anatomically correct dolls in unstructured play settings, with parental permission. The children's emotional, behavioral, and overall play responses were rated. Results show that, although the dolls' differences from other dolls were clearly noticed, they did not traumatize the children, most of whom incorporated the dolls in imaginative play. Only 5 children's play with the dolls showed any sexualized quality; in 3 the source of sexual knowledge became apparent. Whereas the absence of sexualized play does not reliably exclude abuse, explicit sexual play with the dolls may well arise from previous exposure to explicit sexual information or activity. 7 tables. (Author abstract modified)


KEY TERMS:         anatomical dolls;  play;  child behavior;  sexual abuse;  preschool children;  case assessment


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.elsevier.com



TITLE:                    Relapse Rehearsal.


AUTHOR:               Hall, R. L.




AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Florida State Dept. of Corrections, Tallahassee.


SOURCE:                In: Laws, D. R. (Editor). Relapse Prevention With Sex Offenders. New York, NY, Guilford Press, 1989;  pp. 197-215


ABSTRACT:           This chapter discusses the technique of relapse rehearsal, focusing on preparing the patient for lapses, which include fantasies and urges about deviant sexual behavior, and teaching the patient to cope with lapses to prevent them from escalating to relapses. An example of a relapse rehearsal is presented. Late in therapy, the patient is asked to talk aloud about an imaginary high-risk situation and his response. Advice is given on managing and interpreting this procedure, and the overall efficacy of relapse rehearsal is discussed. 12 references and 1 figure.


KEY TERMS:         sex offenders therapy;  coping skills;  case reports;  risk;  sex offenders;  prevention;  recidivism


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book


INTERNET URL:   http://www.guilford.com



TITLE:                    Sexual Abuse of Boys by Males: Theoretical and Treatment Implications.


AUTHOR:               Pescosolido, F. J.




AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    East Side Center, Providence, RI.


SOURCE:                In: Sgroi, S. M. Vulnerable Populations. Sexual Abuse Treatment for Children, Adult Survivors, Offenders, and Persons With Mental Retardation. Volume 2. Lexington, MA, Lexington Books, 1989;  pp. 85-109


ABSTRACT:           This chapter uses the concept of grounded theory to explore the relationship between clinical observations and theoretical conceptualization of the emotional effects of male same-sex molestation on the victim. Impact issues focus on gender identity confusion, body imagery, intimacy impairment with males and females, depression, self-destructive manifestations, traumatic rage, aggression, hypervigilance toward males, and guilt. Treatment implications for males sexually abused by other males are discussed, with an emphasis on the individual and group psychotherapy phases of treatment. 50 references and 1 table.


KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  male victims;  male rape;  sequelae;  gender identity;  aggression;  individual therapy;  group therapy


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book



TITLE:                    Discriminating Between Memories: Evidence for Children's Spontaneous Elaborations.


AUTHOR:               Foley, M. A.;  Santini, C.;  Sopasakis, M.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Experimental Child Psychology


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY.


SOURCE:                48: pp. 146-169;  New York, NY, Academic Press, Inc., 1989


ABSTRACT:           Children are more confused than adults about memories for what they said and what they imagined saying. This article examines the extent to which this confusion is related to the person that subjects imagine. Four experiments were conducted. In the first, children and adult subjects said words and imagined someone (themselves, a parent, or a friend) saying other words. They were then asked to distinguish words they said from words they imagined. Performance varied with age and with the person subjects imagined. Further, performance was better for words subjects imagined than for words they said. Metamemory responses indicated subjects of all ages remembered elaborative processing activated spontaneously during imagination when discriminating between memories. In experiments where the nature of subjects' encodings was constrained, performance declined for all age groups. Other experiments suggest that elaborations reported in response to metamemory questions occurred during imagination and were not solely prompted by the metamemory questions. 36 references and 5 tables. (Author abstract modified)


KEY TERMS:         decision making;  cognitive development;  perception;  perceptual development;  child development;  biosocial theories


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.apnet.com



TITLE:                    Recovering From Incest. Imagination and the Healing Process.


AUTHOR:               Kane, E.




SOURCE:                Boston, MA, Sigo Press, 1989;  242 pp.


ABSTRACT:           This book examines the psychological effects of incest, using examples of mythology, religion, literature on incest, and real-life case studies. The process of imaginal therapy and interpretations of significant images and dreams are discussed. Incest is described as resulting in a denial of feeling and imagination in the perpetrator as well as the victim. Victims retreat into a fantasy world and can only be healed when they are ready to cope with images that have been buried for so long. A list of resources for information about incest and sexual abuse is provided. Numerous references.


KEY TERMS:         incest;  psychological needs;  individual therapy;  psychotherapy;  sequelae





TITLE:                    Debate Forum. Issue Continued: Anatomically Correct Dolls: Should They Be Used as the Basis for Expert Testimony?


AUTHOR:               Yates, A.;  Terr, L.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Arizona Univ., Tucson. College of Medicine.


