TITLE:    Concluding Comments: Children Are Persons!

 

AUTHOR:    Walker, N. E.;  Brooks, C. M.;  Wrightsman, L. S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Nebraska Univ., Lincoln.

 

SOURCE:    In: Walker, N. E.; Brooks, C. M.; and Wrightsman, L. S. Children's Rights in the United States: In Search of a National Policy. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., 1999;  pp. 238-242

 

ABSTRACT:    This chapter proposes a developmental model of children's rights based on the United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child. The model specifically identifies the extent of children's participation in decision making during ages 0-6; 7- 11; 12-14; and 14 and older. While the guardians of young children should make important decisions for children, older children may gradually take on more responsibility. For example, younger children should have the right to assent to decisions, while older children should be given the right to consent to important decisions about their lives. The chapter strongly recommends that the United States ratify the United Nations Convention and integrate its provisions into national policy.

 

KEY TERMS:    childrens rights;  decision making;  child advocacy;  models;  child development;  social policies;  policy formation;  federal laws

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:    The Contributions of Source Misattributions, Acquiescence, and Response Bias to Children's False Memories.

 

AUTHOR:    McBrien, C. M.;  Dagenbach, D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    American Journal of Psychology

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC.

 

SOURCE:    3(4): pp. 509-528;  Champaign, IL, Univ. of Illinois Press, Winter 1998

 

ABSTRACT:    Two studies examined the nature of the false recollections that preschool children experience after imaginary events. The first replicated earlier findings suggesting that some young children respond to the events as though they had actually happened. However, events that had not been studied or thought about also were included in the test phase, and children indicated that many of these had happened to them as well. This suggested that something other than source misattribution for imagined events occurred for at least some children. A second study assessed whether children's affirmative responses to queries about imagined events reflected retrieval of the imagined event, acquiescence, or a yes response bias. Evidence of contributions to false assents from the retrieval of imagined events and yes response bias was strong, but the contribution of acquiescence was minimal. 14 references and 6 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    false allegations;  suggestibility;  preschool children;  memory;  child witnesses;  leading questions;  psychological characteristics;  false memory syndrome

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Ethical Issues in Mental Health Research With Children and Adolescents.

 

AUTHOR:    Hoagwood, K. (Editor).;  Jensen, P. S. (Editor).;  Fisher, C. B. (Editor).

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1996

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    National Institute of Mental Health (DHHS), Washington, DC.

 

SOURCE:    Mahwah, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 1996;  324 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:    This book addresses ethical considerations in mental health research. Contributors and editors integrate child development, research design, and ethical principles to provide guidelines for researchers conducting studies with child or adolescent participants. Part 1 introduces the scientific, regulatory, and family principles guiding ethical practices in research on child and adolescent mental health. Topics include the link between science and ethics, the major Federal regulations serving as the foundation for all research involving human subjects, and the contributions that family members can make to the ethical conduct of research. Contributors in part 2 review major ethical issues across diverse research contexts, including studies of: services and service systems for children and their families, psychosocial treatment and preventive interventions, clinical efficacy trials of psychopharmacological agents for children, invasive techniques or procedures, and maltreated children. Part 3 presents a casebook on ethical issues in research with children and adolescents with mental disorders. The casebook is organized into sections that address ethical dilemmas such as balancing research risks and benefits, protecting subjects when withholding treatment, identifying and recruiting study participants, obtaining informed consent and assent, using deceptive research practices, protecting confidentiality, modifying research procedures, offering additional services, and disseminating information to participants or their families. The final part focuses on achieving a balance between science and ethics. Numerous references and 1 table.

 

KEY TERMS:    ethics;  mental health services;  research;  adolescents;  confidentiality;  mental disorders

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Book

 

 

TITLE:    Ethical Issues in Psychosocial Treatment Research With Children and Adolescents.

 

AUTHOR:    Hibbs, E. D.;  Krener, P.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1996

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    National Institute of Mental Health (DHHS), Washington, DC.

 

SOURCE:    In: Hoagwood, K.; Jensen, P. S.; and Fisher, C. B. (Editors). Ethical Issues in Mental Health Research With Children and Adolescents. Mahwah, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 1996;  pp. 59-71

 

ABSTRACT:    This chapter examines ethical issues confronting researchers who study the effectiveness of psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents. The first issue involves clinician or therapist competence. Limited financial resources may lead to the use of inexperienced assistants to carry out the treatment in the intervention approach being tested, which may result in harm to participants if a comorbid condition exists or a clinical crisis occurs. A second issue concerns obtaining informed consent and determining children's assent to participate. Federal regulations require the informed consent of a legal guardian before a child can be a participant in a study. Consent and assent forms need to be written in language that children and their families can understand. In addition, consent may need to be obtained at different points during the study. The third challenge in conducting psychosocial research is ensuring participant confidentiality. Various aspects of confidentiality that require attention include ensuring protection against the disclosure of personally identifiable information, giving consideration to the use of videotapes and computer technology, and sharing information with parents. A fourth problem confronting researchers concerns incentives for participation. The incentive structure may have a differential effect on participant selection or retention, so researchers should consider whether remuneration for participation constitutes undue inducement. The final issue facing psychosocial treatment researchers deals with the dilemmas posed by the selection and involvement of control subjects. The use of no-treatment, wait-list, and placebo control groups all pose ethical concerns. 28 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    ethics;  confidentiality;  childrens rights;  research methodology;  adolescents;  research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

