TITLE:                    Medicolegal Aspects of Child Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:               Myers, J. E. B.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Pacific Univ., Sacramento, CA. McGeorge School of Law.

 

SOURCE:                In: Reece, R. M. (Editor). Treatment of Child Abuse: Common Mental Health, Medical, and Legal Practitioners. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD., 2000;  p. 36

 

ABSTRACT:           Children s statements during examinations and interviews have forensic as well as medical significance. Under certain circumstances, the child s statements are inadmissible as evidence, due to the hearsay rules of evidence. There are, however, important exceptions. They include the excited utterance exception, disclosure under the doctrine of fresh complaint, statements made during diagnostic or treatment services, and the residual and child hearsay exceptions. Interviewing techniquesmust include the avoidance of suggestive or leading questions. Confidentiality and privileged communication have well-defined boundaries, and child abuse reporting laws override confidentiality and privilege. A professional called upon to appear in court as an expert witness should review only those portions of the record needed for the testimony and should document the parts of the record reviewed. Privileged and nonprivileged materials should be separated in the record. If one takes the record tocourt, limit what is taken to the intended testimony. If possible, do not take the record to the witness stand, and if it is taken, refer to it only if necessary. Expert testimony usually takes one of three forms: an opinion, an answer to a hypothetical question, or a lecture providing information to the judge or jury. Be prepared for cross-examination, understanding that the defense attorney will try to raise doubts about the expert testimony. This is done by trying to limit the expert s ability to explain, by undermining the expert s assumptions, by impeaching the expert with a learned treatise, or by raising the issue of the expert s bias toward the prosecution. 33 references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         medical aspects of child abuse;  physicians role;  legal processes;  expert testimony;  expert witnesses;  rules of evidence;  hearsay rule;  confidentiality

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.press.jhu.edu

 

 

TITLE:                    Developmental Disabilities, Trauma Exposure, and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

 

AUTHOR:               Newman, E.;  Christopher, S. R.;  Berry, J. O.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Trauma, Violence, and Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Tulsa Univ., OK.

 

SOURCE:                1(2): pp. 154-170;  Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA., April 2000;  p. 167

 

ABSTRACT:           It has been assumed that individuals with developmental disabilities are a group of individuals at greater risk for exposure to abuse and neglect, although there is no evidence documenting a higher prevalence or incidence of trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among those with developmental disabilities. This article distinguishes biases about the relative vulnerability of individuals with developmental disabilities from facts. The discussion reviews the current scientific evidence regarding to the rates of trauma exposure among individuals with developmental disabilities, the probable applicability of PTSD among this group, and the scientific basis of clinical assessment. Using the lens of traumatic stress studies, the article recommends a research agenda and the creation of an empirically formed social policy that does not reinforce stigma but provides accurate, respectful, and necessary protections. 86 references and 1 table. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         child abuse research;  risk factors;  research reviews;  developmental disabilities;  trauma;  posttraumatic stress disorder;  incidence;  research needs

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    Institutional Care: Risk From Family Background or Pattern of Rearing?

 

AUTHOR:               Roy, P.;  Rutter, M.;  Pickles, A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Institute of Psychiatry, London (England).

 

SOURCE:                41(2): pp. 139-149;  Cambridge University Press, Oxford (England)., 2000;  p. 240

 

ABSTRACT:           Previous research has shown that children receiving substitute parental care tend to have high rates of emotional and behavioral disturbance, but uncertainty remains on the extent to which this derives from genetic risk, adverse experiences before receiving substitute care, or from risks associated with substitute care experiences. In order to examine the effects of institutional rearing (as a specific form of substitute care), two groups of primary school children reared in substitute care from before the age of 12 months were compared: 19 children in residential group (institutional) care and 19 in continuous stable foster family care (matched for age and gender). The two groups were similar in biological family characteristics with high rates of psychopathology and social malfunctioning, but differed with respect to pattern of rearing. Both groups were compared with classroom controls, using teacher questionnaires, systematic classroom observations, and standardized cognitive testing. Parental questionnaires were also obtained for the two substitute care groups. As found previously, the combined substitute care groups differed from controls in showing a high level of hyperactivity-inattention. The observational measures showed a similar effect, indicating that the elevated rate was not attributable to rater bias. The teacher questionnaire and observational measures showed, however, that the increased level of hyperactivity-inattention was substantially higher in the institutional group than the foster family group. Parental questionnaire ratings showed the same contrast between the groups, except that the main difference was on unsociability and emotional disturbance rather than hyperactivity-inattention. It is concluded that, against a background of genetic and early environmental risk, institutional rearing predisposes to a pattern of hyperactivity-inattention. 39 references and 10 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         child rearing;  foster care;  residential care institutions;  sequelae;  child development;  behavior problems;  emotional problems;  child welfare research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Collaborating on Family Safety: Challenges for Children's and Women's Advocates.

 

AUTHOR:               Beeman, S. K.;  Edleson, J. L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                3(1): pp. 345-358;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 2000;  p. 264

 

ABSTRACT:           This article outlines sources of conflicts between child protection workers and battered women s advocates, and elaborates on these conflicts using child protection workers and battered women s advocates own words elicited in a series of focus groups. Differences in philosophies of practice, focus of practice, communication problems, and gender, racial, and cultural bias within the systems are highlighted. The article also describes models of cross-system collaboration in the United States, and makes recommendations for practice and policy which support collaboration across systems. The two disciplines are advised to focus on the goal of the best interests of the mother and child, hold the male batterer responsible for abuse, and promote collaboration with courts and other systems. 22 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         interagency collaboration;  child protective services;  battered women;  program models;  interdisciplinary approach;  teamwork;  multiproblem families;  service delivery

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Tribal Perspectives on Over-Representation of Indian Children in Out-of-Home Care.

 

AUTHOR:               Cross, T.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Permanency Planning Today

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    National Indian Child Welfare Association, Portland, OR.

 

SOURCE:                1(1): pp. 7-11;  Hunter Coll., New York, NY. School of Social Work., Winter-Spring 2000;  p. 371

 

ABSTRACT:           American Indians children are over-represented in the child welfare system, with more than 12 of every 1,000 Indian children placed in substitute care. This article examines those circumstances and attempts to put the situation in a historical context. Reasons for over-representation are discussed, including historical removal of Indian children from their tribes, to present legal and political relationships among tribes, states, and the federal government, to the cultural bias faced by Indian families experiencing social ills associate with persistent poverty and racism. Historical trends are examined from the 1600s until the present day, with events leading to passage of the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978. The implications of the act are examined--the author asserts that while regarded as one of the best permanency policies to be enacted by the federal government, it remains misunderstood and maligned, and while data indicate that it has brought a reduction in the over-representation of Indian children in the system, there remains serious problems, primarily because the act provided little in the way of funding for implementation. Furthermore, problems remain because Indian children who need out-of-home placement must often become wards of the state, thus taking from the tribe its capacity to respond directly to its members' needs. The author makes recommendations for policy and practices that have the potential for improving the accessibility and quality of services for Indian families and their children, such as providing greater access to funding, development of demonstration projects, and implementation of provisions under the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 to complement provisions under ICWA. Fifteen references.

 

KEY TERMS:         tribes;  american indians;  out of home care;  child welfare;  policies;  government role;  icwa;  historical perspective;  asfa

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    An Examination of Bias in Volunteer Subject Selection: Findings From an In-Depth Child Abuse Study.

 

AUTHOR:               Mandel, F. S.;  Weiner, M.;  Kaplan, S.;  Pelcovitz, D.;  Labruna, V.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Traumatic Stress

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Pfizer, Inc., New York, NY. Clinical and Scientific Affairs.

 

SOURCE:                13(1): pp. 77-88;  Kluwer Academic-Plenum Publishers, Dordrecht (The Netherlands)., January 2000;  p. 381

 

ABSTRACT:           Remarkably few reported studies have tested the assumption that a research sample can be constructed which is representative of the population of interest. In order to investigate potential volunteer bias in abuse research, this study +; utilized a database assembled for an NIMH funded study investigating the relationship among adolescent physical abuse, suicidal behavior, and psychopathology. Extensive information was available concerning the nonparticipant pool from which this sample +; was assembled, allowing for a comprehensive assessment of possible sample bias. The volunteer sample of 99 abused families who agreed to participate in the study was compared on a large number of variables with a random sample of 99 abused families who +; declined to participate. Comparisons of the two groups did not support the hypothesis that the non-participating families represented a more dysfunctional population. The two groups were far more similar to, than disparate from, each other. 7 references +; and 5 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         research methodology;  sampling studies;  volunteers;  demography;  family characteristics;  child abuse research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wkap.nl

 

 

TITLE:                    Developmental Antecedents of Sexual Coercion in Juvenile Sexual Offenders.

 

AUTHOR:               Johnson, G. M.;  Knight, R. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                12(3): pp. 165-178;  Kluwer Academic-Plenum Publishers, Dordrecht (The Netherlands)., 2000;  p. 441

 

ABSTRACT:           Previous research has linked adult sex offending behavior to a multiplicity of variables, including juvenile delinquency and the experience of childhood abuse. The purpose of this study was to explore developmental pathways among childhood abuse, juvenile delinquency, and personality dimensions possibly conducive to adolescent sexual coercion. Using a retrospective self-report inventory, the extent to which juvenile sexual offenders experienced childhood trauma, engaged in adolescent delinquency, and exhibited particular dispositions and cognitive biases was measured. The effects of childhood and adolescent antecedents on sexual coerciveness were then analyzed through simultaneous multiple regression path analyses. Resultssuggest that sexual compulsivity and hypermasculinity, through misogynistic fantasy behavior, significantly discriminate verbally and physically coercive juvenile offenders from those offenders who do not report using force in their offenses. Results also suggest that alcohol abuse may play a more salient role in the expression of coercive juvenile sexual coercion than previously hypothesized. 30 references, 2 figures, and 2 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         adolescent sex offenders;  sex offenses;  predictor variables;  child development;  child abuse history;  juvenile delinquency;  alcohol abuse;  psychological characteristics

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wkap.nl

 

 

TITLE:                    The Decision to Investigate: Understanding State Child Welfare Screening Policies and Practices.

 

AUTHOR:               Tumlin, K. C.;  Geen, R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Urban Institute, Washington, DC. Population Studies Center.

 

SOURCE:                Number A-38. Urban Institute, Washington, DC., May 2000;  p. 536

 

ABSTRACT:           There has been considerable debate about the growing number of reports investigated by child welfare workers and the declining proportion of these reports that are substantiated. Child protection investigators must often make difficult and highly subjective decisions in determining whether to substantiate a report of abuse once an investigation has been concluded. But there are sometimes other equally challenging decisions that child welfare staff must make before a case is investigated. Decisions that, if made in error, put the children's safety at risk. Research shows that since few states have explicit screening guidelines, workers use their own discretion and biases when making screening decisions, and may be influencedby other factors. In determining the effect of welfare reform or any other social policy change on child abuse, it is essential to measure changes in how child welfare agencies respond to initial allegations. Yet most policymakers and researchers have relied on data on the number of child abuse reports investigated or substantiated to assess changes in the demand for child welfare services. While the benefits, risks, and best practices for effective screening are still open to debate, policymakers andresearchers must include screening data in any assessment of changes in child welfare caseloads. Two figures; one table; 12 notes; numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         child welfare agencies;  screening tests;  investigations;  child abuse;  child welfare reform;  agency practice;  policies;  child protective services

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Technical Report

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.urban.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Children and the Law: Doctrine, Policy and Practice.

 

AUTHOR:               Abrams, D. E.;  Ramsey, S. H.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Missouri Univ., Columbia. School of Law.

 

SOURCE:                West Group, St. Paul, MN., 2000;  p. 586

 

ABSTRACT:           Written for advanced law courses about child advocacy and juvenile law, this text reviews doctrine, policy, and practice regarding the rights of children, parents, and government; the competency of children; and the lawyer's representation of children. Emphasis is placed on collaborating with professionals from related disciplines, including psychology, sociology, medicine, education, and criminology to ensure effective representation. The chapters explain the definition of the parent-child relationship, children's abilities and disabilities, abuse and neglect, foster care, criminal abuse and neglect, adoption, medical decision-making, financial responsibilities and control, regulations of child behavior, and delinquency laws and procedures. Specific topics include strategies for interviewing child witnesses, the competency of children to advise counsel, child abuse and neglect reporting statutes, the child protection system, terminations of parental rights, racial bias,child's right to protection from harm, types of placements, adoption consent, and international adoption. Contemporary legal problems are presented in each chapter for class discussion.

 

KEY TERMS:         child advocacy;  lawyers;  lawyers responsibility;  lawyers role;  legal problems;  professional training;  federal case law;  state case law

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.westgroup.com

 

 

TITLE:                    OUT OF HOME CARE: RESIDENTIAL CARE AND GROUP HOMES: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

SOURCE:                NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  2000

 

KEY TERMS:         orphanages;  orphans;  social policies;  policy formation;  child welfare reform;  family preservation;  outcomes;  adoption;  funding;  child welfare services;  institutional abuse and neglect;  foster care drift;  judicial role;  permanency planning;  florida;  historical perspective;  deinstitutionalization;  model programs;  program descriptions;  program development;  residential care institutions;  welfare reform;  political factors;  private sector;  poverty;  therapeutic effectiveness;  child placement;  economic disadvantage;  attitudes;  child development;  research reviews;  psychological characteristics;  research methodology;  maternal deprivation;  foster care;  incidence;  statistical data;  predictor variables;  social workers attitudes;  public opinion;  government role;  discipline;  state statutory law;  federal statutory law;  vocational training;  state laws;  licensing;  standards;  state surveys;  personnel;  treatment programs;  program models;  federal aid;  grants;  religious organizations;  family characteristics;  family life;  program costs;  cost effectiveness;  costs;  operating expenses;  program planning;  federal laws;  sequelae;  residential care;  michigan;  child welfare research;  managed care;  residential treatment;  program administration;  out of home care;  foster children;  direct service providers;  emotionally disturbed children;  behavior modification;  therapeutic intervention;  intervention strategies;  service delivery;  program evaluation;  family programs;  shared family care;  adolescent sex offenders;  sex offenders therapy;  hispanics;  american indians;  african americans;  models;  parenting;  group dynamics;  control;  interviews;  adolescents;  focus groups;  family therapy;  canada;  cultural conflicts;  residential schools;  environmental stress;  trauma;  counselors;  disclosure;  mental health services;  social services;  mental disorders;  institutions

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:                    Foster Care and the Special Needs of Minority Children.

 

AUTHOR:               Urquiza, A. J.;  Wu, J.;  Borrego, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    California Univ. Medical Center, Davis. Child Protection Center.

 

SOURCE:                In: Curtis, P. A.; Dale, G.; Kendall, J. C. (Editors). The Foster Care Crisis: Translating Research Into Policy and Practice. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln., 1999;  p. 9

 

ABSTRACT:           This book chapter provides an overview of some of the common mental health problems noted in foster care and describes some institutional biases affecting ethnic minority children in out-of-home care. It also addresses a broad range of practical and policy-oriented issues to administer culturally competent policy and services. Preliminary research dealing with the mental health needs of abused children entering the foster care system is presented, noting physical, emotional, and behavioral problems that in turn affect everyday functioning. The authors present examples of strategies that address and alleviate problems unique to ethnic minority children as they enter and move through the foster care system. The assert that an essential part of effective intervention services with these children include recognizing their ethnic or cultural differences from the mainstream and maintaining or reinforcing the positive cultural aspects in the childrens' foster care situation. Recognizing that demographics for ethnic minorities in the United States are rapidly changing, the authors recommend that the social welfare system must become more culturally responsive to these populations. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         foster care;  special needs;  minority groups;  out of home care;  mental health;  high risk groups;  child welfare;  policies

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.nebraskapress.unl.edu

 

 

TITLE:                    Adopted Children's Behavior Problems: A Review of Five Explanatory Models.

 

AUTHOR:               Peters, B. R.;  Atkins, M. S.;  McKay, M. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Clinical Psychology Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Houston Univ., TX.

 

SOURCE:                19(3): pp. 297-328;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., 1999;  p. 33

 

ABSTRACT:           Although the majority of adopted children are well adjusted, adopted children show proportionately more behavior problems when compared to non-adopted children in both clinic and non-clinic populations. An extensive literature examiningbehavioral, diagnostic, and demographic characteristics of adopted children has provided several plausible explanations for the high rate of behavior problems among adopted children. In this review, the existing literature is organized into five explanatory models: 1) genetic or biosocial factors; 2) pathogenesis of the adoption process; 3) long-term effects of impaired pre-adoption child rearing; 4) referral bias in adoptive parents; and 5) impaired adoptive parent-adoptee relations. Conclusions suggest that evidence for each model is mixed at best. The authors said that noteworthy among the conclusions is the mixed results for genetic or biosocial studies and the relative absence of studies focused on identifying factors associated with disruptions in the adoptive parent-adoptee relationship. Recommendations include a psychosocial model to explain the high rate of behavior problems among adopted children. Five tables; one footnote; numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         adopted children;  behavior problems;  genetic factors;  adoption process;  adoptive parents;  child rearing;  adoption outcomes;  program models

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.elsevier.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Child Abuse and Divorce: Competing Priorities and Agendas and Practical Suggestions.

 

AUTHOR:               Faller, K. C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                2(2): pp. 165-194;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 1999;  p. 325

 

ABSTRACT:           This article addresses the evaluation of allegations of abuse made during divorce proceedings. It describes the challenges peculiar to cases where divorce and abuse allegations coexist, relevant research findings, and potential sources of bias. The article suggests a multidisciplinary approach that may be the optimal strategy for evaluating these cases. Specific guidelines for evaluation and decision-making are provided. 36 references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         assessment;  guidelines;  multiproblem families;  child abuse;  divorce;  case management;  best practices;  investigations

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    The Supply of Infants Relinquished For Adoption: Did Access to Abortion Make a Difference?

 

AUTHOR:               Gennetian, L. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Economic Inquiry

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY.

 

SOURCE:                37(3): pp. 412-431;  Western Economic Association International, Huntington Beach, CA., July 1999;  p. 466

 

ABSTRACT:           After examining three years worth of aggregate state data, the author suggests that the number of abortions in the United States has had an impact on the availability of infants relinquished for adoption. The premise of the model is that a woman with an unintended pregnancy faces three options: to abort the pregnancy; to relinquish the infant for adoption; or to keep the infant. The study attempts to fill the gap in previous empirical work on pregnancy resolution by taking advantageof available state-level data on the number of infants relinquished for adoption to examine the effect of abortion access over time. Results of the study show that abortion access affected the availability of infants relinquished during the 1980s in twodifferent ways. First, consistent with a theory of desired fertility, the availability of abortion providers has had the expected effect of reducing the availability of infants relinquished, particularly relative to the demand for abortion. Second, abortion law has had an unexpected negative effect, suggesting that as abortion laws have become more restrictive, the total number of unwanted births may decrease. The empirical results also suggest that omitted variable bias may confound the effect of some types of abortion law. Finally, to the extent that AFDC payments affect the incidence of single parenthood, the incidence of single parenthood is not correlated with the availability of infants relinquished. Two figures; four tables; 19 notes; threeappendixes; numerous references. (Author abstract modified.)

 

KEY TERMS:         abortion;  unplanned pregnancy;  adoption;  fertility;  data analysis;  federal laws;  state laws;  afdc

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.mdrc.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Media Impact on Biased Perceptual Processing of Threat-Relevant Imagery Among Patients Who Recovered Memory of Childhood Sexual Abuse Prior to the Onset of Treatment.