SOURCE:                27(3): pp. 387-388;  Baltimore, MD, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, May 1988


ABSTRACT:           Two decisions by the California Supreme Court of Appeals in 1987 have made it difficult to admit evidence in child sexual abuse cases based on the use of anatomically correct dolls. Continuing a debate begun in the March 1988 issue of this magazine, Dr. Alayne Yates argues for the continued use of anatomically correct dolls even though their value has not been established. Only continued use and evaluation can determine their real value. For the time being, they can be an aid to other interview techniques and may help professionals better advise the courts. Dr. Lenore Terr argues that the demand inherent in asking the child to play with these explicit toys makes the technique too vulnerable to suggestion to be used in court. The child, while playing, can be ruined as a witness. It is better to bar evidence inspired by anatomically correct dolls because the imagery they cause may be as vivid and long-lasting as that caused by hypnosis, also not admissible in court. 2 references. (Author abstract modified)


KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  child witnesses;  testimony;  courts;  anatomical dolls;  evaluation methods;  expert testimony


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.wwilkins.com



TITLE:                    Group Treatment of Sexual Abuse Among Women With Eating Disorders.


AUTHOR:               Kearney-Cooke, A.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Women and Therapy


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Cincinnati Univ., OH. Eating Disorders Clinic.


SOURCE:                7(1): pp. 5-21;  Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1988


ABSTRACT:           Ways in which sexual victimization may contribute to the development of bulimia are considered, and an experiential treatment program is described. The negative self-esteem resulting from abuse can take extreme forms of self-destructive behavior towards the body, as exemplified by bulimia. The intensive treatment program for bulimia consists of a 3.5 week stay in which patients attend the Eating Disorders Clinic for 6 to 8 hours of body image, group, and individual therapy each weekday. Goals of the body image therapy are to reconstruct each individual's history of body image development; correct distortions of body image; and create a more positive body image. Group treatment for abusive experiences includes guided imagery, sculpting of images, describing sexual traumas, and reenactment of sexual abuse. Patients are then seen in individual therapy to further explore sexual abuse. Substantial gains are made when interventions designed to treat sexual abuse are included in a comprehensive program addressing the problem of bulimia. 14 references.


KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  treatment;  group therapy;  programs;  treatment programs;  eating habits;  body image


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com



TITLE:                    Treatment of Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Assault: Imagery Within a Systemic Framework.


AUTHOR:               Siegel, D. R.;  Romig, C. A.




JOURNAL TITLE:    American Journal of Family Therapy


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Catholic Social Service, Danville, IL.


SOURCE:                16(3): pp. 229-242;  Levittown, PA, Taylor and Francis, Inc., Fall 1988


ABSTRACT:           Therapists increasingly encounter the needs of adult survivors of childhood sexual assault as a primary therapeutic issue or as part of some other presenting complaint; a summary of the common emotional and relational dynamics is presented within a systemic framework. A 5-step guided imagery model is offered as an effective method of intervening. The client is led through imagining the face of the person with whom he or she is emotionally struggling through recognition of the emotional intensity attached to the person and verbalization of the client's somatic response. The last step of the imagery process allows the survivor to release emotions that have been present for years. A case study illustrates the application of the model. Successful therapy has significant impact on the family-of-origin relationships as well as present relationships, so cautions in using the imagery model are presented. 23 references. (Author abstract modified)


KEY TERMS:         adults abused as children;  sequelae;  sexual abuse;  therapeutic effectiveness;  treatment;  models;  emotional response


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.taylorandfrancis.com



TITLE:                    Evidence--Tender Years Exception--New Jersey Supreme Court Substantively Upholds the Appellate Court's Creation of a Tender Years Exception, Admitting Out-of-Court Statements by Sexually Abused Children Into Evidence, but Rejects the Appellate Court's Modification Procedure.


AUTHOR:               Proffitt, T.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Rutgers Law Journal


SOURCE:                20(1): pp. 295-316;  Rutgers Univ. School of Law, Newark, Fall 1988


ABSTRACT:           The soundness of the New Jersey Supreme Court's reasoning and holding in State v. D.R., as well as the court's proposed amendment to New Jersey Evidence Rule 63, are analyzed. Difficulties courts experience in applying this new hearsay exception are illustrated in an objective manner. The supreme court is applauded for recognizing the need for a new hearsay exception providing for the substantive admission of out-of-court statements made by sexually abused children. However, by neglecting to require a list of factors to be considered by the judge when determining the reliability of corroborative evidence, and by neglecting to require a written opinion, the supreme court has permitted excessive judicial discretion in applying the proposed hearsay exception. The potential result may be uneven application. A rule is needed mandating that certain factors be considered, such as the child's vocabulary regarding the sexual incident, the child's power of imagination, and the child's bias against the defendant. The judge should also clearly delineate in his written opinion the factors he considered in determining if the corroborative evidence was sufficient. 139 references.


