TITLE:                    Managed Care and Child Welfare: Challenges to Implementation.

 

AUTHOR:               Embry, R. A.;  Buddenhagen, P.;  Bolles, S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Children and Youth Services Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    California Univ., Berkeley. School of Social Welfare.

 

SOURCE:                22(2): pp. 93-116;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., February 2000;  p. 158

 

ABSTRACT:           This article reviews the managed care evaluation literature and information gathered from child welfare administrators in California to illustrate that there is little empirical support for the wholesale adoption of managed care principles to child welfare. Numerous reasons for concern including a lack of understanding of the essential features of managed care by public sector administrators, limited child welfare risk assessment capabilities, and the coercive nature of child welfare services are highlighted. a more incremental approach to evaluating the promise of managed care principles in child welfare settings is urged. Essential policy and administrative issues are identified for further debate. 45 references and 1 figure. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         managed care;  child welfare services;  program administration;  program development;  program evaluation;  policy formation;  california;  state programs

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Relations Between Coercive Strategies and MMPI-2 Scale Elevations Among Women Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:               Lucenko, B. A.;  Gold, S. N.;  Elhai, J. D.;  Russo, S. A.;  Swingle, J. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Traumatic Stress

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Nova Southeastern Univ., Fort Lauderdale, FL.

 

SOURCE:                13(1): pp. 169-177;  Kluwer Academic-Plenum Publishers, Dordrecht (The Netherlands)., January 2000;  p. 379

 

ABSTRACT:           The relationship between coercion strategies used by perpetrators of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and elevations of CSA survivors on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) was investigated in this study. Participants+; were 151 women survivors of CSA in outpatient treatment at a university-based community mental health center. Scores on the MMPI-2 clinical scales and the Keane posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) scale were examined. Main effects were found for +; promised or received rewards on several clinical scales and the PTSD scale of the MMPI-2, independent of the use of force. Specifically, the presence of such rewards was associated with significantly higher levels of symptomatology on Paranoia (Pa), +; Psychasthenia (Pt), Schizophrenia (Sc), and PTSD (Pk). There were no main or interaction effects noted for the presence of actual or threatened force on any of the scales. 18 references, 1 figure, and 2 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         adults abused as children;  sexual abuse;  female victims;  characteristics of abuser;  personality disorders;  personality patterns;  sequelae;  child abuse research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wkap.nl

 

 

TITLE:                    Prediction of Recidivism in Extrafamilial Child Molesters Based on Court-Related Assessments.

 

AUTHOR:               Firestone, P.;  Bradford, J. M.;  McCoy, M.;  Greenberg, D. M.;  et al.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). School of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                12(3): pp. 203-221;  Kluwer Academic-Plenum Publishers, Dordrecht (The Netherlands)., 2000;  p. 435

 

ABSTRACT:           One hundred ninety-two convicted extrafamilial child molesters were followed for an average of 7.8 years after their conviction. The percentage of men who had committed a sexual, a violent, or any criminal offense by the 12th year was 15.1, 20.3, and 41.6, respectively. The sexual recidivists, compared with the nonrecidivists, demonstrated more problems with alcohol and showed greater sexual arousal to assaultive stimuli involving children than to mutually consenting stimuli with children. The violent recidivists, compared with the nonrecidivists, were more likely to have a history of violence in the families in which they were raised and were rated significantly more psychopathic on the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R). They also showed more sexual arousal to stimuli depicting mutually consenting sexual interactions with children than to adult stimuli. In terms of any criminal recidivism, recidivists were younger, had completed fewer years of school, and were raised in psychologically more harmful family environments compared with nonrecidivists. They also reported that, before 16 years of age, they were more likely to have been physically abused and were more likely to have been removed from their homes compared to those that did not recidivate. In addition, recidivists demonstrated more general hostility on the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory and were rated significantly more psychopathic on the PCL-R. The phallometric assessments revealed that the criminal recidivists, compared to the nonrecidivists, showed more sexual arousal to stimuli depicting coercive sexual activity with children than consenting sexual activities with children. In addition, they showed more sexual arousal to scenes depicting adult rape than adult mutually consenting sex. Finally, the recidivists also had more charges or convictions for violence and any criminal acts. The small number of significant differences between recidivists and nonrecidivists in the sexual and violent categories precluded an attempt to determine which combination of factors meaningfully predicted reoffending. However, for criminal recidivism, a stepwise discriminant function analysis to assess the combination of factors that most successfully distinguished between groups in terms of criminal recidivism was significant, with subjects' age, total number of criminal convictions, and pedophile assault index

 

KEY TERMS:         predictor variables;  recidivism;  sex offenders;  risk factors;  assessment;  characteristics of abuser;  child abuse research;  psychopathology being retained for optimal prediction. The procedures correctly classified 70.6 percent ofthe original group, 82.8 percent of the nonrecidivists, and 52.6 percent of the recidivists. PCL-R Total Score alone was equally successful in a similar discriminant function. 61 references, 1 figure, and 3 tables. (Author abstract)

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wkap.nl

 

 

TITLE:                    Developmental Antecedents of Sexual Coercion in Juvenile Sexual Offenders.

 

AUTHOR:               Johnson, G. M.;  Knight, R. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                12(3): pp. 165-178;  Kluwer Academic-Plenum Publishers, Dordrecht (The Netherlands)., 2000;  p. 441

 

ABSTRACT:           Previous research has linked adult sex offending behavior to a multiplicity of variables, including juvenile delinquency and the experience of childhood abuse. The purpose of this study was to explore developmental pathways among childhood abuse, juvenile delinquency, and personality dimensions possibly conducive to adolescent sexual coercion. Using a retrospective self-report inventory, the extent to which juvenile sexual offenders experienced childhood trauma, engaged in adolescent delinquency, and exhibited particular dispositions and cognitive biases was measured. The effects of childhood and adolescent antecedents on sexual coerciveness were then analyzed through simultaneous multiple regression path analyses. Resultssuggest that sexual compulsivity and hypermasculinity, through misogynistic fantasy behavior, significantly discriminate verbally and physically coercive juvenile offenders from those offenders who do not report using force in their offenses. Results also suggest that alcohol abuse may play a more salient role in the expression of coercive juvenile sexual coercion than previously hypothesized. 30 references, 2 figures, and 2 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         adolescent sex offenders;  sex offenses;  predictor variables;  child development;  child abuse history;  juvenile delinquency;  alcohol abuse;  psychological characteristics

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wkap.nl

 

 

TITLE:                    Development of the Stay Safe Programme.

 

AUTHOR:               MacIntyre, D.;  Carr, A.;  Lawlor, M.;  Flattery, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Eastern Health Board and Child Abuse Prevention Programme.

 

SOURCE:                9(3): pp. 200-216;  John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY., 2000;  p. 810

 

ABSTRACT:           The development and implementation of the Stay Safe program, a comprehensive sexual abuse prevention program implemented in a majority of primary schools in the Republic of Ireland since 1991, is reviewed in this article. The program ismulti-systemic in that it includes modules for teachers, parents, and children; it also involves liaison with local child protection and child health professionals as an integral part of implementation. The program employs multimedia-based instruction to facilitate multimodal learning. The broad curriculum covers topics such as bullying and child abuse as two related forms of victimization. Disclosure training, assertiveness training, and coercion management training are included in the curriculum, which also focuses on enhancing self-esteem and promoting peer support. Teachers were trained first, followed by parents, then children. A controlled evaluation of the program, involving 772 children, 374 parents, and 28 teachers showed that it led to significant gains in knowledge and skills for children, teachers, and parents, and that for children, these gains were maintained at 3 months follow-up. Three tables, 29 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         child abuse;  prevention programs;  ireland;  curricula;  professionals role;  victimization;  self esteem;  peer relationships

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wiley.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Childhood Sexual Abuse and Dating Experiences of Undergraduate Women.

 

AUTHOR:               Banyard, V. L.;  Arnold, S.;  Smith, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Maltreatment

 

SOURCE:                5(1): pp. 39-48;  Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA., February 2000

 

ABSTRACT:           This study examined the relationship between the experience of childhood sexual abuse and later victimization of psychological aggression, physical violence, or sexual coercion in a dating relationship. Participants were 219 female college undergraduates. Child sexual abuse was significantly related to having experienced both physical and psychological dating aggression even after controlling for the presence of conflict in the family of origin. Child sexual abuse was not significantly related to sexual coercion or reports of silencing oneself in relationships. 39 references and 2 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         adults abused as children;  sexual abuse;  sequelae;  interpersonal relationships;  nonmarital violence;  battering;  sexual assault;  child abuse research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    ANTI-SOCIAL BEHAVIOR AS A RESULT OF ABUSE: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

SOURCE:                NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  2000

 

KEY TERMS:         kinship care;  drug exposed infants;  sequelae;  child placement;  outcomes;  prevalence;  behavior problems;  child welfare research;  longitudinal studies;  violence;  symptoms;  adolescents;  school surveys;  ethnicity;  urban environment;  risk factors;  physical abuse;  corporal punishment;  child abuse research;  china;  sexual behavior;  child behavior;  predictor variables;  spouse abuse;  child witnesses of family violence;  child development;  research methodology;  data collection;  measures;  sexual abuse;  etiology;  sexually abusive children;  differential diagnoses;  case studies;  adolescent;  adults abused as children;  attachment behavior;  nonmarital violence;  aggressive behavior;  juvenile delinquency;  homicide;  psychological characteristics;  family violence;  suicide;  antisocial behavior;  impulsive behavior;  mothers;  posttraumatic stress disorder;  battered women;  community violence;  emotional problems;  child abuse history;  adoption;  foster care;  school children;  family relationships;  family support systems

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:                    OUT OF HOME CARE: RESIDENTIAL CARE AND GROUP HOMES: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

SOURCE:                NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  2000

 

KEY TERMS:         orphanages;  orphans;  social policies;  policy formation;  child welfare reform;  family preservation;  outcomes;  adoption;  funding;  child welfare services;  institutional abuse and neglect;  foster care drift;  judicial role;  permanency planning;  florida;  historical perspective;  deinstitutionalization;  model programs;  program descriptions;  program development;  residential care institutions;  welfare reform;  political factors;  private sector;  poverty;  therapeutic effectiveness;  child placement;  economic disadvantage;  attitudes;  child development;  research reviews;  psychological characteristics;  research methodology;  maternal deprivation;  foster care;  incidence;  statistical data;  predictor variables;  social workers attitudes;  public opinion;  government role;  discipline;  state statutory law;  federal statutory law;  vocational training;  state laws;  licensing;  standards;  state surveys;  personnel;  treatment programs;  program models;  federal aid;  grants;  religious organizations;  family characteristics;  family life;  program costs;  cost effectiveness;  costs;  operating expenses;  program planning;  federal laws;  sequelae;  residential care;  michigan;  child welfare research;  managed care;  residential treatment;  program administration;  out of home care;  foster children;  direct service providers;  emotionally disturbed children;  behavior modification;  therapeutic intervention;  intervention strategies;  service delivery;  program evaluation;  family programs;  shared family care;  adolescent sex offenders;  sex offenders therapy;  hispanics;  american indians;  african americans;  models;  parenting;  group dynamics;  control;  interviews;  adolescents;  focus groups;  family therapy;  canada;  cultural conflicts;  residential schools;  environmental stress;  trauma;  counselors;  disclosure;  mental health services;  social services;  mental disorders;  institutions

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:                    Child Abuse Crimes: Child Pornography (Current through December 31, 1999): Louisiana.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Crimes Number 30

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION, 330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565, Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE, 99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321

 

SOURCE:                In: Child Pornography

 

KEY TERMS:         Statute;  Louisiana;  Abuse;  Child;  Child Abuse;  Child Abuse Crimes;  Child Pornography;  conduct;  juvenile;  sexual conduct;  solicit;  solicitation

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Statutes

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.ndaa-apri.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Child Abuse Crimes: Sexual Offenses (Current through December 31, 1999): Minnesota.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Crimes Number 35

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION, 330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565, Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE, 99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321

 

SOURCE:                In: Sexual Offenses

 

KEY TERMS:         Statute;  Minnesota;  Abuse;  Child;  Child Abuse;  Child Abuse Crimes;  circumstances;  conduct;  penetration;  relationship;  sexual conduct

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Statutes

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.ndaa-apri.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Questioning Children Who May Have Been Sexually Abused: An Integration of Research Into

 

AUTHOR:               Faller, K. C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                2(2): pp. 37-59;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 1999;  p. 320

 

ABSTRACT:           This article derives from an Open Forum on Leading Questions sponsored by the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children. It represents the thoughts of participants in the Open Forum, and the article attempts to integrate analogue research that relates to questioning children about past events into questioning practice with children who may have been sexually abused. It proposes a continuum of questions that includes four categories: most preferred; preferred; less preferred; and least preferred. General and invitational questions are most preferred, while presumptive questions and use of coercion are least preferred methods of interviewing. 37 references and 1 table. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         interviews;  sexual abuse;  child abuse research;  leading questions;  assessment;  child witnesses;  suggestibility;  best practices

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Sequential Analyses in Coercive Mother-Child Interaction: The Predictability Hypothesis in Abusive Versus Nonabusive Dyads.

 

AUTHOR:               Cerezo, M. A.;  D'Ocon, A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Basic Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                23(2): pp. 99-113;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science, February 1999

 

ABSTRACT:           This study tested the sequential relationship between the child's aversive behavior and both the predictability and the compliance episodes, as well as the sequential relationship between these two mothering episodes proposed by the new predictability hypothesis (Wahler, Williams, and Cerezo, 1990). The compliance hypothesis explains that instructional behaviors by the mother precipitate oppositional and aversive behavior by the child, which the mother avoids by conceding to the child. The predictability hypotheses attributes a child's deviant behavior to the mother's erratic behavior as a way of achieving a predictable response from the mother. The new predictability hypothesis proposed by Wahler, et al suggests that inconsistent behavior by the mother to enforce her demand leads to a pattern of interpersonal conflict between the mother and child. The study also explored whether or not these patterns are specific to dysfunctional dyads by using a nonabusive comparison group. Fifty mother child dyads, including 25 abusive and 25 nonabusive pairs, participated in the study. Lag sequential analyses were carried out on 302 hours of direct observation, 178 on the abusive group, and 124 in the nonabusive group. Results of the sequential analyses showed that the predictions derived from the compliance and predictability hypotheses were supported in both groups. The only difference between the groups lies in the new predictability hypothesis, so the two mothering reactions are not sequentially related in the nonabusive group. 35 references, 4 figures and 5 tables. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         predictor variables;  mother child relationships;  interpersonal relationships;  etiology;  child behavior;  behavior problems;  discipline;  sequelae

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Pathways in the Offending Process of Extrafamilial Sexual Child Molesters.

 

AUTHOR:               Proulx, J.;  Perreault, C.;  Ouimet, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Montreal Univ., Quebec (Canada). School of Criminology.

 

SOURCE:                11(2): pp. 117-129;  New York, NY, Kluwer Academic-Plenum Publishers, April 1999

 

ABSTRACT:           This study investigated specific pathways in the offending process of extrafamilial sexual child molesters. Forty-four Canadian men who had committed at least one sexual offense against a nonfamilial prepubescent child were included in this study and were classified using cluster analysis. Thirty subjects using the coercive pathway had generally used psychoactive substances before their offenses. Furthermore, they had sexually abused a female victim without perceived vulnerability and whom they had already known. These offenders had not planned their offense, which was of short duration (less than 15 minutes), and involved coital activities and coercion (verbal and/or physical). Fourteen subjects using the noncoercive pathway had generally used pornography and deviant sexual fantasies before their offenses. Moreover, they had molested a male victim, in whom they perceived a psychosocial vulnerability and who was not familiar to them. These molesters had planned their offense, which was of longer duration (more than 15 minutes) and involved noncoital activities without coercion. These 2 pathways were compared. 6 tables and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         sex offenders;  sexual abuse;  male victims;  female victims;  pornography;  canada

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wkap.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Relationship Between Childhood Sexual Abuse Characteristics and Dissociation Among Women in Therapy.

 

AUTHOR:               Gold, S. N.;  Hill, E. L.;  Swingle, J. M.;  Elfant, A. S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Family Violence

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Nova Southeastern Univ., Fort Lauderdale, FL. Center for Psychological Studies.

 

SOURCE:                14(2): pp. 157-171;  New York, NY, Kluwer Academic-Plenum Publishers, June 1999

 

ABSTRACT:           This study investigated the relationship between 10 characteristics of childhood sexual abuse and dissociation in adulthood. A structural clinical interview, the Dissociative Experiences Scale, and the Dissociation Subscale of the Symptoms Checklist 90-Revised were administered to 118 women survivors seeking psychotherapy. Separate stepwise multiple regression analyses were conducted for each dissociation scale to determine which abuse characteristics were predictive of dissociation. In both analyses, the same 4 variables were significantly related to dissociation: age at onset, coercive sexual acts, objectifying sexual acts, and concurrent multiple perpetrators. Implications of findings for future research and clinical practice are explored. Sexual abuse characteristics that have been examined thus far do not account for the majority of variance in dissociative symptomatology in adulthood. Studies of childhood sexual abuse that draw conclusions about severity based on typical abuse characteristics such as duration, age at onset, frequency, and the presence or absence of penetration, are limited. The authors recommend that the findings of this study be replicated with other populations and that the relationship of other variables to dissociation besides childhood sexual abuse characteristics be explored. 7 tables and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  dissociation;  adults abused as children;  psychotherapy;  interviews;  characteristics of abused;  guidelines

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wkap.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Mandatory Mediation of Custody in the Face of Domestic Violence: Suggestions for Courts and Mediators.

 

AUTHOR:               Maxwell, J. P.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Family and Conciliation Courts Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Kent State Univ., OH. Center for Applied Conflict Management.

 

SOURCE:                37(3): pp. 335-355;  Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., July 1999

 

ABSTRACT:           This article considers the effects of domestic violence on the mediation process and suggests strategies that mediators might use to recognize and respond to domestic violence. As a process that requires a balance of power between participants, mediation is not an appropriate method to resolve domestic violence disputes, which reflect profound disparities in power between the perpetrator and the victim. Of all marriages referred to court-based divorce and custody-visitation mediation programs, 50 percent to 80 percent involve domestic violence. This raises very serious questions about mandatory mediation. Mediators are urged to identify cases involving an imbalance of power or coercion by screening all participants individually for indications of domestic violence. Mediators should also recognize that violence cannot be mediated and that children are affected by domestic violence even after the divorce. In addition, the process can put women at greater risk for violence as they try to reason with the batterer. 105 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         spouse abuse;  child custody;  mediation;  custody disputes;  visitation;  divorce;  legal processes;  alternative dispute resolution

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    Sexuality, Sexual Abuse and Children's Homes: Oppression or Protection?

 

AUTHOR:               Green, L.;  Parkin, W.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Huddersfield Univ. (England).

 

SOURCE:                Violence Against Children Study Group, Huddersfield (England). Children, Child Abuse and Child Protection: Placing Children Centrally. John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., New York, NY., 1999;  pp. 175-192

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter reports the findings of qualitative research about the sexuality of children in residential care. The study examined the link between sexual abuse victimization and sexual behavior, the impact of the residential environment, and the responses of residential staff. More than 100 people were interviewed, including residential workers and managers, external managers, social workers, children currently in care, and former residents. The responses revealed that the children were vulnerable to sexual abuse or coercion into prostitution because of their need for affection, low self-esteem, and their limited social contacts. Staff often failed to recognize or respond to the residents' sexuality, or were punitive and blamed females. Male staff took no responsibility for addressing sexuality and avoided any discussion or situation related to sex out of fear of being accused of abuse. Few policies addressed sexuality and managers denied sexual behavior or covered-up abuse. When they did intervene, managers' responses were gender-oriented. The chapter recommends that children and staff be provided with an advocacy system and opportunity for complaint. Staff and managers should be trained on sexuality and gender issues. 43 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         residential care;  group homes;  great britain;  sexual behavior;  sexual abuse;  sex factors;  prostitution;  sequelae

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wiley.com

 

 

TITLE:                    'Being There': Residential Care of Children and Young People.

 

AUTHOR:               Horrocks, C.;  Karban, K.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Huddersfield Univ. (England).