 

AUTHOR:               Leavitt, F.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Sexual Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Rush Medical Coll., Chicago, IL. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                8(4): pp. 91-102;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 1999;  p. 570

 

ABSTRACT:           Several recent studies have indicated that patients who report a history of sexual abuse on the basis of recovered or delayed recall of memory process Rorschach stimuli in ways that substantially deviate from non-abused patients. They +; exhibited sensitivity to threat-relevant imagery that was highly similar to the biased perceptual processing found among patients with continuously held memories of sexual abuse. In the present study, perceptual processing of threat-relevant imagery was +; examined as an artifact of media exposure in 40 patients who recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse as adults and in 40 patients who were not sexually abused. The two patient samples were divided into high and low media groups on the basis of a +; composite measure of media exposure. The results indicated that information gained from media exposure was unrelated to patients responses to Rorschach stimuli. Recovered memory patients produced threat-relevant imagery that is reminiscent of trauma +; irrespective of the level of media exposure; non-abused patients did not. That this imagery remained essentially unnoticed by even the most active consumers of the sexual abuse media among non-abused patients suggests that the popular media does not play+; a contagious role in the perceptual process of threat-relevant imagery. 23 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  repression;  adults abused as children;  sexual abuse;  sequelae;  psychological evaluation;  mass media;  child abuse research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Judicial Responses to the Protective Parent's Complaint of Child Sexual Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:               Neustein, A.;  Goetting, A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Sexual Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Help Us Regain the Children Research Center, New York, NY.

 

SOURCE:                8(4): pp. 103-122;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 1999;  p. 580

 

ABSTRACT:           The purpose of this paper is to supplement the existing body of literature on judicial bias against protective parents who allege sexual abuse in contested custody/visitation cases. This is done by identifying specific patterns that emerge in the study of such protective parent cases processed in the family courts and child protective service agencies. A classification of case outcome is constructed from 300 cross-sectional and longitudinal protective parent cases studied by the Help Us Regain the Children Research Center. Twenty percent of the cases reviewed resulted in a negative case outcome, in which the allegedly abusive parent was granted primary legal and physical custody of the child. Seventy percent of the cases were categorized as having a moderate case outcome, in which the parents were granted joint physical and sometimes legal custody of the child, or which granted liberal visitation with the allegedly abusive parent. Ten percent of the cases had a positive outcome, in which the protective parent obtained full legal and physical custody of the child, with supervised visits granted to the allegedly abusive parent. Contributing factors to each type of case are identified. The study's intent is not only to examine the patterns that emerge in protective parent cases, but to offer recommendations for policy changes in legislation to make the family courts and child welfare agencies more responsive to the needs of sexually abused children. 45 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  custody disputes;  abuse allegations;  judicial role;  judicial decisions;  longitudinal studies;  parental alienation syndrome;  false allegations

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Black Siblings: A Relationship for Life.

 

AUTHOR:               Goldstein, B. P.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Centre for Applied Social Studies.

 

SOURCE:                In: Mullender, A. (Editor). We Are Family: Sibling Relationships in Placement and Beyond. British Agencies for Adoption and Fostering, London (United Kingdom)., 1999;  p. 598

 

ABSTRACT:           Black sibling relationships are enhanced by opportunities to take care of each other, share adversity, share environment, and interact without parents. However, overwhelming adversity, separation, and skin tone bias can interfere in thedevelopment of attachment between brothers and sisters. Family support services, as well as placement decisions, should reinforce the situations that promote permanency and improve resilience. Black siblings should be placed together and encouraged to develop reciprocal relationships. The placement should consider the emotional characteristics of the home and the level of understanding of the caregivers about racism. Siblings that are separated should be supported in efforts to sustain contact with brothers and sisters. Placement with a black caregiver is recommended when removal from the home is necessary. 60 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         siblings;  sibling relationships;  african americans;  cultural factors;  cultural issues;  cultural values;  family relationships;  child placement

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.baaf.org.uk

 

 

TITLE:                    Cultural Aspects and Adaptations of FGDM: A State's Perspective.

 

AUTHOR:               Beck, C.;  Belgarde, R. L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Montana State Child and Family Services, Missoula.

 

SOURCE:                In: 1999 Family Group Decision Making National Roundtable and International Conference: Summary of Proceedings, Seattle, WA, May 12-14. American Humane Association, Englewood, CO. Children's Div., May 12-14, 1999;  p. 693

 

ABSTRACT:           Family group conference facilitators working with Native American families need to have a good understanding of the role of culture in family relationships and individual behavior. They should be sensitive to cultural differences, variations in communication styles, and biases that might prevent group participants or agencies from working together. The Montana family group decision-making model ensures that these factors are considered in a strategy that combines the approaches ofthe Family Group Conference model and the Family Unity Model. The integrated model, which has been used successfully with Native American families, emphasizes thorough preparation of conference participants and a clear process of goal identification, strengths assessment, and needs analysis. The family meets in private, without professionals, to develop the plan. Special modifications to the model have been made to engage Native American families, such as appointing a Native American social worker orspiritual person to recruit extended family members. Conferences also comply with family requests for prayer, conference format, and refreshments. As a result of the culturally sensitive family conference model, more children are able to live at home and a greater number of children have been placed with kin instead of in non-family foster care. 3 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         family group conferencing;  cultural issues;  cultural sensitivity;  cultural competency;  program models;  montana;  american indians;  communication

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.americanhumane.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Adoption and Subsidized Guardianship as Permanency Options in Kinship Foster Care: Barriers and Facilitating Conditions.

 

AUTHOR:               Mason, S. J.;  Gleeson, J. P.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Illinois Univ., Chicago. Dept. of Clinical Social Work in Psychiatry.

 

SOURCE:                In: Gleason, J.; Hairston, C. F. (Editors). Kinship Care: Improving Practice Through Research. Child Welfare League of America, Washington, DC., 1999;  p. 775

 

ABSTRACT:           A qualitative study of caseworkers in Illinois was conducted in 1997 to identify barriers and conditions that support permanency for children in foster care. The study was intended to inform several initiatives and policies designed to promote permanency planning in the state. Data were collected during subsidized guardianship waiver demonstration planning meetings; staff meetings; training programs for caseworkers on decision-making related to permanency; informal discussions with caseworkers; and interview questionnaires. Agency administrators, supervisors, and caseworkers demonstrated a commitment to permanency planning, especially adoption. Performance-based contracting and the Court Improvement Project were identified by the study participants as motivating influences. Barriers to permanency included family dynamics, caseworker bias, caseworker knowledge and skills, failure to apply nonadversarial strategies, limited resources, the culture of the child welfare system, the legal system, and procedures. These findings illustrate the importance of strong leadership, professional training, casework supervision, support for supervisors, and community-based services. 28 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         adoption;  subsidized guardianship;  kinship care;  permanency planning;  barriers;  predictor variables;  decision making;  illinois

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.cwla.org

 

 

TITLE:                    The Idealization of Women: Its Role in the Minimization of Child Sexual Abuse by Females.

 

AUTHOR:               Hetherton, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Birmingham Univ., Edgbaston (England). School of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                23(2): pp. 161-174;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science, February 1999

 

ABSTRACT:           Literature on female perpetrated child sexual abuse was reviewed to examine how cultural myths about women inhibit recognition of this phenomenon. Part One of the article evaluates evidence concerning beliefs about child sexual abuse by women which minimizes the problem. Common myths that abuse perpetrated by females is rare, that sexual abuse is primarily committed by males, that sexual abuse by women is gentle or not harmful, and that women who sexually abuse children are mentally ill are examined. Part Two provides a theoretical account of psychological processes that are hypothesized to maintain these beliefs. The third section illustrates the biases of professionals working in the area of child sexual abuse. Recommendations for future professional practices are made. 70 references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  female sex offenders;  social attitudes;  social values;  sex roles;  literature reviews;  cultural factors;  social workers attitudes

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Influence of the History on Physician's Interpretations of Girls' Genital Findings.

 

AUTHOR:               Paradise, J. E.;  Winter, M. R.;  Finkel, M. A.;  Berenson, A. B.;  Beiser, A. S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Pediatrics

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Boston Univ. School of Medicine, MA. Dept. of Pediatrics.

 

SOURCE:                103(5): pp. 980-986;  Elk Grove Village, IL, American Academy of Pediatrics, May 1999

 

ABSTRACT:           Because physicians customarily obtain histories before examining children in cases of possible sexual abuse, and because the resulting diagnostic opinions can influence important social and legal decisions, the researchers investigated whether clinical histories influence physicians' interpretations of girls' genital findings. In mailed questionnaires, 1,387 randomly selected members of the American Academy of Pediatrics and all 802 member of 4 professional groups concerned with child abuse or pediatric gynecology were asked to interpret 7 simulated cases. Respondents were asked to interpret 7 additional cases in separate questionnaires mailed 4 months later. Both sets of cases involved the same 7 photographs of girls' external genitalia. However, in 6 of the 7 case pairs, the histories in the 2 questionnaires differed in the extent to which they suggested sexual abuse. In the remaining (control) pair, the same history was presented in both questionnaires. Of 2,189 physicians, the responses from 604 physicians were eligible for analysis. Overall, the genital findings were interpreted most consistently by the most experienced physicians and least consistently by the least experienced physicians. The proportion of physicians whose interpretations of a photograph reversed in the direction suggested by the change in the associated history from no indication of abuse to possible abuse, or vice versa, ranged for experienced physicians from none to 5.6 percent; for moderately experienced physicians from 1.6 percent to 19.8 percent; and from inexperienced physicians from 3.6 percent to 27.2 percent. This difference between the experience groups was statistically significant in 4 case pairs. Mean interpretation scores for genital findings changed significantly when the histories changed in 2 case pairs for the experienced physicians, in 5 pairs for the moderately experienced physicians, and in all 6 pairs for the inexperienced physicians. The authors concluded that in some cases and especially for less experienced physicians, diagnostic expectation appears likely to influence physicians' interpretations of girls' genital findings. Physicians should be alert to the possibility of diagnostic expectation bias and its potentially serious social and legal consequences. 3 tables, 1 figure, and 30 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         physical examinations;  physicians;  diagnoses;  questionnaires;  child abuse history;  sexual abuse

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Delinquency Proceedings and The Indian Child Welfare Act.

 

AUTHOR:               Scotta, K. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Michigan Child Welfare Law Journal

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Michigan Indian Legal Services, Traverse City.

 

SOURCE:                3(1): pp. 19-21;  Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. Michigan Child Welfare Law Resource Center, Winter 1999

 

ABSTRACT:           This article, directed at lawyers in Michigan, reviews the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) and delinquency proceedings. Specifically excluded from the scope of the ICWA's definition of child custody proceedings are placements based upon acts which, if committed by an adult, would be deemed a crime... ICWA defines child placement to include proceedings against juveniles which may lead to foster care and proceedings against status offenders and those charged with minor misdemeanant behavior who would be covered by the prohibition against incarceration in secure facilities by the Juvenile Justice and Delinquent Prevention Act of 1974. Controversy over what constitutes a child custody proceeding has arisen because the full scope of the ICWA is not commonly asserted or applied outside the context of protective proceedings. In issuing the 1979 Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Guidelines for the implementation and enforcement of ICWA, the BIA provided that status offenses resulting in the termination of the parent and child relationship fall within the scope of the ICWA's definition of a child custody proceeding. When offenses lead to action to terminate parental rights, they are usually premised on the conclusion that the present custodian of the child is not providing adequate care and supervision. Michigan has codified the non-binding BIA Guidelines concerning the applicability of ICWA in delinquency cases into binding Court Rules. Many judges and lawyers remain unfamiliar with the ICWA which is one of the reasons why the scope of the Act is not routinely addressed in delinquency cases. Failure to apply the procedural and substantive provisions of the ICWA to status offense-based, delinquency cases results in improper pursuit of State mandated priorities in circumvention of the ICWA's federally mandated priority of protecting the tribes' interests in keeping Indian families together. The author concludes that the provisions of the Act must be consistently asserted and applied to all cases which fall under the ICWA's definition of child custody proceedings, including status offense-based delinquency proceedings. Ambiguities of the ICWA can be found in the discretionary nature of the BIA Guidelines, and in the applicability to delinquency proceedings. Michigan has removed all ambiguity by codifying the plain language of the Act and its supporting BIA Guidelines into Court Rules. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         juvenile delinquency;  american indians;  michigan;  federal laws;  lawyers;  guidelines

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Developing a Contextual Matrix.

 

AUTHOR:               Ryan, G.;  Bilbrey, C.;  Dick, J.;  Fuente, T. et al.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Colorado Univ., Denver. Kempe Children's Center.

 

SOURCE:                In: Ryan, G.; Lindstrom, B. R.; Indart, G.; Yager, J.; et al. (Editors). Web of Meaning: A Developmental-Contextual Approach in Sexual Abuse Treatment. Brandon, VT, Safer Society Press, 1999;  pp. 19-31

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter describes the development of a contextual matrix used for differential outcomes for victims of childhood sexual abuse. The authors divided the experience of sexual abuse into these variables: experience of sexual abuse, disclosure, outcomes, and long-term outcomes. The authors make the case that each sexual abuse victim has had a unique experience and they hypothesized which variables in the child, the family, and the prior life experience might be most relevant and influential in shaping how the child perceives and accommodates sexual abuse in the context of his or her view of the world. Many of these variables were drawn from the experiences of clinicians treating adolescents and adults, looking retrospectively at risk factors and protective factors. The authors finalized the matrix by including early life factors and thus it became a map to plot different developmental pathways that traverse (rather than begin with) the experience of sexual abuse. Using this contextual view supports a more personal and holistic approach to child victims. Although victims may share common issues, the ways they manage and interpret those issues cannot by assumed. The authors argue that clinicians must put aside personal bias and be open to explore the meaning of sexual victimization in the context of the client's life experience. 3 tables and numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  outcomes;  victimization;  risk factors;  disclosure;  development;  models

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.safersociety.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Measurement of Client Satisfaction: The State-of-the-Art.

 

AUTHOR:               Harris, G.;  Poertner, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Illinois Univ. School of Social Work, Urbana. Children and Family Research Center.

 

SOURCE:                Illinois Univ. School of Social Work, Urbana. Children and Family Research Center, 1999;  16 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           Assessment of client satisfaction is becoming increasingly popular because of its role in quality assurance and continuous quality improvement systems. This literature review focuses on the identification of recent measures of client satisfaction and examines them in terms of their ability to reflect clients' actual needs, the dimensions of satisfaction they are intended to measure, and their ability to obtain useful data from clients. Thirty-four client satisfaction studies published between 1990 and 1996 were identified in the following areas: mental health services (12), health services (7), family mediation services (4), child welfare/protection services, services for children with disabilities (3), and self-help groups (2). Items contained in client satisfaction measures come primarily from 3 sources: clients, professionals, and professional literature. This review organizes client satisfaction instruments according to the source by which items were generated. Each instrument is described by category. Methodological issues regarding the measurement of client satisfaction are discussed with respect to response rates and response bias. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         quality of care;  program evaluation;  literature reviews;  data collection;  research methodology;  assessment

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Technical Report

 

INTERNET URL:   http://cfrcwww.social.uiuc.edu

 

 

TITLE:                    Common Errors of Reasoning in Child Protection Work.

 

AUTHOR:               Munro, E.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    London School of Economics, (England). Dept. of Social Policy and Administration.

 

SOURCE:                23(8): pp. 745-758;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science Ltd., August 1999

 

ABSTRACT:           All child abuse inquiry reports published in Britain between 1973 and 1994 were reviewed to determine whether recurrent errors in professional practice may be explicable as examples of the typical errors of human reasoning identified by psychological research. Content analysis of the 45 reports found that professionals based assessments of risk on a narrow range of evidence. It was biased towards the information readily available to them, overlooking significant data known to other professionals. The range was also biased towards the more memorable data, that is, towards evidence that was vivid, concrete, arousing emotion and either the first or last information received. The evidence was also often faulty, in the main, to biased or dishonest reporting or errors in communciation. A critical attitude to evidence was found to correlate with whether or not the new information supported the existing view of the family. A major problem was that professionals were slow to revise their judgements despite a mounting body of evidence against them. Errors in professional reasoning in child protection work are not random, but predictable on the basis of research on how people intuitively simplify reasoning processes in making complex judgements. These errors can be reduced if people are aware of them and strive consciously to avoid them. Aids to reasoning need to be developed that recognize the central role of intuitive reasoning but offer methods for checking intuitive judgements more rigorously and systematically. 37 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         child protective services;  child welfare workers;  child welfare research;  decision making;  risk assessment;  great britain;  psychological characteristics;  evidence

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    In Large Surveys of the General Population Adoptive Families Found to Be Doing Well.

 

AUTHOR:               Melina, L. R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Adopted Child

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Adopted Child, Moscow, ID.

 

SOURCE:                18(1): pp. 1-4;  Moscow, ID, Adopted Child, January 1999

 

ABSTRACT:           This article reviews the findings of 2 studies which surveyed adoptive families drawn from large population studies, thus reducing chances of a biased sample. A 40-year longitudinal study in Great Britain (National Child Development Study) found that adoptees have greater success in education than children who were born in similar circumstances, but remained with their birth parents, and that this advantage continues into adulthood. There are some indications of how the adoptive environment contributes to this success, particularly in girls, who showed better educational outcomes than boys. A study in the United States (National Survey of Families and Households) found that in general, adoptive parents and birth parents have similarly satisfying experiences, and see no differences in their children in behavior or well being. The article notes that the positive tone of the findings in these national studies is consistent with that of other studies using similar methods. It is difficult to compare studies because each one asks different questions, collects data in different ways, looks at adoptees at different ages, and compares them to different groups. What is important is that when adoptees are studied as part of the general population, and data on them is collected as they grow up, a picture emerges that adoptees are doing well. These findings do not discount that adoptees do not have emotional issues to deal with or that every adoptee is doing well. Rather than comparing adoptive families to birth families, the focus needs to be on describing within group variability on adoptive families such as what factors contribute to healthy adoptive families. One sidebar reviews the incidence of learning disorders in the adoptee population and another sidebar focuses on fathers' involvement with children. 4 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         outcomes;  surveys;  longitudinal studies;  great britain;  learning disabilities

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.raisingadoptedchildren.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Motivated Self-Deception in Child Molesters.

 

AUTHOR:               Wright, R. C.;  Schneider, S. L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Sexual Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Psychiatry.

 

SOURCE:                8(1): pp. 89-111;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 1999

 

ABSTRACT:           This article introduces the concept of motivated self- deception to explain how cognitive distortions develop from normal cognitive processes in child molesters. These processes include cognitive heuristic and optimistic biases that are magnified and embellished because of deviant motivations. Several different everyday heuristic and patterns of self- deception are described, with examples of how the resulting biased information is activated and progressively organized by molesters throughout the abuse chain to accomplish specific goals. A framework is provided that distinguishes between two major groups of self-deception based on the set of functions intrinsic to each. This is followed by a discussion of how it is possible for molesters to truly deceive themselves. Finally, several treatment suggestions are provided with an emphasis on the implications for managing resistance and denial as well as fostering a sense of responsibility within molesters. 52 references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         sex offenders;  cognitive development;  denial;  deviant behavior;  sexual deviations;  sex offenders therapy;  therapeutic intervention

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    The Increasing Colorization of America's Child Welfare System: The Overrepresentation of African-American Children.

 

AUTHOR:               Morton, T. D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Policy and Practice

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Child Welfare Institute, Atlanta, GA.

 

SOURCE:                57(4): pp. 23-30;  American Public Human Services Association, Washington, DC., December 1999

 

ABSTRACT:           This article examines a variety of explanations for the overrepresentation of African American families in the child welfare system and the indications that these families are not being adequately served. African American children are more likely to be placed in foster care and spend longer time in care than white children. A detailed analysis of the third National Incidence Study conducted by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services reveals that the disproportionate representation of children in the child welfare system cannot be explained by income, family structure, number of children in the home, or substance abuse. However, it may be possible that African Americans are more likely to be investigated and treated with bias in the system or that interventions are not culturally competent. The most likely place for the selection bias to occur is in the risk assessment process. If more African Americans are being identified as at risk, the measures may be focusing on social or cultural characteristics of African Americans, assuming them to be associated with maltreatment. Current measures may not be valid for use with African American families. Implications for child welfare agencies are discussed. 7 references and 3 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         african americans;  foster care;  incidence;  child welfare;  cultural competency;  etiology;  risk factors;  racial discrimination

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.aphsa.org/

 

 

TITLE:                    The Challenges of Recognizing Child Abuse: Seeing is Believing.

 

AUTHOR:               Leventhal, J. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of the American Medical Association

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT. Dept. of Pediatrics.

 

SOURCE:                281(7): pp. 657-659;  Chicago, IL, American Medical Association, February 17, 1999

 

ABSTRACT:           This article reviews the reasons why physicians have difficulty identifying child abuse in their patients. Obstacles to accurate diagnoses include the misleading history reported by caregivers, inability of children to explain their injury, personal biases of the physician, and lack of education about child abuse. The consequences of these factors are demonstrated in a study presented in the same issue of the journal that found that physicians missed abuse-related head injuries in 31 percent of 173 children younger than 3 years old. Twenty-eight percent of the children were reinjured and four children died from subsequent abuse injuries. Most of the children with missed diagnoses presented with mild symptoms. Physicians are advised to conduct a complete examination on children who have nonspecific symptoms and ask parents about how injuries occurred. Suspicious cases should be reported to a child protective services agency. 15 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         physicians role;  diagnoses;  identification;  detection;  symptoms;  physicians attitudes;  physicians responsibility;  interdisciplinary approach

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    State v. Michaels: A New Jersey Supreme Court Ruling With National Implications.

 

AUTHOR:               Ross, K. L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Michigan Bar Journal

 

SOURCE:                78: pp. 32-35;  Michigan State Bar, Lansing., January 1999

 

ABSTRACT:           This article analyzes the implications of the New Jersey Supreme Court decision in State v. Michaels, which held that a hearing should be held to determine the reliability of a child's testimony before trial. The taint hearing actually assesses the quality of the pretrial interview process to ensure that the questioning procedures were not suggestive. Focus is placed on the procedures used during the investigation, not the credibility of the child. The Court suggested that trial judges hold a taint hearing in any of the following situations: the lack of a tape of the initial interview; limited control over influence by family members; limited degree of spontaneous recollection; interviewer bias; leading questions; repeated questioning and interviews; vilification of the accused; bribes and threats; and other factors that would influence the child. Findings of the taint hearing will ensure that information obtained from the child's interview can be presented as evidence without violating the defendant's constitutional right to confrontation.

 

KEY TERMS:         state case law;  new jersey;  child witnesses;  testimony;  sexual abuse;  competency;  right to confrontation;  credibility

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Advocacy and Child Protection.

 

AUTHOR:               Boylan, J.;  Wyllie, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Staffordshire Univ. (England).

 

SOURCE:                In: Parton, N. and Wattam, C. (Editors). Child Sexual Abuse: Responding to the Experiences of Children. Wiley and Son, New York, NY., 1999;  pp. 56-70

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter considers the role of advocacy in promoting children's involvement in the child protection process. Although children are involved in the process, their involvement is limited to subjects of intervention and concern rather than as participants. This omission reflects a general attitude within formal child protection systems that decision making and services are directed towards the protection of children on their behalf. The authors propose that advocacy is a method by which this biased approach to child protection may be challenged. Views of childhood and respect for family autonomy are reflected in the way in which children's views have been predominantly sought through an adult informant: the parent, caretaker, or professional. Next, the chapter reviews the evolution of the child advocacy movement, followed by an example of advocacy within child protection using a case conference. The chapter concludes by noting that if children are to participate positively in conferences, reviews, and the child protection process more generally, their agendas have to form part of the process from the beginning, given that the child has often played little or no part in the decision to enter the child protection system in the first place. Advocacy provides an opportunity for children to be listened to and to inform child protection. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         child protection;  child advocacy;  decision making;  childrens rights

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wiley.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Instrument Design and Selection: A Resource Guide for Children's Trust Fund's Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Programs.

 

AUTHOR:               Lanzi, R.;  Terry, K.;  Guest, K.;  Cotton, J.;  Ramey, C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Alabama Univ., Birmingham. Civitan International Research Center.

 

SOURCE:                Alabama Univ., Birmingham. Civitan International Research Center., 1999;  164 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This manual provides guidelines for the selection of psychological tests for use by Children's Trust Fund Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention programs. The guide outlines standards developed by the American Educational Research Association, the American Psychological Association, and the National Council on Measurement in Education for evaluating test coverage and use, reliability, predictive validity, content validity, test administration, test reporting, and test and item bias. Instructions for using the Mental Measurements Yearbook, Tests in Print, the ERIC database, ERIC's Test Locator, and the online databases of the Child Abuse and Neglect Clearinghouse are provided and examples of searches from these resources are included. The manual also presents a table and descriptions of published child abuse and neglect prevention program measures for typical constructs, such as attachment, child behavior, child development, family functioning, and parent-child interaction. 1 table.

 

KEY TERMS:         childrens trust funds;  prevention programs;  measures;  psychological tests;  psychometrics;  standards;  tests;  rating scales

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.circ.uab.edu

 

 

TITLE:                    THE LINK BETWEEN CHILD ABUSE AND FAMILY VIOLENCE: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

SOURCE:                NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:         spouse abuse;  child welfare services;  welfare reform;  interagency collaboration;  interdisciplinary approach;  child protective services;  battered women;  multiproblem families;  interagency cooperation;  child welfare research;  systems reform;  child welfare workers;  prevalence;  intervention strategies;  assessment;  decision making;  massachusetts;  child abuse;  statewide planning;  child safety;  michigan;  family preservation;  service delivery;  model programs;  courts role;  juvenile courts;  child welfare reform;  policy formation;  social policies;  federal programs;  funding;  maternal behavior;  mental health;  personality disorders;  mental disorders;  interprofessional relationships;  child protection;  child welfare;  tanf;  poverty;  colorado;  primary prevention;  systems development;  indicators;  service integration;  feminism;  prevention;  family violence;  community based services;  protocols;  mandatory reporting;  child abuse reporting;  reporting procedures;  maine;  risk assessment;  male batterers;  parental responsibility;  oregon;  family group conferencing;  family counseling

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:                    CHILD NEGLECT: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

SOURCE:                NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:         child abuse research;  decision making;  child neglect;  definitions;  risk factors;  neglected children;  policy formation;  child neglect research;  child protection;  outcomes;  evaluation;  prevention;  social policies;  child welfare;  prevalence;  sequelae;  research methodology;  intervention;  ecological factors;  spouse abuse;  termination of parental rights;  child protection laws;  battered women;  family support systems;  community based services;  risk assessment;  child protective services;  families at risk;  child fatalities;  case studies;  parental responsibility;  child health;  child development;  cognitive development;  emotional neglect;  physical neglect;  cultural competency;  cultural factors;  cultural sensitivity;  socioeconomic status;  poverty;  depression;  literature reviews;  psychological needs

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:                    CHILD NEGLECT RESEARCH: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

SOURCE:                NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:         child abuse research;  decision making;  child neglect;  definitions;  risk factors;  neglected children;  policy formation;  child neglect research;  child protection;  outcomes;  evaluation;  prevention;  research methodology;  intervention;  ecological factors;  child development;  cognitive development;  emotional neglect;  physical neglect;  sequelae;  literature reviews;  models;  family environment;  parenting skills;  predictor variables;  family support systems;  parental behavior;  family life;  family characteristics;  home environment;  sexual abuse;  physical abuse;  longitudinal studies;  research reviews;  child welfare research;  foster care;  independent living;  family reunification;  attachment;  fathers;  family structure;  families at risk;  individual therapy;  group therapy;  prevalence;  intervention strategies;  risk assessment;  etiology

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:                    CONFIDENTIALITY: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

SOURCE:                NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:         assessment;  child witnesses of family violence;  battered women;  multiproblem families;  psychological evaluation;  evaluation methods;  confidentiality;  child abuse reporting;  evidence presentation;  rules of evidence;  investigations;  district attorneys;  competency;  expert testimony;  hearsay rule;  privileged communications;  child advocacy;  lawyers role;  lawyers responsibility;  best interests of the child;  guardians ad litem;  standards;  ethics;  best practices;  illinois;  courts role;  professional privilege;  mandatory reporting;  constitutional challenges;  policy information;  clergys role;  therapists role;  clergy;  religion;  testimony;  therapists

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:                    CPS RISK ASSESSMENT AND DECISION MAKING: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

SOURCE:                NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:         child neglect;  risk assessment;  child protective services;  evaluation;  community based services;  sexual abuse;  assessment;  credibility;  disclosure;  research methodology;  decision making;  child protection;  social work;  outcomes;  policy formation;  child welfare;  family centered services;  detection;  symptoms;  child welfare services;  NCCAN;  social workers attitudes;  interviews;  child welfare research;  washington;  physical abuse;  service delivery;  resource materials;  characteristics of abuser;  investigations;  child welfare workers;  risk factors;  computer based training;  social workers;  models;  protocols;  diagnoses;  probability;  evaluation methods;  predictor variables;  well being;  validity;  reliability;  measures;  family group conferencing;  family preservation;  mediation;  family role;  new zealand;  incest;  child welfare reform;  case assessment;  intervention strategies;  indicators;  managed care;  outcome based accountability;  child abuse research;  female sex offenders;  police attitudes;  sex roles;  spouse abuse;  interagency collaboration;  multiproblem families;  maine;  abuse allegations;  proof;  evidence;  standards;  child protection laws;  state surveys

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:                    CULTURAL ISSUES IN CHILD WELFARE: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

SOURCE:                NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:         prevention programs;  program planning;  program development;  program administration;  cultural competency;  funding;  needs assessment;  program evaluation;  child neglect;  child protection;  cultural factors;  cultural sensitivity;  child welfare services;  cultural differences;  economic factors;  risk factors;  children at risk;  hispanics;  multicultural;  ethnic studies;  cultural values;  therapists responsibility;  kinship care;  mediation;  african americans;  assessment;  intervention strategies;  asian americans;  american indians;  policy formation;  social policies;  child welfare;  case management;  case plans;  family centered services;  childrens services;  parental role;  worker client relationships;  service delivery;  social workers;  systems reform;  legislation;  social work;  permanency planning;  decision making;  foster care drift;  child placement;  attachment;  best interests of the child;  parent child relationships;  cross cultural studies;  professional training;  child protective services;  practice protocols;  program models;  adolescents;  foster care;  role models;  self concept;  ethnic identity

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:                    CHILD WELFARE REFORM: CPS Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

SOURCE:                NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:         interagency collaboration;  interdisciplinary approach;  child protective services;  battered women;  multiproblem families;  interagency cooperation;  child welfare research;  systems reform;  assessment;  program models;  children at risk;  early intervention programs;  mental health services;  child protection;  mental disorders;  ethics;  best practices;  service delivery;  guidelines;  child welfare services;  program administration;  evaluation;  demonstration programs;  dual tracking;  family centered services;  child welfare reform;  missouri;  michigan;  outcomes;  community cooperation;  social policies;  poverty;  family preservation;  agency role;  legislation;  historical perspective;  courts role;  prevalence;  sequelae;  foster care;  models;  decision making;  case assessment;  intervention strategies;  child abuse reporting;  multitrack response system;  investigations;  virginia;  social services;  pilot programs;  florida;  data analysis;  indicators;  home evaluation;  new jersey;  program evaluation;  statewide planning;  program improvement

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:                    CHILD WELFARE REFORM SYSTEMS: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

SOURCE:                NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:         court reform;  juvenile courts;  court improvement projects;  program evaluation;  permanency planning;  expedited permanency planning;  multidisciplinary teams;  mediation;  judges;  connecticut;  termination of parental rights;  lawyers;  child protection;  state courts;  substance abusing parents;  family courts;  drug treatment programs;  child welfare services;  judicial responsibility;  adoption;  asfa;  judicial role;  legal processes;  hearings;  california;  courts role;  trial courts;  spouse abuse;  child witnesses of family violence;  program models;  interagency collaboration;  systems reform;  service delivery;  alternative dispute resolution;  oregon;  prosecution;  victims rights;  interagency cooperation;  failure to protect;  civil courts;  courts;  training;  child abuse reporting;  child witnesses;  suggestibility;  case management;  courts responsibility;  court jurisdiction;  program development;  state surveys;  childrens rights;  program planning;  criminal justice system;  investigations;  program descriptions;  federal programs;  grants;  professional training;  dependency;  court appointed special advocates;  family group conferencing;  community based services;  tennessee;  evaluation methods;  judicial decisions;  program coordination;  service coordination;  management information systems;  best practices;  historical perspective;  program improvement;  federal case law;  policy formation;  conferences;  nevada;  juvenile delinquency;  accountability;  pennsylvania;  state laws;  child welfare reform;  new york;  state statutory law;  public notification;  statute of limitations

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:                    OUT OF HOME CARE: FOSTER FAMILY CARE (Excludes Kinship Care and Independent Living): Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

SOURCE:                NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:          

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:          

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:    

 

 

TITLE:                    NONADVERSARIAL CASE RESOLUTION: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

SOURCE:                NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:         court reform;  juvenile courts;  court improvement projects;  program evaluation;  permanency planning;  expedited permanency planning;  multidisciplinary teams;  mediation;  new york;  family group conferencing;  demonstration programs;  pilot programs;  program models;  empowerment;  strengths assessment;  nonadversarial case resolution;  intervention strategies;  decision making;  family centered services;  family role;  kinship care;  cultural sensitivity;  cultural competency;  african americans;  adoption;  foster care;  child welfare reform;  funding;  subsidized guardianship;  model programs;  family courts;  alternative dispute resolution;  case management;  child welfare agencies;  child welfare services;  models;  ethics;  courts role;  lawyers role;  family preservation;  new zealand;  child placement;  minority groups;  outcomes;  research methodology;  michigan;  california;  dependency;  substance abusing parents;  court appointed special advocates;  professional training;  judges;  community based services;  child protective services;  texas;  service delivery;  family problems;  family environment;  family services;  program descriptions;  practice protocols;  program planning

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:                    RISK FACTORS: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

SOURCE:                NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:         characteristics of abuser;  predictor variables;  risk factors;  child abuse research;  families at risk;  assessment;  physicians role;  identification;  developmental disabilities;  children with disabilities;  pediatricians role;  evaluation methods;  physical abuse;  preschool children;  parent education;  community based services;  children at risk;  child abuse;  sequelae;  prevalence;  social policies;  etiology;  drug abuse;  alcohol abuse;  drug treatment programs;  crime;  social problems;  outcomes;  indicators;  state government;  intervention strategies;  family violence;  prevention programs;  ecological factors;  primary prevention;  secondary prevention;  research needs;  substance abuse;  measures;  drug addiction;  african americans;  ethnic differences;  pediatricians;  hipanics;  resilience;  research reviews;  child development;  longitudinal studies;  fetal alcohol syndrome;  alcoholism;  denmark;  national surveys;  newborn infants;  home visitors;  questionnaires

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:                    Legislation Regarding the Use of Special Hearsay Exceptions for Criminal Child Abuse Cases (Current through December 31, 1999): Alabama.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Witnesses Number 23

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES  Administration for Children and Families  Administration on Children, Youth and Families  Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION  330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565  Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE  99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321

 

SOURCE:                In: Special Child Hearsay Exceptions

 

KEY TERMS:         Statute;  Alabama;  Abuse;  Child;  Child Abuse;  Child Abuse Cases;  conduct;  Criminal Child Abuse;  Criminal;  defendant;  jurisdiction;  Legislation;  offense;  ring of veracity;  Special Hearsay Exceptions;  trauma

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Statutes

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.ndaa-apri.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Legislation Regarding the Use of Special Hearsay Exceptions for Criminal Child Abuse Cases (Current through December 31, 1999): Delaware.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Witnesses Number 23

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES  Administration for Children and Families  Administration on Children, Youth and Families  Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION  330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565  Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE  99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321

 

SOURCE:                In: Special Child Hearsay Exceptions

 

KEY TERMS:         Statute;  Delaware;  Abuse;  Child;  Child Abuse;  Child Abuse Cases;  Criminal Child Abuse;  Criminal;  defendant;  jurisdiction;  Legislation;  offense;  Special Hearsay Exceptions;  trauma

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Statutes

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.ndaa-apri.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Below the Surface: A Self-Assessment Guide For Anyone Considering Adoption Across Racial or Cultural Lines.

 

AUTHOR:               Hall, B.;  Steinberg, G.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Pact, An Adoption Alliance, San Francisco, CA.

 

SOURCE:                Pact, An Adoption Alliance, San Francisco, CA., 1998;  p. 485

 

ABSTRACT:           Designed as a self-assessment tool, this booklet contains a multiple-choice question self-test for persons considering transracial adoption. The questions are designed to help individuals determine their level of comfort with issues +; they are likely to face after adopting across racial lines. Feedback about their areas of strength and weakness can help the prospective adoptive parent prepare for challenges ahead. The questions are not designed to have right or wrong answers, but +; to allow the people to choose answers that most closely match their feelings. The booklet is divided into four types of questions: personality questions assess tendencies in areas that relate to experiences typical of transracial adoptive parents; +; attitude questions reveal biases of both the prospective parents and society; lifestyle questions assess their lives from the point of view of the adopted child; and knowledge questions help prospective parents realize what they know or do not know about+; the history and contributions of African Americans and other groups. A Transracial Adoption Suitability Index rates the their score and provides a barometer of their suitability for transracial adoption. Resource guide.

 

KEY TERMS:         transracial adoption;  cultural issues;  personality assessment;  racial factors;  african americans;  attitudes;  family life;  california

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Training Material

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.pactadopt.org

 

 

TITLE:                    The Effects of Sample Selection Bias on Racial Differences in Child Abuse Reporting.

 

AUTHOR:               Ards, S.;  Chung, C.;  Myers, S. L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Benedict College, Columbia, SC. Center of Excellence.

 

SOURCE:                22(2): pp. 103-115;  Oxford (Great Britain), Elsevier Science, Ltd., February 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           This study examined whether design features of Wave 1, 1980 National Incidence Study (NIS) data resulted in sample selection bias when certain victims of maltreatment were excluded. Logistic regression models for the probability of child abuse reports to the child protective services (CPS) were estimated using maximum likelihood methods for 511 Black and 2,499 White child abuse cases. The models were estimated with and without correction for selection bias using a two-step procedure proposed by Heckman. Substantial differences were found in the characteristics of Black and White victims by source of report and by type of maltreatment. Also found were sizeable differences within each racial group between sampled agencies and nonsampled agencies. Sample selection bias affected the estimation of both White and Black child abuse reporting rates. In the Black sample, however, the effect of sample selection bias was to reduce the statistical significance of the impacts of reporting agency and physical and sexual abuse on report rates. In the White sample, most significant factors in the basic model remained statistically significant without correction for selection bias. Selection bias was found to be caused by the exclusion of family, friends and neighbors in the NIS sample design. Such exclusion has the effect of altering the interpretation of the determinants of child abuse reporting among Blacks, but not among Whites. Thus, conclusions about racial differences in child maltreatment must be reached cautiously, given the NIS study design. 19 references and 2 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         child abuse reporting;  child abuse research;  research methodology;  sampling studies;  racial differences

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Child Welfare and Substance Abuse Services: From Barriers to Collaboration.

 

AUTHOR:               Colby, S. M.;  Murrell, W.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies.

 

SOURCE:                In: Hampton, R. L.; Senatore, V.; and Gullotta, T. P. (Editors). Substance Abuse, Family Violence, and Child Welfare: Bridging Perspectives. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., 1998;  pp. 188-219

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter provides an overview of barriers to collaboration between substance abuse treatment and child welfare services and describes three model programs that feature cooperation between agencies. Differences in professional missions, professional mistrust, and lack of expertise are cited as the primary obstacles to collaboration. Methods for resolving these issues, in addition to the potential impact of welfare reform, are discussed. The chapter also reviews other factors that influence policy, such as stereotypes and biases against drug-addicted parents. The ADAPT (Alcohol and Drug Abuse Project Team) program in Ohio; the MAP (Maternal Addiction Program) in Miami, Florida; and Project Discovery in Rhode Island developed innovative strategies for promoting collaboration. The ADAPT program provides substance abuse services as part of a placement prevention and family reunification effort, while the MAP project treats substance abusing mothers during pregnancy and after delivery. Project Discovery targets incarcerated women. Client characteristics and service components are described for each program. 58 references and 1 table.

 

KEY TERMS:         child welfare services;  drug treatment programs;  service delivery;  interdisciplinary approach;  interagency cooperation;  barriers;  program planning

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    Family Preservation Services and Special Populations: The Invisible Target.

 

AUTHOR:               Denby, R. W.;  Curtis, C. M.;  Alford, K. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Families in Society

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Tennessee Univ., Knoxville. College of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                79(1): pp. 3-14;  Milwaukee, WI, Families International, Inc., January-February 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           This article presents research findings from a national study that examined the attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of family preservation workers regarding their use of special population service criterion. Specifically, the crucial role played by individual workers who make decisions about service delivery is explored. The relationship between decision making and special populations is explored with regard to out-of-home placements. The design of this study is descriptive research by means of a cross-sectional mail-survey method. A sample of 254 family preservation workers completed and returned the survey. Results indicate a significant bias against targeting family preservation services to children of color. Overall, workers do not appear to support targeting services using the special-population criterion because of three main reasons, namely, individual ideologies concerning the perception that the targeting criterion is exclusionary, problems with conceptualization, and a lack of resources to support service delivery. Explanations of the findings, and their implications for research and practice are also discussed. 4 tables, 1 figure and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         child welfare workers;  family preservation;  racial discrimination;  social workers attitudes;  feasibility studies;  service delivery;  surveys;  decision making

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    A Comparative Survey of Beliefs About Normal Childhood Sexual Behaviors.

 

AUTHOR:               Heiman, M. L.;  Leiblum, S.;  Esquilin, S. C.;  Pallitto, L. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

SOURCE:                22(4): pp. 289-304;  Oxford (Great Britain), Elsevier Science, Ltd., April 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           This study examined the beliefs of adults about normal childhood sexual behaviors, and the influence of role, gender, and life experience on the formation of those attitudes. A survey describing 20 different scenarios of children younger than age 13 interacting with themselves or other children in a sexual manner was administered to four groups of adults: sexual abuse experts; therapists involved in a sexual abuse training program; medical students attending a human sexuality program; and group facilitators of the human sexuality program. Behaviors that involved oral, vaginal, or anal penetration were judged by a majority of adults to be abnormal sexual behaviors in children younger than 13 years old. Professionals working with sexually abused children rated certain sexual behaviors as more abnormal than adults participating in a human sexuality course. Both sexual abuse trainees and facilitators of the human sexuality course showed more directional biases than other groups, with trainees always rating behaviors in the direction of abnormal and facilitators always rating behaviors in the direction of normal. Females also judged many of the sexual behaviors to be more abnormal than males. Role and gender significantly influence what adults believe constitutes normal and abnormal childhood sexual behavior. 38 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         child behavior;  sexual behavior;  physicians attitudes;  psychologists attitudes

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Child Abuse and Divorce: Competing Priorities and Agenda.

 

AUTHOR:               Faller, K. C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. Dept. of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                Presented at: The 14th National Symposium on Child Sexual Abuse, Huntsville, AL, March 17, 1998;  pp. 102-115

 

ABSTRACT:           This article provides guidance for professionals evaluating allegations of abuse in divorce situations. It describes the challenges peculiar to cases where divorce and abuse allegations co-exist, relevant research findings, and potential sources of bias. The article recommends a multidisciplinary approach to assess the veracity of the allegations. Specific guidelines for evaluation include: review all background information and mental health records; collect data from other professionals who are working with the family; and interview victims, siblings, both parents, and other partners of the parents. Decisions should be based on consideration of alternative explanations, as well as child behavior, context of the abuse, and medical findings. 32 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         custody disputes;  divorce;  disclosure;  false allegations;  assessment;  multidisciplinary teams;  interdisciplinary approach

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Proceedings Paper

 

 

TITLE:                    Expectancy Effects in Reconstructive Memory: When the Past Is Just What We Expected.

 

AUTHOR:               Hirt, E. R.;  McDonald, H. E.;  Markman, K. D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                In: Lynn, S. J. and McConkey, K. M. (Editors). Truth in Memory. New York, NY, Guilford Publications, Inc., 1998;  pp. 62-89

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter explains the impact of psychoencoding and expectations on the memory process. In certain situations, expectations and theories may bias the reconstructive memory process. For example, participants in a self-help group may expect that they have improved, and inaccurately recall their previous level of skills as lower than it actually was. Hirt's model of reconstructive memory asserts that memory retrieval relies on the integration of information from the present (outcome), the expected relationship between the past and the present, and the trace of the actual memory. The chapter summarizes empirical evidence that examines the role of memory traces and biases in memory recall. Variables such as the time between encoding of the event and the receipt of the expectancy, perceiver's goals during encoding, motivation for accuracy, and mismatches between motivation and expectancy were shown to determine how much weight is given to the memory trace and the degree to which expectancy influenced the memory. Motivational goals included the desire to remember with accuracy and the desire to retrieve a particular memory (whether it is accurate or not). Implications for research and psychotherapy are discussed. Numerous references and 2 figures.

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  repression;  cognitive development;  psychological theories

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.guilford.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Textbook Models of Multiple Personality: Source, Bias, and Social Consequences.

 

AUTHOR:               Arrigo, J. M.;  Pezdek, K.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Claremont Graduate Univ., CA. School of Behavioral and Organizational Science.

 

SOURCE:                In: Lynn, S. J. and McConkey, K. M. (Editors). Truth in Memory. New York, NY, Guilford Publications, Inc., 1998;  pp. 372-393

 

ABSTRACT:           Textbook descriptions of multiple personality disorder (MPD) were reviewed for consistency with cited sources and available scientific literature. Content and citation analyses were also performed to examine the selection of sources used to support common models of MPD and qualitative analyses compared the treatment of three major MPD cases. A review of PsycLIT abstracts published during the same period as the textbooks revealed strong support for the trauma model of MPD, which explains that MPD is caused by external, severe abusive stressors. However, the textbooks also described other models of MPD, including trait MPD, caused by an internal defect; fake MPD, or deception; and measurable MPD, which identifies the characteristics of people with MPD. Further analysis revealed that the textbooks were not consistent or complete in summarizing the cited research, especially information about trauma MPD. Likewise, the textbooks were inconsistent in fidelity to sources that reported popular MPD cases, including Bianchi, Eve, and Sybil. The social consequences of inaccuracies in textbooks are discussed. 49 references, 1 figure, and 4 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         multiple personality disorder;  memory;  repression;  dissociation;  social policies;  professional training;  literature reviews

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.guilford.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Recovered Memories in the Courtroom.

 

AUTHOR:               Underwager, R.;  Wakefield, H.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Institute for Psychological Therapies, Northfield, MN.

 

SOURCE:                In: Lynn, S. J. and McConkey, K. M. (Editors). Truth in Memory. New York, NY, Guilford Publications, Inc., 1998;  pp. 394-434

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter applies the Daubert test for admissibility of evidence into court proceedings to the presentation of expert testimony regarding recovered memories. In the ruling for Daubert versus Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, the United States Supreme Court required judges to determine admissibility of evidence based on its acceptance as scientific knowledge and relevance to the case. Criteria for consideration as scientific knowledge include testability of the evidence, peer review and publication, known rate of error, and consensus within the scientific community. Several supreme courts and trial courts have found little scientific support for repressed memories and dismissed cases involving recovery. However, the criteria are not objective and may be misinterpreted by biased judges who elect to consider the totality of the circumstances of the evidence. The chapter reviews the nature of memory and summarizes findings from the research about suggestibility and the creation of pseudomemories. The scientific evidence of repression, dissociation and posttraumatic stress disorder, dissociative identity disorder, and body memories are discussed. The chapter also describes civil litigation, statutes of limitations, and strategies for assessing claims of repressed memories. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  repression;  courts;  legal processes;  expert testimony;  false memory syndrome;  lawsuits;  rules of evidence

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.guilford.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Bias in Child Maltreatment Reporting: Revisiting the Myth of Classlessness.

 

AUTHOR:               Drake, B.;  Zuravin, S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    American Journal of Orthopsychiatry

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO. George Warren Brown School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                68(2): pp. 295-304;  American Orthopsychiatric Association, New York, NY, April 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           Data on the degree of class bias in child protective services databases are reviewed in this article, along with recent empirical findings on the class distribution of child maltreatment. The evidence suggests high levels of child abuse and neglect among the poor and, despite debate on the question, there is no body of empirical data suggesting that these findings are a product of bias predisposing toward overestimates of child maltreatment among the poor. Implications for research, practice, and policy are offered. 40 references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         child abuse reporting;  poverty;  economic disadvantage;  statistical data

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Epidemiology of Sexual Abuse of Children: Old Problems, New Directions.

 

AUTHOR:               Leventhal, J. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT. Dept. of Pediatrics.

 

SOURCE:                22(6): pp. 481-491;  Oxford (Great Britain), Elsevier Science, Ltd., June 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           This article summarizes the major findings of epidemiological studies of child sexual abuse and reviews directions for future research. Five areas of research are described: studies of prevalence; reported incidence; data obtained from children; the consequences of sexual abuse; and risk factors. Studies of prevalence have focused on the frequency of child sexual abuse, the characteristics of victims and offenders, and the types of abuse, while incidence studies have investigated the types and characteristics of abuse as reported to the proper authorities. Both types of research are limited by varying definitions and measurements of child sexual abuse. Few studies have actually interviewed children about victimization and sexual abuse because of concerns about the accuracy of reports and the safety of the children. However, research can be designed to protect children who disclose abuse during the study. The consequences of sexual abuse have been investigated in long-term cohort studies of children, case control studies, and cross-sectional studies at a single point in time. Findings from all types of studies have been weak and limited by research design. More longitudinal studies are needed to study the long term effects of abuse. Finally, studies of risk factors in sexual abuse have also failed to find strong relationships between variables. Barriers to future epidemiological research include the biases of researchers and legislators, inadequate funding, and the need to obtain the collaboration of professionals in other disciplines. 27 references and 1 table.

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  research needs;  research reviews;  medical research;  epidemiology

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Reliability and Credibility of Young Children's Reports: From Research to Policy and Practice.

 

AUTHOR:               Bruck, M.;  Ceci, S. J.;  Hembrooke, H.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    American Psychologist

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada). Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                53(2): pp. 136-151;  American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, February 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           This article reviews issues, concerns, and research regarding the interviewing of young child witnesses. The article focuses on research on suggestibility and the influence of various interviewing techniques on the reliability and credibility of young children's reports. Interviewer bias, guided imagery, peer pressure, visualization techniques, repetition of misinformation, and selective reinforcement are described as potential sources of false allegations. Research indicates that children are able to provide reliable and accurate reports of events when the interviewer is neutral and there exists no motivation for the child to report false information. However, children can be swayed by suggestive interviewing techniques and older children are as susceptible to suggestion as preschool children. Implications for future research and for policy are discussed. 90 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         child witnesses;  interviews;  credibility;  reliability;  suggestibility;  methods;  leading questions

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.apa.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Aggression in the Schools: Toward Reducing Ethnic Conflict and Enhancing Ethnic Understanding.

 

AUTHOR:               Feshbach, N. D.;  Feshbach, S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    California Univ., Los Angeles.

 

SOURCE:                In: Trickett, P. K. and Schellenbach, C. D. (Editors). Violence Against Children in the Family and the Community. Washington, DC, American Psychological Association, 1998;  pp. 269-286

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter presents an overview of the nature and scope of school violence, the factors contributing to school violence, and the programs that address its reduction. Statistics on the frequency of aggression and violence in schools are cited. The use of corporal punishment in schools is discussed with respect to its role in school violence. The essential features of a new project being initiated to deal with one aspect of the problem, namely, ethnic bias and ethnic conflict, are presented. This program is designed to enhance an appreciation of other ethnic groups through systematic application of empathy, and is intended to help children recognize the common experiences and shared values and ideals of diverse social groups, and to understand differences in perspectives and customs. The authors address issues bearing on aggression due to prejudice at the elementary, middle, and high school levels. They conclude that school violence will not be eliminated by addressing issues of racism and ethnic bias; however, its frequency, salience, and scope should be significancy reduced. 3 tables, 1 figure, and numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         school violence;  aggression;  cultural conflicts;  ethnic groups;  students;  victimization;  crime

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.apa.org

 

 

TITLE:                    In Defense of Mothers of Sexual Abuse Victims.

 

AUTHOR:               Corcoran, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Families in Society

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Texas Univ., Arlington. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                79(4): pp. 358-369;  Milwaukee, WI, Families International, Inc., July-August 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           This review synthesizes the clinical and empirical literature on mothers of sexual abuse victims. Evidence is cited that maternal reaction is crucial to a child's recovery from sexual abuse. Also explored are those variables involved in a mother's belief in her child's account and the supportive actions she is able to take to protect her child. The more recent empirical work challenges earlier clinical discussions of maternal culpability in cases of sexual abuse perpetration; however, certain societal biases and oppressive social conditions that contribute to mother-blaming and that also interfere with a mother's ability to protect her children have been neglected. These biases and social conditions, as well as suggestions for social work practice are explored. 53 references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         mothers of abuse victims;  sexual abuse;  literature reviews;  intervention strategies;  parental role;  parental reactions;  passive abusers

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    The Evidence for Parental Alienation Syndrome: An Examination of Gardner's Theories and Opinions.

 

AUTHOR:               Dallam, S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Treating Abuse Today

 

SOURCE:                8(2): pp. 25-34;  Lancaster, PA, Survivors and Victims Empowered (SAVE), March-April 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           Richard A. Gardner's theories regarding pedophilia, child abuse hysteria, and parental alienation syndrome (PAS) are critically reviewed in this article. The article summarizes Gardner's observation that allegations of child sexual abuse that arise during child custody disputes are actually the result of one parent programming the child against the other parent. In the majority of cases evaluated by Gardner, the mother convinces the child to falsely accuse the father of abuse. Gardner and other PAS-trained therapists recommend that courts impose fines and other punishment on women who influence their children to make false accusations. They suggest that the child have less or no contact with the mother and greater contact with the father to promote a healthy psychological bond. However, Gardner's theories are based solely on observation, with no scientific evidence. His assessment instrument, the Sex Abuse Legitimacy Scale, has not been validated or tested for reliability. Even supporters of Gardner's theories have indicated that the instrument should not be used during expert testimony. Conceptual problems with Gardner's theories include its reliance on circular reasoning, erroneous assumptions, and lack of consideration of alternative explanations. Critics assert that the theories endanger children, are biased against women, and promote a legal backlash against women who have legitimate reports. 42 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         parent child relationships;  child custody;  custody disputes;  false allegations;  parental alienation syndrome;  suggestibility;  psychological theories;  validity;  reliability

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://child.cornell.edu/

 

 

TITLE:                    A Competency-Based Method for Providing Worker Feedback to CPS Supervisors.

 

AUTHOR:               Drake, B.;  Washeck, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Administration in Social Work

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Washington Univ., Saint Louis, MO. George Warren Brown School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                22(3): pp. 55-74;  Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           This study used an empirically based instrument to allow child protective service workers to provide supervisors with feedback that would help them identify their areas of strengths and weaknesses. Using a series of focus groups, researchers developed a set of supervisory competencies that served as the basis of a supervisory assessment form. Pilot testing of this form showed that mean scores varied substantially between supervisors. To avoid bias in which workers rate supervisors whom they like more positively than those they dislike, workers responded to narrowly focused questions rather than providing vague global appraisals. Of 127 packets distributed, 114 were returned (90% return rate). Among the results were that many items on the form correlated with supervisory tenure, and many of these correlations were negative. Both items relating to the workers' perception of fairness by the supervisor also negatively correlated to tenure. Supervisors who had spent more time in the field prior to being promoted to a supervisory position were not rated more highly by workers. Possible reasons for these results are suggested. The program can be used as a means to provide upward feedback throughout the administrative continuum, and is best used in an advisory context by supervisors themselves and not as the primary means by which management evaluates supervisors. Study limitations and further research needs in this area are discussed.

 

KEY TERMS:         child protective services;  child welfare workers;  focus groups;  competency;  supervisors role

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Sexual Abuse Allegations in Custody Visitation Cases: Difficult Decisions in Divisive Divorces.

 

AUTHOR:               Goldstein, S. L.;  Tyler, R. P.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    APSAC Advisor

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Child Abuse Forensic Institute, Napa, CA.

 

SOURCE:                11(3): pp. 15-18;  Chicago, IL, American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children, Fall 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           This article examines the difficulty in investigating sexual abuse allegations in divorce custody cases. These cases are difficult to investigate because of the lack of evidence, possible biases and the bitterness between the parties. The problems are compounded by shrinking budgets and staff in many investigative agencies. Questions are listed that should be paid close attention to when credibility issues arise, including: to whom did the child first disclose?; why is the child telling now?; what evidence is available to confirm what the child is saying? Three types of sexual abuse allegations are identified: (1) those in which there is a sincere, legitimate and valid report made which is true because the abuse actually occurred; (2) those in which there is a sincere, legitimate, and valid report made which is a misinterpretation or those in which a direct and correct report of some behavior or statements made by the child, but there was no abuse; and (3) those where there is a deliberately malicious false allegation made. Four investigative concerns are summarized, and recommendations for interviewing are made.7 7 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         investigations;  false allegations;  interviews;  child custody;  abuse allegations

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.apsac.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Social Information-Processing Patterns as Predictors of Social Adaptation and Behavior Problems Among Maltreated Children in Foster Care.

 

AUTHOR:               Price, J. M.;  Lansverk, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    San Diego State Univ., CA. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                22(9): pp. 845-858;  Oxford (Great Britain), Elsevier Science, Ltd., September 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           The goal of the study described was to determine if social information processing patterns were predictive of later social adaptation and behavior problems within a group of abused children in foster care. A longitudinal design was used to address the study hypotheses. The sample population consisted of 124 ethnically diverse abused children ages 5 to 10 who had been placed into foster care. Twelve months following entrance into foster care, children were presented with age relevant hypothetical vignettes to assess the quality of the way in which they process social information. Six to 8 months following this assessment, caretakers completed the Vineland Adaptive Scales and the Child Behavior Checklist. Measures reflecting unbiased and competent processing were predictive of social adaptation, whereas measures reflecting biased and incompetent processing were predictive of behavior problems. In aggregate, processing measures accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in the outcome measures. These findings suggest that the manner in which abused children process social information has a bearing on their later social adaptation and behavioral adjustment. Therefore, abused children in foster care may benefit from interventions that target the manner in which they process social information. 3 tables. Numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         child welfare research;  foster care;  behavior problems;  abused children;  interviews;  social adjustment

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    The Contributions of Source Misattributions, Acquiescence, and Response Bias to Children's False Memories.

 

AUTHOR:               McBrien, C. M.;  Dagenbach, D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    American Journal of Psychology

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC.

 

SOURCE:                3(4): pp. 509-528;  Champaign, IL, Univ. of Illinois Press, Winter 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           Two studies examined the nature of the false recollections that preschool children experience after imaginary events. The first replicated earlier findings suggesting that some young children respond to the events as though they had actually happened. However, events that had not been studied or thought about also were included in the test phase, and children indicated that many of these had happened to them as well. This suggested that something other than source misattribution for imagined events occurred for at least some children. A second study assessed whether children's affirmative responses to queries about imagined events reflected retrieval of the imagined event, acquiescence, or a yes response bias. Evidence of contributions to false assents from the retrieval of imagined events and yes response bias was strong, but the contribution of acquiescence was minimal. 14 references and 6 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         false allegations;  suggestibility;  preschool children;  memory;  child witnesses;  leading questions;  psychological characteristics;  false memory syndrome

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Face-to-Face Confrontation: Effects of Closed-Circuit Technology on Children's Eyewitness Testimony and Jurors' Decisions.

 

AUTHOR:               Goodman, G. S.;  Tobey, A. E.;  Batterman-Faunce, J. M.;  Orcutt, H. et al.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Law and Human Behavior

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    California Univ., Davis.

 

SOURCE:                22(2): pp. 165-203;  New York, NY, Plenum Publishing Co., April 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           The present study was designed to examine effects of closed- circuit technology on children's testimony and jurors' perceptions of child witnesses. For the study, a series of elaborately staged mock trials was held. First, 5- to 6-year- old and 8- to 9-year old children individually participated in a play session with an unfamiliar male confederate. Approximately 2 weeks later, children individually testified about the event at a downtown city courtroom. Mock juries composed of community recruits viewed the trials, with the child's testimony presented either live in open court or over closed-circuit television. Mock jurors made ratings concerning the child witness and the defendant, and deliberated to reach a verdict. Results indicated that overall, older children were more accurate witnesses than younger children. However, older, not younger children, produced more inaccurate information in free recall. Compared to live testimony in open court, use of closed-circuit technology led to decreased suggestibility for younger children. Testifying in open court was also associated with children experiencing greater pretrial anxiety. Closed-circuit technology did not diminish factfinders' abilities to discriminate accurate from inaccurate child testimony, nor did it directly bias jurors against the defendant. However, closed- circuit testimony biased jurors against child witnesses. Moreover, jurors tended to base their impressions of witness credibility on perceived confidence and consistency. Implications for the use of closed-circuit technology when children testify are discussed. 59 references, 3 figures, and 4 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         child witnesses;  competency;  closed circuit television;  juries;  suggestibility;  testimony;  credibility;  age factors

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.plenum.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Responsible Mothers and Invisible Men: Child Protection in the Case of Adult Domestic Violence.

 

AUTHOR:               Edleson, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Interpersonal Violence

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Minnesota Center Against Violence and Abuse.

 

SOURCE:                13(2): pp. 294-298;  Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., April 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           This commentary identifies critical issues regarding social interventions with families where both child maltreatment and woman battering are suspected. The author addresses several common assumptions of service providers and suggests changes in current practice. The author explores gender bias in the child protection system and asserts his belief that women are held to different standards than men. He notes his concern with the absence of interventions aimed at the male abuser who creates a dangerous home environment. The author makes the point that a frequent practice in child fatality cases is to code the battered mothers' cases as failure to protect or to charge them with child endangerment. This reaction tends to exacerbate the invisibility of male abusers and place burdens on battered mothers. The author concludes that the current system for providing safety to child and adult victims of family violence are fragmented and often work at cross-purposes. Systems are needed that work for the safety of all victimized family members, hold the violent person accountable, and do not place unfair burdens on victims. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         battered women;  male batterers;  family violence;  child protection;  spouse abuse;  systems reform

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    The Role of Experts in the Common Law and the Civil Law: A Comparison.

 

AUTHOR:               Spencer, J. R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Cambridge Univ. (England). Selwyn Coll.

 

SOURCE:                In: Ceci, S. J. and Hembrooke, H. Expert Witnesses in Child Abuse Cases: What Can and Should Be Said in Court. Washington, DC, American Psychological Association, 1998;  pp. 29-58

 

ABSTRACT:           In the first part of this chapter, the author explains the current meaning of the terms inquistorial and accusatorial and the relationship between the 2 court systems. The second part explains how the role of the expert differs in the 2 court systems. The third part assesses the relative advantages and disadvantages of court experts and expert witnesses. A system of adversarially appointed expert witnesses may give rise to 4 problems: incompetence because it encourages the use of experts whose technical abilities are poor; bias because it leads to expert evidence that is unreliable when the expert is prejudiced to the favor or the side that calls and pays him or her; unfairness because one side will be able to afford more and better experts than the other; and ineptitude because it causes a battle of experts. Court-appointed experts create 2 potential problems as well: it makes the expert's conclusions harder to attack if they are wrong and secondly, it makes the courts more reliant on the expert than they should be. Nevertheless, the author makes the case that the system of court-appointed experts is inherently sounder than the rival method of expert witnesses who are adversarially called. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         expert witnesses;  trial courts;  expert testimony;  defense;  legal processes

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.apa.org

 

 

TITLE:                    The Expert Witness in Child Sexual Abuse Cases: A Clinician's View.

 

AUTHOR:               Lawlor, R. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    James Whitcomb Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, IN.

 

SOURCE:                In: Ceci, S. J. and Hembrooke, H. Expert Witnesses in Child Abuse Cases: What Can and Should Be Said in Court. Washington, DC, American Psychological Association, 1998;  pp. 105-122

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter discusses issues that need to be considered by expert witnesses in child sexual abuse cases so that testimony given in court is defensible both on scientific and clinical grounds. To make their testimony defensible, experts providing such testimony need to develop an adequate understanding of the knowledge base that exists and to use that knowledge effectively in their clinical involvement with children. Experts must recognize the limitations of the current state of knowledge and remain open to the constantly increasing information available. Whether the expert is a therapist, a forensic evaluator, or a researcher, it is imperative that when acting as an expert witness, he or she is aware of overlapping areas of concern. These areas include confusing the role of therapist and evaluator, testifying in ambiguous ways through connotation rather than denotation, generally keeping abreast of the developing research in this area, and being aware of personal biases about a number of issues. The chapter reviews the following areas of concern: the therapist-evaluator dilemma, advocacy, anatomically detailed dolls, connotation versus denotation in testimony, iatrogenesis, lying, personal biases and the developmental literature, and children's drawings. Next, appropriate forensic evaluation techniques are discussed. The chapter ends with recommendations about what the expert should tell the court. The author advises that forensic evaluators, rather than therapists, are more qualified to be involved with courtroom proceedings. Therapists may have the background to deal with sexually abused children but generally do not have the background to assess whether that abuse occurred in the first place. The background information the forensic evaluator brings allows the evaluator to draw more reliable conclusions than can a general clinician who does not have the requisite background and training. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  therapists;  evaluation methods;  expert witnesses;  trial courts;  expert testimony;  anatomical dolls

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.apa.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Is Adoption a Risk Factor for the Development of Adjustment Problems?

 

AUTHOR:               Haugaard, J. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Clinical Psychology Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Dept. of Human Development and Family Studies.

 

SOURCE:                18(1): pp. 47-69;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science, January 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           The extent to which being adopted increases a child's risk for the development of adjustment problems has been debated for decades. Results from studies examining prevalence of adopted children and adolescents in outpatient and inpatient mental health treatment suggest that the risk associated with adoption is modest or nonexistant. This body of research is reviewed and critiqued. Two possible explanations for the apparent disparate findings of the clinically based and nonclinically based studies are explored: biases in referral for mental health treatment and the influence of the shape of the distribution of adjustment problems in the adopted and nonadopted populations. Implications for clinical practice and future research are explored.

 

KEY TERMS:         emotional adjustment;  adopted children;  psychological studies;  mental health

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.elsevier.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Legislation Regarding the Use of Special Hearsay Exceptions for Criminal Child Abuse Cases (Current through December 31, 1999): Maryland.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Witnesses Number 23

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES  Administration for Children and Families  Administration on Children, Youth and Families  Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION  330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565  Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE  99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321

 

SOURCE:                In: Special Child Hearsay Exceptions

 

KEY TERMS:         Statute;  Maryland;  Abuse;  Child;  Child Abuse;  Child Abuse Cases;  Criminal Child Abuse;  Criminal;  defendant;  juvenile;  Legislation;  neglect;  offense;  Special Hearsay Exceptions

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Statutes

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.ndaa-apri.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Social Science, Child Welfare, and Family Preservation: A Failure of Rationality in Public Policy.

 

AUTHOR:               Epstein, W. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Children and Youth Services Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Nevada Univ., Las Vegas. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                19(1-2): pp. 41-60;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science, Inc., 1997

 

ABSTRACT:           The social service community has accepted at least formally the dictates of science in evaluating its outcomes. Unfortunately, even its most sophisticated research has routinely failed to conform with the rules of credible scientific research. As a result, the field's statements of its effectiveness are misleading and its policy advice is suspect. This paper examines the methodological pitfalls of the Putting Families First program evaluation, credited as one of the most scientifically valid social work studies ever conducted. Problems with representativeness of the sample, measurement, treatment integrity, bias of interviewers and subjects, and possible demonstration effect actually made the findings meaningless. The article concludes that despite sophisticated techniques, Putting Families First was an unreliable study. The difficulties faced by the study indicate that scientific proof of social service effectiveness may be unattainable. 43 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         family preservation;  foster care;  social policies;  child welfare reform;  research reviews;  research methodology;  validity;  program evaluation

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.elsevier.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Personal Reflections on Permanency Planning and Cultural Competency.

 

AUTHOR:               Williams, C. W.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Administration on Children, Youth and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC.

 

SOURCE:                In: Anderson, G. R.; Ryan, A. S.; and Leashore, B. R. (Editors). The Challenge of Permanency Planning in a Multicultural Society. Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1997;  pp. 9-18

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter explores the practical aspects of implementing a culturally competent perspective in child welfare decisions. Racial biases in decisions about out-of-home placement are specifically addressed. To counteract racial bias, a culturally competent agency offers services that are consistent with the values of the culture and build on the strengths of the community. Child welfare policies must be flexible enough to be adapted to the specific needs of each cultural group served and address dimensions of race, power, ethnicity, economic status, gender, and culture. In addition, staff should reflect the diversity of the community served and be encouraged to discuss cultural factors in staff relationships. Staff members should be trained to work with several different cultures. Finally, organizations must involve communities in decisions about policies and programs.

 

KEY TERMS:         permanency planning;  cultural competency;  child welfare services;  cultural sensitivity;  service delivery

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Developing Diversity Competence in Child Welfare and Permanency Planning.

 

AUTHOR:               Pinderhughes, E.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Boston College, MA. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                In: Anderson, G. R.; Ryan, A. S.; and Leashore, B. R. (Editors). The Challenge of Permanency Planning in a Multicultural Society. Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1997;  pp. 19-38

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter describes how to increase the cultural competency of child welfare practitioners, enhancing their knowledge of and respect for different values and cultural beliefs. Cultural competency involves understanding the role of culture in human functioning and then integrating that knowledge into the intervention strategy. The chapter explains the dynamics of cultural differences and differences in power, especially in the practitioner-client relationship. An intervention strategy is described which uses a multilevel approach to empower clients to advocate for themselves to obtain the services that they need. Problems are defined within their social context, with interventions developed to enhance the strengths of the client. Practitioners are also encouraged to assess their own biases and form more collaborative relationships with client. 25 references and 2 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         cultural competency;  cultural differences;  child welfare services;  permanency planning;  professional training

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Workers Dealing with Mother Blame in Child Sexual Assault Cases.

 

AUTHOR:               Breckenridge, J.;  Baldry, E.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Sexual Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia). School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                6(1): pp. 65-80;  Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1997

 

ABSTRACT:           In this article, a feminist analysis of power relationships is applied to the various manifestations among child sexual assault workers of blaming nonabusive mothers for incest. Research into workers' beliefs and attitudes reveals that a large majority believe the mother knew about the incest. The analysis concludes that mother blame pervades much of the thinking and understanding of policy makers and workers and that therapeutic practice can be strongly biased by this belief to the detriment of both child and mother. State departments, agencies, and other institutions must examine their program for such a belief and explicitly address its consequences so as to ensure that the professions do not perpetuate the practice of mother-blame. 41 references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  nonabusive parents;  mothers of abuse victims;  neglecting parents

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Program Outcomes: Conceptual and Measurement Issues.

 

AUTHOR:               Rossi, P. H.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Massachusetts Univ., Amherst.

 

SOURCE:                In: Mullen, E. J. and Magnabosco, J. L. (Editors). Outcomes Measurement in the Human Services: Cross-Cutting Issues and Methods. Washington, DC, NASW Press, 1997;  pp. 20-34

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter describes the conceptual issues to be considered when identifying indicators of human services program outcomes. Program evaluators are advised to identify indicators that measure that stated goals of the program and reflect the definition of the target population; perspectives on outcomes; difference between intended and unintended outcomes; the danger of overly high expectations for outcomes; and the challenge of determining whether the outcomes are the result of the intervention or a natural process that would have occurred without the program. The chapter emphasizes that programs without clear goals cannot be evaluated. Recommendations are provided for addressing multiple outcomes, as well as short-term objectives that predict the long-term effects of programs. Rather than conducting a longitudinal analysis, researchers can track short-term progress that demonstrates the desirable long- term outcomes. Client satisfaction measures can be useful, but do not provide critical evidence of the effectiveness of the program. Researchers are cautioned to preserve the integrity of outcomes measures by using reliable measures and techniques that avoid bias in data collection and analysis. 12 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         program evaluation;  outcomes;  evaluation methods;  research methodology;  indicators

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.naswpress.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Methodological Considerations in Outcomes Measurement in Family and Child Welfare.

 

AUTHOR:               Wulczyn, F. H.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Chicago Univ., IL. Chapin Hall Center for Children.

 

SOURCE:                In: Mullen, E. J. and Magnabosco, J. L. (Editors). Outcomes Measurement in the Human Services: Cross-Cutting Issues and Methods. Washington, DC, NASW Press, 1997;  pp. 181-188

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter highlights the limitations of current methods used to evaluate the effectiveness of child welfare services and reviews trends in research methodology that could significantly enhance outcomes measurement. Child welfare has traditionally used a clinical approach to research, focusing on individual- level characteristics and outcomes. This strategy fails to analyze the aggregate impact of interventions on the target population as a whole -- information that is vital to policy decisions about programs and services. The chapter proposes that child welfare research begin to investigate macrolevel variables and the impact of external factors on services. Other recommendations for methodological change include: use of population level statistical models; resolution of selection biases in samples; and the development of an epidemiology of child placement that considers contextual factors. 6 references and 2 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         outcomes;  measures;  program evaluation;  research methodology;  evaluation methods;  child welfare

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.naswpress.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Ethical and Practical Issues for the Mandatory Reporting of Child Abuse in Developing Countries.

 

AUTHOR:               Lachman, P.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Northwick Park and St Marks NHS Trust, Harrow (England).

 

SOURCE:                Presented at: 5th International Family Violence Research Conference, Durham, NH, July 1997;  19 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This paper explores four major ethical issues related to mandatory reporting of child abuse: should an incident be reported and why; should the reporting system be mandatory; problems with mandatory reporting; and alterative methods for monitoring the prevalence of child abuse. Proponents of mandatory reporting cite increased public awareness and early intervention as advantages of mandatory reporting. However, other researchers and policymakers opposed to mandatory systems claim that bias in the reporting process, therapist's protections of confidentiality and the treatment process, and the costs of investigation of unsubstantiated reports interfere with the effectiveness of mandatory reporting. Developing countries such as South Africa have adopted mandatory reporting policies, but have not established a system of services to handle the increase in cases. The paper recommends that systems consider a medico-psycho-social model that emphasizes treatment rather than investigation. The alternative model focuses on providing help instead of punishment. Countries are urged to determine the underlying philosophy of child protection and the implications of mandatory reporting before implementing a reporting system. 71 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         mandatory reporting;  reporting procedures;  ethics;  social policies

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Proceedings Paper

 

 

TITLE:                    The Culture Factor in CPS: Essential or Elusive?

 

AUTHOR:               Brissett-Chapman, S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Baptist Home for Children and Families, Bethesda, MD.

 

SOURCE:                In: Morton, T. D. and Holder, W. (Editors). Decision Making in Children's Protective Services: Advancing the State of the Art. Child Welfare Institute, Atlanta, GA. National Resource Center on Child Maltreatment, November 1997;  pp. 75-92

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter describes the importance of integrating cultural factors into child protection decisions. Even through culture has an importance influence on parent-child dynamics and family relationships, it is often excluded from the development of standard assessment instruments. Recent research has identified the dimensions of culture which affect attitudes and behavior, such as interdependence versus independence; active achievement versus passive acceptance; authoritarianism versus equalitarianism; and expressive versus restrained. However, the experiences of families, combined with the subjective biases of child protection workers have formed barriers to interaction and accurate assessment of risk. For example, the standard list of behavioral indicators of child maltreatment contains attitudes and values which may be misinterpreted due to cultural differences. In response, researchers and policy makers are endorsing the concept of cultural competency to help workers achieve rapport with the community and customize assessments and services. 31 references and 1 table.

 

KEY TERMS:         child protective services;  decision making;  child welfare workers;  risk assessment;  cultural factors;  cultural competency

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

 

TITLE:                    False Negatives in Sexual Abuse Interviews: Preliminary Investigation of a Relationship to Dissociation.

 

AUTHOR:               Chaffin, M.;  Lawson, L.;  Selby, A,.;  Wherry, J. N.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Sexual Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City. Center on Child Abuse and Neglect.

 

SOURCE:                6(3): pp. 15-29;  Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1997

 

ABSTRACT:           This study followed-up children who initially had presented to a hospital emergency room with purely physical complaints later determined to be a sexually transmitted disease considered to be compelling evidence of sexual abuse. Cases were selected where there was no prior history, suspicion, or disclosure of abuse, and the child failed to disclose any sexual contact in the initial sexual abuse disclosure interview. These interview false negatives previously had been found to be related to caretaker biases against considering the possibility that abuse may have occurred. However, it was not clear what role, if any, individual psychological processes may have played in the false negative interviews. The present study re-located and assessed a small number of these children for dissociative and behavioral symptoms. Two non-contemporaneous comparison groups were used: true-positive (i.e., disclosing) sexually abused children from the same hospital emergency room and non-abused, non-psychiatric controls from the same hospital. False negative children were found to have significantly higher levels of dissociative symptoms, although they did not differ from true positives and non-abused controls on general behavioral problems. The results would be consistent with an association between false negatives in sexual abuse interviews and dissociation. Because the study was correlational, and dissociation was measured long after the false negative interview, caution is advised in inferring that dissociation may cause false negative interviews. 20 references and 1 figure. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         false allegations;  sexual abuse;  interviews;  dissociation;  behavior problems;  disclosure

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    State v. Parent Termination of Parental Rights: Contradictory Actions by the Ohio Legislature and the Ohio Supreme Court in 1996.

 

AUTHOR:               Wiens, K.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Capital University Law Review

 

SOURCE:                26(3): pp. 673-699;  Capital Univ., Columbus, OH, Law School, 1997

 

ABSTRACT:           This article examines the impact of expedited permanency planning on low income parents in Ohio. The article asserts that the current focus on permanency planning encourages courts to terminate parental rights quickly and for any reasons deemed relevant by the court. There is some concern that courts will define poverty as a relevant cause for separating the child from the family and that parents will be unable to meet requirements for reunification because of their income status or the biases of child protective services. The article reviews constitutional issues and concludes that the Ohio law giving broad authority to the court is too vague and would increase the likelihood of appeal, prolonging the child's stay in temporary foster care. Trends in child welfare reform and the evolution of the Ohio law are described. Three case studies are presented to illustrate situations in which parental rights were terminated without sufficient basis for state intervention.

 

KEY TERMS:         ohio;  state case law;  state statutory law;  termination of parental rights;  child welfare reform;  permanency planning;  low income groups;  economic disadvantage

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wshein.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Effects of Emotionally or Intellectually Biased Television Programs on Juror Decisions in Sex Abuse Cases.

 

AUTHOR:               McCoy, M. L.;  Nightingale, N. N.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Offender Rehabilitation

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Wyoming Univ., Laramie. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                25(3-4): pp. 73-86;  Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1997

 

ABSTRACT:           This study examined the influence of intellectually and emotionally biased media presentations in an immediate and a delayed condition on mock jurors decisions in sex abuse cases. In the immediate condition, the videos had a significant impact on verdict with both of the pro-prosecution videos (emotional and intellectual) leading more guilty verdicts than the intellectual pro-defense video. The intellectual arguments were presented in segments from news programs while the emotional segment was taken from a talk show. There was only a very limited effect of video on witness ratings. When there was a significant delay of 4 weeks (a more ecologically valid scenario) and no obvious connection between the media presentation and the mock trial, none of the biased media presetations had an effect on verdict or ratings of witness credibility or importance. The authors conclude that more research needs to be focused on ways to counteract the biasing effects of the media if it becomes clear that they can not be avoided. 4 tables and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         juries;  sexual abuse;  videotaping;  witnesses;  prosecution;  trials;  mass media

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    When Jurors Consider Recovered Memory Cases: Effects of Victim and Juror Gender.