KEY TERMS:         new jersey;  testimony;  evidence;  courts;  sexual abuse;  child witnesses


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.camlaw.rutgers.edu/publications/lawjournal/



TITLE:                    Child-Witnesses: Can They Be Trusted? Will They Be Harmed?


INST. AUTHOR:    Hastings Center Report.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Hastings Center Report


SOURCE:                17(3): p. 4;  Briarcliff Manor, NY, Hastings Center, June 1987


ABSTRACT:           The issue of whether or not child witnesses should be used in court cases involving child sexual abuse is examined; in addition, factors influencing the reliability of their testimony are explained. Testifying in court can be extremely traumatic for victims of sexual abuse, particularly for young children. Procedures for lessening the harmful effects of appearing in court are outlined. In regard to the second point, children can be led into falsifying facts by overeager prosecutors or may be misled by a vivid imagination, particularly in the case of charges against parents, since children often have sexual fantasies involving their parents. On the other hand, children often are able to recall in great detail a stressful incident such as molestation, and thus make good witnesses. Individual children should be assessed for their ability to discern truth from lies and for their emotional readiness to testify. 3 references.


KEY TERMS:         child witnesses;  sexual abuse;  competency;  testimony;  rights of accused;  trials;  trauma;  legal processes


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.bellhowell.infolearning.com



TITLE:                    Myths and Facts About Sexual Assault and Child Sexual Abuse.


AUTHOR:               Pellauer, M. D.;  Chester, B.;  Boyajian, J. A.




SOURCE:                In: Pellauer, M. D., Chester, B., and Boyajian, J. A. (Editors). Sexual Assault and Abuse. A Handbook for Clergy and Religious Professionals. San Francisco, CA, Harper and Row, 1987;  pp. 5-9


ABSTRACT:           To help clergy and religious professionals deal with cases of child sexual abuse and sexual assault, myths and facts about them are explored. Rape is not a rare crime; most rape reports are true; and rape is not a spontaneous act of sexual passion but rather a violent act using sex as a weapon. Rape can happen in any type of community and to any type of woman. The rape assailant and the victim are usually of the same socioeconomic and racial group. Child sexual abuse facts are reviewed: the most common offender is a male known to the child; sexual abuse of children usually develops over a long period of time; sexual abuse of children is not rare, nor is it a creation of the child's imagination. Children must have information about the possibility of sexual assault. Problems with therapy in intrafamilial sexual abuse cases are reviewed.


KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  clergy;  guidelines;  myths;  public awareness;  sexual assault;  stereotypes;  rape


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book



TITLE:                    Reality Monitoring and Suggestibility: Children's Ability to Discriminate Among Memories From Different Sources.


AUTHOR:               Lindsay, D. S.;  Johnson, M. K.




AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Princeton Univ., NJ. Dept. of Psychology.


SOURCE:                In: Ceci, S. J., Toglia, M. P., and Ross, D. F. (Editors). Children's Eyewitness Memory. New York, NY, Springer-Verlag, 1987;  pp. 92-121


ABSTRACT:           This chapter explores the theories and evidence relating to developments in children's abilities to differentiate the sources of their experiences and memories. The concept of reality monitoring is explained, and research on the development of reality monitoring is briefly reviewed. The theories of Freud and Piaget as they relate to the development of reality monitoring are discussed. Freudian theory implies that young children may confuse fantasized and actual experience, and Piagetian theory suggests that young children should have difficulty distinguishing between memories of actual and imagined events. Current views on children's ability to distinguish reality and fantasy are examined. The implications of the commingling of reality and fantasy in children's minds for children's reality monitoring are discussed. Published research on children's reality monitoring is summarized. Results of these published studies suggest that children as young as 6 years old performed as well as adults when asked to determine the origin of a memory of an event, except when they were required to distinguish between memories of imagined and actual actions. Limitations of these studies as they relate to eyewitness testimony are identified, including the artificial nature of the stimulus materials and procedures and the process involved in imagining an event on demand. In addition, research on the problem of separating memories of witnessing an event from memories of other sources of information pertaining to the same event, known as external-source monitoring, is reviewed. Numerous references.


KEY TERMS:         child witnesses;  memory;  testimony;  preschool children;  school children;  psychological studies;  psychological theories;  child development


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book



TITLE:                    Storytelling in Therapy and Counseling.


AUTHOR:               Wynne, E.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Children Today


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Learning and Language Specialists, Minneapolis, MN.


SOURCE:                16(2): pp. 11-15;  Administration for Children and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC., March-April 1987


ABSTRACT:           Storytelling can be a useful tool in psychotherapy. The practitioner tells a story and is answered in story form. This kind of therapy develops the imagination and can lead to important discussions. It can be a way to help poor readers grow in self-esteem, friendship, and problem solving. One variation is to tell parts of the story, letting the child fill in the blanks, and then telling stories in turn. In Germany, Dr. Wolfdietrich Sigmund tells his stories to 50-70 children at one time. They respond with stories and discussion. The discussion brings up problems and possible solutions.