 

SOURCE:                Violence Against Children Study Group, Huddersfield (England). Children, Child Abuse and Child Protection: Placing Children Centrally. John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., New York, NY., 1999;  pp. 161-173

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter considers the role of residential care in the continuum of child protection services and how care can be improved to better meet the needs of children and youth. Youth in residential care in Great Britain tend to be older than 13 years with emotional and behavior problems and experiences with abuse, family relationship difficulties, poverty, single parent households, and criminal behavior. Reports of scandals and failure to meet the long term needs of youth have contributed to the perception of residential care institutions as inferior to foster care. A survey of young people in residential care identified three basic needs that should be addressed in residential care: attention from carers; understanding of another person; and freedom. The youth are extremely vulnerable to problems, such as lack of control and coercion. Residential care institutions can meet the needs of youth by addressing their perceived needs, providing treatment and support for resolving problems, and creating opportunities to enhance development. 35 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         residential care;  great britain;  child protection;  historical perspective;  policy formation;  service delivery;  needs assessment;  quality of care

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wiley.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Prosecuting Attorneys in Dependency Proceedings in Juvenile Court: Defining and Assessing a Critical Role in Child Abuse and Neglect Cases.

 

AUTHOR:               Scahill, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of the Center for Children and the Courts

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    National Center for Juvenile Justice.

 

SOURCE:                1: pp. 73-99;  Judicial Council of California, San Francisco., 1999

 

ABSTRACT:           This article reviews the role of prosecuting attorneys in civil dependency proceedings and criminal child abuse cases. In some states, prosecutors are only involved in criminal proceedings against adults accused of child abuse. In other states, the prosecuting attorney is assigned a dual role of responsibility for presenting civil dependency proceedings as well as criminal cases. Some prosecutors represent the interests of the local social service agency, while others represent the state. Prosecutors with a dual role may face a conflict between their duty to settle cases with parents according to agency goals and their responsibility to prosecute crimes. Considerations related to prosecutorial structure include: fundamental differences in goals and philosophies of criminal justice and child welfare systems; fairness issues for parents and the right to refuse self-incrimination; procedural safeguards to protect parents rights, such as negative inference, counsel for parents, use immunity, and confidentiality; and the coercive power of the state. Issues for efficient and effective case processing when the same attorney handles both civil and criminal proceedings, when different attorneys in the same office handle civil and criminal proceedings, and when different attorneys in different offices handle civil and criminal proceedings are discussed. Multidisciplinary teams are recommended to coordinate proceedings, gather evidence, interview victims, plan treatment, train interviewers, and develop priorities. Special considerations for prosecuting attorneys who also represent the agency in civil dependency proceedings are also outlined. The article concludes by reporting findings from recent research about these issues. 2 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         dependency;  juvenile court;  district attorneys;  lawyers role;  lawsuits;  trial courts;  legal processes;  prosecution

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.courtinfo.ca.gov

 

 

TITLE:                    DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES AND CHILD MALTREATMENT: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

SOURCE:                NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:         program evaluation;  foster parents training;  drug exposed infants;  addicted infants;  program models;  competency based training;  parenting skills;  foster parent recruitment;  foster care;  sequelae;  child development;  visitation;  health status;  kinship care;  program planning;  concurrent planning;  shared family care;  evaluation methods;  services delivery;  early intervention programs;  child placement;  outcomes;  prevalence;  behavior problems;  child welfare research;  prenatal child abuse;  prenatal care;  prenatal influences;  alcohol abuse;  substance abusing mothers;  substance abuse;  intervention;  substance abusing parents;  postnatal drug exposure;  child welfare services;  intervention strategies;  drug abuse;  cocaine;  child health;  neurological impairments;  predictor variables;  hospitalized children;  hospitalization;  health services;  legal rights;  fetal rights;  maternal rights;  state case law;  nonpunitive approach;  drug treatment programs;  mental retardation;  cognitive development;  social policies;  criminal charges;  criminal laws;  legal processes;  foster parents;  child abuse research;  qualitative research;  identification;  policy formation;  interagency cooperation;  risk factors;  assessment;  nurses role;  nurseries;  hiv;  family preservation;  family services;  foster families;  community based services;  home visitation programs;  state laws;  prosecution

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:                    THE LINK BETWEEN CHILD ABUSE AND ANIMAL ABUSE: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

SOURCE:                NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:         family violence;  animal cruelty;  child witnesses of family violence;  interagency collaboration;  crisis intervention;  community intervention projects;  abusive children;  generational cycle of family violence;  etiology;  sequelae;  family violence research;  interpersonal relationships;  literature reviews;  historical perspectives;  child abuse;  medical services;  child health;  institutional abuse and neglect;  spouse abuse;  feminism;  models;  sexual abuse;  policy formation;  child advocacy;  child abuse reporting;  predictor variables;  physicians role;  prevention;  physical abuse;  corporal punishment;  prevalence;  child witnesses;  felony;  adults abused as children;  antisocial behavior;  interdisciplinary approach;  interagency cooperation;  assessment;  psychological evaluation;  measures;  intervention strategies

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:                    Legislation Regarding the Use of Special Hearsay Exceptions for Criminal Child Abuse Cases (Current through December 31, 1999): Alabama.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Witnesses Number 23

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES  Administration for Children and Families  Administration on Children, Youth and Families  Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION  330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565  Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE  99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321

 

SOURCE:                In: Special Child Hearsay Exceptions

 

KEY TERMS:         Statute;  Alabama;  Abuse;  Child;  Child Abuse;  Child Abuse Cases;  conduct;  Criminal Child Abuse;  Criminal;  defendant;  jurisdiction;  Legislation;  offense;  ring of veracity;  Special Hearsay Exceptions;  trauma

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Statutes

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.ndaa-apri.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Legislation Regarding the Use of Special Hearsay Exceptions for Criminal Child Abuse Cases (Current through December 31, 1999): Delaware.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Witnesses Number 23

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES  Administration for Children and Families  Administration on Children, Youth and Families  Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION  330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565  Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE  99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321

 

SOURCE:                In: Special Child Hearsay Exceptions

 

KEY TERMS:         Statute;  Delaware;  Abuse;  Child;  Child Abuse;  Child Abuse Cases;  Criminal Child Abuse;  Criminal;  defendant;  jurisdiction;  Legislation;  offense;  Special Hearsay Exceptions;  trauma

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Statutes

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.ndaa-apri.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Child Abuse Crimes: Child Prostitution (Current through December 31, 1999): Colorado.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Crimes Number 31

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION, 330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565, Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE, 99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321

 

SOURCE:                In: Child Prostitution

 

KEY TERMS:         Statute;  Colorado;  Abuse;  Child;  Child Abuse;  Child Abuse Crimes;  Child Prostitution;  circumstances;  conduct;  offense;  solicit

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Statutes

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.ndaa-apri.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Child Abuse Crimes: Sexual Offenses (Current through December 31, 1999): New Mexico.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Crimes Number 35

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION, 330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565, Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE, 99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321

 

SOURCE:                In: Sexual Offenses

 

KEY TERMS:         Statute;  New Mexico;  Abuse;  Child;  Child Abuse;  Child Abuse Crimes;  Criminal;  first degree felony;  penetration;  second degree felony;  third degree felony

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Statutes

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.ndaa-apri.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Child Abuse Crimes: Sexual Offenses (Current through December 31, 1999): Utah.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Crimes Number 35

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION, 330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565, Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE, 99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321

 

SOURCE:                In: Sexual Offenses

 

KEY TERMS:         Statute;  Utah;  Abuse;  bodily injury;  Child;  Child Abuse;  Child Abuse Crimes;  circumstances;  conduct;  defendant;  first degree felony;  offense;  penetration;  position of special trust;  Rape;  second degree felony;  Sexual abuse of a child;  Sexual abuse;  sexual assault;  sexual conduct;  sexual desire;  Sodomy;  third degree felony;  youth

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Statutes

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.ndaa-apri.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Sexual Deviance and Number of Older Brothers Among Sexual Offenders.

 

AUTHOR:               Lalumiere, M. L.;  Harris, G. T.;  Quinsey, V. L.;  Rice, M. E.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Penetanguishene Mental Health Center, Ontario (Canada).

 

SOURCE:                10(1): pp. 5-15;  New York, NY, Plenum Publishing Corp., January 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           This study tests the prediction that sexual preferences for prepubertal individuals and for nonconsenting, violent sexual activities are associated with a greater number of older brothers but not sisters using a one-group correlational design with identified sexual offenders. Phallometric data were gathered from 29 child molesters, 38 rapists, and 11 individuals who had offended against both children and adults. In all groups, a phallometric index of sexual deviance (i.e. a relative preference for children or for coercive sex) was positively correlated with the offenders' number of older brothers. These results suggest that the maternal immunosensitization hypothesis may explain some variations in male sexual preferences. 1 figure and numerous references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         birth order;  pedophilia;  homosexuality;  sex offenders;  siblings

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.plenum.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Sexual Abuse, Sex Before Age 16, and High-Risk Behaviors of Young Females with Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

 

AUTHOR:               Kenney, J. W.;  Reinholtz, C.;  Angelini, P. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    JOGNN, Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Arizona State Univ., Tempe. Coll. of Nursing.

 

SOURCE:                27(1): pp. 54-63;  Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses, Washington, DC., January-February 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           This study compared the rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in young women who were sexually abused, sexually precocious, and engaged in high-risk behaviors with the rates of STDs in young women who had none of these experiences. The sample included 1,994 women ages 18-22 years from four different ethnic groups. The participants completed a questionnaire on their sexual history and high-risk behaviors, sexual abuse and age of occurrence, and health issues, including STDs. Chi-square analyses revealed that sexually, precocious women who also engaged in high-risk sexual behaviors were the most likely to have had an STD. The sequence of these events was not significant. High-risk sexual behaviors appeared to be a greater risk factor for STDs than sexual abuse or precocity. Young women who engage in high-risk sexual behaviors, such as sex on a first date or with a stranger, are at greater risk for acquiring STDs. Nurses must be advocates for sex education in high schools to inform teenagers about the dangers of high-risk behaviors and STDs, and to explain ways to handle sexual coercion and possible rape. 21 references and 4 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         female victims;  sexual abuse;  sexual behavior;  adolescents;  venereal diseases

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://services.lww.com/services

 

 

TITLE:                    Acts of Childhood Sexual Abuse: An Empirically Derived Typology.

 

AUTHOR:               Gold, S. N.;  Swingle, J. M.;  Hill, E. L.;  Elfant, A. S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Family Violence

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Nova Southeastern Univ., Fort Lauderdale, FL.

 

SOURCE:                13(3): pp. 233-242;  New York, NY, Plenum Publishing Corp., September 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           This article examines acts of childhood sexual abuse. A clinical sample of 165 women survivors in outpatient therapy was surveyed about whether their childhood sexual abuse included each of 17 sexual acts. Factor analysis of these acts was conducted. A typology of childhood sexual abuse acts consisting of 3 factors emerged. Inspection of the acts loading on each factor suggested that they differed primarily in terms of type of abuse of power implied by them rather than in the nature of the sexual behavior involved. The 3 factors were named Coerced Compliance (Coercion), Subjugation and Humiliation (Subjugation) and Invasive Objectification (Objectification). Implications for research, theory, and clinical practice, and the need for evaluating the generalizability of the typology to other subpopulations of survivors, are discussed. 21 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         adults abused as children;  sexual abuse;  female victims

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.plenum.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Sexually Abused Children's Perceptions of Sexual Abuse: An Exploratory Analysis and Comparison Across Ages.

 

AUTHOR:               Miller-Perrin, C. L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Sexual Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Pepperdine Univ., Malibu, CA.

 

SOURCE:                7(1): pp. 1-22;  Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           In this study, personal interviews were conducted with 42 sexually abused children ages 4 to 16 years. A projective vignette describing a sexually abusive incident was read to the children followed by a standard list of questions designed to measure cognitive dimensions associated with the trauma of sexual abuse. Overall, the abused children's responses were consistent with perceptions of betrayal, sexualization, secrecy pressure, and coercion with few perceptions of victim blame. Comparisons were made between the perceptions of two developmentally distinct age groups (4-8 and 10-12 year olds) and results indicated that younger children exhibited greater perceptions of victim blame than the older children. Older children, however, attributed a more negative self-concept to the vignette victim and responded with greater perceptions of coercion. The significance of the findings is discussed in terms of prevention and treatment implications. 4 tables, 34 references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  abused children;  cognitive development;  perception

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Childhood Maltreatment History as a Risk Factor for Sexual Harassment Among U.S. Army Soldiers.

 

AUTHOR:               Rosen, L. N.;  Martin, L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Violence and Victims

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Walter Reed Army Inst. of Research, Washington, DC.

 

SOURCE:                13(3): pp. 269-286;  New York, NY, Springer Publishing Co., Fall 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           Four different types of childhood maltreatment were examined as predictors of unwanted sexual experiences and acknowledged sexual harassment among 1,051 male and 305 female active duty soldiers in the United States Army. Predictor variables included childhood sexual abuse, physical-emotional abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect. Three types of unwanted sexual experiences in the workplace were examined as outcome variables: gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and coercion. Both sexual and physical-emotional abuse during childhood were found to be predictors of unwanted sexual experiences and of acknowledged sexual harassment in the workplace. Among female soldiers, the most severe type of unwanted experience- coercion- was predicted only by childhood physical-emotional abuse. Among male soldiers, childhood sexual abuse was the strongest predictor of coercion. A greater variety of types of childhood maltreatment and adult sexual harassment were predictors of psychological well-being for soldiers of both genders. 36 references and 10 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         adults abused as children;  revictimization;  child abuse research;  risk factors;  military personnel;  predictor variables;  sexual abuse;  emotional neglect

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Interventions for Aggressive, Physically Abused Children: A Clinical Trial.

 

AUTHOR:               Kolko, D. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Pittsburgh Univ., PA. Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic.

 

SOURCE:                Pittsburgh Univ., PA. Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, 1998;  27 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This paper evaluates the feasibility and efficacy of two complementary psychosocial interventions directed toward parents and children, through routine community services, for families with a physically abused child. The study provides an experimental evaluation of the impact of these programs in reducing aggression and coercive behavior by parents and child victims. Other objectives included documenting program impact on the sequalae of physical child abuse and to empirically identify the predictors of treatment outcome and client treatment interactions. Fifty-nine families were randomly assigned to one of two treatment conditions. Methodologies and treatment techniques are discussed. Problems and barriers are presented. While referencing limitations of the programs, benefits of the program are demonstrated, particularly for school-aged children and their parents in improving child, parent, and family functioning, and support their use in providing treatment to child victims and applying individual and family treatments that may impact high-risk parental behaviors. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         physical abuse;  aggressive behavior;  clinical intervention;  abusive parents;  community based services

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Final Report

 

 

TITLE:                    The Science and Ethics of Castration: Lessons From the Morse Case.

 

AUTHOR:               Bailey, J. M.;  Greenberg, A. S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Northwestern University Law Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                92(4): pp. 1225-1245;  University of Illinois, Champaign., Summer 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter reviews empirical research about the effectiveness of castration and examines the ethics and appropriateness of reducing the sentences of chemically or surgically castrated sex offenders. This discussion cites evidence in support of the effectiveness of castration stemming from the removal of the motivation for reoffending. However, current research is limited due to the lack of experimental control groups, the heterogeneity among castrated offenders, and limited information about true rates of recidivism. An analysis of the ethical appropriateness of castration indicates that it would be acceptable as a demonstration of remorse and as a cost effective method for preventing recidivism. Objections to castration on the basis that it constitutes coercion are unfounded.

 

KEY TERMS:         castration;  sex offenders;  recidivism;  sentencing;  drug therapy;  ethics;  therapeutic effectiveness;  research reviews

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.press.uillinois.edu

 

 

TITLE:                    Legislation Regarding Definitions of Child Abuse and Neglect (Current through December 31, 1999): Alabama.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Reporting Laws Number 1

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION, 330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565, Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366

 

SOURCE:                In: Definitions of Child Abuse and Neglect

 

KEY TERMS:         Statute;  Alabama;  Abuse;  Child;  Child Abuse;  child abuse or neglect;  conduct;  Definition;  Department;  employment;  Legislation;  medical treatment;  neglect;  services;  Sexual abuse;  Sexual exploitation;  treatment

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Statutes

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:                    Legislation Regarding Definitions of Child Abuse and Neglect (Current through December 31, 1999): Indiana.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Reporting Laws Number 1

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION, 330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565, Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366

 

SOURCE:                In: Definitions of Child Abuse and Neglect

 

KEY TERMS:         Statute;  Indiana;  Abandon;  Abandoned infant;  Abuse;  Adoptive grandparent;  Adoptive parent;  alcohol;  bodily injury;  Child;  Child Abuse;  child abuse or neglect;  Child care worker;  child in need of services;  child's welfare;  conduct;  corporal punishment;  Custodian;  Definition;  employment;  incest;  Indian;  infant;  juvenile;  Legislation;  medical treatment;  neglect;  offense;  serious bodily injury;  serious danger;  services;  sex offense;  sexual conduct;  sexual desire;  Sexual intercourse;  sibling;  solicit;  solicitation;  Stepparent;  treatment

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Statutes

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:                    Legislation Regarding Definitions of Child Abuse and Neglect (Current through December 31, 1999): New Hampshire.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Reporting Laws Number 1

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION, 330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565, Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366

 

SOURCE:                In: Definitions of Child Abuse and Neglect

 

KEY TERMS:         Statute;  New Hampshire;  Abandon;  Abuse;  Abused child;  Bureau;  Child;  Child Abuse;  child abuse or neglect;  Child care agency;  child day care agency;  Child placing agency;  child's welfare;  Children;  circumstances;  conduct;  Court;  Custodian;  Definition;  Department;  Division;  employment;  Family;  Foster home;  Guardian;  Household member;  Household;  Human Services;  Imminent danger;  impairment;  incest;  Institution;  Institutional child abuse or neglect;  jurisdiction;  juvenile;  Legal custody;  Legal supervision;  Legislation;  neglect;  Neglected child;  out-of-home care;  Parent;  parental rights;  practitioner;  Probable cause;  Protective custody;  Protective supervision;  relationship;  Relative;  residential care;  services;  Sexual abuse;  treatment;  Unfounded report

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Statutes

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:                    Legislation Regarding Definitions of Child Abuse and Neglect (Current through December 31, 1999): Pennsylvania.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Reporting Laws Number 1

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION, 330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565, Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366

 

SOURCE:                In: Definitions of Child Abuse and Neglect

 

KEY TERMS:         Statute;  Pennsylvania;  Abuse;  bodily injury;  Child;  Child Abuse;  child's welfare;  circumstances;  conduct;  county agency;  Definition;  Department;  employment;  Family member;  Family;  impairment;  incest;  Indicated report for school employee;  Indicated report;  Individual residing in the same home as the child;  Legislation;  neglect;  Perpetrator;  Person responsible for the child;  Person responsible for the child's welfare;  Recent acts or omissions;  school employee;  serious bodily injury;  Serious mental injury;  Serious physical injury;  services;  Sexual abuse or exploitation;  Sexual abuse;  sexual assault;  Student;  Subject;  treatment;  Unfounded report

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Statutes

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:                    Legislation Regarding the Use of Special Hearsay Exceptions for Criminal Child Abuse Cases (Current through December 31, 1999): Maryland.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Witnesses Number 23

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES  Administration for Children and Families  Administration on Children, Youth and Families  Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION  330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565  Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE  99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321

 

SOURCE:                In: Special Child Hearsay Exceptions

 

KEY TERMS:         Statute;  Maryland;  Abuse;  Child;  Child Abuse;  Child Abuse Cases;  Criminal Child Abuse;  Criminal;  defendant;  juvenile;  Legislation;  neglect;  offense;  Special Hearsay Exceptions

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Statutes

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.ndaa-apri.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Legislation Permitting a Support Person or a Child Advocate in the Courtroom in Criminal Child Abuse Cases (Current through December 31, 1999): California.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Witnesses Number 26

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES  Administration for Children and Families  Administration on Children, Youth and Families  Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION  330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565  Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE  99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321

 

SOURCE:                In: Authorization for Special Support Persons in Criminal Child Abuse Proceedings

 

KEY TERMS:         Statute;  California;  Abuse;  Child;  Child Abuse;  Child Abuse Cases;  conduct;  Court;  Courtroom;  Criminal Child Abuse;  Criminal;  defendant;  incest;  Legislation;  offense;  sibling

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Statutes

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.ndaa-apri.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Legislation Limiting the Length of a Child Victim's In-Court Testimony (Current through December 31, 1999): California.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Witnesses Number 28

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES  Administration for Children and Families  Administration on Children, Youth and Families  Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION  330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565  Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE  99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321

 

SOURCE:                In: Special Procedures in Criminal Child Abuse Cases

 

KEY TERMS:         Statute;  California;  Child;  child's testimony;  conduct;  Court;  defendant;  incest;  Legislation;  Testimony

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Statutes

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.ndaa-apri.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Preschool Antecedents of Adolescent Assaultive Behavior: A Longitudinal Study.