 

TITLE:    Casebook on Ethical Issues in Research With Children and Adolescents With Mental Disorders.

 

AUTHOR:    Fisher, C. B.;  Hoagwood, K.;  Jensen, P. S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1996

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Fordham Univ., New York, NY.

 

SOURCE:    In: Hoagwood, K.; Jensen, P. S.; and Fisher, C. B. (Editors). Ethical Issues in Mental Health Research With Children and Adolescents. Mahwah, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 1996;  pp. 135-266

 

ABSTRACT:    This chapter on ethical research on mentally ill children and adolescents contains 61 cases that are organized into sections that address ethical dilemmas. These include balancing research risks and benefits, protecting subjects when withholding treatment, identifying and recruiting study participants, obtaining informed consent and assent, protecting participant rights when using deceptive research practices, protecting participant confidentiality, modifying research procedures, offering additional services, and disseminating information to participants or their families. Each case includes the goals of the research and the ethical dilemmas posed by the research. The cases demonstrate how researchers handled ethical dilemmas within the ranges of possibilities approved by institutional review boards. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:    ethics;  adolescents;  mental disorders;  confidentiality;  research methodology;  case studies

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

 

TITLE:    Ethical Issues in Child Witness Research.

 

AUTHOR:    Goodman, G. S.;  Tobey, A. E.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1994

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    California Univ., Davis. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:    18(3): pp. 290-293;  Oxford (Great Britain), Elsevier Science, Ltd., March 1994

 

ABSTRACT:    This letter to the editor is a response to a letter that expressed concerns about the ethics of a child witness research study described in a previous issue of the journal. The response clarifies the research methodology of the study to address concerns about informed consent and assent of child participants; the use of rewards as bribes; deception, abuse-related questions, and debriefing procedures; and subjecting the children to stressful events. Full consent of the parents of the children in the study was received, and the assent of the children was secured for each activity. Toys were given to the children after the activity, not before, in order to avoid coercing them to participate. The ethical guidelines of the Society for Research in Child Development regarding deception were followed. 4 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    child witnesses;  research methodology;  ethics;  psychological studies

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Quality Psychosocial Care in Ambulatory Pediatric Settings.

 

AUTHOR:    Collins, E. W.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1985

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Rhode Island Dept. for Children and Their Families, Providence, R.I.

 

SOURCE:    In: Azarnoff, P.; Lindquist, P.(Editors).Psychological Abuse of Children in Health Care: The Issues. Santa Monica, Calif., Pediatric Project Inc., 1985;  pp. 27-42

 

ABSTRACT:    This article provides guidelines for pediatricians to help them provide quality psychosocial care and to enhance their communication with patients and parents. Physicians with an understanding of the patient's community (including family, school, neighborhood, and the medical community) can use this information for their diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. The article suggests that in communicating with parents, pediatricians should listen both for problems and expectations. Judgmental comments should be avoided, and the tempo of the communication should be matched to that of the listener (parent or patient). It instructs pediatricians communicating with children to reduce children's anxieties about health care encounters. This can be accomplished by explaining medical procedures in age-appropriate vocabulary and syntax and encouraging the children's active participation. For younger children, parental participation in the process also should be encouraged. Physicians are advised to end visits with anticipatory guidance, information, and reassurance. Pediatricians with adolescent patients are advised to conduct interviews with the patient alone. In all cases, physicians are advised to obtain their patient's assent to treatment. 2 references and a bibliography.

 

KEY TERMS:    pediatricians role;  communication;  physician patient relationships;  community characteristics;  children;  adolescents

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

 

TITLE:    Legislation and Case Law Regarding the Competency of Child Witnesses to Testify in Criminal Proceedings (Current through December 31, 1999): Colorado.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Witnesses Number 24

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES  Administration for Children and Families  Administration on Children, Youth and Families  Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION  330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565  Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE  99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321

 

SOURCE:    In: Competency of Child Witnesses to Testify

 

KEY TERMS:    Statute;  Colorado;  Case Law;  Child;  Child Witnesses;  Children;  Competency;  Court;  Criminal Proceedings;  Criminal;  incest;  Legislation;  Proceedings;  sexual assault

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Statutes

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.ndaa-apri.org