KEY TERMS:         bibliotherapy;  child psychiatry;  counseling;  psychotherapy


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article



TITLE:                    Effects of Participant Modeling and Desensitization on Childhood Warm Water Phobia.


AUTHOR:               Osborn, E. L.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University of Southern Mississippi, Purvis.


SOURCE:                17(2): pp. 117-118;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science, June 1986


ABSTRACT:           A 6-year-old adoptee was phobic of warm water bathing as a result of being scalded by his biological parents for misbehaving. The child did not respond to play therapy and imagery. Parental participant modeling and contact desensitization were then used to reduce the phobia. Fifteen-minute daily bathing routines were established in which the child, cradled in the arms of an adoptive parent remained in increasingly warmer and deeper water for 3-minute intervals. These procedures affected heat and depth tolerance to the point where the subject was soon able to engage in the desired behavior without parental participation. A 6-month follow-up observation found that the child continued to bathe without displaying fear.


KEY TERMS:         child abuse;  parenting;  parental behavior;  child psychiatry


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.elsevier.com



TITLE:                    The Dynamics of Authority in Permanent Substitute Families.


AUTHOR:               Russell, J.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Adoption and Fostering


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Strathclyde Regional Council (Great Britain). Fostering and Adoption Disruption Research.


SOURCE:                10(3): pp. 31-35;  London (England), British Agencies for Adoption and Fostering, 1986


ABSTRACT:           This article is concerned with the place of authority within the permanent substitute family as it is related to the family's way of life. In the most fortunate of placements, common consent to basic family rules and emotional support for the life style of the substitute family prevail. No substitute family is permanently immune from a challenge to its authority, even though it may come to the surface only once in a while. The authority of a permanent substitute family can be described by assessing its degree of emotional support and the extent of compliance with its basic rules. Each of the characteristics can vary along a continuum, ranging from very high to very low. Four possible attitudes toward this authority are described: acceptance, imagination, coercion, or repudiation. Substitute families near the middle in emotional support and compliance by adoptees and foster children can be described as divided' in their authority. Thus, a typology of the authority of permanent substitute families is described through the following five categories with their own particular characteristics and appropriate strategies for their problems: (1) the fully accepted family; (2) the imagined family; (3) the divided family; (4) the coercive family; and (5) the repudiated family. The author feels that knowledge of these characteristics and strategies is of sufficient importance to merit close study by those who prepare substitute parents and make and support foster and adoptive placements.


KEY TERMS:         discipline;  foster families;  family characteristics;  child placement;  england;  research;  parent child relationships;  family environment


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article



TITLE:                    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders in Women Who Experienced Childhood Incest.


AUTHOR:               Lindberg, F. H.;  Distad, L. J.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Casper Psychological Services, Casper, Wyo.


SOURCE:                9(3): pp. 329-334;  Oxford (Great Britain), Elsevier Science, Ltd., 1985


ABSTRACT:           The purpose of this study is to show that a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis may be appropriate for adults under stress because of incest trauma suffered in childhood, and to offer treatment guidelines to alleviate the stress. Symptoms exhibited in a clinical population of 17 women who had experienced childhood or adolescent incest appear to fit the features of a chronic and/or delayed PTSD. These women, entering individual therapy an average of 17 years after the abuse had ended, ranged in age from 24 to 44. All regarded their incest experience as the most damaging event of their lives, and had manifested, in adulthood, such symptoms as intrusive imagery of the incest, feelings of detachment or constricted effect, sleep disturbance, guilt, and intensification of symptoms when exposed to events resembling the incest trauma. Treatment included establishment of trust, expression of feelings, guilt reduction through an understanding of family dynamics and acquisition of new, adaptive behavior. 1 table and 23 references. (Author abstract modified)


KEY TERMS:         stress;  incest;  sexual abuse;  adults abused as children;  sequelae;  diagnoses


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article



TITLE:                    Psychological Treatment of Pedophiles.


AUTHOR:               Langevin, R.;  Lang, R. A.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Behavioral Sciences and the Law


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Clarke Institute of Psychiatry, Toronto, ON (Canada).


SOURCE:                3(4): pp. 403-419;  New York, NY, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1985


ABSTRACT:           In this article on the psychological treatment of pedophiles, the authors contend that the main treatment problem with such an offender is motivating him to change. The authors discuss reasons for the perpetrator's resistance to therapy, strategies for motivating the perpetrator to change, and current assumptions about the etiology of this sexual anomaly. They review results from a databank of sex offenders to show that it is uncommon for pedophiles to be victims of sexual abuse, including incest, and few need pornography as stimulants. The authors also examine therapeutic difficulties, including the egocentric, egosyntonic, and erotically gratifying nature of pedophilia to the perpetrator; his unwillingness to give up his behavior; and his tendency to rationalize his acts and to see the child as consenting. Therefore, initial therapy sessions should focus on helping the pedophile to want to change his behavior by moving him to admit to his sexual preferences, see the child as a victim rather than as a consenting partner, and overcome rationalizations about his own motives for sexual involvement with children. The use of group therapy and a variety of clinical imagery procedures are discussed as ways of overcoming the poor motivation of pedophiles for treatment. Case examples are included. 55 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract modified)


KEY TERMS:         pedophiles;  etiology;  sex offenders therapy;  group therapy;  motivation;  pornography;  behavior changes


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.interscience.wiley.com



TITLE:                    Treatment of an Incest Victim with Implosive Therapy: A Case Study.