 

AUTHOR:               Herrenkohl, R. C.;  Egolf, B. P.;  Herrenkohl, E. C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    American Journal of Orthopsychiatry

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA. Center for Social Research.

 

SOURCE:                67(3): pp. 422-432;  American Orthopsychiatric Association, New York, NY, July 1997

 

ABSTRACT:           This NCCAN-funded study followed preschool maltreated and nonmaltreated children over 16 years to identify their involvement in assaultive behavior as adolescents. Severity of the mother's physical and emotional discipline, neglect, and sexual abuse were examined, as well as the quality of the mother's interaction with the child. The study began with 457 children from 297 families and ended with 317 children. During the preschool phase of the study, mothers were interviewed and observed to rate discipline methods and interaction qualities. Sixteen years later, the children as adolescents were interviewed about their own deviant behavior, including involvement in a gang fight, hitting parents or others, intent to injure or kill others, sexual assault, or violent coercion. Severity of physical discipline, negative quality of the mother's interaction with the child, and the experience of sexual abuse were related to adolescent assaultive behavior. 38 references, 4 figures, and 2 tables. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         predictor variables;  assault;  aggressive behavior;  adolescents;  preschool children;  mother child relationships;  sequelae;  longitudinal studies

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    A Cognitive Behavioral Approach to Understanding and Treating Parents Who Physically Abuse Their Children.

 

AUTHOR:               Azar, S. T.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Clark Univ., Worcester, MA. School of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                In: Wolfe, D. A.; McMahon, R. J.; and Peters, R. D. (Editors). Child Abuse: New Directions in Prevention and Treatment Across the Lifespan. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., 1997;  pp. 79-101

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter explains the cognitive-behavioral theory, a comprehensive framework for understanding the causes and effects of child abuse. The model focuses on the emotional relationship between parent and child as well as child behavior management. Parents with cognitive distortions have unrealistic expectations for their child's behavior and use negative, coercive techniques to control their child. These parents attribute responsibility for behavior inappropriately to the child and demonstrate a variety of interpersonal problems in their relationship with their child. Examples of parental statements that indicate the need for cognitive work include assumptions of mind reading, negative internal attributions, low self-efficacy, misattributions, negative self-schema, and discrimination failure. Treatment based on the cognitive-behavioral model attempts to enhance the thought processes of parents to appropriately interpret and respond emotionally to child behavior. Empirical evidence in support of the model and application to parent training programs are discussed. 66 references and 2 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         characteristics of abuser;  behavior therapy;  cognitive development;  etiology;  physical abuse;  parental therapy;  parenting skills;  attachment

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    Pornography and the Organization of Intra- and Extrafamilial Child Sexual Abuse: A Conceptual Model.

 

AUTHOR:               Itzin, C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Sunderland Univ. (Great Britain). School of Social and International Studies.

 

SOURCE:                In: Kantor, G. K. and Jasinski, J. L. (Editors). Out of the Darkness: Contemporary Perspectives on Family Violence. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., 1997;  pp. 58-79

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter examines the relationship between pornography and child sexual abuse. Emphasis is placed on organized sexual abuse, such as ritual abuse, pedophile networks, family-based abuse, and institutional abuse. A case study illustrates the characteristics of pornography-related sexual abuse, including gender, generational patterns of abuse, coercion and compliance, pornography and prostitution, and preparation for extrafamilial abuse. The case history traces the typical progression of organized abuse from incest to sharing the child within the family; sharing children outside the family; sexual abuse by individuals known to the child and by strangers; selling children outside the family; making and selling pornography; national and international traffic in children for prostitution and pornography; and sexualizing and predisposing the children to prostitution, adult pornography, and revictimization. Implications for child protection are discussed. 74 references and 2 figures.

 

KEY TERMS:         pornography;  sexual abuse;  incest;  etiology;  multiperpetrator cases;  social attitudes;  research reviews;  case studies

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    Not Just a Conjured Afterthought: Using Duress as a Defense for Battered Women Who Fail to Protect.

 

AUTHOR:               Skinazi, H. R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    California Law Review

 

SOURCE:                85(4): pp. 993-1042;  California Univ., Berkeley. Boalt Hall School of Law, July 1997

 

ABSTRACT:           This article examines why courts are reluctant to accept a duress defense when prosecuting a battered women for failing to protect her children, while they are favorable toward a self-defense argument for battered women who kill their abusers. The article contends that the asymmetrical treatment of the reasonable person standard in these defenses leads to such strikingly different results. Duress uses a purely objective approach to reasonableness which excludes evidence crucial to demonstrate the reasonableness of a defendant's choices. In comparison, self-defense uses a hybrid objective-subjective approach to reasonableness which ensures that the jury fully understands the totality of the defendant's actions from her own perspective before the jury is asked to determine how a reasonable person would have behaved in those same circumstances. However, there appears to be no logical basis for applying different standards of reasonableness to these doctrines. Therefore, duress should adopt a hybrid approach that resembles self-defense. The article describes this modification, showing how it could accommodate a defendant who had a reasonable perception of coercion, but one that could only be understood given her experience of prior battering as the totality of the circumstances. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         battered women;  mothers of abuse victims;  nonabusive parents;  criminal charges;  defense;  self defense

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://simon592-4.law.berkeley.edu/

 

 

TITLE:                    A Discipline-Mediated Model of Excessively Punitive Parenting.

 

AUTHOR:               Greenwald, R. L.;  Bank, L.;  Reid, J. B.;  Knutson, J. F.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Aggressive Behavior

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Oregon State Social Learning Center, Eugene.

 

SOURCE:                23: pp. 259-280;  New York, NY, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1997

 

ABSTRACT:           This study developed and compared several mediated and direct-effects models proposed to link well-established correlates of physical child abuse to excessively punitive parenting in a population-based sample of 206 families recruited from high-risk areas of a medium-sized metropolitan area. Parents were classified as exhibiting excessively punitive parenting based on home observations and parent reports of the use of physical punishment strategies other than spanking. The study hypothesized that the levels of child coerciveness, parent irritability, and family stress would be mediated by disruptions in parent discipline in predicting excessively punitive parenting toward the child. Structural equation methodology was employed to test the hypothesized and alternative models. Results consistently supported the powerful mediational role of discipline in the hypothesized model over alternative models that posited separate, direct effects of child coerciveness, parent irritability, and parent stress on excessively punitive parenting behavior. Results are discussed in terms of the need for further examination of parenting behavior, as well as parents' perceptions of affective reactions to parent-child interactions in the occurrence of physical abuse. 77 references, 7 figures, and 3 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         discipline;  parental behavior;  theories;  parenting skills;  parent child relationships

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.interscience.wiley.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Ethnic Differences in Childhood and Adolescent Sexual Abuse and Teenage Pregnancy.

 

AUTHOR:               Kenney, J. W.;  Reinholtz, C.;  Angelini, P. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Adolescent Health

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Arizona State Univ., Tempe. College of Nursing.

 

SOURCE:                21(1): pp. 3-10;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science, Inc., July 1997

 

ABSTRACT:           More than 1,900 women between 18 and 22 years old were surveyed for this study of ethnic differences in childhood and adolescent sexual abuse and the effect of sexual abuse on teenage pregnancy rates. The 20-page questionnaire obtained information about women's sexual and pregnancy history, high-risk behaviors, and sexual abuse, based on a modified version of the Koss and Oros Sexual Experiences Survey. Women representing four ethnic groups (Anglo, African American, Mexican American, and American Indian) completed an English or Spanish version of the questionnaire. Almost 36 percent of the women reported sexual abuse before age 18, and more than 26 percent were pregnant before reaching 18 years old. Compared with their nonabused peers, twice as many women who were coerced into sex or raped had a teenage pregnancy. Minority group teens were more likely than Anglos to have a teenage pregnancy and to have been coerced into having sex, rather than raped, prior to teenage pregnancy. Coercive sexual abuse is more likely to contribute to teenage pregnancy among minority group teens, whereas rape is more likely to contribute to teenage pregnancy among Anglos. 28 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  adolescent pregnancy;  ethnic differences;  incidence;  sequelae;  american indians;  african americans;  mexican americans

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    What Happens When Cyberspace Is Used to Lure Children Into Sexual Relations: A Brief Look at Important Federal Venue Provisions.

 

AUTHOR:               Cobb, J. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Family Law Quarterly

 

SOURCE:                31(3): pp. 597-611;  Chicago, IL, American Bar Association, Fall 1997

 

ABSTRACT:           This article analyzes federal venue issues concerning child sexual abuse crimes which occur or are initiated by computer communication (or cyberspace). It discusses federal legislation that most commonly evoke venue issues dealing with sexual abuse crimes committed across State Lines, in particular the White Slave Traffic Act. This Act may be the only existing federal statute that can effectively deal with online sexual abuse crimes. A hypothetical scenario is used to illustrate the relationship between the White Slave Traffic Act, venue, and online sexual abuse crimes. The hypothetical specifically reviews the issues of coercion and enticement, transportation of a minor, and special venue considerations under various federal laws. The article concludes that the continuing advances in technology and computer sciences make it easier to commit crimes against children. Certain federal laws are examples of existing laws that are applicable to new crimes such as online crimes against children. An analysis of what these laws provide will help in the successful prosecution of the growing number of crimes against children occurring in the border-less world of cyberspace. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         communication;  sexual abuse;  federal laws

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Protecting Children or Punishing Mothers: Gender, Race, and Class in the Child Protection System.

 

AUTHOR:               Appell, A. R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    South Carolina Law Review

 

SOURCE:                48(3): pp. 577-613;  South Carolina Univ., Columbia. School of Law, Spring 1997

 

ABSTRACT:           This article addresses the policies, practices, and perspectives that help to fuel the industry that has arisen from the State's involvement with poor families and families of color, and the State's punitive treatment of the mothers of these families. The author challenges the rationale behind the punitive treatment of these mothers and the State's protective scheme--that it is good for children. Because the State's reasons for both initial and continuing intervention are ill-defined and maternally focused, State intervention often fails to meet children's basic needs of love, stability, continuity, and timely determination of legal status. The first part of the article describes the legal and bureaucratic framework of coercive State intervention and how the State directs its actions based largely on the gender, race, and class, of parents. Part 2 focuses on examples of gender bias in child protection proceedings. The illustrations unfold first by presenting objective indicators of how women are singled out for their behavior or status and then by presenting a more subjective picture of how women and their families experience intervention. Part 3 points out shared failings of the various child protection systems. Lastly, part 4 addresses some of the bureaucratic and legal factors that help perpetuate biased and punitive systems and explores some suggestions for improvement. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         child protection;  intervention;  race;  social class;  indicators

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wshein.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Mother-Child Interactional Patterns in High- and Low-Risk Mothers.

 

AUTHOR:               Dolz, L.;  Cerezo, M. A.;  Milner, J. S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Valencia Univ., (Spain). Dept.of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                21(12): pp. 1149-1158;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., December 1997

 

ABSTRACT:           This goal of this study was to determine the extent to which mother-child interactional patterns in high- and low-risk (for child physical abuse) mothers were similar to patterns observed in physically abusive parents. Ten high-risk and 10 demographically similar low-risk mother-child dyads were studied. Trained observers coded maternal-child interaction patterns in the home during five 1-hour periods using the Standardized Observation Codes system. As expected, high-risk mothers made fewer neutral approaches to their children, displayed more negative behaviors toward their children, and made more indiscriminant responses to their children's prosocial behavior. Expected risk group differences were not found in the number of neutral instructions of positive responses, albeit the proportion of positive responses out of the total number of positive and negative responses was higher for low-risk mothers. After control for educational differences, risk group differences remained in the rates of neutral approaches and the number of indiscriminant behaviors made in response to children's prosocial behaviors. The observational data indicated that high-risk mothers display some behaviors similar to those observed in physically abusive mothers. The finding that high-risk mothers made more indiscriminate or noncontingent responses when reacting to the children's prosocial behavior is consistent with a coercive model of child physical abuse. 39 references and 2 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         mother child relationships;  interpersonal relationships;  characteristics of abuser;  parental behavior;  high risk groups;  families at risk;  predictor variables;  child abuse research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Legislation Regarding Definitions of Child Abuse and Neglect (Current through December 31, 1999): Rhode Island.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Reporting Laws Number 1

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION, 330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565, Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366

 

SOURCE:                In: Definitions of Child Abuse and Neglect

 

KEY TERMS:         Statute;  Rhode Island;  Abandon;  Abuse;  Abused and/or neglected child;  alcohol;  Child;  Child Abuse;  child abuse or neglect;  Child protective investigator;  child's welfare;  Children;  circumstances;  corporal punishment;  Definition;  Department;  drugs;  Institution;  Institutional child abuse and neglect;  Law enforcement agency;  Legislation;  Mental injury;  neglect;  offense;  out-of-home care;  penetration;  Physician;  Probable cause;  treatment

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Statutes

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:                    Legislation Regarding the Use of Special Hearsay Exceptions for Criminal Child Abuse Cases (Current through December 31, 1999): Oregon.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Witnesses Number 23

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES  Administration for Children and Families  Administration on Children, Youth and Families  Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION  330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565  Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE  99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321

 

SOURCE:                In: Special Child Hearsay Exceptions

 

KEY TERMS:         Statute;  Oregon;  Abuse;  Child;  Child Abuse;  Child Abuse Cases;  circumstances;  conduct;  Criminal Child Abuse;  Criminal;  Legislation;  sexual conduct;  Special Hearsay Exceptions;  trauma

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Statutes

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.ndaa-apri.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Adolescents with Mental Retardation: Perceptions of Sexual Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:               Podell, D. M.;  Kastner, J.;  Kastner, S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    American Journal of Orthopsychiatry

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Staten Island College, New York, NY. Dept. of Education.

 

SOURCE:                66(1): pp. 103-110;  American Orthopsychiatric Association, New York, NY, January 1996

 

ABSTRACT:           This article describes a study that explored the relationship between mental retardation and perceptions of sexual abuse and responsibility. Reactions of 132 nonretarded female undergraduates to sexually coercive situations in which neither, one, or both protagonists had mental retardation were examined. Results indicate that retardation affected perceptions of both responsibility and harm. Adolescent males with mental retardation were perceived as being less responsible for their actions in a sexual situation than were their nonretarded counterparts. Perceived responsibility of the adolescent mentally retarded girl was also less, but only when her behavior was encouraging or passive. However, when the girl resisted the sexual encounter, there was no difference in the level of responsibility that respondents attributed to her relative to the presence or absence of mental retardation. Results suggest that the level of responsibility attributed to individuals in sexual situations is mediated by the retardation of participants and by their behavior. Implications for the education of mental health professionals about the emotional needs of individuals with retardation are discussed. 27 references and 2 tables. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         adolescents;  sexual abuse;  mental retardation;  victim blaming;  attitudes;  child abuse research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Child Physical Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:               Kolko, D. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Pittsburgh Univ. Medical Center, PA. Dept. of Psychiatry.

 

SOURCE:                In: Briere, J., Berliner, L., Bulkley, J. A., Jenny, C., et al. (Editors). The APSAC Handbook on Child Maltreatment. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., January 1996;  pp. 21-50

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter reviews studies and clinical reports on the conceptualization, characteristics, assessment, and treatment of physical abuse. Prevalence and incidence rates for physical abuse are presented. The contribution of various child, parental, and family system characteristics to the etiology of abuse is discussed. Child characteristics include health problems, temperament, and behavioral and emotional deviance. Parental characteristics include a childhood history of abuse, personality and psychiatric disturbances, cognitive style, behavioral functioning, and biological factors. Family system characteristics include coercive parent-child interactions, poor family relationships, and other contextual and social system variables. The consequences of physical abuse are described, including health problems; developmental, intellectual, or cognitive-attributional deficits; affective symptoms; behavioral dysfunction; and poor academic performance. Promising approaches to treating child maltreatment are reviewed, including child skills training; behavioral parent training; in-home, family-based services; and multifaceted interventions. The practice implications of the research findings on physical abuse are considered. Unresolved issues in the areas of models of physical abuse, consequences, and treatment are addressed. Future directions for research are also suggested. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         physical abuse;  incidence;  prevalence;  etiology;  characteristics of abused;  characteristics of abuser;  sequelae;  intervention

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Sexual Offenders' Modus Operandi: A Comparison of Structured Interview and Questionnaire Approaches.

 

AUTHOR:               Kaufman, K. L.;  Hilliker, D. R.;  Lathrop, P.;  Daleiden, E. L.;  Rudy, L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Interpersonal Violence

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Ohio State Univ., Columbus.

 

SOURCE:                11(1): pp. 19-34;  Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., March 1996

 

ABSTRACT:           Clinical practice has long supported the use of structured interviews with both perpetrators and victims of sexual offenses. Empirical studies, however, have not examined the differential utility of structured interviews and self-report questionnaires for obtaining information about sex offenders' modus operandi. This investigation compared the ability of these two assessment approaches to provide details regarding sexual offenders' modus operandi from the perspective of victims, incarcerated offenders, and offenders in outpatient treatment. The sample included 16 sex offenders involved in outpatient treatment, 16 incarcerated sex offenders, and 16 preadolescent and adolescent female victims. Study findings indicated that structured interviews and questionnaires yielded consistent information for most items across participant groups. For modus operandi items that were not consistently reported, more information was obtained via the questionnaire format. In one instance, however, the interview format obtained significantly more information about incarcerated offenders' use of threats and coercion to gain victim cooperation in sexual activity. Implications for child sexual abuse prevention, offender and victim treatment, and future research are discussed.29 references and 4 tables. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         sex offenders;  sex offenses;  methods;  psychological evaluation;  evaluation methods;  psychological interviews;  self report inventories

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Family Violence from a Communication Perspective.

 

AUTHOR:               Cahn, D. D.;  Lloyd, S. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    State Univ. of New York, New Paltz. Dept. of Communication.

 

SOURCE:                Newbury Park, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., April 1996;  295 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This book presents a theoretical framework for understanding and resolving abusive interactions among family members. Differences and commonalities inherent in emotional, psychological, verbal, and sexual abuse and the role that communication problems plays in the etiology of these forms of abuse are examined. In this collection of papers, the contributors review studies on family violence that illustrate the communication dimension of abusive relationships, identify conditions under which coercive communication leads to physical aggression, and address the question of whether spouse abuse is associated with patterns of impaired parenting. Other topics include parent-to-child verbal aggression; communication patterns in families of adolescent sex offenders; communication and violence in courtship relationships; the associations among daily marital interaction, physical aggression, and marital distress; the role of communication in verbal abuse between spouses; and communication patterns differentiating aggressive and nonaggressive marital couples. Numerous references, 5 figures, and 12 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         family violence;  communication;  spouse abuse;  physical abuse;  family relationships

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Professionals and Their Response to Child Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:               Wallace, H.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    California State Univ., Fresno.

 

SOURCE:                In: Wallace, H. Family Violence: Legal, Medical, and Social Perspectives. Boston, MA, Allyn and Bacon, 1996;  pp. 133-160

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter describes what professionals are required to do when they suspect that a child has been abused. Most states have child abuse reporting laws that mandate reporting by physicians, nurses, social workers, teachers, psychologists, psychiatrists, and counselors. These professionals must report their suspicion to the applicable social service agency. Most state laws waive the confidential privilege, allowing the professional to make a report. The laws also provide for timely investigation and emergency removal of the child from home. Interviews with children should be conducted so that evidence collected may be used in court. Open-ended questions should be asked rather than leading or coercive questions. Professionals should also be aware of rules of evidence regarding out of court statements and exceptions to the hearsay rule. Certain statements may be admitted into court if they meet the requirements for excited utterances, admissions, declarations against interest, state of mind, statements made to medical professionals, and statements made by victims of abuse. Investigations involve input from medical professionals, education professionals, social services, law enforcement, and the family. The chapter reviews the hearing process and provides sample reporting forms. Key terms are defined and a list of discussion questions are included. 2 figures and 1 table.