 

AUTHOR:               Clark, H. L.;  Nightingale, N. N.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Offender Rehabilitation

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Wyoming Univ., Laramie. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                25(3-4): pp. 87-104;  Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1997

 

ABSTRACT:           This study examined the effects of juror gender and victim gender on 2 types of sexual abuse cases. In the first case, an adult victim accuses a family member after living for years with the knowledge of abuse and in the other, an adult survivor accuses a family member after recovering the memory during the course of therapy. Subjects were 323 university students enrolled in various introductory-level courses. Participants, asked to act as mock jurors, read a brief summary and answered questions regarding the case. Findings suggest that there is a relationship between juror gender, victim gender, and case types. Specifically, the sex of a juror is very important when considering recovered memory cases. Male jurors may be influenced by the gender of the victim in making their decisions. Male jurors appeared to have responded differently than their female counterparts to the cases that involved repression, particularly as it applies to male versus female victimization. These findings suggest the need to caution jurors, particularly male jurors, about their potential biases. The results also highlight the need to examine the extent to which male jurors may hold similar biases in other types of sexual assault cases. Females, on the other hand, seem to be relatively unaffected by such factors. 2 tables, 2 figures, and numerous references. (Author abstract modified.

 

KEY TERMS:         juries;  memory;  victim;  repression;  sexual abuse

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Gender Differences in Perception and Verdict in Relation to Uncorroborated Testimony by a Child Victim.

 

AUTHOR:               Allen, L. A.;  Nightingale, N. N.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Offender Rehabilitation

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Wyoming Univ., Laramie. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                24(3-4): pp. 101-116;  Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1997

 

ABSTRACT:           This study examined how sex of mock jurors affected perception of child victim witnesses. A total of 330 participants acted as mock jurors, read a trial summary describing a sexual abuse case, and made decisions regarding the case. The case described a (6 to8), (9 to 11), or (12 to 14) year old female child that had allegedly been sexually abused by a stranger. The only evidence was the child's uncorroborated testimony. They were also asked to assign a percentage of blame to the victim and determine a verdict in each case. Contrary to expectations, main effects of age of victim were not found. However, significant sex differences were found for a number of the case outcome variables. Males tended to rate a child's testimony as less believable and less important than females. In addition, males tended to assign more blame to the victim and yielded fewer guilty verdicts than females. No interactions between sex of juror and age of victim were found. Findings suggest that there is a relationship between juror sex and perception of uncorroborated child testimony in cases of sexual abuse. Potential reasons for this sex bias are discussed. 1 table and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         child witnesses;  testimony;  sexual abuse;  juries;  victim blaming;  guilt

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Social Class, Ethnicity, and Child Welfare.

 

AUTHOR:               Jones, L. P.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Multicultural Social Work

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    San Diego State Univ., CA. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                6(3-4): pp. 123-138;  Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1997

 

ABSTRACT:           Minority group and poor children are overrepresented in the child welfare system. Interpretations for this overrepresentation are entangled by issues of race and class. This paper attempts to disentangle those relationships by analyzing the relationship between race and class in child welfare. The reasons for minority overrepresentation for practice and policy are discussed as well as economic factors and child welfare. The paper also reviews biases in professional decision making and service delivery. Numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         social class;  ethnic groups;  racial factors;  economic factors;  minority groups;  child protective services

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Protecting Children or Punishing Mothers: Gender, Race, and Class in the Child Protection System.

 

AUTHOR:               Appell, A. R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    South Carolina Law Review

 

SOURCE:                48(3): pp. 577-613;  South Carolina Univ., Columbia. School of Law, Spring 1997

 

ABSTRACT:           This article addresses the policies, practices, and perspectives that help to fuel the industry that has arisen from the State's involvement with poor families and families of color, and the State's punitive treatment of the mothers of these families. The author challenges the rationale behind the punitive treatment of these mothers and the State's protective scheme--that it is good for children. Because the State's reasons for both initial and continuing intervention are ill-defined and maternally focused, State intervention often fails to meet children's basic needs of love, stability, continuity, and timely determination of legal status. The first part of the article describes the legal and bureaucratic framework of coercive State intervention and how the State directs its actions based largely on the gender, race, and class, of parents. Part 2 focuses on examples of gender bias in child protection proceedings. The illustrations unfold first by presenting objective indicators of how women are singled out for their behavior or status and then by presenting a more subjective picture of how women and their families experience intervention. Part 3 points out shared failings of the various child protection systems. Lastly, part 4 addresses some of the bureaucratic and legal factors that help perpetuate biased and punitive systems and explores some suggestions for improvement. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         child protection;  intervention;  race;  social class;  indicators

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wshein.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Psychiatric Disorders Among Adopted Children: A Review and Commentary.

 

AUTHOR:               Ingersoll, B. D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Adoption Quarterly

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Montgomery Child and Family Health Services, Inc., Rockville, MD.

 

SOURCE:                1(1): pp. 57-73;  Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1997

 

ABSTRACT:           Research indicates that adopted children are disproportionately represented in child psychiatric populations, a finding variously attributed to ascertainment bias, to adverse pre-, peri-, and postnatal environment factors associated with adoption, and to genetic factors. A review of the literature supports the view that adopted children are particularly prone to externalizing disorders and that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the manifestation of these disorders. Parents and professionals are urged to avoid attributing psychiatric problems of adoptees solely to a single factor and to provide early intervention for children at risk. Notes, references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         nature nurture controversy;  acting out;  behavior problems;  attention deficit disorder;  hyperactivity;  environmental influences;  genetics;  literature reviews

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Disabled Children and Adoption.

 

AUTHOR:               Coyne, A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Nebraska Univ., Omaha. Dept. of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                In: Avery, R. J. (Editor). Adoption Policy and Special Needs Children. Westport, CT, Auburn House, 1997;  pp. 61-76

 

ABSTRACT:           This book chapter identifies several important questions with respect to the adoption of children with developmental disabilities. Many paths bring such children to foster care. Medically fragile infants and children of HIV-positive mothers are an increasing percentage of adoptable children with disabilities. Some of the infants and children who enter the foster care system because of abuse or neglect also have developmental disabilities. Some children with disabilities are placed by their parents under the supervision of their state or county mental retardation or mental health/developmental disability (MH/DD) agency for residential, foster, or institutional care. Although these children are unable to live at home with their biological parents, they are rarely adopted. It appears to be the way in which these children come into care, rather than any difference in their needs, which determines whether or not they are likely to be adopted. Children in the child welfare system have workers who attempt to find families for them while the children in the MH/DD system generally stay in foster care or institutional settings throughout childhood. Children in both systems wait for adoption longer than all other children. Parents who adopt children with developmental disabilities are much more open to risk and uncertainty than those adopting a nondisabled infant. However, adoption workers may be less willing to place such a child. Other factors affecting the adoption of children with disabilities include the availability of medical and maintenance subsidies which differ greatly from state to state, some remaining bias on the part of adoption professionals against foster parent adoption, and the need for lifelong special services. The chapter concludes with some suggestions for additional policy questions needing further research. References.

 

KEY TERMS:         special needs;  developmental disabilities;  advocacy;  foster adoption;  public policy

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.greenwood.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Adoption, Identity, and Kinship: The Debate Over Sealed Birth Records.

 

AUTHOR:               Wegar, K.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA.

 

SOURCE:                New Haven, CT, Yale University Press, 1997;  184 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This book explores the debate over sealed birth records from a sociological framework. The author argues that Americans who are entangled in adoption controversies fail to understand how the debate, adoption research, and the experience of adoption are affected by persistent social beliefs that adopted children are different from and somehow inferior to children raised by their biological families. Separate chapters discuss the origins of the sealed records controversy; adoption research; the debate over sealed records; and adoption and search in popular culture. The book uses as references social work and mental health articles, activist newsletters, autbiographies by search activists, and popular images of adoption shown in television talk shows and other media. The author notes the unconscious biases that exist surrounding adoption. The book concludes with a discussion of ways in which adoption reformers can avoid upholding confining and harmful images of those who participate in adoption. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         sealed records;  cultural values;  adoptive parents;  birth parents;  adopted children;  social influences;  adoption reform movement

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.yale.edu/yup/

 

 

TITLE:                    The Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse: Integrative Review Adjustment of Potential Response and Measurement Biases.

 

AUTHOR:               Gorey, K. M.;  Leslie, D. R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Windsor University, ON (Canada). School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                21(4): pp. 391-398;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., April 1997

 

ABSTRACT:           This integrative review synthesizes the findings of 16 cross- sectional surveys (25 hypotheses) on the prevalence of child abuse among nonclinical, North American samples. It is essentially a research literature on sexual abuse; only one of the studies assessed physical abuse, and there has not yet been a single study of prevalent child emotional abuse nor neglect. The following summative inferences were made: response rates diminished significantly over time; unadjusted estimates of the prevalent experience among women and men of childhood sexual abuse was 22.3 percent and 8.5 percent, respectively; study response rates and child abuse operational definitions together accounted for half of the observed variability in their abuse prevalence estimates; female and male child sexual abuse prevalence estimates adjusted for response rates were respectively, 16.8 percent and 7.9 percent, and adjusted for operational definitions (excluding the broadest, noncontact category) they were 14.5 percent and 7.2 percent; after adjustment for response rates and definitions, the prevalence of child sexual abuse was not found to vary significantly over the three decades reviewed. Given the large human costs, both personal and social, of child abuse, and the identified gap in the requisite knowledge needed to steer effective preventive and treatment interventions, it is time to invest in a large, methodologically rigorous, population-based study of child abuse, which, if it does nothing else, spares no expense in ensuring very high participation. 45 references and 1 table. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  prevalence;  research methodology;  research reviews;  data collection;  statistical data;  child abuse research;  trend analysis

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    The Cumulative Effect of Neglect and Failure to Thrive on Cognitive Functioning.

 

AUTHOR:               Mackner, L. M.;  Starr, R. H.;  Black, M. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Maryland Univ., Baltimore. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                21(7): pp. 691-700;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., July 1997

 

ABSTRACT:           A cumulative risk model was used to examine the relationship among neglect, failure to thrive (FTT), and cognitive functioning in low income children. A sample of 177 children 3 to 30 months old was recruited from a pediatric clinic serving low-income, primarily African American families. Four groups were formed based on neglect and FTT status: Neglect and FTT, Neglect Only, FTT only, and No Neglect or FTT. FTT was defined as weight-for-age below the 5th percentile on growth charts. To avoid biases associated with Child Protective Service reports as definitions of neglect, the HOME scale (Caldwell and Bradley, 1984) was used to define neglect. The cognitive performance of the group with neglect and FTT was significantly below that of the children in the Neglect Only, FTT Only, and No Neglect or FTT groups. These findings support a model in which the accumulation of risk factors is detrimental to cognitive functioning. The results also underscore the need for thorough evaluation when one risk factor has been identified. Growth failure may come to the attention of medical personnel, but neglect may not be detected. However, a child experiencing both neglect and FTT may be at risk for significant deficits in cognitive functioning. 33 references, 1 figure, and 1 table. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         sequelae;  child neglect;  failure to thrive;  cognitive development;  child neglect research;  risk factors;  low income groups;  assessment

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Indicators of Children's Economic Well-Being and Parental Employment.

 

AUTHOR:               Mayer, S. E.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Chicago Univ., IL. Irving B. Harris Graduate School of Public Policy Studies.

 

SOURCE:                In: Hauser, R. M.; Brown, B. V.; and Prosser, W. R. (Editors). Indicators of Children's Well-Being. Russell Sage Foundation, New York, NY., November 1997;  pp. 237-257

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter explores the impact of economic status and parental employment on child well-being and identifies indicators for both influences. Emphasis is placed on the empirical evidence supporting the effects of economic well-being and parental employment. The discussion highlights the biases inherent in traditional measures of economic status that focus on income and poverty and recommends the use of indicators of consumption to accurately measure the living conditions of children and their families. Examples of consumption indicators include housing problems; possession of motor vehicle(s), telephone, clotheswasher, clothes dryer, and dishwasher; and medical care. Research about the effects of parental employment reveal different outcomes for children based on the marital status of parents, age of the child, number of hours worked, and use of nonwork time. Therefore, indicators of parental employment should address these factors, in addition to simple labor force participation. Trends in employment by married and single parents, number of hours worked, hours available for time with children, and hours of housework are reported. 22 references and 11 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         indicators;  well being;  economic disadvantage;  economic factors;  economic self sufficiency;  employment;  socioeconomic influences;  research methodology

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.russellsage.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Potential and Problems in Developing Community-Level Indicators of Children's Well-Being.

 

AUTHOR:               Coulton, C. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Case Western Reserve Univ. School of Applied Social Sciences, Cleveland, OH. Center for Urban Poverty and Social Change.

 

SOURCE:                In: Hauser, R. M.; Brown, B. V.; and Prosser, W. R. (Editors). Indicators of Children's Well-Being. Russell Sage Foundation, New York, NY., November 1997;  pp. 372-391

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter outlines outcome and contextual indicators used to assess child well-being in the Cleveland metropolitan area. Methodological considerations for developing community-level indicators are reviewed. The sample outcome indicators include aspects of health and safety, social behavior, cognitive development and achievement, and economic well-being. Contextual indicators address characteristics of the community that affect children and families, such as socioeconomic composition, age and family structure, residential mobility, environmental stress, and support for effective parenting. In addition to defining the geographic area to be studied, measurements of child well-being must consider methods for tracking addresses and confront the limitations of a small area or sample size analysis. Reporting bias and error from administrative agency data and police records and the need for age or gender standardization should also be considered. Community indicators can be analyzed overtime, compared between communities, applied to panel studies of change, or integrated into a metropolitan-wide analysis. Recommendations for a national system of community indicators are presented. 48 references and 2 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         indicators;  well being;  measures;  research methodology;  community characteristics;  community resources;  outcomes;  neighborhoods

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.russellsage.org

 

 

TITLE:                    The Names We Call Ourselves.

 

AUTHOR:               Farrar, P.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Technology Univ., Sydney, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Nursing.

 

SOURCE:                In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Adoption and Healing, Wellington, Aotearoa (New Zealand), June 20-22, 1997, June 1997;  pp. 101-114

 

ABSTRACT:           This book chapter examines the various descriptors attached to women who have had babies taken for adoption, based on ideological bias of particular eras, and how those descriptors have confined, restricted, proscribed, and ultimately silenced those women. The social significance of adoption is reviewed through philosophy and literature. Various descriptors are reviewed, including unwed or unmarried mothers, relinquishing mothers, natural mother, real mother, birth mother, grieving mother, and Solomon's mother, describing the history and rationale for each. A survey, listing descriptors, was developed and distributed to birth mothers involved in support groups, asking them to describe the images they provoked and their preferences. Results of the survey, distributed to Australian and New Zealand women, showed a strong preference for mother without any further descriptor. Results also showed that the birth mothers had not denied their personal sense of the maternal, despite having been exhorted to do so when their babies were taken for adoption. Tables describe the responses by the mothers to each descriptor and the meanings identified by them. Twenty-one references.

 

KEY TERMS:         adoption;  birth parents;  stereotypes;  loss;  grief;  new zealand;  survey;  australia

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Proceedings Paper

 

 

TITLE:                    Legislation Regarding the Use of Special Hearsay Exceptions for Criminal Child Abuse Cases (Current through December 31, 1999): Oregon.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Witnesses Number 23

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES  Administration for Children and Families  Administration on Children, Youth and Families  Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION  330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565  Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE  99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321

 

SOURCE:                In: Special Child Hearsay Exceptions

 

KEY TERMS:         Statute;  Oregon;  Abuse;  Child;  Child Abuse;  Child Abuse Cases;  circumstances;  conduct;  Criminal Child Abuse;  Criminal;  Legislation;  sexual conduct;  Special Hearsay Exceptions;  trauma

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Statutes

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.ndaa-apri.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Homeless in the Therapeutic Community: The Practical Implications of the Medicalization of a Child's Right to Shelter and Nurture.

 

AUTHOR:               DePalma, W.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Children's Rights Project, Baltimore, MD.

 

SOURCE:                Presented at: ABA Ninth National Conference on Children and the Law, Washington, DC, April 8-10, 1999. American Bar Association, Washington, DC. Center on Children and the Law.;  p. 105

 

ABSTRACT:           This paper asserts that every child placed in therapeutic residential care without likelihood of family reunification or adoption should be assigned a non-therapeutic advocate to participate in decisions about care. An objective adult is needed to assume the decision-making authority that is usually controlled by the child's parent to consent or refuse treatment and to manage the flow of confidential mental health information. The guardian should have no conflict-of-interest issues regarding the child's treatment, and so should not be a child welfare worker or treatment provider. Both types of professionals may have biases about the need for treatment and tend to make decisions based on medical care, rather than parental care. Medical models of treatment for children who have behavior problems and no family discourage long term commitments between the child and substitute care providers and continue placements depending on the mental health status of the child. Benefits of a non-therapeutic decision maker include continuous advocacy for the child and stability in a relationship, in which the child is perceived outside of their diagnosis.

 

KEY TERMS:         child advocacy;  service delivery;  mental health services;  decision making;  treatment foster care;  therapeutic effectiveness;  therapeutic intervention;  guardianship

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Technical Report

 

 

TITLE:                    Cultural Competency in the Field of Child Maltreatment.

 

AUTHOR:               Abney, V. D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    California Univ., Los Angeles. Suspected Child Abuse and Neglect (SCAN) Team.

 

SOURCE:                In: Briere, J., Berliner, L., Bulkey, J. A., Jenny, C., et al. (Editors). The APSAC Handbook on Child Maltreatment. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., January 1996;  pp. 409-419

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter provides a framework for the development of culturally competent interventions in the field of child maltreatment. The cultural deviance and cultural relativism perspectives of exploring cultural differences are explained. A rationale for cultural competency is presented that is based on the response of professionals to the increasing cultural diversity in the United States, the underrepresentation of professionals from diverse backgrounds, and the inadequate delivery of social and mental health services. The author describes a tripartite approach to working with the culturally different client that includes practitioners' examination of their values, knowledge, and practice and research methods. A practitioner's value base should include an understanding of the dynamics of the difference between cultures; an acceptance of the existence of biases, myths, and stereotypes; and the goal of empowering clients. 41 references and 1 table.

 

KEY TERMS:         cultural competency;  cultural differences;  cultural values;  empowerment;  service delivery

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Assessing the Cognitive Distortions of Child Molesters and Rapists: Development and Validation of the MOLEST and RAPE Scales.

 

AUTHOR:               Bundy, K. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Fulton State Hospital, MO. Guhleman Forensic Center.

 

SOURCE:                8(1): pp. 37-54;  New York, NY, Plenum Publishing Corp., January 1996

 

ABSTRACT:           This article explores the issue of assessing the cognitive distortions of child molesters and rapists. The cognitive distortions of sexual offenders are considered to be influential in the etiology and maintenance of deviant sexual behavior and are commonly accepted as valid predictors of treatment potential and success, despite the lack of systematic research to support these assumptions. Contributing to this gap in the research is the shortage of psychometrically sound assessment techniques to measure these cognitive distortions. A study that developed and validated the MOLEST and RAPE Scales is described. These scales were designed for respectively assessing the cognitive distortions of men who sexually assault children and men who rape adult women. Participants were 89 adult males incarcerated in a maximum security correctional facility of the Nebraska Department of Corrections. Of the total sample, 69 were sexual offenders currently involved in a cognitive-behavioral sexual offender treatment program. A sample of 20 adult males incarcerated for nonsexual offenses voluntarily served as a nonsexually offending inmate control group. Results indicate that the MOLEST and RAPE Scales demonstrated strong internal consistency and reliability, convergent and discriminative validity, freedom from a socially desirable response bias, and utility in assessing the effectiveness of a cognitive restructuring treatment component. Results also reveal that the cognitive distortions of sexual offenders as assessed by the MOLEST and RAPE Scales were found to be related to the number of victims and the duration of sexually assaultive behavior. Appendixes list MOLEST and RAPE Scale items with corrected item-to-total correlations. 35 references, 2 figures, and 3 tables. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         sex offenders;  psychometrics;  rape;  sexual assault;  sex offenders therapy

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.plenum.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Memories of Childhood Trauma: Therapeutic Considerations for Assessment and Treatment.

 

AUTHOR:               Ceci, S. J.;  Bruck, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY.

 

SOURCE:                In: Kaplan, S. J. (Editor). Family Violence: A Clinical and Legal Guide. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Press, Inc., 1996;  pp. 241-275

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter on memories of childhood trauma reviews recent social science research on the suggestibility of children. Major lines of recent research that illustrate different paradigms are discussed, focusing on increasing the salience both of events about which children will be interviewed and of interviewing techniques. Descriptions are provided of five studies in the latter category, which investigated the effect of interviewer bias on children's reports, the effects of stereotype induction and repeated suggestions on young children's reports, the influence of postevent suggestions on children's reports of a pediatric visit, the suggestibility of anatomically detailed dolls, and source monitoring errors. Although recent studies are somewhat more contradictory about the reliability of children's reports than older ones, they do suggest that there are reliable age differences in suggestibility and that children are capable of recalling forensically relevant information. Examples of clinical practice concerning the interviewing of young children are provided, and they are evaluated in terms of the research previously described. The implications of children's memory research for recovered memories of childhood abuse in adulthood are considered. 59 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  child witnesses;  suggestibility;  interviews;  anatomical dolls;  research reviews

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.appi.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Research on Children's Suggestibility: Implications for the Investigative Interview.

 

AUTHOR:               Warren, A. R.;  McGough, L. S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Tennessee Univ., Chattanooga. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                In: Bottoms, B. L. and Goodman, G. S. (Editors). International Perspectives on Child Abuse and Children's Testimony: Psychological Research and Law. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., 1996;  pp. 12-44

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter reviews current research findings regarding investigative interviews with child witnesses. The research on suggestibility has addressed the role of the interviewer, the timing and frequency of interviews, the interviewing process, and the context and place of the interview. Each section examines the implications of the research for improving the accuracy of children's testimony. Suggestions for avoiding professional bias; conducting timely interviews; encouraging a spontaneous, free-recall report; avoiding leading questions; using dolls and other aids; and using age appropriate language are provided. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         suggestibility;  child witnesses;  leading questions;  interviews;  investigations;  research reviews

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com

 

 

TITLE:                    The Hostage Child: Sex Abuse Allegations in Custody Disputes.

 

AUTHOR:               Rosen, L. N.;  Etlin, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

SOURCE:                Bloomington, IN, Indiana Univ. Press, 1996;  240 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This book challenges the presumption that allegations of child sexual abuse that arise during custody disputes are usually fabricated. Five cases are described in which children were not protected from their abuser during custody disputes, despite the existence of medical evidence of sexual abuse. In these cases, the allegations were not believed, and the children were returned to the parent who abused them. Literature on the veracity of sexual abuse allegations is reviewed, specifically in the context of divorce. Evidence is presented that suggests the mental health community, as well as society, is denying the existence of sexual abuse and minimalizing the problem. The book highlights problems with the legal process and the current child protection system, including an anti-mother bias that frequently emerges in custody battles. The final chapter proposes a system that protects children from the risk of abuse based on medical evidence, including a Child at Risk Classification Office that would preside over child abuse cases and determine risk to the child. Alleged offenders would not be punished unless the evidence is found to be conclusive, but the child would be protected if any risk were found. Numerous references and 2 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  custody disputes;  child custody;  incest;  court reform;  legal processes;  false allegations

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.indiana.edu/~iupress

 

 

TITLE:                    Cross-Cultural Sensitivity in Assessment: Using Tests in Culturally Appropriate Ways.

 

AUTHOR:               Padilla, A. M.;  Medina, A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Stanford Univ., CA. School of Education.

 

SOURCE:                In: Suzuki, L. A., Meller, P. J., and Ponterotto, J. G. (Editors). Handbook of Multicultural Assessment: Clinical, Psychological, and Educational Implications. San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass Publications, 1996;  pp. 3-28

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter explores the challenges of using assessment and testing strategies in culturally appropriate ways. The authors highlight the features of a culturally sensitive assessment and identify ways in which tests may be biased. They examine considerations related to societal and language issues, demography, appropriate standardization procedures, low-stakes versus high-stakes testing, and factors influencing testing procedures. They also present assumptions that underlie the inappropriate usage of tests with minority groups. The authors conclude by making recommendations for nonbiased assessment practices in the areas of test selection, behavioral observation, and translated measures. 45 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         cultural sensitivity;  minority groups;  psychometrics;  multicultural;  outcomes;  psychological tests

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.josseybass.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Ethical Issues in Multicultural Assessment.

 

AUTHOR:               Keitel, M. A.;  Kopala, M.;  Adamson, W. S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Fordham Univ., New York, NY. Graduate School of Education.

 

SOURCE:                In: Suzuki, L. A., Meller, P. J., and Ponterotto, J. G. (Editors). Handbook of Multicultural Assessment: Clinical, Psychological, and Educational Implications. San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1996;  pp. 29-48

 

ABSTRACT:           The focus of this chapter is the ethical questions raised in using assessment tests with minorities. The authors identify the limitations of using various assessment tests with minorities, including potential bias in test administration, ratings, and results interpretation. They present information on the diagnosis of mental illness in minorities and offer explanations for why minority group members tend to have higher rates of mental illness than members of the dominant culture. The authors also provide guidelines for conducting ethical multicultural assessments, including assessing acculturation level, selecting appropriate tests, informing the client about the testing process and the use of the results, administering the tests in an unbiased manner, and interpreting the results clearly for the client. A case example is included to illustrate ethical concerns raised in the assessment process. In conclusion, they recommend that practitioners learn about different cultures and become educated about their own biases. The authors also note that DSM-IV incorporates cultural factors and gives clearer guidelines than DSM-III. 22 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         ethics;  minority groups;  psychological tests;  diagnoses;  mental disorders;  guidelines;  cultural competency

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.josseybass.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Persistant Issues in Multicultural Assessment of Social and Emotional Functioning.

 

AUTHOR:               Moreland, K. L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Fordham Univ., New York, NY.

 

SOURCE:                In: Suzuki, L. A., Meller, P. J., and Ponterotto, J. G. (Editors). Handbook of Multicultural Assessment: Clinical, Psychological, and Educational Implications. San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1996;  pp. 51-76

 

ABSTRACT:           In this chapter examining issues in the multicultural assessment of social and emotional functioning, the author identifies sources of controversy in the assessment of ethnic and cultural minorities, such as the Euro-American model of science, instrument universality or cultural sensitivity, assimilation or pluralism, cultural or socioeconomic status, group personality or individual differences, and racism. He considers psychometric issues relevant to multicultural assessment, including functional, conceptual, linguistic, and metric equivalence; reliability; validity; and bias. Test administration and interpretation issues are discussed. Assessors need to be aware of the methods they can use at the interpretation phase to overcome their own bias and the variables that can moderate the interpretation of personality data, such as acculturation and value orientation. The author concludes by making recommendations for practice. 94 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         personality tests;  cultural sensitivity;  psychometrics;  minority groups;  multicultural

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.josseybass.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Multiculturalism and Neuropsychological Assessment.

 

AUTHOR:               Friedman, C. A.;  Clayton, R. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Hackensack Medical Center, NJ. Institute for Child Development.

 

SOURCE:                In: Suzuki, L. A., Meller, P. J., and Ponterotto, J. G. (Editors). Handbook of Multicultural Assessment: Clinical, Psychological, and Educational Implications. San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1996;  pp. 291-318

 

ABSTRACT:           In this chapter on multicultural concerns important in neuropsychological assessment, the authors first consider the relationship between risk factors for the development of neuropsychological deficits and social factors. The three approaches to selecting tests used in an assessment, the standardized fixed battery, the flexible battery, or the process approach, are briefly outlined, and the assessment instruments available for the neuropsychological assessment of children are identified. The authors then address multicultural issues affecting test translation and sources of bias during neuropsychological intake, the patient interview, and test performance. Two case studies are included to illustrate the importance of multicultural considerations. 92 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         psychological tests;  minority groups;  neurological impairments;  risk;  multicultural;  cognitive development;  interviews

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.josseybass.com

 

 

TITLE:                    The Assessment of Culturally Diverse Infants and Preschool Children.

 

AUTHOR:               Meller, P. J.;  Ohr, P. S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Hofstra Univ., Hempstead, NY.

 

SOURCE:                In: Suzuki, L. A., Meller, P. J., and Ponterotto, J. G. (Editors). Handbook of Multicultural Assessment: Clinical, Psychological, and Educational Implications. San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1996;  pp. 509-559

 

ABSTRACT:           The authors begin this chapter on assessing culturally diverse young children by reviewing the history of assessing such children for developmental disabilities or delays. They focus on the controversies surrounding the theoretical basis of legislation that established early intervention programs for disadvantaged preschool children. One issue that has created confusion and controversy is whether the legislation reflects the cultural disadvantagement approach; another issue concerns labeling children from culturally diverse backgrounds as developmentally delayed early in life. The authors then examine problems concerning the use of standardized assessment measures with culturally diverse preschool children with regard to test floors, sampling bias, predictive validity, item bias, and standardization. They provide guidelines for assessing and diagnosing infants, toddlers, and preschool children from culturally diverse groups and present data on the effectiveness of major assessment instruments with these children. Case examples are included to illustrate the use of these assessment instruments. 127 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         multicultural;  infants;  preschool children;  head start;  cultural disadvantage;  psychometrics;  cultural sensitivity;  psychological tests

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.josseybass.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Multicultural Issues in Child Welfare.

 

AUTHOR:               Sherraden, M. S.;  Segal, U. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Children and Youth Services Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Missouri Univ., St. Louis. Dept. of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                18(6): pp. 497-504;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science, Inc., 1996

 

ABSTRACT:           This article reviews the current body of knowledge about diversity in child welfare practice. Four major themes are identified: cultural competency, or understanding cultural differences in attitudes and behavior; the context or environmental causes of cultural differences; how people define their identity and the process of adaptation to American life; and an international perspective of the relationships of immigrants to their countries of origin. Emphasis is placed on considering the societal patterns that contribute to individual life opportunities, such as poverty, gender bias, social isolation, racial discrimination, and migration. This knowledge is especially important for designing services to be accessible. Child welfare policies should not expect or assume that families will assimilate into the dominant American culture. Instead, services should be based on the strengths of the specific ethnic group and the practices it has developed for supporting families and children. The article describes how these themes are addressed by other articles in the issue. 18 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         child welfare services;  service delivery;  sociocultural dimensions;  multicultural;  cultural sensitivity;  cultural factors;  cultural competency;  child welfare research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.elsevier.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Welfare Reforms and Services for Children and Families: Setting a New Practice, Research, and Policy Agenda.

 

AUTHOR:               Freeman, E. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Social Work

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Kansas Univ., Overland Park. School of Social Welfare.

 

SOURCE:                41(5): pp. 521-532;  Washington, DC, National Association of Social Workers, September 1996

 

ABSTRACT:           This article identifies the barriers to family and community self-sufficiency that have been created by recent social program reforms, such as negative labeling of families, service limitations under managed care policies, decentralization of block grant funding, and emphasis on individual self-sufficiency. Many of these barriers have resulted from policymakers' biased definitions of self-sufficiency. Social workers need to understand the worldviews and values that underlie political definitions of self-sufficiency to have a greater influence on social policy. The article describes a more appropriate definition of self-sufficiency that addresses changes in the environment that are necessary to meet the needs of families. The Person-in-Environment (PIE) framework emphasizes interdependence at multiple levels, including economic self-sufficiency. The need for support is assessed at various stages of the life cycle, such as birth of a baby, illness, or unemployment. The usefulness of the PIE framework is illustrated with an example of community research conducted to identify social support needs. Social workers are advised to be proactive in planning for future needs by eliminating practice boundaries, forming new partnerships with clients and researchers, and developing community-centered service systems. Changes in social work education and research are also proposed. 51 references and 1 figure. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         welfare reform;  systems reform;  systems development;  social policies;  program planning;  research needs;  social workers role

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.naswpress.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Treatment Outcome Research With Abused Children: Methodological Considerations in Three Studies.

 

AUTHOR:               Briere, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Maltreatment

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University of Southern California, Los Angeles. School of Medicine.

 

SOURCE:                1(4): pp. 348-352;  Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., November 1996

 

ABSTRACT:           Several methodological issues to consider when conducting research on treatment outcomes are discussed. Using three studies to illustrate various design principles, the author reviews: measurement quality, level of experimental design, potential sources of bias, clinical significance, real-world generalizability, and prediction of treatment outcome. Citing the three studies, the author addresses several issues, including the use of reliable and valid measures, multiple assessment methods and sources of information, and true random assignment to treatment conditions. 17 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         outcomes;  research methodology;  child abuse research;  measures;  control groups;  prediction

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Why We Question Study on Subabusive Violence Against Children.

 

AUTHOR:               Piekarska, A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Interpersonal Violence

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                11(4): pp. 593-598;  Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., December 1996

 

ABSTRACT:           This article argues that, in the field of research on parental violence against children, not only methodological or theoretical issues need to be questioned. The author believes that cultural and ethical origins of family violence and social biases leading to the legitimization of parental violence should be the center of attention. She presents reasons for the social acceptance of subabusive violence against children, including the fact that violence is a constant, accepted part of human existence and findings that violent methods of raising children have the same roots as the phenomenon of family violence. The author also considers the dilemma posed by how to classify smacks or other subabusive parental behaviors. 18 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         abusive parents;  child abuse research;  aggression;  physical abuse;  parental behavior;  family violence

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Parenting Our Children: In the Best Interest of the Nation. Report of the U.S. Commission on Child and Family Welfare.

 

AUTHOR:               Cathcart, M. R.;  Robles, R. E.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Commission of Child and Family Welfare, Washington, DC.

 

SOURCE:                Commission on Child and Family Welfare, Washington, DC, September 1996;  222 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           The U.S. Commission on Child and Family Welfare examined how court systems and communities can best support separating, divorcing, or unwed parents to ensure that children receive the emotional and financial involvement of both of their parents. Members of the Commission examined data and heard testimony about the demographic and economic factors that contribute to divorce and out-of-wedlock births, as well as how custody and visitation determinations are made. Problems with current legal standards for custody and visitation, gender bias, parental dissatisfaction with the court's decision, and lack of a cooperative system to resolve conflicts were identified. The Commission emphasized the need to reform current adversarial legal processes to create systems that help parents form their own custody agreements. In addition, the Commission discussed how community organizations, such as churches, businesses, schools, and public and private agencies, can support single parents and separated families. The 23 specific recommendations of the Commission include suggestions for legislative reform, court services, parent education, facilitation of parenting plans, community promotion of responsible parenting, community resources for dispute resolution, marriage and parenting preparation, and research on the causes and effects of divorce. Examples of parenting plans, court processes, and community programs are described in the appendixes. 4 tables and 3 figures.

 

KEY TERMS:         child custody;  custody disputes;  visiting privileges;  divorce;  best interests of the child;  unwed parents;  community based services;  courts role

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Final Report

 

 

TITLE:                    African-American Families and Child Protection.

 

AUTHOR:               Levine, M.;  Doueck, H. J.;  Freeman, J. B.;  Compaan, C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Children and Youth Services Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University at Buffalo, NY. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                18(8): pp. 693-711;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science, Inc., 1996

 

ABSTRACT:           A sample of 128 African-American and 142 Caucasian families referred to child protection for alleged maltreatment were compared to assess the degree to which they were differentially referred to and processed by child protection. Results indicated that, although African-Americans were referred to child protection by different sources than Caucasian families, reporter bias was unlikely to account for the differences. Those African-American families referred to child protection were more likely to come from female headed households and presumed to be poorer as a result. However, once reported, they were neither substantiated at a higher rate nor kept open for services at a higher rate compared to Caucasian families. Finally, there was very little evidence of differential caseworker attention to African-Americans compared with Caucasian families. The study concluded that differential referral source and-or differential worker attention were inadequate explanations for the overrepresentation of African-Americans in the child protection system. 33 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         african americans;  child protective services;  child welfare workers;  child abuse reporting;  service delivery;  racial differences

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.elsevier.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Family Assessment: Resiliency, Coping and Adaptation. Inventories for Research and Practice.

 

AUTHOR:               McCubbin, H. I.;  Thompson, A. I.;  McCubbin, M. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Family Stress, Coping and Health Project.

 

SOURCE:                Madison, WI, Univ. of Wisconsin Publishers, 1996;  946 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This book represents a new presentation of measures of family structure, coping, and resilience that was developed as part of the Family Stress, Coping and Health Project of the Center for Excellence in Family Studies at the Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison. This new publication is a completely rewritten version of earlier works by the Center, and was written to respond to the changing focus of the Project. It is designed to facilitate access to information such as reliabilities and validities and utilization of measures. The Project studied families of different ethnic groups in the United States and other countries in an effort to address the bias of current family measures toward Caucasian, middle class, and two-parent family systems. All of the measures used have been translated into Spanish, the most frequently requested language translation. In addition, select instruments have been translated into other languages, including French, Hebrew and Japanese, and are presented in the book. New measures were also introduced to take into consideration broadly defined dimensions of ethnic identity and ethnic influences on family behavior. Also, where available, comparative data and normative information on different ethnic groups are offered. Finally, a list of references of investigations and publications which refer to the possible uses of instruments is presented.

 

KEY TERMS:         research methodology;  measures;  methods;  reliability;  validity;  resilience;  family characteristics

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

 

TITLE:                    Missing Data by Design: The Good News about Missing Data.

 

AUTHOR:               Noll, J. G.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    APSAC Advisor

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    National Institute of Mental Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

 

SOURCE:                9(3): pp. 21-24;  Chicago, IL, American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children, Fall 1996

 

ABSTRACT:           This paper reviews techniques for dealing with missing data in research projects. Common options for addressing missing data are presented, including deleting all cases with missing values, substituting a mean value for missing values, and the pairwise deletion (piecemeal) method. Regression-based procedures to calculate missing values, randomness, and relativity to the study are provided, varying from statistical computer programs to careful analysis of the data by the researcher. Access to a program called EMCOV23, which can deal with large portions of missing data with little bias, is provided via the Internet. 14 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         statistical analysis;  research methodology;  statistical data;  data analysis;  evaluation methods;  questionnaires;  reliability

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.apsac.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Recovered Memories of Abuse: Assessment, Therapy, Forensics.

 

AUTHOR:               Pope, K. S.;  Brown, L. S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

SOURCE:                Washington, DC, American Psychological Association, 1996;  324 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This guide examines controversies about recovered memories of childhood abuse and suggests practical strategies for assessing and treating adults who report delayed memories of abuse. Research about memory and treatment methods are reviewed to provide a knowledge base for therapists to make competent and responsible decisions about intervention. Therapists are urged to focus on empirical evidence and the needs of the client rather than biases about true and false memories. Chapters include an overview of scientific knowledge about memory and repression in response to trauma; claims about false memories; competent practice; clinical approaches; and forensic issues. Assessment considerations, conflicts of interests, informed consent, diagnoses, monitoring the responses of the therapist, boundaries during the therapeutic process, the benefits of confrontation, forgiveness, bibliotherapy and other approaches, contact with the alleged perpetrator, and liability of the therapist are specifically discussed. Appendices include a sample informed consent form, therapist's outline for review of treatment, outline of topics for forensic preparation, and cross-examination questions for therapists who serve as expert witnesses. Numerous references and 5 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  repression;  assessment;  psychological evaluation;  intervention strategies;  forensic psychiatry;  sexual abuse;  false memory syndrome

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.apa.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Minority Report and Policy Recommendations of the United States Commission on Child and Family Welfare.

 

AUTHOR:               Guidubaldi, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Commission on Child and Family Welfare, Washington, DC.

 

SOURCE:                Presented at 104th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Toronto (Canada), August 9-13, 1996;  22 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This paper outlines the omissions of the United States Commission of Child and Family Welfare and presents the recommendations of the minority of the Commission for facilitating the involvement of fathers in the lives of their children. Overall, the Commission failed to address significant and controversial issues, especially the causes and effects of single parenthood in the United States. The Commission also demonstrated bias and refused to analyze conflicting testimony. This paper presents research evidence that indicates a relationship between divorce and socialization failure with increased juvenile delinquency, childhood emotional problems, academic achievement, and teenage pregnancies. These problems are attributed to a lack of father involvement in divorced or unmarried families, caused by social and court child custody policies. Joint custody is recommended to support the involvement of both fathers and mothers. Specific proposals include legislation to ensure equitable judicial treatment of parents, place restrictions on no-fault divorce in families with children, encourage partnerships between parents and schools to socialize children, and provide incentives for responsible parenting. 17 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         child welfare reform;  family services;  welfare reform;  federal statutory law;  advisory boards;  child custody;  divorce

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Proceedings Paper

 

 

TITLE:                    Hearsay Testimony in Child Sexual Abuse Cases: Questions of Accuracy,.

 

AUTHOR:               Adams, J. K.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Oklahoma Family Law Journal

 

SOURCE:                11(2): pp. 70-76, June 1996

 

ABSTRACT:           This article reviews research about the impact of various interviewing methods on children's testimony and describes the risks of inaccuracies in hearsay. Recent studies have found that interview procedures such as repeated questioning, delayed questioning, suggestive or misleading questions, the emotional tone of the interview, peer pressure, and interviewer authority and bias can negatively affect the accuracy of children's statements. Hearsay evidence offered in child abuse cases may also be inaccurate due to misinterpretation by the witness, intentional lies by the declarant, and inaccurate memory or misunderstanding by the declarant. These limitations are especially of concern when declarations are obtained using improper interview procedures. The article proposes that video or audio recordings be made of all interviews with children to allow the court to determine whether improper questioning procedures were used and to identify inaccuracies in hearsay testimony. Videotapes also eliminate the need for repeated interviews. Constitutional challenges to the practice of videotaping have successfully been addressed by several states. 11 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         child witnesses;  testimony;  sexual abuse;  credibility;  false allegations;  hearsay rule;  videotaping

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Child Sexual Abuse Allegations Against a Lesbian or Gay Parent in a Custody or Visitation Dispute: Battling the Overt and Insidious Bias of Experts and Judges.

 

AUTHOR:               Becker, S. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Denver University Law Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Cleveland State Univ., OH. Cleveland-Marshall Coll. of Law.

 

SOURCE:                74(1): pp. 75-158;  Denver Univ., CO. Coll. of Law., 1996

 

ABSTRACT:           This article examines the role of experts in child sexual abuse allegations, specifically allegations against a lesbian or gay parent. Expert witnesses are viewed as either hired guns or critical witnesses that can provide professional or technical testimony. A witness must qualify as an expert witness through the Federal rule of evidence 702 which qualifies a witness as an expert based on knowledge, skills, experience, training or education. After a witness is declared an expert, his or her testimony must be determined to be admissible in court. The Frye and Daubert standards that govern admissibility of expert witness testimony are explained. Once the court has a qualified and expert witness, the credibility of the expert testimony must be assessed. Despite scientific evidence that gay or lesbian parents are as competent as heterosexual parents, courts still hold stereotypical assumptions. These assumptions cloud decision making and ignore the best interests of the child. The Hertzler case is used to help illustrate the injustice that occur when a court believes the stereotypical assumptions concerning homosexual parents. 604 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         expert witnesses;  homosexual parents;  courts role;  sexual abuse

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wshein.com

 

 

TITLE:                    The Case for Transracial Adoption.

 

AUTHOR:               Simon, R. J.;  Altstein, H.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Children and Youth Services Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    American Univ., Washington, DC. School of Public Affairs.

 

SOURCE:                18(1-2): pp. 5-22;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science, Inc., 1996

 

ABSTRACT:           This article describes the rhetoric and goals of groups who have opposed and supported transracial adoption in the United States. The National Association of Black Social Workers has been the largest and most outspoken critic of transracial adoptions. In addition, many other African American professional groups have argued that institutional racism has been one of the reasons that more African American children have not been placed with prospective African American adopters. The case for transracial adoption has been derived mainly from empirical studies that have concluded that transracial adoption has had a positive effect on children. The article also summarizes the statutory and case law governing transracial adoptions and presents the results of a 20-year study of transracial adoptions. The study, which began in 1971, was conducted for the purpose of assessing the racial identities and attitudes of transracially adopted children and their biological siblings and determining the extent to which the family members were committed to each other. During the first phase of the study 204 parents and 366 children were interviewed. In 1979, these families were sought out, and 143 of them were located. Of these families, 133 agreed to participate in a second survey. In the fall of 1983 and the winter of 1984, the families were contacted a third time. Of the 133 families who participated in the 1979 survey, 88 took place in the 1984 survey. In addition, 8 families who participated in the first phase of the study but could not be found in 1979 were located in 1984 and participated in the survey. In 1991, 83 of the 96 families who participated in the 1984 survey were located and 76 provided researchers with the names and addresses of their adult transracially adopted and birth children. The most important finding to emerge from the first phase of the study was the absence of a white racial preference or bias on the part of the white birth children and the nonwhite adopted children. Results from the 1979 survey reveal that some families were having problems with their adopted child or children. The most serious problem was the adopted child's tendency to steal from other family members. Findings from the third encounter with the families show that there were no significant differences among adolescent respondents on measures of self-esteem and family integration. In the last phase of the study, respondents indicated that they were aware of and comfortable with their racial identity. The authors conclude that transracial adoption does not involve special problems, traumas, or heartbreak. 25 references and 3 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         transracial adoption;  longitudinal studies;  racial attitudes;  racial identity;  state laws;  court litigation

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.elsevier.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Whose Family Is It Anyway? The Continuing Struggle for Lesbians and Gay Men Seeking to Adopt Children.

 

AUTHOR:               Adams, W. E.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    New England Law Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Nova Southeastern Univ., Fort Lauderdale, FL. Shepard Broad Law Center.

 

SOURCE:                30(3): pp. 579-621;  New England School of Law, Boston, Spring 1996

 

ABSTRACT:           This legal comment focuses on the statutory ban against homosexual adoption in Florida, which was upheld by the State Supreme Court in 1995. The author begins with a history of child custody and visitation cases involving homosexual parents, describing continued bias in the courts against awarding rights to gays or lesbians. This bias, combined with the broad discretion given to adoption agencies, has made it more difficult for homosexuals--particularly gay men--to adopt than for the population in general. The author presents the prevalent psychological and sociological arguments concerning the parenting ability of gays and lesbians, referring to amicus briefs filed by the Rutherford Institute (a non-profit religious corporation) and the Florida Conference of Bishops as being sexist, homophobic, without credibility, and based on myth. The author remarks that social science research is increasingly being cited in court to provide evidence defending homosexuals' parenting ability, and outlines the legal arguments in favor of permitting homosexual adoption, including best interest and the need for more adoptive homes. The author notes that the denial of co-parent adoption flies in the face of the constitutional rights of biological parents, while the denial of stranger adoption circumvents the best interests of children in need of adoption. The case of Cox v. Florida Department of Health & Rehabilitative Services, heard by the Florida Supreme Court, is cited as an example of how questionable many of society's assumptions are regarding sexual orientation and equal protection. The author concludes that while gays and lesbians are gaining societal acceptance in general, family case law is an area in which courts are reluctant to change.

 

KEY TERMS:         gay and lesbian adoptions;  homosexuality;  child custody;  court litigation;  state courts

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.nesl.edu/lawrev/lawrev.htm

 

 

TITLE:                    Adopting Solo.

 

AUTHOR:               Brinkerhoff, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Family Matters

 

SOURCE:                pp. 1-2;  Boys and Girls Aid Society of Oregon, Portland. Special Needs Adoption Coalition., March 1996

 

ABSTRACT:           A divorced father discusses the difficulties of adopting as a single person. He describes the biases of agencies against single parents, male or female. The issues for either sex include the parent being away from the child too much and the child having no role models of the opposite sex. Men have the added biases of being regarded as stiff and non-nurturing. Women have to deal with doubt about their ability to handle problem children. Child care plans, parenting styles, role models, and handling the difficulties of an older child are discussed. The author also recommends forming a network, such as a support group, and identifying supportive people in the neighborhood, among friends and family, finding a psychologist familiar with older child adoption, deciding what to tell your family, employers, and colleagues about the adoption, and being ready for disapproval. A resoruce list is provided.

 

KEY TERMS:         single parent families;  adoption;  older children;  waiting children;  parent education;  parenting

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Growing Up Adopted: An Inquiry into Limitations, Interpretations, and Implications of the Search Institute's 1994 Adoptive Family Study.

 

AUTHOR:               Axness, M. W.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Decree

 

SOURCE:                13(4): pp. 1, 3-5, 10-12;  American Adoption Congress, Washington, DC., Winter 1996

 

ABSTRACT:           Released in 1994, the adoption study Growing Up Adopted' was met with sharply divided response. Adoption supporters embraced its overwhelmingly positive findings, while adoption reformists were troubled by what they perceived as a simplistic portrayal of the complexities of the adoption experience. This investigative article interviews individuals closely involved with the study to make a close examination of the research that was conducted and the ways in which it was interpreted. The author discusses how the study was released and used by the media, pointing out, for instance, that most media reporters likely derived their information from a summary which contained no discussion of the study's limitations, biases, or flaws. The author cites critics of the study, which was released to the press before submission to academic peer review, or publication in academic literature.

 

KEY TERMS:         research;  mass media;  adopted children

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.american-adoption-cong.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Unexplored Issues in Transracial Adoptions.

 

AUTHOR:               Turner, S.;  Taylor, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Black Psychology

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Pittsburgh Univ., PA. Institute for the Black Family.

 

SOURCE:                22(2): pp. 262-265;  Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA., May 1996

 

ABSTRACT:           This article comments on a critical review (Alexander and Curtis) of the empirical literature on the psychological consequences of transracial adoption and focuses on an under-researched area within the social science literature: the developmental outcomes of African American children reared in white homes. Although Alexander and Curtis state that African Americans have not supported their contention of psychological damage to African American children with adoption research, it is important to note some of the challenges faced by African American scholars when conducting such highly sensitive research on white families. In her 1977 multistate study of transracial adoptive families, Joyce Ladner described challenges she experienced as an African American researcher questioning white respondents about racially sensitive ideas. She ultimately questioned her ability to conduct such research and entertained the possibility that her own intellectual bias affected interview outcomes. It is essential that African American researchers continue to develop tools to assess culturally sensitive child outcomes. Although there may be limited empirical data suggesting that transracial adoption placements are harmful to children, there is similarly limited research concluding that they are not harmful. As Ladner revealed in 1977, the experiences of transracially adopted children are likely to differ according to family lifestyle; social context in which the child develops, parental values, attitudes, and child-rearing practices; child personality; and relationships with other family members, friends, and neighbors. These issues still require investigation today. References.

 

KEY TERMS:         transracial adoption;  racial identity;  literature reviews;  developmental psychology;  african americans

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.bellhowell.infolearning.com

 

 

TITLE:                    It Takes an Entire Village.

 

AUTHOR:               Lovett-Tisdale, M.;  Purnell, B. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Black Psychology

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Cincinnati Univ., OH. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                22(2): pp. 266-269;  Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA., May 1996

 

ABSTRACT:           This article comments on a critical review (Alexander and Curtis) of the empirical literature on the psychological consequences of transracial adoption. The authors discuss transracial adoption outcomes with respect to the moral and collective consciousness of the African American community, which has long practiced informal adoption successfully. If there is a need in contemporary America for other races to adopt African American children, then it is logical to assume that there is something inherently wrong with the formal adoption system. Because the prevalent socialization in the U.S. is Eurocentric, it makes sense that most mainstream American researchers would not expect to find a problems with transracial adoption, especially when white, middle-class, two-parent families are normalized. This intellectual bias manifests in other ways as well. While Alexander and Curtis assumed that poverty and teen pregnancy are factors in family instability, it must be recognized that such viewpoints relate a set of values rather than an objective reality. Until a greater amount of qualitative and quantitative research exists that allows intelligent discourse regarding transracial adoption, a system should be implemented to protect the interests of African American children as a whole. Programs must be put in place to allow European American parents to acculturate African American children and monitoring processes should be established to ensure that all African American children develop in a healthy manner, both physically and mentally. References.

 

KEY TERMS:         transracial adoption;  african americans;  racial identity;  research methodology

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.bellhowell.infolearning.com

 

 

TITLE:                    The Real Issues in Transracial Adoption: A Response.

 

AUTHOR:               Willis, M. G.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Black Psychology

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Morehouse College, Atlanta, GA. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                22(2): pp. 246-253;  Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA., May 1996

 

ABSTRACT:           This article comments on a critical review (Alexander and Curtis) of the empirical literature on the psychological consequences of transracial adoption. Their review does well in deconstructing the transracial adoption literature. But they do not address reconstruction (revising and modifying the Eurocentric material to better apply to Africans) or construction (creating and developing appropriate constructs based on the African cultural world view). Thus, their conclusions miss the essential and real issues of transracial adoption. This article uses a deconstruction-reconstruction-construction approach to respond to their research review. Alexander and Curtis' examination of racial identity is troublesome in that it focuses on children younger than the age at which racial identity develops and matures. In the longitudinal studies that include this age group, there are many dropouts and the sample is significantly reduced, which may lead to bias. Also, the measures of racial identity used in the studies may not be appropriate, valid, or reliable. The author considers the construct of transracial adoption from an Afrocentric world view. She analyzes from an African perspective the behavior of European Americans with respect to transracial adoption, pointing out patterns of control and domination. While adoptive white families compete with African American families for healthy infant girls, they do not rush to adopt harder-to-place children in foster care. Ultimately, greater focus is needed on how to successfully socialize African American children living in a society that does not prioritize their best interests. This can only be achieved through a different orientation than the textbook solutions suggested by Alexander and Curtis. References.

 

KEY TERMS:         transracial adoption;  african americans;  institutional racism;  research methodology

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.bellhowell.infolearning.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Children's Rights and the Biological Bias: A Comparison Between the United States and Canada in Biological Parent Versus Third-Party Custody Disputes.

 

AUTHOR:               Wynne, E. E.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Connecticut Journal of International Law

 

SOURCE:                11: pp. 367-392;  Connecticut Univ., Hartford. School of Law., 1996

 

ABSTRACT:           This legal comment examines the idea of children as property. The origin of this notion is identified and its misplacement in today's society is illustrated, beginning with an overview of the history of children's rights and child custody before the nineteenth century. The history of childhood in is discussed, specifically, the origin of the legal concepts of the child as property and biological bias. The author examines the standards used by the courts in deciding among the rights of the biological parents, the psychological parents, and the child. These issues are examined in the context of two of the most highly publicized custody cases involving biological parents versus third-parties--Baby Richard and Baby Jessica. The existing biological bias that has evolved from the historical idea of children as property is then compared with the shift away from this legal construct in Canada. The author traces the progression of the court's rationale in deciding biological parents versus third-party custody disputes and the development of the child as person ideal. Analysis of these cases demonstrates that the psychological testimony regarding child bonding was a major factor in the progression of Canadian law regarding children. The author argues that U.S. courts need to heed the growing body of evidence supporting a child's need for a stable relationship with his or her psychological parent, and should cease basing decisions on the theory that biological parents have a natural right to their child which overrides all others. Adopting a legal standard similar to Canada's would be an important step toward recognizing children as persons. References.

 

KEY TERMS:         canada;  childrens rights;  parental rights;  contested adoption;  child custody;  best interests of the child

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Sexual Abuse in Nine North American Cultures: Treatment and Prevention.

 

AUTHOR:               Fontes, L. A. (Editor).

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1995

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN.

 

SOURCE:                Newbury Park, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., April 1995;  323 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This book assesses cultural strengths and challenges and attempts to identify ways cultural norms can be used to protect children from sexual abuse or to enhance their recovery from sexual abuse. Sexual abuse is often mishandled by professionals working with minority clients because of cultural and linguistic misunderstandings, racism, and homophobia. The introduction discusses ways that culture can contribute to a context for understanding the prevention, occurrence, and detection of sexual abuse and recovery from sexual abuse. Chapters explore the issue of sexual abuse as it relates to various groups bound by common beliefs, history, and practices, including African Americans; Puerto Ricans; Asian, Pacific Islander, and Filipino Americans; Cambodians; Jews; Anglo Americans; Seventh Day Adventists; homosexuals; and lesbians. Chapters include discussions of cultural and treatment issues and provide case studies. The final chapter considers the issue of matching clients and service providers for ethnicity, the impact of biases on child protective work involving ethnic or minority populations, and the use of culturally diverse treatment teams. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  treatment programs;  prevention;  african americans;  puerto ricans;  asian americans;  jews;  homosexuality

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Culturally Informed Interventions for Sexual Child Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:               Fontes, L. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1995

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN.

 

SOURCE:                In: Fontes, L. A. (Editor). Sexual Abuse in Nine North American Cultures: Treatment and Prevention. Newbury Park, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., April 1995;  pp. 259-266

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter addresses the issue of providing culturally competent and sensitive interventions for child sexual abuse victims. The debate concerning the matching of professionals and clients for ethnicity is discussed, focusing on the beliefs of proponents and opponents of matching for ethnicity. A position that advocates flexibility and a situation-specific treatment plan is presented. The use of culturally diverse treatment teams is proposed. The impact of biases on child protective work involving ethnic or minority populations is examined. Future directions for research and public policy concerning the needs of diverse cultural groups in coping with sexual abuse are suggested. 12 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  cultural differences;  patient care teams;  child protection;  culture;  service delivery;  cultural competency;  cultural sensitivity

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Child Molesters: An Examination of Cognitive Factors.

 

AUTHOR:               Hayashino, D. S.;  Wurtele, S. K.;  Klebe, K. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1995

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Interpersonal Violence

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Colorado Univ., Colorado Springs. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                10(1): pp. 106-116;  Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., March 1995

 

ABSTRACT:           Although a variety of cognitions are thought to be associated with men who engage children in sexual activities, the extent to which these cognitive factors are specific to molesters has yet to be determined. In this study, incestuous molesters, extrafamilial molesters, rapists, incarcerated nonsexual offenders, and laypersons were compared on cognitive and affective empathy, while taking into account social desirability response bias. Analyses of a priori hypotheses showed incestuous and extrafamilial molesters had significantly higher cognitive distortion scores than all other groups. The groups did not differ significantly on empathy scores. Implications of these findings for research with, and treatment of, child molesters are discussed. 2 tables and 20 references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  incest;  rape;  psychological characteristics;  individual characteristics

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Information-Processing Correlates of Reported Sexual Abuse in Eating-Disordered and Comparison Women.

 

AUTHOR:               Waller, G.;  Ruddock, A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1995

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University College London (Great Britain). Sub-Dept. of Clinical Health Psychology.

 

SOURCE:                19(6): pp. 745-759;  Oxford (Great Britain), Elsevier Science, Ltd., June 1995

 

ABSTRACT:           An adaptation of the Stroop test is described, using as subjects 50 eating-disordered women and 30 comparison group women and examining information-processing correlates of reported sexual abuse and of clinicians' judgments of the relevance of that abuse to the formulation of cases. Words related to sexual abuse impaired color-naming in eating-disordered and comparison women who reported a history of such abuse. This Stroop interference effect was greater in those eating-disordered women where the abuse was judged to be relevant to their psychopathology. It was also associated with the characteristics of the abuse (use of force, identity of abuser, time since the abuse). Finally, the Stroop interference effect was associated with the degree of bulimic psychopathology in the eating-disordered women who reported abuse. In particular, the frequency of binging was significantly greater in those eating-disordered women who had reported abuse, but that difference was a product of the correlation of the two variables with the degree of information-processing bias. A two-stage model of cognitive reaction to sexual abuse is proposed, integrating these effects with the existing literature. The utility of this measure as a research and clinical tool requires further consideration in other clinical groups. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  sequelae;  female victims;  adults abused as children;  eating disorders

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Foster Youth Independence: An Evaluative Commentary and Guidelines for Outcome Research.

 

AUTHOR:               McKillip, J.