AUTHOR:               Rychtarik, R. G.;  Silverman, W. K.;  Van Landingham, W. P.;  Prue, D. M.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Behavior Therapy


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson. VA Medical Center.


SOURCE:                15(4): pp. 410-420;  New York, NY, Academic Press, Inc., September 1984


ABSTRACT:           In the present case study, implosive therapy was used to treat a young woman who, as an adolescent, was repeatedly forced into sexual relations with her father. A 22-year-old single female victim of incest trauma was treated via implosive therapy during five inpatient therapy sessions. Treatment consisted of repeated exposure through imagery to the incest scene and real or hypothesized thoughts and events related to the incest trauma. Results indicated that, by a follow-up session, behavioral, physiological, and self-report measures were all decreased from previous levels. Moreover, there was a generalization of extinction effect such that self-report and physiological responding to an imaginally presented current life stressor were markedly reduced. Self-monitoring of incest related thoughts, dreams, and negative heterosexual relations also showed a significant decrease which was maintained at a 6-month report follow-up. At a 12-month follow-up, the patient continued to report maintenance of treatment gains with respect to the incest trauma. 3 graphs and 20 references. (Author abstract modified)


KEY TERMS:         case studies;  incest;  adolescents;  sexual abuse;  psychotherapy


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.apnet.com



TITLE:                    Occult Foreign Bodies in the Spinal Canal. Report of Two Cases.


AUTHOR:               Ehni, G.




JOURNAL TITLE:    New England Journal of Medicine


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Baylor Univ., Houston, Tex. Dept. of Neurological Surgery.


SOURCE:                308(16): pp. 947-949;  Massachusetts Medical Society, Waltham, April 21, 1983


ABSTRACT:           Two case reports of foreign bodies in the spinal canal, coupled with an inability to learn the circumstances of their introduction, are described. One patient, a 41-year-old woman, was found with scissors' tips in her spinal canal; the other, a 9-month-old boy, had a broom straw in the subarachnoid space. For 5 months after the initial examination, the infant was repeatedly admitted to the hospital, and all medical examinations and cultures proved inconclusive. Clinical improvement was never substantial, and during the fifth month, intractable seizures and death occurred. The infant's case shows how medical diagnosis and criminal investigation may fail when bizarre child abuse is encountered, and how, for a cause of illness to be diagnosable before autopsy, it must be imaginable. During the autopsy, the infant's initial infection was judged to have been meningitis caused by the broom straw, the source of which remains unknown. Oral entry or ingestion and entry by rectum seems impossible. Entry through the skin posteriorly and then up the spinal subarachnoid space was possible but could not have been accidental. No effective investigation was mounted by medical examiners because the doctors could not identify a suspect. 3 references.


KEY TERMS:         medical aspects of child abuse;  medical examiners;  autopsies;  differential diagnoses;  case reports;  infants;  nonaccidental physical injury


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article



TITLE:                    The Child Sexual Abuse Accomodation Syndrome.


AUTHOR:               Summit, R. C.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    California Univ., Los Angeles. Dept. of Psychiatry.


SOURCE:                7(2): pp. 177-193;  Oxford (Great Britain), Elsevier Science, Ltd., 1983


ABSTRACT:           The secondary trauma faced by child sexual abuse victims in the crisis of discovery is discussed. Because children's coping mechanisms and reactions are contradictory to what adults would expect from adult victims of sexual abuse, they may be accused of lying, imagining, or manipulating. Child sexual abuse accomodation syndrome'' describes the typical reactions of child victims of sexual abuse. Their reactions are: secrecy; helplessness; entrapment and accomodation; delayed, conflicting, and unconvincing disclosure; and retraction. Each reaction is typical of children for one or more reasons which are not usually taken into account by disbelieving adults. Because sex is a completely new experience for a child, the adult is relied on for an interpretation of its meaning. The adult, however, may tell the child to keep the situation a secret. Since the child usually has been taught to obey adults, the situation is kept secret and the child continues to submit to sexual abuse without resistance. When a child is helpless and trapped the only healthy option for adjustment to sexual abuse which is continuing and escalating is to accomodate it. Later the child may be delinquent, hypersexual, countersexual, suicidal, hysterical, or psychotic. Even if the child is well adjusted, adults probably will interpret the child's behavior to invalidate any complaints which might be voiced. In the chaotic aftermath of disclosure, the child may take the blame for the imminent destruction of the family and retract all accusations. Parents, courts, and clinicians need to be aware of this syndrome to overcome their distrust of sexual abuse victims because such treatment tends to increase the child's helplessness, hopelessness, isolation, and self-blame. 71 references.


KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  sequelae;  trauma;  adjustment problems;  syndromes


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article



TITLE:                    Peer Group Interaction of Physically Abused Children.


AUTHOR:               Jacobson, R. S.;  Straker, G.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). School of Psychology.


SOURCE:                6(3): pp. 321-327;  Oxford (Great Britain), Elsevier Science, Ltd., 1982


ABSTRACT:           Nineteen 5- to 10-year-old physically abused children and 38 nonabused children were evaluated through videotaped behavioral observations during free-flowing social interaction in a playroom to determine whether physically abused children differ significantly from nonabused peers along dimensions characteristic of abusing adults and social deviants (namely, in terms of social interaction). Aggression, pleasure, fear, warmth, total social participation, negative social participation, positive social participation, concentration, and imagination were studied via a Pearson's correlation. These 9 variables are highly related. Two variables (social interaction and hostility) were statistically significant, and were subject to analyses of variance. Abused children and nonabused children differed significantly in social interaction. Results indicate that the abused children socially interact less than, and interact in a less imaginative and sustained fashion with less enjoyment than do nonabused children. The results' implications and treatment possibilities are discussed. 31 references.


KEY TERMS:         physical abuse;  abused children;  peer relationships;  social adjustment;  group dynamics;  observation;  interaction process analysis;  sequelae


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article



TITLE:                    Integrated Treatment of Child Sexual Abuse: A Treatment and Training Manual.


AUTHOR:               Giarretto, H.




SOURCE:                Palo Alto, CA, Science and Behavior Books, Inc., 1982;  332 pp.


ABSTRACT:           The Child Sexual Abuse Treatment Program of Santa Clara, Calif., as highlighted in this training manual, takes a humanistic approach to incest and other child sexual abuse intervention that calls for the family's self-awareness and self-management. Rather than trying to modify past behavioral tendencies, the approach to abusers and families works on the principles that a person's strongest drive is to feel good, that a person will act with hostility and aggression if personal needs are not being met, and that people act in the best manner they know how. Counselor's choose from a number of program techniques largely based on psychosynthesis: integral psychology, Gestalt therapy, psychodrama, effective communication, guided imagery, transactional analysis, conjoint family therapy, and personal journal-keeping. Clients who participate in a sponsorship program, receive counseling in group or private sessions. Separate counseling is available for groups of men, women, couples, and the Spanish-speaking and former victims of abuse. Practical services such as medical, legal aid, and financial aid, and employment assistance. This manual details the 2-week course conducted by CSATP's training component. Each of the course's 10 units represents a day of the course; each unit is divided into modules and activities for satisfying specific goals and objectives. Unit one includes orientation materials, unit two delves into experiential and didactic learning, and unit three reviews counseling techniques. Other units focus on how to conduct intern-staff meetings and counseling sessions, how to administer the program, how to use suggested program forms and data gathering and analysis materials, and how to encourage cooperation among other criminal justice agencies. Supplementary material such as talks by CSATP trainers, instructions on exercises used in the training sessions, forms, and schedules accompany the text. Additional resources are appended.


KEY TERMS:         incest;  sexual abuse;  family counseling;  family therapy;  family programs;  professional training;  program planning


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Training Material



TITLE:                    Adopting the Abused Child: Love Is Not Enough.


AUTHOR:               Braden, J. A.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Social Casework


SOURCE:                62(6): pp. 362-367;  Milwaukee, WI, Families International, Inc., June 1981


ABSTRACT:           The contrasts in the expectations of the adoptive parents and the abused child before placement are discussed. Adoptive parents have made the specific choice of applying to parent a child; the fact that the application has been approved by a powerful agency seems to validate their potential for parenthood. In contrast, the child comes from a series of failures, most of which he blames on himself; the choices have been made by birth parents, courts, and social workers rather than by the child himself. Adoptive parents are eager to receive and parent the child while the child is fearful and usually has not really given up hope of returning to the natural parents. The adoptive family is an integrated functioning unit, while the child is an outsider who is used to overt violence as the result of disagreement and a generally disorganized family life without supports. Placing an abused child requires imaginative commitment of both the parents and the worker throughout all steps of the process.


KEY TERMS:         adopted children;  adoptive parents;  parental expectations;  placement;  child placement


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article



TITLE:                    Problems of the Adopted.


AUTHOR:               Breger, E.




JOURNAL TITLE:    U.S. Navy Medicine


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Naval Hospital, Beaufort, SC.