 

KEY TERMS:         child abuse reporting;  interviews;  evidence collection;  confidentiality;  investigations;  legal processes

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.abacon.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Unspeakable Acts: Why Men Sexually Abuse Children.

 

AUTHOR:               Pryor, D. W.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Towson State Univ., MD. Dept. of Sociology.

 

SOURCE:                New York, NY, New York Univ. Press, 1996;  362 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This book describes a study that used in-depth interviews with 30 men who molested their own children or the children of people they knew to determine how and why sexual situations between adults and children occur. The author begins by explaining how he recruited subjects for the study. Following that is an exploration of the early lives of offenders that served as the foundation for the boundary violations that they later committed. Common early life experiences that appeared to contribute to later sexual offending include genital sexual contact before age 16 with an older individual, incest or sex with force by age 13 with age peers, and nonsexual physical violence perpetrated mainly by parents. Factors that appeared to contribute to the men's transition to sexual offending include a dissatisfaction with life or feeling of being trapped in an unwanted life, deteriorating sexual relations with their partner, a loss of control and authority in their role as husband/partner or father, a personal engulfment in sex, and major emotional shocks or sexual problems. Types of transitional, reality-shifting experiences that the men experienced prior to their molestation of a child are described, including noticing and erotizing the body of their victim, reacting to perceived sexual cues, selecting an easy target, becoming curious about biological changes, merging or confusing feelings of affection with sex, getting aroused from nonsexual touching, and targeting a child out of anger toward another person. The methods and tactics the men used to initiate and continue sexual contact with their victims are presented. The most common tactics used to initiate offending included seducing and testing their victim, masking sex in the context of play, using verbal and emotional coercion, and taking over after the victim initiated sexual contact. The author then examines how offenders viewed the abuse and coped with their feelings afterward and describes the unsuccessful attempts many offenders made to stop their behavior and the different ways they were caught. The book concludes with an interactionist-based theory about why sexual offending occurs. Appendixes provide additional information related to the study. Numerous references and 1 table.

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  sex offenders;  incest;  characteristics of abuser;  prevention;  child abuse research;  pedophiles

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.nyu.edu/pages/nyupress/index.html

 

 

TITLE:                    Female Adolescents With a History of Sexual Abuse: Risk Outcome and Protective Factors.

 

AUTHOR:               Chandy, J. M.;  Blum, R. W.;  Resnick, M. D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Interpersonal Violence

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Missouri Univ., Columbia. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                11(4): pp. 503-518;  Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., December 1996

 

ABSTRACT:           This article describes a study that explored the protective factors that helped adolescent females overcome vulnerability associated with sexual abuse. The study was framed around the issues of whether female adolescents with a history of sexual abuse were different from other adolescents in terms of academic performance, suicidal risk, eating disorders, pregnancy risk, and substance abuse and what factors were associated with resistance to adverse outcomes. Data for the study were derived from the Adolescent Health Survey conducted in Minnesota during the 1986 to 1987 school year with a sample of over 36,000 7th to 12th grade public school students. This survey used a comprehensive instrument that included questions on health risk behaviors such as substance use, disordered eating, delinquency, and antisocial behaviors; mental health; sexual attitudes; orientation and behaviors; health status; health services utilization; and peer, school, and family relationships. The subsample of adolescents with a history of sexual abuse included 1,011 female adolescents who reported that they had been sexually abused and had discussed the problem with someone. Results indicate that female adolescents with a history of sexual abuse had higher rates of poor school performance, suicidal involvement, disordered eating, pregnancy risk, and substance use than a comparison group of adolescents without a background of abuse. Among index group members, protective factors against adverse outcome included a higher degree of religiosity, a perception of health, caring from adults, living with both biological parents, and the presence of a clinic or nurse at school. Risk factors that increased the likelihood of adverse outcomes included perceived substance use in school, maternal use of alcohol, family stressor events during the past year, and worry about sexual coercion. 54 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         child abuse history;  sexual abuse;  adolescents;  child abuse research;  outcomes;  resilience;  female victims;  risk

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Acts of Childhood Sexual Abuse: An Empirically Derived Typology.

 

AUTHOR:               Gold, S. N.;  Swingle, J. M.;  Hill, E. L.;  Elfant, A. S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Nova Southeastern Univ.

 

SOURCE:                Presented at 104th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Toronto (Canada), August 9-13, 1996;  10 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           A clinical sample of 165 women survivors in outpatient therapy was surveyed about whether their childhood sexual abuse (CSA) included each of seventeen sexual acts. Factor analysis of these acts was conducted. A typology of CSA acts consisting of three factors emerged. Inspection of the acts loading on each factor suggested that they differed primarily in terms of the type of abuse of power implied by them rather than in the nature of the sexual behavior involved. The three factors were named Coerced Compliance (Coercion), Subjugation and Humiliation (Circumvention), and Invasive Objectification (Objectification). Implications for research, theory, and clinical practice, and the need for evaluating the generalizability of the typology to other sub-populations of survivors are discussed. 26 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  etiology;  sex offenses;  sexual behavior;  research methodology;  female victims

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Proceedings Paper

 

 

TITLE:                    Prosecuting Battered Mothers: State Laws' Failure to Protect Battered Women and Abused Children.

 

AUTHOR:               Enos, V. P.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Harvard Women's Law Journal

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA. School of Law.

 

SOURCE:                19: pp. 229-268;  Harvard Law School, Cambridge. MA, Spring 1996

 

ABSTRACT:           This article examines the application of state failure-to- protect laws to prosecute battered mothers who are not capable of protecting their children or themselves from abuse. The essay recommends that legislators and the courts consider the dynamics of violent family relationships when determining whether mothers have failed to protect their children. Factors that affect a woman's ability to protect her children include threats and coercion by the abuser, escalated violence when the woman reports abuse, social isolation, and lack of public assistance. The article summarizes state failure-to-protect statutes and reviews their implementation by the courts. Myths and realities about domestic violence are highlighted, as well as the lack of support for battered women from police, Child Protective Services, and health care services. The article recommends that society accept single parent families and offer greater assistance to battered mothers. Significant changes are needed in the service delivery system, judicial system, law enforcement, health care, and child welfare system, including coordination of services and education and training for professionals.

 

KEY TERMS:         state statutory law;  state case law;  battered women;  criminal charges;  mothers of abuse victims;  nonabusive parents

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.law.harvard/studorgs/woman_law_journal/

 

 

TITLE:                    The Revised Conflict Tactic Scales (CTS2).

 

AUTHOR:               Straus, M. A.;  Hamby, S. L.;  Boney-McCoy, S.;  Sugarman, D. B.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Family Issues

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    New Hampshire Univ., Durham. Family Research Laboratory.

 

SOURCE:                17(3): pp. 283-316;  Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., May 1996

 

ABSTRACT:           This article describes a revised Conflict Tactics Scales (the CTS2) to measure psychological and physical attacks on a partner and use of negotiation in a marital, cohabiting, or dating relationship. The CTS2 has additional items to enhance content validity and reliability; revised wording to increase clarity and specificity; better differentiation between minor and severe levels of each scale; new scales to measure sexual coercion and physical injury; and a new format to simplify administration and reduce response sets. Reliability ranges from .79 to .95. There is preliminary evidence of construct validity. 74 references and 5 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         evaluation methods;  psychological evaluation;  characteristics of abuser;  marital conflicts;  spouse abuse;  family violence;  conflict tactics scales;  reliability;  validity

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Administration, Power and Kids in Group Care.

 

AUTHOR:               Terpstra, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Children's Bureau (DHHS), Washington, DC.

 

SOURCE:                Children's Bureau (DHHS), Washington, DC, October 1996;  17 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This paper reviews the use and misuse of authority and how this relates to the success of residential child care programs. Questions pertaining to, What is control or power?, What is its source?, and How is it exercised? are addressed. Issues related to power and the subsequent affects on the program and the service it provides is provided by reviewing the following topics. Two types of power are reviewed, coercive power and influence power. Basic considerations for selecting staff are reviewed, including full-disclosure of the employer and prospective applicant, spending time with potential co-workers in the work environment, and hiring without concern of someone being over qualified. Principles involved in dealing with existing staff are provided. Influences of personal interests, sparkplugs, hierarchical organization, and supervision are discussed. The qualities and effects of charismatic leaders are discussed with regard to abuse of power and use of political support. Three fundamental characteristics of a healthy, or therapeutic, group-care atmosphere are described, including the importance that children are individualized according to assessed needs, behavior, and circumstances; the importance of staff and program valuing the children's families and finding constructive ways to involve them; and positive relations between children and staff. Preventive measures and remedies for alleviating the abuse of authority are reviewed, specifically the encouragement of staff expressing their ideas and concerns without fear of retaliation, shared decision making, and staff opportunities for skill development and self-improvement. Recommendations for fighting the tendency to become an autocratic leader are discussed, such as administering an open, non-secretive program; using mentors; and using recognized standards for program development.

 

KEY TERMS:         residential programs;  control;  administrative problems;  organizations;  environment;  authoritarian personality

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Unpublished Paper

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch/

 

 

TITLE:                    Early Sexual Experiences: How Voluntary? How Violent? //Sexuality and American Social Policy: A Seminar Series//.

 

AUTHOR:               Smith, M. D.;  Besharov, D. J.;  Gardiner, K. N.;  Hoff, T.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

SOURCE:                Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, Menlo Park, CA, 1996;  58 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This booklet explores sexuality and sexual relationships to consider the prevalence and consequences of abusive and negative first sexual experiences. Data are presented from the 1994 National Health and Social Life survey that suggests violent or coercive first sexual experiences are more common than had been previously believed, particularly among young adolescents. More than 3,400 people participated in the survey, which included a 90-minute in-person interview. Interviewers asked about the full complement of sexual activities, what people think about their sexuality, and what they do as sexual beings. Potentially embarrassing questions about sexuality and unpleasant experiences were raised in two ways: through face- to-face interviews and self-administered questionnaires. While in many areas there was agreement between answers to the two sets of questions, 20 percent more people reported on the questionnaire that they had experienced forced sex. Experts on sexuality and sexual relationships debate the prevalence and consequences of these abusive first sexual experiences. 3 figures, 15 tables, numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual behavior;  statistical surveys;  surveys;  attitudes;  violence;  values

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Booklet

 

 

TITLE:                    Childhood Sexual Abuse and Coercive Sex Among School-Based Adolescents in a Midwestern State.

 

AUTHOR:               Lodico, M. A.;  Gruber, E.;  DiClemente, R. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Adolescent Health

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Bayview Hunter's Point Foundation, San Francisco, CA.

 

SOURCE:                18(3): pp. 211-217;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science, Inc., March 1996

 

ABSTRACT:           This article examines the association between a self-reported history of childhood sexual abuse and coercive sex among high school adolescents. A 10 percent random sample of the white and all the African American and Native American 9th and 12th grade students of a Midwestern state completed a state-wide anonymous survey of risk-taking behavior in 1989. The study identified a 10 percent of prevalence of sexual abuse. Females were 4 times more likely to report sexual abuse than males, while Native Americans and African Americans were approximately twice as likely as whites to report sexual abuse. Sexually abused adolescents were 5 times more likely to report any type of coercive sex with a friend or date than their nonabused peers. Specifically, compared to nonabused peers, sexually abused adolescents were twice as likely to report sexual aggression, and 6 times more likely to report sexual victimization and the co-occurrence of sexual aggression and victimization. Both by victimizing and being revictimized, sexually abused adolescents perpetuate their abusive experience. Adolescent health care providers should assess patients for sexually coercive behavior if they report sexual abuse and assess adolescents who report current sexually coercive behavior for childhood sexual abuse. 21 references and 4 tables. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  surveys;  adolescents;  aggression;  revictimization

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    The Effects of Forced Sexual Intercourse on White Female Adolescents.

 

AUTHOR:               Miller, B. C.;  Monson, B. H.;  Norton, M. C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1995

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Utah State Univ., Logan. Dept. of Family and Human Development.

 

SOURCE:                19(10): pp. 1289-1301;  Oxford (Great Britain), Elsevier Science, Ltd., October 1995

 

ABSTRACT:           This study analyzed data from the 1987 National Survey of Children, in which 41 white females aged 18-22 reported that they had been forced to have sex or were raped. These subjects were compared to 400 other white females aged 18-22 who also responded to the survey but did not report forced sexual intercourse. The groups were compared on a number of social- psychological and sexual variables that might be thought of as outcomes affected by having had coercive sexual experiences. Those who reported being forced to have sexual intercourse, compared to those who did not, had more permissive attitudes about 16-17 year olds having intercourse and a younger age of first voluntary sexual intercourse themselves. They also had lower internal locus of control and higher depression scores, and they needed and received more psychological help than those not reporting forced sexual intercourse. Dividing the forced sexual intercourse (FSI) group into those reporting FSI before versus after their first date, and those whose FSI was before versus after age 12, yielded essentially the same findings. Even in the presence of multivariate control variables, FSI experience remained a significant predictor of age at first voluntary sexual intercourse, locus of control, depression, and perceived need for psychological help. These analyses of national survey data support the clinical perspective that forced sexual intercourse causes or exacerbates various sexual and psychological problems. 34 references and 6 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  adolescents;  rape;  female victims;  sequelae;  depression;  psychological characteristics

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Narrowing Child Protective Services.

 

AUTHOR:               Waldfogel, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1995

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA.

 

SOURCE:                Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Malcolm Wiener Center for Social Policy, October 1995;  31 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This paper analyzes the effectiveness of the current child protection system and concludes that problems resulting from the broadness of the mission can be resolved by narrowing the focus of CPS services. Two scenarios are described for narrowing CPS services to only families deemed to be at risk for severe harm to the child. The first scenario adds alternative prevention services for families before coercive intervention is necessary, while the second scenario would provide no alternative sources of support for families not covered under the narrower mission of CPS. The minimalist scenario places more strain on the resources of other agencies such as mental health departments. Advocates for a narrower CPS mission with alternative prevention services should develop a strategic plan to accomplish narrowing at the stages of reporting, screening, and investigation. Cost implications of the recommended scenario and the likelihood of success within the current political climate are discussed. 6 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         child protective services;  child welfare reform;  policy formation;  service delivery;  program planning

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Technical Report

 

INTERNET URL:   http://ksgwww.harvard.edu/socpol/wpcps.htm

 

 

TITLE:                    The Myth of the A.D.D. Child: 50 Ways to Improve Your Child's Behavior and Attention Span Without Drugs, Labels, or Coercion.

 

AUTHOR:               Armstrong, T.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1995

 

SOURCE:                New York, NY, Dutton Books, 1995;  318 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This book, which serves as a resource for parents and professionals, questions the current popularity of labeling hyperactive or inattentive children as having attention deficit disorder (ADD). The author begins by presenting the myth of ADD and identifying some of the problems that are inherent in it. He demonstrates that ADD came to exist as a result of the confluence of frustrated activist parents, psychopharmacological advances, a new cognitive research model, and a growth industry in educational products. This is followed by an examination of the specious nature of ADD and some of the plausible nonbiological explanations for ADD-type behaviors. He suggests that ADD was invented to help preserve social order and that ADD behaviors may be a reflection of societal breakdown, a short- attention-span culture, a response to boring classrooms, a reflection of normal gender differences, a bad fit between parent and child, or a different way of learning. The author continues by discussing the use of medication to control ADD, focusing on its advantages and disadvantages. In addition, he provides 50 sensible options that parents may use to improve their child's behavior and attention span. These suggestions span the emotional, cognitive, educational, behavioral, physical, creative, social, and biological dimensions of a child's life. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         attention deficit disorder;  learning disabilities;  hyperactivity;  impulsive behavior;  drug therapy;  behavior

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.tapestrybooks.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    State of New Jersey v. Margaret Kelly Michaels: An Overview.

 

AUTHOR:               Rosenthal, R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1995

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Psychology, Public Policy, and Law

 

SOURCE:                1(2): pp. 246-271;  American Psychological Association, Washington, DC., June 1995

 

ABSTRACT:           This article describes the history of State of New Jersey versus Margaret Kelly Michaels from Michaels' arrival in Maplewood, New Jersey through the decision of the New Jersey Supreme Court. Investigation procedures followed by the prosecutor's office and the police department are explained in detail and the role of the Department of Youth and Family Services is described. Interview strategies are also outlined, as well as the pretrial proceedings regarding closed-circuit testimony, use of the child sexual abuse syndrome concept, and coercive and suggestive interview techniques. The article then reviews the conviction by the lower court and the subsequent appeal to a higher court. The case eventually was heard by the state Supreme Court. Decisions about expert testimony, closed circuit television testimony, and suggestive interviewing methods are described. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  legal processes;  investigations;  day care programs;  suggestibility;  interviews;  leading questions;  child witnesses

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.apa.org/

 

 

TITLE:                    Factors Associated With the Development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Child Victims of Sexual Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:               Wolfe, D. A.;  Sas, L.;  Wekerle, C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1994

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University of Western Ontario, London (Canada). Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                18(1): pp. 37-50;  Oxford (Great Britain), Elsevier Science, Ltd., 1994

 

ABSTRACT:           This study examined the relationship between the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and selected victim and event characteristics. The sample consisted of 69 girls and 21 boys (mean age, 12.4 years) who had been referred to a child witness preparation program following documentation of sexual abuse. Comparisons of PTSD positive and PTSD negative subgroups found significant differences on variables of age, sex, duration of the abuse, and the use of violence or coercion by the offender. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that factors related to the nature and severity of the abuse and the child's self-report of guilt feelings each contributed significantly to explaining 37 percent of the variance in PTSD symptoms, even after the variables of receptive language ability, age, and sex were controlled. The importance of considering PTSD in relation to child sexual abuse is discussed, along with limitations of the current study. 45 references and 5 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         sequelae;  posttraumatic stress disorder;  sexual abuse;  emotionally disturbed children;  characteristics of abused

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Identification, Case Management, and Treatment of Sibling Incest Between Young Children.

 

AUTHOR:               Johnson, T. C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1994

 

SOURCE:                12th National Symposium on Child Sexual Abuse, Huntsville, AL, February 1994;  23 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This report presents a graphed outline of the characteristics of normal to disturbed child sexual behavior based on type of sex play, sexual-reactivity, extensive mutual sexual behaviors, and children who molest. Aspects revealed include if it was planned, frequency, was it a secret, with whom, what happened after discovery, motivation, family types, amount of coercion, siblings included, and amount of sexual arousal. Additional sections discuss behaviors related to sex and sexuality in preschool and kindergarten through fourth grade children, such as areas of normal sex play in children, and include graphs to aid parents to determine how concerned they should be and when to seek professional help. A complete, revised version of the Child Sexual Behavior Checklist (CSBCL) is included. Preliminary findings on commonalities in sibling incest cases with male perpetrators younger than age 13 are reported, including characteristics of the family, birth mother and father, perpetrator, siblings, and molester.

 

KEY TERMS:         sibling abuse;  parent child relationships;  parental role;  sexually abusive children;  child rearing

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Proceedings Paper

 

 

TITLE:                    Reliability of Sex Abuse Evaluations.

 

AUTHOR:               Horner, T. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1994

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Michigan Univ.

 

SOURCE:                33(3): pp. 428-429;  Baltimore, MD, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, March-April 1994

 

ABSTRACT:           This letter to the editor comments on the issues raised in another article about the reliability of sexual abuse evaluations, focusing on the manipulative and coercive aspects of therapeutic programs designed to identify putative early traumas and the epistemological dilemmas inherent in all narrative histories. Therapy-derived narratives are likened to epistemological Ouija play on the part of the therapist and the child, and the detrimental applications of such narratives are identified. The need to default to a presumption of innocence rather than use expert clinical opinions to fill in any voids in discriminative facts concerning cases of alleged child sexual abuse is stressed. 6 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  treatment programs;  childrens therapy;  decision making

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wwilkins.com

 

 

TITLE:                    The Kelly Michaels Case, Part 1. A Postmortem for the Child Protection Field.

 

AUTHOR:               Curran, T. F.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1994

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Violence Update

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Defender Assoc., Philadelphia, PA. Child Advocacy Unit.

 

SOURCE:                4(8): p. 3, 6, 8;  Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., April 1994

 

ABSTRACT:           This article examines in detail two issues that allowed an appeal in a child sexual abuse case against a nursery school caretaker in New Jersey. The reversal of the conviction was based on errors at the original trial: the use of expert behavioral science testimony and closed circuit television testimony by the children. In the expert witness testimony, the State's psychology witness was not licensed to practice in New York or New Jersey, and the testimony exceeded the limits of syndrome evidence admissible in New Jersey. The closed circuit testimony was not allowed because the judge did not personally interview or make independent findings on the ability of the child witnesses to testify prior to ruling for closed circuit testimony, as required by New Jersey law; thus, the bench had not rendered an impartial judgment for the defendant. Although not a factor in the reversal, 15 pages of additional Appeals Court analysis were dedicated to the manner of questioning, considered suggestive and coercive by the defense. Results suggest that a pretrial taint hearing may be required in such cases. 12 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         judges;  appellate courts;  trials;  testimony;  expert witnesses;  closed circuit television;  child witnesses

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Impact and Treatment Issues for Victims of Childhood Sexual Abuse by Female Perpetrators.

 

AUTHOR:               Sgroi, S. M.;  Sargent, N. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1994

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    New England Clinical Associates, West Hartford, CT.

 

SOURCE:                In: Elliott, M. (Editor). Female Sexual Abuse of Children. New York, NY, Guilford Press, 1994;  pp. 14-36

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter reviews 10 cases of female sexual abuse. Female abuse was initiated independently in 3 cases, 3 began with male coercion then continued independently, and 4 were male-coerced only. Clinical observations of each case are summarized. Barriers to disclosure and the effects of abuse on differentiation of self, establishment of personal identity, committed relationships and sexual functioning, and parenting are discussed. Successful group therapy interventions are described, including demonstration and modeling of support and nurturing by adult women, gentle challenge of distortions of reality, mutuality and reciprocity in group member interactions, role playing, and metaphor. 21 references and 1 table.

 

KEY TERMS:         female sex offenders;  sequelae;  adults abused as children;  therapeutic effectiveness;  characteristics of abuser;  characteristics of abused

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.guilford.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Female Child Molesters: A Review of the Literature.

 

AUTHOR:               Jennings, K. T.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1994

 

SOURCE:                In: Elliott, M. (Editor). Female Sexual Abuse of Children. New York, NY, Guilford Press, 1994;  pp. 219-234

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter presents a review of literature published about the causes of female sexual abuse and characteristics of abusers. Very little has been written about the subject until recently, and some of the information is contradictory. Statistics indicate that the incidence of female sexual abuse is low; however, this may reflect underreporting of the problem. Men may not be reporting abuse because they may be too embarrassed or have been ignored. Theories regarding female sexual abuse have attempted to identify the motivations of abusers, including abuse as a child, boredom, revenge against the offender's husband, or coercion by a male. Women are more likely to know their victims and less likely to use violence than male offenders. The effects of alcohol or drug addiction and mental illness are also being investigated. 38 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         female sex offenders;  etiology;  characteristics of abuser;  literature reviews;  sequelae

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.guilford.com

 

 

TITLE:                    The Interpersonal and Psychological Functioning of Women Who Experienced Childhood Physical Abuse, Incest, and Parental Alcoholism.

 

AUTHOR:               Fox, K. M.;  Gilbert, B. O.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1994

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                18(10): pp. 849-858;  Oxford (Great Britain), Elsevier Science, Ltd., October 1994

 

ABSTRACT:           Questionnaires assessing childhood physical abuse, childhood incest, and parental alcoholism were completed by 253 college women from introductory psychology classes at a large Midwestern university. The relationship between these variables and the level of depression, self-esteem, and involvement with physically abusive, sexually assaultive, sexually coercive, and chemically dependent partners was assessed. Support was found for an additive model of trauma that predicted a relationship between number of childhoood traumas and adult outcomes. Limited support was found for a specificity model of trauma that predicted that specific childhood trauma would be predictive of parallel negative adult outcomes. 2 tables and 32 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         incest;  physical abuse;  sequelae;  female victims;  adults abused as children;  alcoholism;  substance abusing parents

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Recommended Guidelines for Interviewing Children in Cases of Alleged Sexual Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:               Annon, J. S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1994

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Issues in Child Abuse Accusations

 

SOURCE:                6(3): pp. 134-138;  Institute for Psychological Therapies, Northfield, MN, Summer 1994

 

ABSTRACT:           This article presents guidelines for interviewing children in cases of alleged sexual abuse. These guidelines are based on the premise that even young children can provide reliable and accurate information if an interview is conducted in a proper setting without manipulation by the evaluator. General guidelines focus on the knowledge of the interviewer about the alleged event and the interview setting. Specific guidelines are provided for conducting the interview. These guidelines concern establishing rapport with the child, formulating appropriate questions, using memory aids, checking for suggestibility, and avoiding the use of coercion. Additional guidelines are presented for evaluating the interview. 19 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         guidelines;  interviews;  sexual abuse;  memory;  suggestibility;  credibility

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    New Jersey v. Michaels.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    New Jersey State Supreme Court, Trenton.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1994

 

SOURCE:                136 N.J. 299; 642 A. 2d 1372; 1994 N.J. LEXIS 504, June 23, 1994;  23 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This New Jersey Supreme Court opinion affirms the judgement of the New Jersey Appellate Court which reversed the conviction of a preschool teacher accused of sexual abuse. The case was remanded for retrial on the basis of improper questioning techniques used by State investigators during interviews with alleged child victims. The court also granted the State's motion for reconsideration of the pretrial hearing. The opinion reports a history of the case and describes the interview approach used by investigators. The analysis concludes that the questioning was suggestive and coercive. Selected transcripts of the interviews are included.

 

KEY TERMS:         state supreme courts;  sexual abuse;  judicial decisions;  interviews;  investigations;  suggestibility

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Legislation-Hearing

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch/

 

 

TITLE:                    Out of Children's Needs, Children's Rights: The Child's Voice in Defining the Family.

 

AUTHOR:               Woodhouse, B. B.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1994

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Brigham Young University Journal of Public Law

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia. School of Law.

 

SOURCE:                8: pp. 321-341;  Brigham Young Univ., Salt Lake City, UT., 1994

 

ABSTRACT:           Three types of child custody cases are described in this article to illustrate the concept of needs-based children's rights in public policy. The article proposes that policy focus on the rights of children to the satisfaction of their basic needs, rather than the patriarchal rights of parents to treat their children as property. It emphasizes the role of the needs-based perspective for ensuring that decisions are best for the child and that parents, communities, and the country meet their obligations to children. In the first case, Thomas S. v. Robin Y., a gay man filed suit to establish paternity of a five year old daughter who was conceived by a lesbian woman with his sperm. He had previously agreed not to assert parental rights. The judge ruled that paternity would negatively affect the child and confuse her perceptions of her family, which included her mother, her mother's partner, and the partner's daughter. In the case of Baby Jessica, the Michigan Supreme Court and the United States Supreme Court returned an adopted child to her biological parents, who changed her name. Dissenting justices voiced their concerns about the failure of the lower court to consider the child's interests and due process rights. The third case involved babies accidentally switched when they were born. The switch was discovered during the fatal illness of one of the girls. When the girl passed away, her parents pursued custody of their biological daughter. The Florida court ruled that the girl should not be forced to have contact with her biological parents and change her identity. However, one year later she went to live with them. The article asserts that the role of the court should be to prevent coercion of children, while supporting them in their chosen self-identity and development.

 

KEY TERMS:         childrens rights;  parental rights;  state case law;  human rights;  self concept;  historical perspective;  best interests of the child;  custody disputes

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wshein.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Patterns of Influence and Response in Abusing and Nonabusing Families.

 

AUTHOR:               Silber, S.;  Bermann, E.;  Henderson, M.;  Lehman, A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1993

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Family Violence

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Children's Hospital, Boston, MA.

 

SOURCE:                8(1): pp. 27-38;  New York, NY, Plenum Publishing Corp., 1993

 

ABSTRACT:           This article examines patterns of behavior and responses to various interactive tasks of abusing and nonabusing families. Behaviors of influence and response during a conflict negotiation task were examined in 8 physically child abusing and substance abusing families in which the father was the primary abuser, and in 8 nonabusing families that had similar demographic characteristics. Study findings show that abusing fathers displayed more coercive patterns of influencing behavior and more negative patterns of response to other family members. Fewer differences were observed between mothers in the abusing and nonabusing families or in the children's behavior. Mothers in abusing families criticized their husbands more, and abused children exhibited more criticism toward their fathers. These findings appear to support Patterson's theory that abusing families are more likely to criticize each other than are nonabusing families. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding interaction in child abusing families. 17 references, 1 table, and 1 figure. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         family relationships;  family structure;  father child relationships;  group dynamics;  behavior patterns;  physical abuse;  abusive husbands;  behavior problems

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.plenum.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Child Sexual Abusers. Recognition and Response.

 

AUTHOR:               Dobash, R. P.;  Carnie, J.;  Waterhouse, L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1993

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Wales Univ., Cardiff. School of Social and Administrative Studies.

 

SOURCE:                In: Waterhouse, L. (Editor). Child Abuse and Child Abusers. Protection and Prevention. //Research Highlights in Social Work Series//. Number 24. Philadelphia, PA, Jessica Kingsley Publishers Ltd., 1993;  pp. 113-135

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter presents some preliminary findings from a study that attempted to provide an analytical description of the characteristics of known child sexual abuse perpetrators in Scotland, to examine the management of child sexual abuse cases, and to investigate the context in which abuse occurs and the explanations offered by perpetrators for their behavior. The study relied on the analysis of 501 documentary cases concerning sexual abuse. Results show that males were the perpetrators in 99 percent of the cases. The most common age of perpetrators was 40, and most of the perpetrators were in unskilled manual or skilled manual occupations. Only a small portion of the overall sample grew up in residential care or were abused as children. According to the study, most of the perpetrators were either living in the victim's home or were known to the victim. The most frequent form of abuse was sexual manipulation of the genitals beneath or without clothing; and the most frequently used methods of obtaining sexual relations with a child included verbal bribes, coercion by indoctrination, verbal threats, and physical force. Results also reveal that most of the victims were females; most of the victims were living with their natural parents when the abuse occurred; and the age of children at the onset of the abuse was much lower than the age at the time of disclosure. These results concerning perpetrators and victims are compared to those of other studies, approaches to working with sexual abusers are considered, and practical and policy highlights are presented. 40 references and 6 figures.

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  child abuse research;  characteristics of abuser;  characteristics of abused;  case management;  intervention;  sex offenders therapy

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

 

TITLE:                    Age of Onset of Sexual Assault: Criminal and Life History Correlates.

 

AUTHOR:               Prentky, R. A.;  Knight, R. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1993

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Massachusetts Treatment Center for Sexually Dangerous Persons, Bridgewater.

 

SOURCE:                In: Hall, G. C. N., Hirschman, R., Graham, J. R., and Zaragoza, M. S. (Editors). Sexual Aggression: Issues in Etiology, Assessment, and Treatment. //Series in Applied Psychology: Social Issues and Questions//. Washington, DC, Taylor and Francis, 1993;  pp. 43-62

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter describes a study that examined the importance of the onset age of sexually coercive behavior in a sample of 131 male rapists and child molesters. Each offender was placed in 1 of 3 groups: first sexually coercive behavior before 15 years of age, first sexually coercive behavior between 15 and 18 years of age, and first sexually coercive behavior after 19 years of age. These groups were compared on their early sexual victimization and subsequent sexual pathology. Results indicate that younger offenders, whether they were rapists or child molesters, were more likely than older offenders to have a history of impulsive antisocial behavior. Individuals who did not begin offending until late adolescence or adulthood achieved higher levels of competence in most areas that were assessed, and rapists who committed their first sexual offense at 14 years of age or younger were found to have been neglected as children. Results showed that younger child molesters were sexually abused at a significantly earlier age than older child molesters and their abuse was more invasive; older offenders exhibited less aggressive and antisocial behavior than younger offenders. Results also reveal that onset age was unrelated to the amount of violence committed in a sexual offense and to the level of sexual pathology. 55 references and 10 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual assault;  antisocial behavior;  sex offenders;  age factors;  perpetrators;  rape;  sexual abuse;  aggression

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

 

TITLE:                    Community Response to Child Sexual Abuse in Day-Care Settings.

 

AUTHOR:               Bybee, D.;  Mowbray, C. T.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1993

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Families in Society

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                74(5): pp. 268-281;  Milwaukee, WI, Families International, Inc., May 1993

 

ABSTRACT:           This article presents an intensive case study of sexual abuse allegations at a day care center in a small Midwestern community and uses national survey data to review the aspects of day care center abuse that complicate public response to allegations. These features include the young age of the victims, the large number of victims involved, the potential for multiple perpetrators, the increased likelihood of female involvement and the use of more extreme forms of coercion, the possible involvement of pornography production and ritual abuse, the potential for discord between parents and investigators, and the increased likelihood of media attention. The problems posed by each feature are discussed. In addition, recommendations are made for improving public response to cases involving day care center abuse allegations on the basis of the special difficulties posed by these cases, including ensuring the quality of child day care, having parents become more involved with day care center operations, educating children and parents about sexual abuse, improving the investigation responses of law enforcement and other agencies, and providing treatment to all victims of day care abuse. 15 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  day care programs;  child abuse research;  age factors;  perpetrators;  ritual abuse;  child pornography;  mass media

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Normal Childhood Sexual Play and Games: Differentiating Play From Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:               Lamb, S.;  Coakley, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1993

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Bryn Mawr College, PA.

 

SOURCE:                17(4): pp. 515-526;  Oxford (Great Britain), Elsevier Science, Ltd., 1993

 

ABSTRACT:           Recent recognition of child-to-child and adolescent-to-child sexual abuse raises the question, for courts, educators, clinicians, and individuals, of where the line should be drawn between normal childhood sexual play and abuse. This article presents the results of a survey on normative childhood sexual play and games experiences that was distributed to 300 undergraduate students at a women's college. Of 128 returned surveys, 85 percent described a childhood sexual game experience. Of these women, 44 percent described cross-gender play and there was a trend for women who had described cross-gender experiences to have seen the play as involving persuasion, manipulation, or coercion. A strong relationship was found between abuse and cross-gender play. Level of physical involvement in the game was correlated with perceptions of normality. A typology of 6 kinds of sexual play experiences was derived. Results are discussed in terms of their relation to differentiating childhood sexual abuse from play and gender socialization influences relating to the role rehearsal or manipulative relationships. 28 references and 2 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         play;  sexual behavior;  sex roles;  gender identity;  sexual abuse;  fantasies

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Factors Related to Susceptibility and Recruitment by Cults.

 

AUTHOR:               Curtis, J. M.;  Curtis, M. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1993

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Psychological Reports

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Glendale Family Service Association, CA.

 

SOURCE:                73: pp. 451-460;  Ammons and Ammons, Missoula, MT., 1993

 

ABSTRACT:           This article discusses factors that seem to influence individuals' susceptibility and recruitment by cults. These factors include generalized ego-weakness and emotional vulnerability; propensities toward dissociative states; tenuous, deteriorated, or nonexistent family relations and social support systems; inadequate means of dealing with the exigencies of survival; a history of severe child abuse or neglect; exposure to idiosyncratic or eccentric family patterns; proclivities toward or abuse of controlled substances; unmanageable and debilitating situational stress and crises; and intolerable socioeconomic conditions. In addition, methods used by cults for systematically recruiting, initiating, and influencing inductees are described, including intimidation, coercion, and brainwashing. More careful attention to these factors might help health care providers, educators, clergy, and concerned family and friends identify more precisely individuals at greater risk for recruitment into cults. 32 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         cults;  individual characteristics;  child abuse history;  family characteristics;  drug abuse;  alcohol abuse;  stress;  dissociation

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Factors Related to Attribution of Blame in Father-Daughter Incest.

 

AUTHOR:               McKenzie, B. J.;  Calder, P.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1993

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Psychological Reports

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Alberta Univ., Edmonton (Canada). Student Counselling Services.

 

SOURCE:                73: pp. 1111-1121;  Ammons and Ammons, Missoula, MT., December 1993

 

ABSTRACT:           This article describes a study that investigated the attribution of blame in father-daughter incest using the Jackson Blame Scale and the Attitudes Toward Incest Scale--Revised. A questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 500 adults in the general population and was completed by 207 women and 93 men. Based on factor analyses, several blame subscales were identified for the Jackson Incest Blame Scale, including victim, situational, societal, offender, and offender mental status subscales. Results indicate that men attributed more blame to the victim in father-daughter incest than did women, and they blamed situational factors more than did women. Results reveal that scores for 51 victims of childhood sexual abuse on the Jackson Incest Blame Scale did not differ from those of 249 nonvictims. More total blame and more blame of victim were associated with lower rated credibility towards a claim of incest on the Attitudes Towards Incest Scale--Revised, and lower rated blame of victims was related to greater recognition of the incestuous father's coercive role. 13 references and 5 tables. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         incest;  victim blaming;  psychometrics;  sampling studies;  attitudes;  child abuse research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Through a Feminist Lens. Gender, Power, and Violence.

 

AUTHOR:               Yllo, K. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1993

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Wheaton Coll.

 

SOURCE:                In: Gelles, R. J. and Loseke, D. R. (Editors). Current Controversies on Family Violence. Newbury Park, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., 1993;  pp. 47-62

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter offers a feminist perspective on family violence. Feminist, sociological, systems, resource, exchange-control, and subcultural violence theories of family violence are discussed. Important feminist work on family violence that is based on the proposition that family relationships are influenced by gender and power is reviewed, focusing on the coercive control model of family violence and a control model of family violence known as the power and control wheel model. Possible directions for future study are also suggested. 39 references and 1 figure.

 

KEY TERMS:         spouse abuse;  control;  feminism;  family violence;  theories;  family relationships;  family violence research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Economic Consequences of Child Sexual Abuse in Women.

 

AUTHOR:               Hyman, B.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1993

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA.

 

SOURCE:                Doctoral Dissertation. Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA, April 1993;  236 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This study investigates the relation between a woman's experience of childhood sexual victimization and her economic welfare as an adult. It hypothesizes that the experience of child sexual abuse adversely affects the economic welfare of the adult by shaping functioning in other areas and interferes with the ability to perform successfully in the world of work. The study uses the National Lesbian Health Care Survey of 1,925 participants from 1985. A structural model of 6 equations investigates the effects of child sexual abuse on health, mental health, educational attainment, annual earnings, labor force participation, and occupational status of participants. Conclusions indicate that child sexual abuse adversely affected the physical and mental health, educational attainment, and annual earnings of participants and influenced labor force participation and status of occupation. Different outcomes for each area were noted for 4 specific types of sexual abuse: intrafamilial with and without coercion and extrafamilial abuse by a known and unknown perpetrator. Appendices include the survey instrument, least squares estimation of the education equation, and effects of child abuse on annual earnings. 112 references and 34 tables. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  lesbians;  economic disadvantage;  physical abuse;  psychological abuse;  emotional abuse;  sequelae;  adults abused as children

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Dissertation

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:                    Adult Female Incest Offenders: Treatment Considerations.

 

AUTHOR:               Mayer, A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1993

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Treating Abuse Today

 

SOURCE:                3(6): pp. 21-26;  Survivors and Victims Empowered (SAVE), Lancaster, PA, 1993

 

ABSTRACT:           This article focuses on issues specific to female sex offenders, including the denial of the problem by society, etiological factors, emotional interdependence and boundary confusion, learned helplessness, and diagnoses of multiple, dissociative, and borderline personality disorders. Motivating factors of mother-daughter incest, mother-son incest, triad offenses, and coercion of children are examined and therapeutic strategies are described. Individual therapy should confront rationalization and minimization; identify the pattern of offenses and triggering events; resolve issues of homosexuality; manage anger; teach appropriate behaviors for need fulfillment; and develop a stronger sense of self. Considerations for group therapy are also discussed. 10 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         female sex offenders;  characteristics of abuser;  psychological characteristics;  sex offenders therapy;  etiology;  incest

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://child.cornell.edu/

 

 

TITLE:                    America's Children at Risk: A National Agenda for Legal Action.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    ABA Presidential Working Group on the Unmet Legal Needs of Children and Their Families, Chicago, IL.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1993

 

SOURCE:                American Bar Association, Chicago, IL, July 1993;  115 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This report presents a national agenda for legal action for promoting family life. Part 1 suggests legal and administrative reforms designed to deal with the social problems that bring children and their families into contact with the child welfare or criminal justice system, including poverty and inadequate child care, housing, education, and health care. Part 2 addresses the unmet legal needs of children involved in the legal system. A recommended child welfare agenda for vulnerable families is presented. This agenda focuses on preventing child maltreatment, providing families in crisis with comprehensive services, developing standards to govern coercive interventions into families, improving the foster care system, and promoting adoptions. In addition, recommended agendas are provided for dealing with families involved in the courts, enforcing existing Federal laws, improving existing law with respect to children involved in the juvenile justice system and children in institutions, and improving the child support system. Appendixes include a summary of recommendations, the text of the American Bar Association policy resolutions cited in the report, Connecticut's guidelines for removing and returning children to their homes, and child support guidelines. Numerous references, 6 charts, and 16 photographs.

 

KEY TERMS:         children at risk;  child advocacy;  family advocacy;  social problems;  child welfare services;  family courts;  foster care;  child support

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.abanet.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Addicted Pregnancy as a Sex Crime.

 

AUTHOR:               Schmall, L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1993

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Northern Illinois University Law Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb.

 

SOURCE:                13(2): pp. 263-334;  Northern Illinois Univ. College of Law, DeKalb, Spring 1993

 

ABSTRACT:           This article examines how controls on pregnant addicts present a new and dangerous threat to the treatment of women under the law. The relationship between the fetus and the mother is examined. This examination shows that no coherent status attaches to the unborn vis-a-vis its own mother that could justify depriving her of her privacy, autonomy, and the right to make personal family decisions. Historical information on the disparate legal treatment of women throughout history is presented, focusing on legal acts undertaken to force women to comply with feminine roles and the unjustifiable disequilibrium between men and women with regard to the responsibilities of children. The discriminatory effect of state intervention into cases of addicted pregnancy on poor people and people of color is discussed. The constitutionality of coercive government actions to control addicted pregnant women is analyzed. The author concludes that coercive acts against pregnant women violate recognized common law principles of bodily integrity, deny women their constitutional rights to liberty and privacy and equal protection under the law, and interfere with basic substantive due process rights. Numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         pregnancy;  substance abusing mothers;  maternal rights;  fetal rights;  racial factors;  economic disadvantage;  drug exposed infants;  constitutional challenges

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.niu.edu/claw/index.htm

 

 

TITLE:                    Effects of Cyproterone Acetate on Sexual Arousal Patterns of Pedophiles.

 

AUTHOR:               Bradford, J. M. W.;  Pawlak, A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1993

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Archives of Sexual Behavior

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Ottawa Univ., Ontario (Canada). Faculty of Medicine.

 

SOURCE:                22(6): pp. 629-641;  Chicago, IL, American Medical Association, December 1993

 

ABSTRACT:           This study investigated the effects of cyproterone acetate (CPA) on plasma T levels and sexual arousal in 17 pedophiles. The subjects underwent psychiatric assessment at baseline and penile tumescence assessment 2 to 3 months after beginning CPA treatment. The physiologic examination included arousal response to audiotaped descriptions of heterosexual and homosexual sexual activity with prepubertal children and adults and various degrees of coercion and assault. Results were recorded for pedophile response, coercive response, assault response, and adult consenting response. Seven subjects were classified as high testosterone (greater than 28 nmol) and 10 identified as low testosterone (less than 28 nmol). Testosterone levels decreased significantly for all subjects during treatment. Both high and low level groups demonstrated a significant reduction in arousal to the coercion tape and the pedophile tape and no change in response to the assault tape or the adult consenting tape. Overall, CPA was found to successfully reduce arousal to deviant stimuli. 44 references, 2 figures, and 2 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         pedophiles;  drug therapy;  sex offenders therapy;  recidivism;  child abuse research;  medical aspects of child abuse

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.ama-assn.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Assessing Adolescent Sexual Offenders: Putting the Pieces Together.

 

AUTHOR:               Kaufman, K.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1993

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Children's Hospital Research Foundation, Columbus, OH.

 

SOURCE:                Children's Hospital Research Foundation, Columbus, OH, February 1993;  66 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This report highlights the preliminary findings of three studies that investigated the effectiveness of various assessment of the offending behavior of adolescent sexual offenders. The sample included 101 male adolescent sexual offenders incarcerated in two youth correctional facilities. Studies compared the effectiveness of questionnaire and interview formats for assessments, the tendency of adolescent offenders to under-report use of threats and coercion, and patterns of offense-related behavior. While the questionnaire and interview assessments revealed consistent information, the questionnaire was found to have solicited the most amount of unique information. Offender responses to questions about the use of threats and coercion to obtain victim cooperation were under-reported, according to measures completed by therapists. However, the offenders did not under-report the use of threats to maintain the victim's silence after the incident. The most common offense-related behaviors reported by adolescent offenders were attention to the needs of the victim to gain their trust and shaping strategies to guide the victim into sexual activity. More than half of the sample used force to gain their victims' cooperation. Clinical implications of the findings and plans for more detailed analysis are discussed. 17 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         adolescent sex offenders;  assessment;  characteristics of abused;  characteristics of abuser;  sex offenders therapy

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

 

TITLE:                    Conception of Abuse: Legal vs. Research Definitions and Policy Implications.

 

AUTHOR:               Rattenberg, K. R.;  MacPhee, D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1992

 

SOURCE:                In: Parker, F. L., Robinson, R., Sambrano, S., Piotrkowski, C., et al. (Editors). New Directions in Child and Family Research: Shaping Head Start in the 90's. First National Working Conference on Early Childhood and Family Research, Arlington, VA, June 24-26, 1991. Administration on Children, Youth and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC, January 1992;  pp. 543-544

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter empirically documents variations in how child maltreatment is defined in both the research literature and State statutes and tests the hypothesis that child maltreatment incidence rates will vary with the specificity of State statutes. Research definitions were sampled from 191 empirical articles published between 1985 and 1990 that included maltreated individuals. All State statutes related to sexual, physical, and psychological abuse and neglect were examined. Each type of maltreatment was defined by approximately 10 different elements. In no case was an element mentioned universally; however, some were common, including age of consent in statutory definitions of sexual abuse, the infliction of pain or injury in physical abuse, damage to the child's self-worth in research definitions of psychological abuse, and deprivation of necessary resources in neglect cases. The divergent empirical versus legal definitions were illustrated by the emphasis on victim-perpetrator age differences, coercion, and physical contact in research definitions of sexual abuse, and the emphasis on observable harms in statutory definitions. None of the analyses revealed a relation between abuse rates and features of statutory definitions. States with high maltreatment rates were no more likely to include a given element in their codes than States with low rates. Ratings of definitional precision did not predict abuse rates; however, some social well-being indices were correlated with incidence. Reasons for this general lack of definitional consensus are offered. 11 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         legal definitions;  child abuse research;  research methodology;  research reviews;  state laws;  child abuse laws;  child neglect laws

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.os.dhhs.gov

 

 

TITLE:                    Epidemiology of Child Sexual Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:               Salter, A. C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1992

 

SOURCE:                In: O'Donohue, W. and Geer, J. H. (Editors). The Sexual Abuse of Children: Theory and Research. Volume 1. Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers, 1992;  pp. 108-138

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter on the epidemiology of child sexual abuse focuses on modern prevalence studies of child sexual abuse. Current research on the general population and on college samples is presented. The differences among studies are analyzed in terms of definitions of child sexual abuse, sample characteristics, and methodology. The main definitional dimensions on which studies differ appear to be contact versus noncontact, maximum victim age and minimum offender age, age discrepancy, and coercive force versus no force. Samples differ in several characteristics, including socioeconomic status of the respondents, their ethnicity, and their geographic regions. Methodological differences involve the use of probability or nonprobability samples, the method of data gathering, the specificity of definitions, and response rates. In addition, current and older prevalence research is compared, and studies that focus on clinical findings are discussed. Numerous references and 7 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  epidemiology;  prevalence;  child abuse research;  definitions;  research methodology;  sampling studies

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

 

TITLE:                    Incest in Young Children.

 

AUTHOR:               Damon, L. L.;  Card, J. A.;  Todd, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1992

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    San Fernando Child Guidance Clinic, Van Nuys, CA. Family Stress Center.

 

SOURCE:                In: Ammerman, R. T. and Hersen, M. (Editors). Assessment of Family Violence. New York, NY, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1992;  pp. 148-172

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter examines interview procedures for assessing incest in young children. Difficulties in assessment are compounded by the child's feelings of fear, threats, guilt shame, coercion, retraction, and developmental limitations. Guidelines for conducting clinical interviews with the parent and the child are provided. Special considerations of the developmental level of the child and legal issues are discussed. A case study illustrates the sexual abuse evaluation of a 4-year-old girl. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         incest;  false allegations;  diagnoses;  psychological evaluation;  evaluation methods;  child development;  psychological interviews

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wiley.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Negotiating Child Sexual Abuse: The Interactional Character of Investigative Practices.

 

AUTHOR:               Lloyd, R. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1992

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Social Problems

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    State Univ.of New York, Purchase.

 

SOURCE:                39(2): pp. 109-124;  University of California Press, Berkeley. Journals Div., May 1992

 

ABSTRACT:           Insight into debates about coercion in investigations of child sexual abuse is provided. The paper describes adults' and children's interactional practices that produce sequences of talk investigating and negotiating the occurrence of child sexual abuse and focuses specifically on children's responses. Using conversation analysis, transcripts of 8 interviews conducted to question children about sexual abuse are examined. The analysis demonstrates that adults elicit children's confirmations by producing candidate response initiations, ratifying confirming turns, censuring children's nonconfirming responses, producing subsequent versions of initiations, and treating children's weak agreements as strong agreements. Children, nonetheless, competently negotiate adults' proposals for confirmation by answering adults' initiations but also by altering or rejecting proposed responses, declining to respond, and neglecting to account for minimal or rejecting responses. The analysis problematizes charges of coercion and suggests that future research investigate the concept of coercion as members' construct. Numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         interviews;  child abuse research;  sexual abuse;  investigations;  identification

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.bellhowell.infolearning.com

 

 

TITLE:                    California Dreaming: The West Coast Way to Creative Child Protection Work. Commentary on Weakland and Jordan.

 

AUTHOR:               Dimmock, B.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1992

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Family Therapy

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Bath Univ., (England). School of Social Science.

 

SOURCE:                14(3): pp. 255-262;  Blackwell Publishers Ltd., Oxford (England)., August 1992

 

ABSTRACT:           This paper provides commentary on an article by Weakland and Jordan in which the situation regarding child protection work is regarded as serious but not hopeless. Weakland and Jordan's paper raises important questions about the balance between professional autonomy and accountability and professional practice. Unless these issues are addressed, however, their ideas may be unrealizable. Child protection work is an arena in which the professional paradigms of medicine, law, management, and social work are competing for dominance. Weakland and Jordan are somewhat naive about issues of power in relationships. In contrast to much of the contemporary British debate on the sociology of child abuse, very little reference is made in their paper to circumstances in which the coercive power of men is a factor. Weakland and Jordan's paper offers a model of highly skilled and sophisticated interventions at the point of investigation. The therapeutic mission of this model is to help rather than to judge. This paper begins to show the potential of the brief therapy model in child protection work. 13 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         child protection;  treatment;  intervention

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.blackwellscience.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Child Abuse as Slavery: A Thirteenth Amendment Response to DeShaney.

 

AUTHOR:               Amar, A. R.;  Widawsky, D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1992

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Harvard Law Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Yale Univ., New Haven, CT.

 

SOURCE:                105(6): pp. 1359-1385;  Harvard Law School, Cambridge. MA, April 1992

 

ABSTRACT:           This commentary proposes that the Thirteenth Amendment prohibiting slavery can be applied to cases of child abuse. Using the example of DeShaney versus Winnebago County Department of Social Services (1989), the article compares aspects of child abuse with characteristics of slavery: the abused child is subject to domination and degradation by another person and the States enforce legal rights of parents to physical control just as they enforced the legal rights of slave owners. Parents violate the Thirteenth Amendment when they extend their natural coercive authority to abuse and degrade the child and treat the child as a possession, not a person.

 

KEY TERMS:         due process;  state social service agencies;  parens patriae;  legal processes;  agency responsibility;  civil liberties;  lawsuits;  judicial decisions

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Norplant: The New Scarlet Letter?

 

AUTHOR:               Flannery, M. T.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1992

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Contemporary Health Law and Policy

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Philadelphia Law Dept., PA.

 

SOURCE:                8: pp. 201-226;  Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC. Columbus School of Law., Spring 1992

 

ABSTRACT:           This article explores the use of Norplant, a female contraceptive, as a punitive tool in sentencing convicted child abusers. Norplant's mode of operation and side effects are discussed, and the social controversies surrounding its use are considered in both a factual and legal context. These controversies are the coercive use of Norplant as a means of controlling minority populations, the court-ordered implantation of Norplant in drug-addicted women, and the mandatory use of Norplant for convicted child abusers. The standards that need to be used if courts are to implement the mandatory use of Norplant in cases of convicted child abusers are analyzed. Such standards must include clear and convincing proof of prospective abuse or neglect, and the only possible standards are those used by courts to terminate parental rights to existing children. The present status of the law concerning the use of sterilization as a condition for sentence reduction is reviewed, focusing on both mandatory and voluntary sterilization. The conclusion is reached that implantation of Norplant is a violation of the fundamental right to procreate but that if it is offered within the scope of a plea bargain or as a probation condition and collateral rights concerning its effect have been voluntarily waived, then it is a valid means of solving problems related to a defendant's ability to raise children. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         contraceptives;  civil liberties;  birth control;  dispositional alternatives;  judicial decisions;  violation of personal rights;  maternal rights;  mandatory sentencing

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wshein.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Legal Perspectives on Services to Address Child Abuse and Neglect.

 

AUTHOR:               Lloyd, D. W.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1992

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (DHHS), Washington, DC.

 

SOURCE:                American Psychological Association, Centennial Convention, Washington, DC, August 16, 1992;  19 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This paper examines the legal perspectives on child abuse and neglect services. A central issues is the extent to which government, whether Federal, State, or local, may limit or supplant parental action in the control, nurture, and direction of children. There are 3 major approaches that the government may take: prohibit behavior, prescribe behavior, and take direct protective action. There are 2 legal issues related to prevention of child maltreatment. First, government may promote pro-social attitudes and values through public awareness campaigns for prevention; however, it may not ban anti-social attitudes and violence from the content of the media. Second, there is the issue of neonatal home visitation for prevention of maltreatment. The issue of risk assessment for child protection is discussed. Over the next several years, NCCAN will be sponsoring research, demonstration projects, and training to improve caseworkers' risk assessment process. Efforts to coordinate programs across Federal departments are increasing. The author's vision of a child protection system for the year 2000 includes a private-public, community-based, multidisciplinary, coordinated approach to primary prevention; a continued emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach to noncoercive secondary prevention; coercive intervention narrowly tailored to be consistent with the requirements of substantive due process; and judicial proceedings supporting substantive and procedural due process.

 

KEY TERMS:         legal responsibility;  legal problems;  government role;  government;  child protective services;  prevention

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Proceedings Paper

 

 

TITLE:                    Is Hurting People Wrong?

 

AUTHOR:               Wilson, W.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1992

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Social Welfare and Family Law

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Brunel Univ. (England). Dept. of Law.

 

SOURCE:                (5): pp. 388-397;  New York, NY, Routledge, Inc., 1992

 

ABSTRACT:           This article considers the balance drawn in English criminal law between freedom and coercion, with particular reference to injuries inflicted consensually in the course of sexual activities. The position is taken that society is entitled to restrict the occasions upon which injury is inflicted upon others, even if there is consent to such injury. It should not be considered a presumptuous interference with the autonomy of individuals that society seeks to protect 1 of its fundamental moral building blocks, namely the social taboo against the infliction of injury upon another. If the infliction of injury is allowable simply by being consented to, it would be the fact of consent, rather than moral conviction, which polices the barrier between a society where sadism is considered normal and the kind of society most of us would like to inhabit. This is a dangerous path to tread. On the other hand, since the moral autonomy of individuals is at stake, it is necessary to ensure that the balance between freedom and control is drawn in a coherent, non-discriminatory fashion. The recent case of Brown, at present awaiting consideration by the House of Lords, provides an opportunity for the principles governing the enforcement of morals in a morally differentiated society to be expounded. 14 references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         sadism;  laws;  sexual abuse;  courts;  social policies;  great britain

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://journals.routledge.com

 

 

TITLE:                    The Wyatt Sex History Questionnaire: A Structured Interview for Female Sexual History Taking.

 

AUTHOR:               Wyatt, G. E.;  Lawrence, J.;  Vodounon, A.;  Mickey, M. R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1992

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Sexual Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    California Univ., Los Angeles. Dept. of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences.

 

SOURCE:                1(4): pp. 51-68;  Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1992

 

ABSTRACT:           The complexities of developing appropriate formats for obtaining sexual histories that include women's consensual and coercive sexual experiences are discussed in this paper. The Wyatt Sex History Questionnaire (WSHQ), used with a multi-ethnic sample of women, is described to obtain incidents of non-consensual sexual abuse. The advantages of using a personal contact format to obtain incidents of child sexual victimization are highlighted. In order to assess a range of effects of women's consensual sexual functioning, items on the WSHQ, administered in telephone and personal contact interviews, through self-report measures and indirect questioning using randomized responses, were compared for their effectiveness in obtaining consensual sexual experiences. The advantages of using personal interview techniques with multi-ethnic community samples to assess the effects of non-consensual sexual experiences in childhood on women's consensual sex practices is discussed. 36 references and 1 table. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         sequelae;  child abuse history;  interviews;  racial factors;  sexual behavior;  questionnaires;  communication techniques

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Arming the Pregnancy Police: More Outlandish Concoctions?

 

AUTHOR:               Parness, J. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1992

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Louisiana Law Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb.

 

SOURCE:                53(2): pp. 427-448;  Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge. Paul M. Hebert Law Center, November 1992

 

ABSTRACT:           This article addresses the prevention of disabilities attributable to prenatal drug or alcohol use, focusing on the coercive laws designed to protect the unborn. The protection of the unborn under Roe versus Wade is discussed. Recent initiatives in the regulation of nonmaternal conduct are examined, including characterizing the unborn as victims of crime, expanding tort laws to cover claims by those whose birth disabilities were caused by their mothers' actions, prosecuting women who ingest illegal drugs during pregnancy, suspending a mother's custodial right on the basis of her prebirth conduct, and restricting the activities of a pregnant woman and those around her. Post-Roe events in Winnebago County, IL, concerning the protection of the unborn are reviewed. This review illustrates some of the problems with State protection of the unborn, identifies discriminatory initiatives, and illustrates the inconsistency in the enforcement of State policy. Suggestions for change are also offered, including enacting laws that more fully cover those whose conduct poses a danger to the unborn. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         pregnancy;  prenatal influences;  drug exposed infants;  prenatal child abuse;  prosecution;  fetal rights;  maternal rights;  liability

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    A Special Report on Juvenile Sex Offenders.

 

AUTHOR:               Thomas, D. W.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1992

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    National Center for Juvenile Justice, Pittsburgh, PA

 

SOURCE:                National Center for Juvenile Justice, Pittsburgh, PA, 1992;  p. 24 pp

 

ABSTRACT:           This report reviews current juvenile court response to child or adolescent sex offenders and recommends intervention strategies that combine treatment with community protection. Sexual acts committed by juveniles range from non-contact offenses such as exhibitionism to violent physical assaults. The seriousness of the assault is determined by the extent of the injuries to the victim, age difference between victim and offender, power differential, and coercion. Because of lack of knowledge about deviant sexual behavior and limited resources for treating sex offenders, juvenile courts often dismiss the charges or place juveniles on probation. Appropriate treatment is recommended to establish accountability for the offending behavior and assess and treat the deviant behavior before it becomes a pattern as the child develops. Intervention options include probation supervision, fines and restitution, continuation of voluntary treatment, community-based treatment, community outpatient program, day treatment, group homes, training schools, and secure units. The article provides an overview of treatment issues and modalities and describes innovative options developed by juvenile courts. 26 references and 2 figures.

 

KEY TERMS:         adolescent sex offenders;  sexually abusive children;  juvenile delinquency;  characteristics of abuser;  predictor variables;  children at risk;  intervention strategies;  juvenile courts

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Technical Report

 

 

TITLE:                    Children With Sexual Behavior Problems: A Behavioral Comparison.

 

AUTHOR:               Ray, J. A.;  English, D. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1992

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Eastern Washington Univ., Cheney. Inland Empire School of Social Work and Human Services.

 

SOURCE:                Washington State Dept. of Social and Health Services, Olympia. Office of Children's Administration Research, 1992;  23 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This study compared the profiles of children exhibiting different types of sexual behavior problems. Case records were reviewed for a sample of 271 sexually aggressive youth. The youth were classified by their behavior: inappropriate sexual behavior; molesting or touching; and rape. Some subjects were placed into more than one category. The groups were then compared on a number of variables, such as characteristics of the children and their families, problem behaviors, treatment, and risk factors. Children classified as rapists were older, had a history of being abused themselves, and reported more offenses than molesters or children who were sexually inappropriate. Rapists were also more aggressive, coercive and had lower intelligence. Recommendations for future research are provided. 10 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         child behavior;  sexual behavior;  individual characteristics;  risk factors;  family characteristics;  sexually abusive children;  sexual abuse;  sequelae

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Technical Report

 

 

TITLE:                    Quality of Attachment in the Preschool Years.

 

AUTHOR:               Crittenden, P. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1992

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Miami Univ., FL.

 

SOURCE:                Miami Univ., FL, 1992;  90 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This paper describes differences in quality of attachment in preschool aged children with an emphasis on the development of the goal corrected partnership. Inferences are made about the processes underlying preschoolers' attachment behavior. Specifically, the notion of quality of attachment is expanded to explicitly include strategy, regulation of affect, negotiation, secure base behavior, and response to maternal behavior. The classification system is expanded by adding 2 additional defended patterns, compulsive caregiving and compulsive compliance, to the infant avoidant pattern. Furthermore, at the preschool age, the infant ambivalent pattern is identified as having a coercive strategy. In addition, the disorganized infant category is reconceptualized in terms of complex organization, reorganization, and disorganization. Finally, the process of generating new theories and hypotheses through a participant observer methodology is considered from the perspective of developmental psychopathology. An appendix discusses patterns of behavior. Numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         preschool children;  attachment;  maternal behavior;  infants;  compulsive behavior;  behavior theories;  psychopathology

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Technical Report

 

 

TITLE:                    I Never Told Anyone.

 

AUTHOR:               Bass, E. (Editor).;  Thornton, L. (Editor).;  Brister, J.;  Hammond, G. et al.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1991

 

SOURCE:                Revised. New York, NY, HarperPerennial, 1991;  278 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           The extensive sexual abuse of children is reported, and statistics on offenses and offenders are provided. Reports of psychologists, psychiatrists, anthropologists, and other professionals who advocate the sexual use of children are considered, and the point is made that, while there may be no physical force involved, there is coercion every time a child is sexually abused by a man. The Rene Guyon Society, which advocates sex between children and adults within prescribed cricumstances, is discussed, and the contention of the Society that children are the initiators of the sexual acts is disputed. Sexual abuse of children is traced through history, and advertisements, media, and pornography that encourage the sexual abuse of children are discussed. Accounts written by women who were sexually abused as children by their fathers, other relatives, friends and acquaintances, as well as by strangers, are presented. A state-by-state listing of programs for the treatment and prevention of child abuse is included, and 2 programs -- Strong and Free (a prevention program for children) and Parents United (part of an offender-oriented treatment program) -- are examined. Places to turn to when there are no specific programs dealing with child abuse are noted, including women's centers, health care agencies, and Women Against Rape groups. Books, articles, and other resources on child abuse are listed.

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  incest;  prevalence;  paternal abuse;  incidence;  prevention;  program descriptions

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.harpercollins.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Sexual Coercion. A Sourcebook on Its Nature, Causes, and Prevention.

 

AUTHOR:               Grauerholz, E., (Editor).;  Koralewski, M. A., (Editor).

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1991

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN.

 

SOURCE:                Lexington, MA, Lexington Books, 1991;  241 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This book addresses concerns related to the nature, causes, and prevention of sexual coercion. Chapters review the literature on rape and child sexual coercion; analyze the literature on sexual harassment, particularly that occurring in academe and the workplace; examine the nature of prostitution; present a feminist interpretation of sexual violence; explore the individual and social psychological correlates of sexual violence; and consider a biological or evolutionary basis for sexual coercion and examine evidence suggesting a psychological adaption to rape and sexual violence. In addition, chapters discuss the theory and practice of self-defense; suggest ways parents can interact with their children to help prevent their becoming victims and offenders; propose a method that dating couples can use to reduce misunderstandings about sexuality; argue for a comprehensive, direct approach to teaching sexuality in schools; review changes in the legal system concerning rape and sexual harassment and discuss possible future legal reforms; present a feminist agenda for economic change aimed at preventing sexual coercion; and examine what is known about the nature, causes, and prevention of sexual coercion. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         rape;  sexual exploitation;  sexual abuse;  prostitution;  etiology;  prevention;  feminism;  theories

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

 

TITLE:                    Unraveling the Mary Ellen Legend: Origins of the Cruelty Movement.

 

AUTHOR:               Costin, L. B.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1991

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Social Service Review

 

SOURCE:                65(2): pp. 203-223;  Chicago, IL, University of Chicago Press, June 1991

 

ABSTRACT:           This article reviews the legend of Mary Ellen. For more than a century, social welfare literature has accepted the simplistic conviction that the chance discovery of her cruel treatment and rescue led directly and singly to the beginning of a widespread child protection movement. The rescue of Mary Ellen as a member of the animal kingdom has also been accepted as fact in contemporary social welfare history. This legend is corrected using primary sources, and the coming together of a variety of factors that stimulated public receptivity to a view of child abuse and neglect as a social problem that could no longer be ignored is documented. These factors include the wide and lurid publicity given the Mary Ellen case by the press, awakened public awareness of the plight of children within the public and private system of child saving, the values and strategies of other ongoing social movements, and a perceived link with the existing Societies for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. In addition, the expansion of the child rescue movement by Elbridge T. Gerry is discussed, including his role in the creation of the New York Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, an organization whose strategies called for a coercive application of social control. These strategies forestalled well into the twentieth century the development of a rational system of child protection within a larger system of social services. Numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         child protection;  child welfare;  mass media;  public awareness;  public opinion;  prevention;  humane societies;  case reports

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/SSR/home.html

 

 

TITLE:                    Vital Childhood Lessons: The Role of Parenting in Preventing Sexual Coercion.

 

AUTHOR:               Parrot, A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1991

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Dept. of Human Service Studies.

 

SOURCE:                In: Grauerholz, E. and Koralewski, M. A. (Editors). Sexual Coercion. A Sourcebook on Its Nature, Causes, and Prevention. Lexington, MA, Lexington Books, 1991;  pp. 123-132

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter explains how traditional gender socialization contributes to sexual coercion and examines alternative ways parents can interact with children to help prevent their becoming victims and offenders. These alternative strategies include encouraging children to be autonomous and to assess and respect the feelings of others, talking with children about sexual abuse, minimizing factors and beliefs that may increase the likelihood of victimization, conveying messages about body ownership and inappropriate touching to children, discussing sexuality openly with children, developing positive self-esteem in children, teaching children assertiveness skills, and teaching boys that they are not better than girls. In addition, the role of schools in teaching child sexual abuse prevention is discussed, suggestions for potential victims to consider are offered, and points potential sex offenders need to know about forced sex are listed. 20 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         primary prevention;  parenting;  child rearing;  sexual abuse;  child safety;  socialization;  parental role;  schools role

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

 

TITLE:                    Self-Defense Against Sexual Coercion: Theory, Research, and Practice.

 

AUTHOR:               Thompson, M. E.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1991

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Northeastern Illinois Univ., Chicago. Dept. of Sociology.

 

SOURCE:                In: Grauerholz, E. and Koralewski, M. A. (Editors). Sexual Coercion. A Sourcebook on Its Nature, Causes, and Prevention. Lexington, MA, Lexington Books, 1991;  pp. 111-121

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter discusses self-defense research and theory. A comparison of analyses and critiques of child sexual abuse prevention, self-defense training against rape, and sexual harassment prevention programs reveals differences in program origins, content, methods, and issues but complementary themes in research findings. Several major ideas emerge from the work on child sexual assault prevention, self-defense against rape, and sexual harassment prevention programs: self-defense programs must focus on the acquisition of experience; self-defense against sexual coercion involves multiple strategies; self-defense programs must be built on existing strengths, abilities, and inclinations; and self-defense education fosters individual and group supports for self-defense. Directions for theory, research, and practice of self-defense against sexual coercion are suggested. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         self defense;  prevention programs;  rape;  sexual assault;  literature reviews;  program evaluation;  theories;  research needs

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

 

TITLE:                    Attribution of Causal and Moral Responsibility to Victims of Father-Daughter Incest: An Exploratory Examination of Five Factors.

 

AUTHOR:               Collings, S. J.;  Payne, M. F.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1991

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Natal Univ., Durban (South Africa). Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                15(4): pp. 513-521;  Oxford (Great Britain), Elsevier Science, Ltd., 1991

 

ABSTRACT:           This study examines attribution of causal and moral responsibility as a function of 5 variables: victim age, victim reaction to the abuse, degree of sexual violation, coerciveness, and respondent's sex. Two vignettes describing a sexual interaction between a father and daughter were given to 480 undergraduate students (half male and half female). Variables in the vignettes were the age of the victim, either 7 years old or 15 years old; the tone of the assault, very gentle or very rough; the degree of the sexual act, fondling or sexual intercourse; and the type of response to the victimization, passive or resistant. Results indicate more causal and moral responsibility was attributed to the victim where the victim responded passively. A breakdown of the significant form of responsibility X victim age X coerciveness interaction revealed a significant main effect for form of responsibility; significantly more causal responsibility was attributed to the victim. The simple main effects for victim age were significant in all cases except for moral responsibility, high coercion condition; and the simple main effects for coercion were significant in all cases except for the moral responsibility, 7-year-old victim condition. Implications of these findings for public education and future research are discussed. 26 references, 2 tables, and 1 figure. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         cultural values;  etiology;  incest;  victim blaming;  public opinion;  social attitudes;  characteristics of abused

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Child Sexual Coercion.

 

AUTHOR:               Knudsen, D. D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1991

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN. Dept. of Sociology and Anthropology.

 

SOURCE:                In: Grauerholz, E. and Koralewski, M. A. (Editors). Sexual Coercion. A Sourcebook on Its Nature, Causes, and Prevention. Lexington, MA, Lexington Books, 1991;  pp. 17-28

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter examines the problems involved in defining child sexual coercion, noting that the research definitions have provided different approaches and measures. The research on child sexual coercion is reviewed, with an emphasis on research concerning incidence and prevalence rates; victims, perpetrators, and contexts of sexual coercion; and the effects of child sexual coercion. Research indicates that the relationship between incidence and prevalence rates is not easily determined because of different methods of data collection, repeated victimization resulting in duplicated counts of victims, and varied definitions of sexual abuse. Research also shows that child victims of sexual coercion are more likely to be girls than boys at all ages, fondling is the most common type of sexual coercion directed at children, most sexually abused children are victimized only once, most offenders are relatives or friends, and some victims experience serious immediate or long-term psychological problems. Despite the growing research literature in the area of child sexual coercion, several issues remain unresolved, including whether children lie about sexual coercion, whether sexual abusers can be identified before they molest, and whether child sexual abuse can be prevented without jeopardizing the rights of families. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  definitions;  incidence;  prevalence;  research reviews;  etiology;  sequelae;  child abuse research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

 

TITLE:                    Sexual Violence and Coercion in Close Relationships.

 

AUTHOR:               Muehlenhard, C. L.;  Goggins, M. F.;  Jones, J. M.;  Satterfield, A. T.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1991

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Kansas Univ., Lawrence.

 

SOURCE:                In: McKinney, K. and Sprecher, S. (Editors). Sexuality in Close Relationships. Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers, 1991;  pp. 155-175

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter discusses the sexual coercion of males and females in heterosexual and homosexual relationships, focusing on sexual coercion in adult dating and marital relationships. Sexual coercion is broadly defined and includes various forms of sexual activity and such types of coercion as physical and verbal force, threats, manipulation, and power differences. Beliefs that contribute to sexual violence and coercion in close relationships are discussed. Research on the prevalence, causes, and consequences of sexual violence and coercion in close relationships is reviewed. Prevalence research includes studies on sexual assault and nonviolent sexual coercion. Research on the causes of sexual coercion in close relationships focuses on stereotypes about masculinity and femininity, the sexual double standard, gender differences in perceptions of sexual interest, legal and religious influences, economic factors, alcohol and drug intoxication, violence in the family of origin, and compulsory heterosexuality. Research on the consequences of sexual coercion deals with the emotional, physical, and sexual effects. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         prevalence;  etiology;  sequelae;  sexual assault;  research reviews;  husband wife relationships

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

 

TITLE:                    The Effects of Childhood Sexual Abuse on Adult Survivors.

 

AUTHOR:               Fromuth, M. E.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1991

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Violence Update

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Middle Tennessee State Univ.

 

SOURCE:                2(2): pp. 6-8;  Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., October 1991

 

ABSTRACT:           This article is an evaluative review of conceptual and methodological foundations in studying the long-term effects of child sexual abuse. Implications and limitations of the current literature on the long-term effects of sexual abuse are explored. Critical methodological issues, such as definition of sexual abuse, adjustment measures and control group selection, and the limitation of retrospective and correlational studies, remain unresolved. The use of diagnoses of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), Borderline Personality Disorder, and Multiple Personality Disorder with adult survivors is discussed. The identification of internal and external factors that may mediate the effects of child sexual abuse is critical; increased family support seems to be of help. Familial proximity of the abused to the abuser, the degree of physical intrusion, and the amount of coercion used affect the severity of the trauma. The survivor's attribution for the abuse is also a mediating factor. It is argued that research on the long-term effect of sexual abuse on the male victim also needs to be greatly expanded. Future directions for clinicians and researchers are suggested. 11 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         sequelae;  sexual abuse;  adults abused as children;  child abuse research;  psychological studies;  psychiatric diagnoses;  posttraumatic stress disorder

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Adolescents Who Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:               Ryan, G. D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1991

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Colorado Univ. Health Sciences Center, Denver. Kempe National Center for Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect.

 

SOURCE:                In: Krugman, R. D. and Leventhal, J. M. (editors). Child Sexual Abuse. Report of the Twenty-Second Ross Roundtable on Critical Approaches to Common Pediatric Problems. Ross Laboratories, Columbus, OH, September 1991;  pp. 75-85

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter discusses adolescents who sexually abuse others, an action often dismissed as normal. An adolescent sexual offender is any youth who commits any sexual act with a person of any age, against the victim's will or in an aggressive, exploitative, or threatening manner. Cultural denial of childhood sexuality and repression of adolescent sexual behavior result in failure to define normal and deviant sexual behavior. Such labels as curiosity, experimentation, and boys will be boys have clouded the perception of sexual abuse. Sexual abuse of children by other children is defined by the evaluation of consent, equality, affect, and coercion. Treatment programs for young perpetrators have increased from 20 in 1984 to over 600 in 1989. Origins of sexually abusive behavior, characteristics of young sexual perpetrators, and reactions to increased recognition of the problem are addressed. Tables outline the ranges of normal, cautionary, serious, and very serious or illegal sexual activities for children and adolescents. Ignorance can no longer be a defense for lack of protection and intervention in sexual abuse cases. The presentation of the paper is followed by a transcript of a discussion by the participants at the meeting. 18 references and 2 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         deviant behavior;  aggression;  sexual behavior;  adolescent sex offenders;  sexually abusive children

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

 

TITLE:                    Assessing Credibility of Children's Testimony in Cases of Ritual Sexual Abuse Allegations.

 

AUTHOR:               Wakefield, H.;  Underwager, R. C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1991

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Institute for Psychological Therapies, Northfield, MN.

 

SOURCE:                Society for the Scientific Study of Sex Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA, November 8, 1991;  24 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This paper focuses on the process of adult social influence as it relates to assessing the credibility of children's testimony in cases of alleged ritual sexual abuse. When children are subjected to multiple formal and informal interviews, sessions of therapy, and interactions with adults who believe that ritualistic abuse is real, the adults inadvertently shape, mold, and reinforce the stories and drive children into their fantasies. When this happens, the child is likely to internalize the details and believe in the truth of the stories. The role that the growing network of believers has in the development of statements about child ritual abuse is discussed. The influence of coercive interviews is illustrated by an excerpt from the transcripts of the initial interrogations in the McMartin Preschool case in California, and the use of procedures with doubtful or nonexistent reliability and validity is examined. In addition, the issues of child fantasies, behavioral indicators and checklists, and characteristics of the accused are considered, and case studies that demonstrate how ritual abuse allegations may develop and grow are presented. Numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  ritual abuse;  child witnesses;  testimony;  case assessment;  interviews;  indicators;  case reports

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Proceedings Paper

 

 

TITLE:                    The Law's Response to Parental Alcohol and Crack Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:               Dolgin, J. L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1991

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Brooklyn Law Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Hofstra Law School, Hempstead, NY.

 

SOURCE:                56(4): pp. 1213-1268;  Brooklyn Law School, NY, 1991

 

ABSTRACT:           This article deals with cases of parental substance abuse involving children who are neglected. Parental misuse of alcohol and crack cocaine is discussed, focusing on research about the actual effects of parental alcohol and crack use on children. Statutory and judicial responses to crack or alcohol use by parents in neglect proceedings are considered. The consequences of these responses for children are examined. This examination suggests that the best interests of the child are often bypassed by judicial interpretations that presume that parents and children are adversaries and that identification of parental misconduct is the focal point of the judicial task in neglect cases. Recommendations for statutory reform are also offered, including revising statutory schemes to encourage judicial concentration on harm to the child rather than on parental misconduct, urging courts to accurately interpret statutory schemes and reserve coercive intervention for serious maltreatment cases, and providing new and expanded prevention and treatment services to parents who abuse drugs or alcohol. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         substance abusing parents;  alcohol abuse;  drug abuse;  cocaine;  neglecting parents;  sequelae;  best interests of the child;  state laws

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.brooklaw.edu/law/journals/

 

 

TITLE:                    Women Sexually Abused as Children and Their Patterns of Sexual Re-Victimization in Adolescence and Adulthood.

 

AUTHOR:               Brenner, L. M.;  Muehlenhard, C. L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1991

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Kansas Univ., Lawrence. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                Society for the Scientific Study of Sex Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA, November 8, 1991;  8 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This study examined the characteristics of sexual abuse experienced by women as children that contribute to the prevalence of revictimization as adults. Relationship to the abuser, number of incidents of abuse, and the presence of a caretaker's help and protection were predicted to be important factors. More than 400 women from Introductory Psychology classes participated in the study. Instruments included an original questionnaire to assess the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse, a modified version of Mary Koss's Sexual Experience Survey, and several personality scales to measure the participants' concept of boundaries. Results indicated that repeated sexual abuse and incest in childhood were related to sexual victimization as an adult. Psychological coercion in adulthood was found to be related to the lack of boundaries in women who were abused as children and in those who were not abused. 4 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         adults abused as children;  sequelae;  revictimization;  sexual abuse;  woman abuse;  adolescent abuse;  drug abuse;  alcohol abuse

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Proceedings Paper

 

 

TITLE:                    The Control of Perinatal Drug Abuse: Legal, Psychological, and Social Imperatives.

 

AUTHOR:               Garcia, S. A.;  Segalman, R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1991

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Law and Psychology Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                15: pp. 19-64;  Alabama Univ., Tuscaloosa. School of Law., Spring 1991

 

ABSTRACT:           This article reviews some important issues concerning the control of perinatal chemical dependency. The complex issues involved in identifying women of childbearing age who are potential or actual drug addicts are addressed, focusing on the controversies surrounding testing and reporting practices. The legal status and rights of mothers, fetuses, and babies are discussed, focusing on the legal and psychological concepts and doctrines of incompetence, incapacity, and exculpation from criminal responsibility. The causes and consequences of the development of socially irresponsible drug-related behavior in women of childbearing age are examined. The problem with the concept of using coercive external social controls to enforce responsible behavior for drug-addicted pregnant and postpartum women is identified. Models of the social control of perinatal chemical dependence are described, including criminalization, voluntary commitment, involuntary commitment, preventive detention, voluntary and mandatory sterilization, and voluntary and mandatory abortion. Some of the more relevant issues concerning the requirements and feasibility of implementing each model within legal and democratic parameters are considered. In addition, the consequences of coercive social control measures are identified, and noncoercive social control measures are suggested, including prevention, treatment, triage, and rehabilitation. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         substance abusing mothers;  drug exposed infants;  pregnancy;  detection;  maternal rights;  fetal rights;  models;  drug addiction

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wshein.com

 

 

TITLE:                    The Children Act 1989 in Context: Four Perspectives in Child Care Law and Policy (I).

 

AUTHOR:               Harding, L. M. F.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1991

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Social Welfare and Family Law

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Leeds Univ. (England). Dept of Social Policy.

 

SOURCE:                3: pp. 179-193;  New York, NY, Routledge, Inc., 1991

 

ABSTRACT:           This article outlines 4 different perspectives which may be taken from child care law and policy and applies them to the Children Act of 1989. The perspectives are termed laissez-faire and patriarchy, state paternalism and child protection, the defense of the birth family and parents' rights, and children's rights and child liberation. The first 2 perspectives are discussed in this article. Laissez-faire and patriarchy refers to a perspective which favors minimum state intervention in family life. State paternalism and child protection is a perspective which favors more coercive state intervention to protect children from abuse and poor care. These perspectives are discussed in terms of their relationship to the law in the Children Act. 15 references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         england;  child care;  legislation;  government role;  children at risk;  child protection laws;  family role

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://journals.routledge.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Psychopathological Effects of Incest.

 

AUTHOR:               Kramer, S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1991

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Jefferson Medical Coll., Philadelphia, PA.

 

SOURCE:                In: Kramer, S. and Akhtar, S. (Editors). The Trauma of Transgression. Psychotherapy of Incest Victims. Northvale, NJ, Jason Aronson Inc., 1991;  pp. 1-12

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter examines the psychopathological effects of incest and presents clinical observations about these effects. Early sexual abuse perpetrated by either parent disrupts the normal separation-individuation process and has a particularly disruptive effect on rapprochement subphase issues. As a result, sexually abused children are vulnerable to separation problems, depression, and splitting of good and bad self and good and bad object. Incest in the latency, prepubertal, or adolescent developmental stages can cause confusion, regression, and guilt. Adolescents who have been sexually abused during childhood or adolescence often suffer from eating disorders, have a proclivity to masochistic or self-destructive behavior, or experience multiple personality disorders. Maternal molestation in early development has led many adolescents and adults of both sexes to fear that they are homosexual. Subtle psychopathological effects of incest include a form of doubting known as object coercive doubting, problems with physical separation from parents, learning problems, and somatic memories. 26 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         incest;  psychopathology;  sequelae;  maternal abuse;  adults abused as children;  psychosexual development;  parent child relationships

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

 

TITLE:                    Normal Childhood Sexual Play: An Examination of Adults' Memories of Mutual Delight, Perceptions of Normality, and Extent of Coercion in the Sexual Games They Played as Children.

 

AUTHOR:               Lamb, S.;  Cullinan, M.;  Smith, S. E.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1991

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Bryn Mawr College, PA.

 

SOURCE:                In: Mauro, L. M. and Woods, J. H. (Editors). Building Bridges: Interdisciplinary Research in Child Abuse. Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA, Child Welfare Training and Research Institute, 1991;  pp. 23-33

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter describes a retrospective study that examined the relationship between adults' memories of childhood sex play and childhood sexual abuse. Three hundred questionnaires were distributed to adults by seven volunteers in public places in the West Philadelphia suburbs. The questionnaire asked respondents to describe a childhood sexual game they remembered playing and collected data on the age of the subject at the time of the story, the ages and genders of playmates, the feelings of the respondent at the time of the game, the presence or absence of persuasion or coercion in the game, and the perception of the respondents about the normalcy of the game. Thirty-four usable questionnaires were returned. Analysis of the questionnaires shows that four distinct categories of games existed: ritualized games of pre- and early adolescence, the typical playing doctor games, fantasy sexual play involving the rehearsal of adult roles, and unstructured play. Data also reveal that 47 percent of the respondents reported that coercion was used in the childhood sexual play they experienced, with female respondents being more likely to report stories in which they felt coerced or manipulated. Feelings of coercion or manipulation also seemed to be correlated to feeling guilty or ashamed. Findings suggest that, in addition to education about sexuality, children need to be educated about issues of coercion and choice in peer interactions. 18 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual behavior;  adults;  memory;  retrospective studies;  child development;  play;  child abuse research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

 

TITLE:                    Children Who Act Out Sexually.

 

AUTHOR:               Johnson, T. C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1990

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Children's Inst. International, Los Angeles, CA. Family C.A.R.E. Center.

 

SOURCE:                In: McNamara, J. and McNamara, B. H. (Editors). Adoption and the Sexually Abused Child. University of Southern Maine, Portland. Human Services Development Inst., 1990;  pp. 63-73

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter examines the range of sexual behavior in children 12 years and younger and describes therapy for children who act out sexually. Adoptive parents need to be aware of these behaviors and assess therapeutic interventions because children placed in adoption are at high risk for this behavior due to sexual abuse. The behavior of child perpetrators differs from normal childhood exploration in that it is secretive, manipulative, coercive, and often compulsive. Child perpetrators were usually sexually abused, are confused about their sexuality, increase their offenses as they grow older, and have behavioral and social problems. Sexually reactive children do not abuse other children, although they have been overstimulated sexually and frequently have been abused. Another group of children engage in sexual acts with other unrelated children, usually in foster or residential care. Many of these children were abused by child or adolescent perpetrators; some were abused in a group of adults. Children who act out sexually can benefit from group and family therapy. Individual therapy represents a problem with newly adopted children because it may alienate them from their adoptive families and create tension and anxiety. Adoptive parents need to involve the school in treating the children's behavioral and socialization problems. A list of 12 steps for children who have problems with touching is included. 6 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  adoption;  sexual behavior;  adolescent sex offenders;  group therapy;  perpetrators;  abusive children;  child behavior;  sexuality;  sexual deviations;  adolescents;  behavior problems

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

 

TITLE:                    Sexual Behavior in Childhood.

 

AUTHOR:               Ryan, G.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1990

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Colorado Univ. Health Science Center, Denver. Kempe National Center for the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect.

 

SOURCE:                In: McNamara, J. and McNamara, B. H. (Editors). Adoption and the Sexually Abused Child. University of Southern Maine, Portland. Human Services Development Inst., 1990;  pp. 27-41

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter guides adoptive parents in evaluating children's sexual behavior for indications of sexual abuse. It is necessary for parents to understand that not all child sexual behavior is deviant; child sexual behavior can range from normal exploration to coercion and abuse. It is necessary for parents to respond to deviant behaviors, since children expect response and parental failure to respond may represent approval of the behavior. Parents must specify what behavior they are reacting to and attach feelings to the behavior, fostering empathy and consideration for others. If the behavior continues, parents should confront it, express their concern, prohibit it, and monitor it for future recurrences. When children have been sexually abused, parents must enlist the support of adoption workers, teachers, other adoptive parents, and therapists. Therapy will attempt to break the cycle of abuse, teaching children appropriate behaviors, preventing them from victimizing others, and helping them develop a healthy self-image. 21 references and 5 figures.

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  adoptive parents;  sexual behavior;  child behavior;  abused children;  parental role;  sexual deviations;  sexuality;  behavior;  parenting;  victimization

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

 

TITLE:                    Etiological Models of Child Maltreatment. A Behavioral Perspective.

 

AUTHOR:               Ammerman, R. T.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1990

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Behavior Modification

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Western Pennsylvania School for Blind Children, Pittsburgh.

 

SOURCE:                14(3): pp. 230-254;  Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., July 1990

 

ABSTRACT:           This article describes current etiological formulations of child maltreatment. Three models (ecological, transactional, and transitional) are described that delineate the multiple pathways leading to abuse and neglect. These approaches emphasize the interaction of causative factors in bringing about maltreatment and the importance of high- and low-risk characteristics that differentially influence the development of maltreatment. Behavioral explanations of child maltreatment are also discussed. Particularly relevant here are observational learning, anger control, and coercive family processes. Finally, the implications of our understanding of etiology to assessment, treatment, and prevention are outlined and considered. Numerous references and 1 table. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         models;  etiology;  ecological theories;  theories;  behavior theories;  family relationships

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com

 

 

TITLE:                    A Coordinated Public Health and Child Welfare Response to Perinatal Substance Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:               Horowitz, R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1990

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Children Today

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    American Bar Association, Washington, DC. Center on Children and the Law.

 

SOURCE:                19(4): pp. 8-12;  Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, July-August 1990

 

ABSTRACT:           This article examines options for an appropriate social service response to the problem of substance abuse by pregnant women. It is argued that existing treatment programs are neither readily available nor appropriate. Possible coercive State intervention approaches are discussed, should appropriate treatment be made available but the pregnant woman fails to use it. The approaches include: involuntary civil commitment, child protection, and criminal prosecution. Termination of parental rights in cases where crack mothers are unable to care for their children also is considered. 7 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         pregnancy;  prenatal child abuse;  prenatal influences;  drug addiction;  alcohol abuse;  treatment;  state laws;  prosecution;  child abuse;  intervention

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Identifying the Assaultive Husband in Court: You Be the Judge.

 

AUTHOR:               Adams, D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1990

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Response

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Emerge, Cambridge, MA.

 

SOURCE:                13(1): pp. 13-16;  Center for Women Policy Studies, Washington, DC., 1990

 

ABSTRACT:           Abusive husbands' ability to conceal or justify their behavior has been made possible by a criminal justice system that has blamed or ignored the battered woman. Social service workers, medical personnel, clergy members, and the media are also at fault. Disclosure of wife abuse puts the victim at greater risk for more abuse and places her social and economic security at risk. Male batterers frequently appear friendly and caring to persons outside the family. They usually do not consider their abusive behavior to be a serious problem and often blame others for their violence. A pattern of controlling behavior is exhibited that includes threats, verbal abuse, sexual coercion, and control of finances. These controls remind the victim of the potential for physical abuse. Many wife abusers are jealous and possessive. They vary in their treatment of their children and stepchildren. Substance abuse is common among abusive men, as is resistance to change. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         abusive husbands;  male batterers;  spouse abuse;  characteristics of abuser;  courts role;  woman abuse

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.centerwomenpolicy.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Love and Violence: Gender Paradoxes in Volatile Attachments.

 

AUTHOR:               Goldner, V.;  Penn, P.;  Sheinberg, M.;  Walker, G.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1990

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Family Process

 

SOURCE:                29(4): pp. 343-364;  Family Process, Syracuse, NY., December 1990

 

ABSTRACT:           This article presents a multidimensional, theoretical model for the understanding of relationships in which men are violent toward women. It argues that abusive relationships exemplify, in extremis, the stereotypical gender arrangements that structure intimacy between men and women generally. Moreover, it proposes that paradoxical gender injunctions create insoluble relationship dilemmas that can explode in violence. A multifaceted approach to treatment, which incorporates feminist and systemic ideas and techniques, is described. Excerpts of therapy sessions are included. Abuse and coercion co-exist with understanding and friendship in a unique and painful way for many couples. When the paradoxical terms of this gendered bond are clarified and critiqued, the freedom to change the terms of the relationship or to leave it behind becomes possible. 34 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         gender identity;  spouse abuse;  feminism;  abused wives;  treatment programs

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    The Prevalence of the Sexual Abuse of Female Children and Adolescents.

 

AUTHOR:               Mullen, P. E.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1990

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Otago Medical School (New Zealand).

 

SOURCE:                In: Roesch, R., Dutton, D. G., and Sacco, V. F. (Editors). Family Violence. Perspectives on Treatment, Research, and Policy. British Columbia Inst. on Family Violence, Burnaby (Canada), 1990;  pp. 21-26

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter reviews the literature on the prevalence of the sexual abuse of female children and adolescents, focusing on the sometimes discordant literature on the extent of the problem. Studies reviewed include those using random community samples, face-to-face interviews, and questionnaires. Studies using properly constituted random samples have produced figures as high as 62 percent and as low as 6.8 percent. The source of discrepancy between these prevalence studies is most likely the behaviors that researchers include as abusive. Studies with higher figures illustrate the extent to which female children and adolescents are sexually harassed and interfered with by adult males, but studies with lower prevalence figures represent estimates of the level of coercive contact abuse. As a result, designing studies to assess long-term impact of childhood sexual abuse or developing plans for intervention strategies will necessitate work on the basis of the appropriate prevalence estimate for the study or strategy. 7 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         prevalence;  literature reviews;  sexual abuse;  adolescents;  research methodology;  sexual assault;  adults abused as children;  sexual abuse reporting

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

 

TITLE:                    The Problem of the Drug-Exposed Newborn: A Return to Principled Intervention.

 

AUTHOR:               Robin-Vergeer, B. I.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1990

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Stanford Law Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Stanford Law School, CA.

 

SOURCE:                42(1-3): pp. 745-809;  Stanford Univ. School of Law, CA, 1989-1990

 

ABSTRACT:           This article looks at legal issues involved in intervening with drug-exposed newborns. It is suggested that the same factors relevant to the decision to intervene on behalf of any purportedly neglected child should guide coercive intervention on behalf of the drug-exposed infant. The important question for the child welfare system is not whether the drug-using pregnant woman has acted reprehensibly, but whether the particular drug-exposed infant is in imminent danger of future harm. 302 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         prenatal child abuse;  drug addiction;  addicted infants;  childrens rights;  fetal rights

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.stanford.edu/group/lawreview/

 

 

TITLE:                    Predisposing Child Factors.

 

AUTHOR:               Ammerman, R. T.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1990

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Western Pennsylvania School for Blind Children, Pittsburgh.

 

SOURCE:                In: Ammerman, R. T., and Hersen, M. (Editors). Children at Risk: An Evaluation of Factors Contributing to Child Abuse and Neglect. New York, NY, Plenum Press, 1990;  pp. 199-221

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter reviews the evidence that child factors contribute to the etiology and maintenance of child abuse and neglect. First, conceptual models that describe the process by which children can be involved in the development of maltreatment are presented. Second, early childhood characteristics posited to be risk factors are reviewed. Third, interactional studies describing the coercive relationship between abusive parents and their children are discussed. Fourth, the role of child handicapping conditions in increasing risk for maltreatment is considered. Finally, the utility of using child factors to assess risk is examined, and future directions for research are outlined. Numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         precipitating factors;  etiology;  models;  children with disabilities;  risk assessment;  children at risk;  child abuse research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.plenum.com

 

 

TITLE:                    When Self Abuse Becomes Child Abuse: The Need for Coercive Prenatal Government Action in Response to the Cocaine Baby Problem.

 

AUTHOR:               Drendel, K.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1990

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Northern Illinois University Law Review

 

SOURCE:                11(1): pp. 73-117;  Northern Illinois Univ. College of Law, DeKalb, 1990

 

ABSTRACT:           This article asserts that a void of appropriate legislation hampers the judicial system's ability to deal with prenatal drug exposure of infants, and it goes on to explore the problem and the possible solution. The legal vehicles available today are considered, including criminal laws, child abuse and neglect laws, civil and criminal injunctions, and involuntary commitment. Legislation is needed to balance maternal, societal, and fetal interests. The scope of the problem is considered. Impetus is provided for legislation and concerted legal action designed to prevent the increase in the occurrence of drug-impaired newborns. The harmful effects of prenatal drug use on children, mothers, and society are examined. Past judicial decisions and State statutes applying to prenatal and maternal drug use are reviewed. The role of fundamental rights and equal protection in deciding cases and designing legislation is examined. Somewhat radical legislation adopted by Illinois and Minnesota are examined. Laws should protect the interests of women and their children while still not forcing society and affected children to bear the consequences of illegal drug use. 316 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         statutory construction;  legislation;  maternal rights;  prenatal child abuse;  child abuse laws;  state laws;  illinois;  minnesota

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.niu.edu/claw/index.htm

 

 

TITLE:                    A Proposal to Illinois Legislators: Revise the Illinois Criminal Code to Include Criminal Sanctions Against Prenatal Substance Abusers.

 

AUTHOR:               Schierl, K.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1990

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    John Marshall Law Review

 

SOURCE:                23(3): pp. 393-424;  John Marshall Law School, Chicago, IL, Spring 1990

 

ABSTRACT:           This article on prenatal substance abuse examines the need for criminal statutes regulating a mother's conduct by presenting the incidence and demographics of cocaine use; discussing the effects of prenatal cocaine abuse on the fetus and neonate, on prenatal maternal health, and on public health and welfare; considering the inadequacy of remedies available to alleviate or cope with prenatal substance abuse; and explaining the legitimate need for police power action. The issue of the constitutionality of criminalizing prenatal substance abuse is addressed, focusing on the mother's constitutional right to privacy under the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendments and the State's interest in criminalizing prenatal drug use. The existing Illinois statutory framework is surveyed to determine the State's concern with drug use, maternal and fetal health, and fetal life. A revision of the Illinois criminal code to include criminal sanctions against prenatal substance abuse, along with coercive, comprehensive drug treatment, is urged. An appendix sets forth the legislative provisions of this proposal for revising the Illinois criminal code. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         state laws;  illinois;  prenatal child abuse;  sequelae;  substance abusing mothers;  cocaine;  drug exposed infants;  maternal rights

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Sexual Behavior in Childhood: Normal and Deviant.

 

AUTHOR:               Ryan, G.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1990

 

SOURCE:                In: Lenherr, M. and Welch, P. (Compilers). Selected Readings in Child Abuse and Neglect. Colorado Univ. Health Sciences Center, Denver. C. Henry Kempe National Center for the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect, 1990;  pp. 276-300

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter discusses normal and deviant sexual behavior of children. The issue of childhood sexuality is examined in terms of the cultural denial of normal and deviant sexual development prior to puberty and the examination of childhood sexual behavior as a symptom of sexual abuse. The range of sexual behaviors exhibited by children is explained. This range extends from curious exploration of self and others to sexually aggressive or abusive behaviors. The evaluation of sexual interactions of 2 or more children who are involved in sexual behavior is discussed in terms of consent, equality, and coercion. Adult responses to the sexual behavior of children are suggested, including labeling the behavior, reacting at a personal level, confronting the child, prohibiting the behavior, monitoring the child's behavior, and reporting the child's behavior to the police or social services personnel. Treatment issues are considered. A bibliography is included. 14 references and 5 figures.

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual behavior;  child behavior;  sexual abuse;  sexually abusive children;  intervention strategies

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

 

TITLE:                    Understanding the Problem.

 

AUTHOR:               Oates, R. K.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1990

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Royal Alexandra Hospital for Childfren, Camperdown, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Pediatrics.

 

SOURCE:                In: Oates, R. K. (Editor). Understanding and Managing Child Sexual Abuse. Sydney (Australia), Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich Group Pty Limited., 1990;  pp. 3-17

 

ABSTRACT:           An overview of the problem of child sexual abuse is presented in this chapter. The chapter reports a history of social attitudes toward child sexual abuse since ancient Greece and proposes that sexual abuse is more common than surveys have estimated. Sexual abuse is defined in the context of the coercive relationship between the adult and child and the inability of children to understand the significance of sexual activities. Effects of the abuse depend on the type of abuse, the gender of the child and perpetrator, relationship between the child and adult, the frequ