SOURCE:                72(1): pp. 3-6;  U.S. Navy, Washington, DC. Bureau of Medicine and Surgery., January 1981


ABSTRACT:           A psychiatrist reports that adopted children constitute ten percent of his caseload and that an identifiable cluster of problems characterize these children. Problems include hyperactivity; negativism; and resistance to socialization; learning problems; aggressive, antisocial, and conduct disorders; and limitations in relatedness with parents. These problems stem in part from the fact that a successful beginning for a child is heavily dependent on the child's ability to have a deep primary love tie to his or her mother. This may be difficult in an adoptive setting. Adoptive parents may be angry and rejecting, feel inadequate to raise a child, or be pessimistic about the child's future. The adoptive couple may also be burdened with psychological difficulties resulting from their infertility. It is suggested that couples considering adoption fully discuss the potential problems mentioned in this article and that they work through problems relating to infertility so that guilt, anger, and depression are minimized. Prospective parents should also use discussion, imagery, and fantasy to establish strong nurturing feelings prior to their child's arrival. The author also feels that adoptive parents should be honest with their child regarding the adoption and with respect to any questions there might be concerning his/her biological parents. Adoptive parents should be optimistic about the future, but also or they should recognize that their child may have feelings of anger that need to be addressed.


KEY TERMS:         psychological aspects;  adopted children;  adoptive parents;  emotional problems;  behavior problems


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.access.gpo.gov/su_docs



TITLE:                    Relaxation and Assertive Training as Treatment for a Psychosomatic American Indian Patient.


AUTHOR:               Peniston, E.;  Burman, W.




JOURNAL TITLE:    White Cloud Journal


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Indian Health Center, Roosevelt, UT.


SOURCE:                1: pp. 7-10;  South Dakota Univ., Vermillion. National Center on American Indian Mental Health., Spring 1978


ABSTRACT:           In progressive relaxation a person imagines a progressively more anxiety provoking schedule of scenes while practicing deep muscular relaxation. Assertive training teaches a person to express hostility in social acceptable ways. A 16-week course of treatment was conducted with a 33-year old American Indian woman which utilized the behavior modification techniques of progressive relaxation and assertive training. The woman was experiencing great anxiety and several psychomatic symptoms and had made no apparent therapeutic gains in two years of psychotherapy and medication. The patient's symptoms disappeared during and after this new treatment, thereby replicating results obtained with subjects of other cultural backgrounds. (Author abstract modified)


KEY TERMS:         behavior modification;  mental health;  psychotherapy;  cultural differences;  american indians


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article



TITLE:                    Child Advocacy in Education.


AUTHOR:               Bower, E. M.




SOURCE:                In: Westman, J. C. (Editor). Proceedings of the University of Wisconsin Conference on Child Advocacy. Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Extension Health Sciences Unit, 1976;  pp. 168-178


ABSTRACT:           The three basic institutions through which children must pass during their development are the family; the peer play institution, formal or informal; and the school. The essential function of the family is to act as a mediator between the child and the larger society. Interactive peer play, which normally occurs in children between 2 and 3 years of age, is important in the development of imagination and in learning to interact with others through the use of rules. What is learned through peer play is an essential foundation for later learning in the schools; schooling should not be forced on children who have not successfully learned the lessons of peer play. A re-examination of the conceptual metaphors which underlie educational systems shows them to be outdated. Institutions which connect the mediating needs of children with adults, the play needs of children with peers, and the cognitive needs of children with knowledge should be tried. Parent child educational centers, voluntary family-play-learning centers where children could experience all of these functions, are proposed.


KEY TERMS:         child development;  family role;  play;  peer relationships;  schools role


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book



TITLE:                    A Picture of Violence in Children and the Function of Fantasy.


AUTHOR:               Jampolsky, G. G.;  Haight, M. J.




AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Child Center Annex, Tiburon, Calif.


SOURCE:                American Orthopsychiatric Association 51st Annual Meeting, San Francisco, Calif., (ERIC ED 104 114), April 1974;  16 pp.


ABSTRACT:           Violence in children, the functionary use of fantasy, and the therapeutic use of fantasy as an alternative to violence in children are considered. A rich fantasy life has potential in preventing the acting out of violent wishes in children. Investigations of the relationship between television and violence have been inconclusive, but children lacking in creative imagination typically come from groups having higher violent crime rates. Characteristics of the potentially violent child include a history of child abuse, alcoholic parents, and dehumanized relationships. The society frequently discourages imagination, particularly in the older child. The use of suggestive and autosuggestive hypnotic-like techniques increases the options available in dealing with stress and frustration and increases self-esteem, thus serving to prevent violence. 10 references.


KEY TERMS:         alcoholism;  emotionally disturbed children;  fantasies;  violence



TITLE:                    A General Systems Theory Approach to a Theory of Violence Between Family Members.


AUTHOR:               Straus, M. A.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Social Science Information


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    New Hampshire Univ., Durham. Dept. of Sociology.


SOURCE:                12(3): pp. 105-125;  Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., 1973


ABSTRACT:           General systems theory is used to formulate a theory accounting for the presence of violence as a continuing element in the social interaction of the nuclear family. The family is generally seen as a social group committed to nonviolence between its members. However, a review of the relevant theory and empirical evidence indicates that intrafamily violence is almost universal. Family organization, family socioeconomic status, individual personality traits, psychopathological traits, occupational roles, precipitating crises, societal opportunities, and deprivations are variables relevant to family violence. The relationships and assumptions implicit in the variables form a set of interlinked propositions accounting for stabilization of violence in the family system. Labeling, secondary conflict, reinforcement, self-concept formation, and role expectations are key aspects in the process. Specific propositions about family violence include the following: (1) most violence is either denied or not labeled deviant; (2) stereotyped imagery of family violence is learned in early childhood from parents, siblings, and other children; (3) stereotypes of family violence are continually reaffirmed for adults and children through ordinary social interaction; (4) violent persons may be rewarded for violent acts if these acts produce the desired results; (5) use of violence, when it is contrary to family norms, creates conflict over the use of violence to settle the original conflict; and (6) persons labeled as violent may be encouraged to play out the role via development of an aggressive self-concept. The utilization of systems theory in research methodology is briefly discussed. 29 references.


KEY TERMS:         systems analysis;  theories;  violence;  family relationships;  etiology;  predictor variables;  research methodology;  family characteristics


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com



TITLE:                    Innovative Approaches in Child Protective Services.


INST. AUTHOR:    American Humane Association, Englewood, CO. Children's Div.


SOURCE:                American Humane Association, Englewood, CO. Children's Div.;  24 pp.


ABSTRACT:           Innovative strategies by which child protective services can be improved are discussed. If children are to be protected effectively, child protective services must accept responsibility for continually developing problem-solving techniques. Child protective services must be flexible to accommodate to new understandings of needs and imaginative in devising ways for coordinating service goals to treatment objectives. In a sense, the child protective agency represents the conscience of the community when children are abused or neglected and when the parents cannot or will not ask for help, and someone else, either an individual or an official agency, has to bring the problem to the attention of a children's protective service. Child protective workers must use community facilities and volunteers effectively to prevent child abuse-neglect, and to employ innovations both within the agency and in relating to the community.


KEY TERMS:         child protective services;  child protection organizations;  community cooperation;  methods;  program improvement;  social workers role;  service delivery


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Booklet



TITLE:                    Vicarious Traumatization: Emotional Costs of Working With Survivors.


AUTHOR:               McCann, L.;  Pearlman, L. A.


JOURNAL TITLE:    Treating Abuse Today


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Two Rivers Hospital, Kansas City, MO. Women's Trauma Recovery Services.


SOURCE:                3(5): pp. 28-31;  Survivors and Victims Empowered (SAVE), Lancaster, PA


ABSTRACT:           This article reviews the personal, psychological effects that child abuse victims have on the trauma therapists who treat them. A theoretical framework is presented to help understand this vicarious traumatization. Therapists may experience brief, transient, sympathetic trauma with their patients or the result may be more long-term changes to memory system and cognitive schema, as demonstrated in disturbances in imagery or through dreams. Constructive Self Development Theory (CSDT) is proposed as a framework to understand how trauma in others may disrupt one's own feelings in 7 core areas: frame of reference; safety; trust or dependency; esteem; independence; power; and intimacy. Each area is briefly discussed, and suggestions for resolving the negative impact are offered. It is vitally important that therapists have a supportive environment in which to discuss this vicarious traumatization and that this trauma be continually monitored and processed. 9 references and 1 illustration.


KEY TERMS:         therapists role;  therapeutic environment;  psychological stress;  psychotherapy;  psychodynamics;  psychopathology;  worker burnout;  stress management


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://child.cornell.edu/



TITLE:                    The Child Sexual Abuse Treatment Program: Resource Materials.


INST. AUTHOR:    National Child Sexual Abuse Treatment Training Project, San Jose, CA.


SOURCE:                National Child Sexual Abuse Treatment Training Project, San Jose, CA;  219 pp.


ABSTRACT:           This document presents a compilation of resource materials for the Child Sexual Abuse Treatment Program (CSATP). Materials describe the development and components of CSATP; review the history, functions, and basic concepts of Parents United (PU); present PU guidelines on confidentiality; provide a PU organizational diagram; highlight the components of a PU general business meeting; identify the services provided by Daughters and Sons United (DSU); discuss PU and DSU groups; list the responsibilities of the CSATP program administrator and the functions of the program coordinator; and address the issue of referrals to the program. Materials also present sample guided imagination and relaxation exercises, offer special techniques for dealing with child witnesses, present procedures of the San Jose Police Department in the investigation of child sexual abuse and excerpts from talks that officers give to CSATP trainees on sexual assault investigation, offer guidelines on gathering physical evidence, discuss confidentiality and reporting requirements, examine counseling methods and techniques, highlight the role of volunteer interns in CSATP, describe the sponsorship program, present a sample client-counselor dialogue, discuss the case management of a typical CSATP family, and provide a typical procedure for starting a CSATP. Other materials include various forms; an interagency relationship chart; a flowchart of the Santa Clara County Chapter of PU and DSU; a flowchart of CSATP, PU, and DSU; a case contact record; and a bibliography. 12 references and 6 figures.


KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  treatment programs;  parents united;  investigations;  case management;  program planning


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Training Material


INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch