TITLE:                    Tribal Perspectives on Over-Representation of Indian Children in Out-of-Home Care.

 

AUTHOR:               Cross, T.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Permanency Planning Today

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    National Indian Child Welfare Association, Portland, OR.

 

SOURCE:                1(1): pp. 7-11;  Hunter Coll., New York, NY. School of Social Work., Winter-Spring 2000;  p. 371

 

ABSTRACT:           American Indians children are over-represented in the child welfare system, with more than 12 of every 1,000 Indian children placed in substitute care. This article examines those circumstances and attempts to put the situation in a historical context. Reasons for over-representation are discussed, including historical removal of Indian children from their tribes, to present legal and political relationships among tribes, states, and the federal government, to the cultural bias faced by Indian families experiencing social ills associate with persistent poverty and racism. Historical trends are examined from the 1600s until the present day, with events leading to passage of the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978. The implications of the act are examined--the author asserts that while regarded as one of the best permanency policies to be enacted by the federal government, it remains misunderstood and maligned, and while data indicate that it has brought a reduction in the over-representation of Indian children in the system, there remains serious problems, primarily because the act provided little in the way of funding for implementation. Furthermore, problems remain because Indian children who need out-of-home placement must often become wards of the state, thus taking from the tribe its capacity to respond directly to its members' needs. The author makes recommendations for policy and practices that have the potential for improving the accessibility and quality of services for Indian families and their children, such as providing greater access to funding, development of demonstration projects, and implementation of provisions under the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 to complement provisions under ICWA. Fifteen references.

 

KEY TERMS:         tribes;  american indians;  out of home care;  child welfare;  policies;  government role;  icwa;  historical perspective;  asfa

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Substantiation and Early Decision Points in Public Child Welfare: A Conceptual Reconsideration.

 

AUTHOR:               Drake, B.;  Jonson-Reid, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Maltreatment

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO. Dept. of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                5(3): pp. 227-235;  Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA., August 2000;  p. 805

 

ABSTRACT:           This article describes the concept of substantiation, a means of officially validating the occurrence of prior events in accordance with agency standards in the larger context of early decision-making in state child protective services.The authors note that substantiation has been misunderstood and misapplied by policy makers and researchers, stemming from the fact that substantiation of child welfare cases is past-oriented and reminiscent of a criminal justice system model, which causes the substantiation construct to be mismatched with public child welfare services and goals, which are future-oriented and follow a preventative model. Specific attention is given to the voluntary or involuntary nature of services, the availabilityof evidence, and the past or future orientation of the decision-making process. The conceptual consistency of recent child welfare policies is explored. Based on the review, the authors make recommendations with regard to the desirability of replacing the substantiation characterization with more practice-relevant characterizations more consistent with the nature of child welfare services. Conclusions suggest that the reliance of substantiation in child protective services overshadows the more important determination of whether a family requires services to prevent further harm to a child. Substantiation is described as a useful, preliminary step toward family court involvement, but researchers must discontinue the reliance on substantiation as a proxy for risk or severity. Two figures, 16 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         early intervention programs;  child welfare system;  child protective services;  decision making;  validity;  policies;  family courts

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    Setting Performance Goals for Adoption Services: Estimating the Need for Adoption of Children in Foster Care.

 

AUTHOR:               Barth, R. P.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Adoption Quarterly

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    California Univ., Berkeley. School of Social Welfare.

 

SOURCE:                2(3): pp. 29-38;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 1999;  p. 25

 

ABSTRACT:           While adoption is one of several goals for child welfare services when children cannot remain at home, the author states that it only becomes a goal when family reunification cannot occur and it is not always the appropriate goal when children are living with relatives available to reunify. The author notes that the Adoption 2002 initiative offers incentives for adoptions that only depend on the number of adoptions, not on their relationship to reunification. A California-based initiative takes a different, over-simplified approach to setting adoptions standards by basing them on the number of adoptions per adoption worker. Under this approach, agencies that increase their reunifications and keep their adoptions constant are not rewarded and agencies that decrease their reunifications and increase their adoptions are rewarded. The author asserts that this can create a misunderstanding of the program as being anti-family and even generate resentment toward adoptions. The author recommends that agencies' adoption rates should be rewarded only after estimating the pool of adoptable children and taking the likelihood of reunification into account, and presents a model for estimating these factors. Four tables, one note, nine references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         adoption services;  foster care;  child welfare services;  adoption 2002;  performance based contracting;  permanency planning;  reunification;  california

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Intervention With Hispanic Sexual Abusers.

 

AUTHOR:               Loredo, C. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Travis County Juvenile Court, Austin, TX.

 

SOURCE:                In: Lewis, A. D. (Editor). Cultural Diversity in Sexual Abuser Treatment: Issues and Approaches. Brandon, VT, Safer Society Press, 1999;  pp. 121-149

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter examines the values and cultural perspectives that may impact treatment for Hispanic sex offenders. It presents an overview of the history of Hispanics in the United States and identifies the primary values of Hispanic culture: familism; dignity; personalism; blood relationships; and co- parenthood. Role expectations of men and women are also discussed. Although the literature on treatment interventions for Hispanic Americans is limited, several authors have endorsed cognitive behavioral therapy within a group setting that permits bilingual dialogue. Therapists or interviewers treating clients who speak only Spanish are urged to select an interpreter who places the client's statements within a cultural context to ensure that the meaning of the comments are not misunderstood. Hispanic clients should be encouraged to ask questions about the legal process and be informed about the ramifications of their decision to enter treatment. When selecting a treatment approach, therapists are advised to involve priests and family members in the discussion of deviant sexual behavior and address issues of honor and shame. The desire of the victim's family to demand revenge and retribution must also be addressed. The chapter includes an outline of issues identified in a report by the National Task Force on Juvenile Sexual Offending regarding the system's response to minority youth. 74 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         sex offenders therapy;  hispanics;  intervention strategies;  therapeutic intervention;  cultural competency;  cultural values;  best practices;  adolescent sex offenders

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.safersociety.org

 

 

TITLE:                    ADHD Handbook for Families: A Guide to Communicating With Professionals.

 

AUTHOR:               Weingartner, P. L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Weingartner Center for Educational Excellence, Mansfield, OH.

 

SOURCE:                Washington, DC, Child Welfare League of America, Inc., 1999;  147 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This book explains the neurobiology of attention deficit- hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and describes behavior management techniques that can help individuals with ADHD succeed in school and in relationships with friends and family. Diagnosis, sources of help, medical and psychosocial intervention techniques, and basic steps in planning and measuring behavior modification strategies are reviewed. Treatment for adults and common myths and misunderstandings are also discussed. Sample behavior modification plans and a personal perspective are provided. The guide emphasizes compassion and understanding of the condition. 64 references and 1 figure.

 

KEY TERMS:         attention deficit disorder;  hyperactivity;  learning disabilities;  intervention strategies;  parental role;  therapeutic effectiveness;  professionals role;  behavior modification

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.cwla.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Response to Clare Dalton's When Paradigms Collide: Protecting Battered Parents and Their Children in the Family Court System.

 

AUTHOR:               Johnston, J. R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Family and Conciliation Courts Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    San Jose State Univ., CA. Administration of Justice Dept.

 

SOURCE:                37(4): pp. 422-428;  Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA., October 1999

 

ABSTRACT:           The methodology and findings of two research studies cited in Clare Dalton's article When Paradigms Collide published in a previous issue of the journal are defended in this article. The studies have been misunderstood by Dalton, as well as other researchers. Both studies examined the effects of domestic violence on children and the outcomes of counseling for parents. The first interviewed 80 families from 1982 to 1984 and the second interviewed 60 families from 1989 to 1991. Contrary to Dalton's assertion that couples were categorized into one of several predetermined types which were not assessed for accuracy, the typology was continually adjusted to reflect the data being collected. Dalton's second concern was that the researchers had no guidelines for finding the truth when parents gave conflicting reports of incidents. In fact, statistical analyses of discrepancies were performed and parents' reports were compared for comprehensiveness, specificity, plausibility, consistency, attitudes, and evidence. Dalton also claims that research about forms of domestic violence focus on conflict, rather than abuse. However, the two are linked especially in cases of male controlling violence. Limitations of typologies are outlined. 11 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         family courts;  battered women;  custody disputes;  family characteristics;  research methodology;  child witnesses of family violence;  sequelae;  reliability

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    FALSE ALLEGATIONS AND FALSE MEMORY SYNDROME: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

SOURCE:                NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:         false memory syndrome;  trauma;  memory;  social policies;  policy formation;  political factors;  public opinion;  social attitudes;  dissociation;  amnesia;  evidence;  multiple personality disorder;  false allegations;  neurology;  adults abused as children;  repression;  validity;  sexual abuse;  research reviews;  suggestibility;  theories;  therapeutic intervention;  therapists role;  research methodology;  psychotherapy;  models;  mental health;  child witnesses;  child development;  literature reviews;  individual characteristics;  credibility

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:                    CHILD FATALITIES(Excludes Child Fatality Review Teams): Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

SOURCE:                NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:         child fatalities;  child neglect;  case studies;  parental responsibility;  definitions;  prevention;  infanticide;  characteristics of abused;  characteristics of abuser;  family characteristics;  predictor variables;  armed forces;  military personnel;  medical neglect;  religion;  investigations;  autopsies;  forensic medicine;  protocols;  child abuse reporting;  state surveys;  prevalence;  statistical data;  child welfare services;  family violence;  statistical analysis;  infant mortality;  family relationships;  trauma;  child abuse research;  foster care;  sudden infant death syndrome;  california;  program evaluation;  federal programs;  health services;  community based services;  demonstration programs;  early intervention programs;  homicide;  child protective services;  sequelae;  symptoms;  head injuries;  infants;  diagnoses

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:                    HEALTH CARE OF CHILDREN IN FOSTER CARE: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

SOURCE:                NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:         foster care;  drug exposed infants;  addicted infants;  sequelae;  child development;  visitation;  health status;  kinship care;  foster children;  service delivery;  health services;  mental health services;  welfare reform;  managed care;  policy formation;  program planning;  early intervention programs;  child health;  outcomes;  multidisciplinary teams;  interagency collaboration;  model programs;  child health services;  child welfare services;  public agencies;  developmental disabilities;  children with disabilities;  special needs;  program models;  physicians role;  physical examination;  assessment;  emotionally disturbed children;  emotional development;  emotional problems;  risk factors;  intervention strategies;  psychological characteristics;  out of home care;  psychopathology;  state surveys;  behavior;  mental health;  california;  statewide planning;  systems reform;  demonstration programs;  infants;  therapeutic intervention;  child placement;  decision making;  case management;  child welfare workers;  professional training;  behavior problems;  intervention;  models;  family centered services;  quality of care;  medicaid;  massachusetts;  texas;  utah;  financial assistance;  social policies;  school children;  mental disorders;  interviews;  diagnoses;  perception;  caretakers;  medical services;  family characteristics;  children at risk

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:                    OUT OF HOME CARE: FOSTER FAMILY CARE (Excludes Kinship Care and Independent Living): Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

SOURCE:                NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:          

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:          

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:    

 

 

TITLE:                    OUT OF HOME CARE: PERMANENCY PLANNING (Excludes Foster and Kinship Care): Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

SOURCE:                NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:         child welfare services;  judicial role;  permanency planning;  adoption;  foster care drift;  orphanages;  florida;  family preservation;  program evaluation;  child welfare reform;  social policies;  reasonable efforts;  federal laws;  court reform;  juvenile courts;  court improvement projects;  expedited permanency planning;  multidisciplinary teams;  mediation;  child custody;  substance abusing parents;  sequelae;  policy formation;  assessment;  service delivery;  child abuse research;  concurrent planning;  family reunification;  program models;  program descriptions;  foster children;  connecticut;  long term foster care;  subsidized guardianship;  state laws;  mental health professionals;  child protective services;  expert witnesses;  child placement;  california;  family courts;  drug treatment programs;  judicial responsibility;  afsa;  legal processes;  hearings;  termination of parental rights;  court appointed special advocates;  outcomes;  child welfare research;  adoption services;  systems reform;  decision making;  administrative policies;  iowa;  grants;  evaluation;  adolescents;  methodology;  case studies;  best interests of the child;  lawyers role;  adoption displacement;  research reviews

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:                    INTERVIEWING CHILD WITNESSES: Selected articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1999

 

SOURCE:                NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:         memory;  trauma;  suggestibility;  child witnesses;  interviews;  literature reviews;  research methodology;  validity;  repression;  research reviews;  neurology;  false memory syndrome;  therapists role;  sexual exploitation;  investigations;  sexual abuse;  child pornography;  victims;  perpetrators;  sex offenders;  competency;  credibility;  child development;  assessment;  preschool children;  protocols;  child abuse research;  case studies;  measures;  individual characteristics;  false allegations;  leading questions;  abuse allegations;  risk factors;  guidelines

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:                    Munchausen by Proxy Syndrome: Misunderstood Child Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:               Parnell, T. F. (Editor).;  Day, D. O. (Editor).

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

SOURCE:                Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., 1998;  329 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This book reviews the past and current literature on the basis of Munchausen by proxy syndrome, examining how these cases present in the pediatric setting, what professionals know about these families, the process of making the diagnosis, and coordinated case management through the child protection system. The second part of this book addresses intervention with the perpetrator and family through an intensive long-term psychotherapeutic treatment model. Guidelines for identification and treatment are presented, including those for developing trusting, supportive therapeutic relationships with perpetrator-parents, as well as with family members. In the third part, contributions from experts in the fields of medicine, education, social work, law, and hospital administration, address the impact of Munchausen by proxy syndrome on the community at large. The role of case management in various disciplines, including criminal prosecutors, hospitals, school systems, and guardian ad litems, is clarified and techniques for handling cases from each perspective are presented.

 

KEY TERMS:         munchausen syndrome by proxy;  child abuse;  diagnoses;  treatment;  psychotherapy;  literature reviews;  case management;  child protective services

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:                    Treating the Aftermath of Sexual Abuse: A Handbook for Working with Children in Care.

 

AUTHOR:               Osmond, M.;  Durham, D.;  Leggett, A.;  Keating, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Children's Aid Societies, Durham, Northumberland (Canada).

 

SOURCE:                Washington, DC, CWLA Press, 1998;  173 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This handbook reviews the effects of sexual abuse on children and describes an approach for responding to sexually abused children in treatment foster care. Emphasis is placed on increasing awareness of the abuse from the child's perspective, so that treatment can best address the child's needs and concerns. The handbook provides an overview of the psychological effects, posttraumatic stress, cognitive distortions, emotional problems, personality problems, and behavioral effects of sexual abuse, highlighting the ways in which children react to trauma and protect themselves from future harm. The remaining chapters examine methods of assessment and treatment, including individual psychotherapy, group therapy, and family intervention. Residential milieu-based treatment is specifically explained in chapters that describe therapeutic techniques such as rules and structure; behavioral messages; stages of healing; therapeutic tasks; the effects on the caregiver; developmentally appropriate responses; distortions and misunderstandings; and triggers and flashbacks. 1 figure.

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  sequelae;  intervention strategies;  therapeutic intervention;  treatment foster care

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.cwla.org/

 

 

TITLE:                    Looking After Children: A New Approach or Just an Exercise in Formfilling? A Response to Knight and Caveney.

 

AUTHOR:               Jackson, S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    British Journal of Social Work

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Wales Univ., Swansea (England). Dept. of Social Policy and Applied Social Studies.

 

SOURCE:                28(1): pp. 45-56;  Oxford (England), Oxford Univ. Press, February 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           This article responds to the criticisms of the Assessment and Action Records system outlined by Knight and Caveney (1998). Knight and Caveney asserted that the assessment tool, a key component of the widely adopted Looking After Children system, imposed white middle class assumptions about child development, undermined the Children Act principles of partnership, and blamed individuals instead of structural factors for shortcomings in care and poor outcomes. The response argues that these particular criticisms are based on a misunderstanding of the system and a classbound view of parenting which would deny looked after children the chance of a better quality of adult life than their families experience. Contrary to the conclusions of Knight and Caveney, partnership with children and families is a major focus of the system and occurs at several points during the assessment and review process. Field testing also confirmed that social workers spent more time with children, not less as Knight and Caveney contend. Implementing Looking After Children is not an alternative to addressing the pervasive inequality and discrimination in our society (Jackson and Kilroe, 1996), but using the Assessment and Action Records makes it more likely that social workers and carers will pay attention to important aspects of children's development and be able to see more clearly how and what they do or do not do relates to the outcome for the child. 31 references and 1 figure. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         assessment;  england;  family centered services;  practice protocols;  therapeutic effectiveness;  foster care;  research methodology;  quality of care

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.oup.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Syndrome Evidence: What It Is and How to Use It.

 

AUTHOR:               Myers, J. E. B.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University of the Pacific, Sacramento, CA. McGeorge School of Law.

 

SOURCE:                In: Ventrell, M. and Anderson, J. (Editors). Serving the Needs of the Child Client: Keeping Pace with the Practice of Law for Children. National Association of Counsel for Children, Denver, CO, October 1998;  pp. 1-10

 

ABSTRACT:           This paper explains how judges and fact finders can evaluate expert testimony regarding psychological syndromes. The differences between diseases and syndromes are highlighted and sources of misunderstanding about psychological syndromes are identified. Emphasis is placed on the uncertainty of the relationship between symptoms and the causes of particular syndromes. In some cases, the symptoms are highly probative and directly indicative of a cause, while others are less obvious. The paper uses a continuum to illustrate the variation in certainty of some diagnoses. Judges are cautioned against assuming automatically that a syndrome is indicative of a specific cause. Instead, fact finders should evaluate each diagnosis on the basis of the scientific evidence of the probative value of the symptoms and the syndrome. 1 figure.

 

KEY TERMS:         evidence collection;  evidence presentation;  rules of evidence;  syndromes;  expert testimony;  psychologists;  mental disorders

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Proceedings Paper

 

INTERNET URL:   http://NACCchildlaw.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Parental Disability and the Threat of Child Removal.

 

AUTHOR:               McConnell, D.;  Llewellyn, G.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Family Matters

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Sydney Univ. (Australia). Faculty of Health Sciences.

 

SOURCE:                (51): pp. 33-36;  Melbourne (Australia), Australian Institute of Family Studies, Spring-Summer 1998

 

ABSTRACT:           This article highlights practices in the Australian child protection system that discriminate against parents with intellectual disabilities. Statistics indicate that children of parents with mental retardation or intellectual impairment in Australia have been removed without adequate evidence of abuse or neglect or the provision of support services. This practice may be a reflection of misunderstandings by child protection workers about the parenting abilities of people with intellectual disabilities or presumptions about the inevitability of neglect or abuse. Parents with intellectual disabilities are vulnerable during child protection investigations and proceedings because they may not understand the process or how to communicate with their attorneys. There is no evidence to suggest that disabled parents will definitely abuse or neglect their children nor to support the conclusion that they cannot be taught parenting skills. Family support providers and child protection workers should advocate for legislation that protects parents with disabilities from discrimination and for the development of programs that support the special needs of these parents. 31 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         parental rights;  learning disabilities;  developmental disabilities;  retarded parents;  child custody;  termination of parental rights;  legal processes;  australia

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.aifs.org.au/

 

 

TITLE:                    Lessons Learned from Programs for Unaccompanied Refugee Minors.

 

AUTHOR:               Ryan, A. S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Hunter College, New York, NY. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                In: Anderson, G. R.; Ryan, A. S.; and Leashore, B. R. (Editors). The Challenge of Permanency Planning in a Multicultural Society. Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1997;  pp. 195-205

 

ABSTRACT:           A policy for priority admissions and subsequent care of unaccompanied refugee entrant minors was established in 1978 in response to the influx of Southeast Asian refugee minors. This article describes the needs of this population. Typical problems include culture shock, social isolation, separation from families, depression, withdrawal, antisocial behavior, psychological disturbances, and alienation. Unaccompanied refugee entrant minors placed in foster care often misunderstand the issue of custody and the role of foster families, and are not aware of their rights and responsibilities. Child welfare services should facilitate social networks for unaccompanied minors and assist children to maintain their ethnic identity. In addition, child welfare workers should understand the cultural differences in Asian families and apply a generic model of multiculturalism to counseling. Using the generic model, workers assess their own attitudes about unaccompanied minors and recruit appropriate foster parents. Minors should also be helped to make informed decisions and counseled to cope with the stress of acculturation. Lessons learned can be applied to permanency planning for children from varying cultural backgrounds. 11 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         cultural competency;  cultural sensitivity;  foster care;  permanency planning;  asia;  immigrants;  program descriptions;  program development

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Children's Understanding of Legal Terminology: Judges Get Money at Pet Shows, Don't They?

 

AUTHOR:               Aldridge, M.;  Timmins, K.;  Wood, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Wales University, Bangor (Great Britain). School of English and Linguistics.

 

SOURCE:                6(2): pp. 141-146;  Chichester (Great Britain), John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., May 1997

 

ABSTRACT:           This paper measures children's understanding of legal terminology. Children between the ages of 5 and 10 participated, and data was abstracted from two sources: a language game with presumed non-abused children, and transcripts of police-child video interviews in cases of suspected child abuse. Results indicate that the children's ability to define legal terminology increases with age, and that specialized legal terminology (e.g. prosecution) was difficult for most of the children. Dialogues are provided as examples where communication breaks down when the child thinks he/she has understood the conversation. Situations of misunderstanding and/or mishearing are potentially dangerous to children testifying in a court situation as partial understanding may not be detected in interviewing. It is therefore recommended that all terminology be checked to determine whether both parties have a common understanding of the words employed. 3 tables and 4 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         child witnesses;  courts;  interviews;  legal definitions

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wiley.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Child Sexual Abuse Accomodation Evidence: The Travails of Counterintuitive Evidence in Australia and New Zealand.

 

AUTHOR:               Freckelton, I.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Behavioral Sciences and the Law

 

SOURCE:                15(3): pp. 247-283;  New York, NY, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Summer 1997

 

ABSTRACT:           This article reviews a taxonomy of expert evidence in relation to the responses of sexually abused children to their assaults, using a series of Australian and New Zealand cases which involved the diagnosis of Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome (CSAAS). In particular, the article suggests that the diagnosis of CSAAS is inappropriate and should not be permitted in court, particularly before juries. Further rigor will and should be required of prosecutors and mental health professionals alike if counterintuitive evidence, such as CSAAS, is to be admitted. This will entail proof of the existence of community misunderstanding of the phenomenon, establishment that the field of expertise from which child sexual abuse accommodation evidence emanates is sufficient for the purpose, as well as proof of the expert's expertise in the field. However, the article argues against abandoning attempts to use counterintuitive evidence merely on the basis of a number of adverse Australasian determinations, whose reasoning is dependent on the quality of evidence hitherto advanced and the overly limited perceptions of the evidential framework within which such evidence should be evaluated. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  sexual abuse accommodation syndrome;  australia;  new zealand;  evidence;  expert testimony

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.interscience.wiley.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Understanding Adoption: Epistemological Implications.

 

AUTHOR:               Delany, D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1997

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    South Australia Univ. (Australia). Dept. of Social Research.

 

SOURCE:                In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Adoption and Healing, Wellington, Aotearoa (New Zealand), June 20-22, 1997, June 1997;  pp. 115-129

 

ABSTRACT:           Knowledge and power are linked. In order to reveal the nature of the knowledge/power nexus and its relationship to the process of adoption, we must not only ask what we know about adoption but also how we have come to know what we know about adoption. When this is done, it becomes clear that adoption in Australia has been misunderstood and misrepresented. The author suggests that social researchers, social workers, mental health professionals, policy makers and legislators who are assigned the role of expert in adoption hold power over adoption policy, but their power is based on distorted or inaccurate perceptions of the adoption process. These distortions have been furthered by legislation and policy that devaluates individuals in the process but also places responsibility squarely on the individual. How we understand adoption is explained in the context of a social environment that demands faith in legitimated, positivistic, social science to find the right answers. Instead, the author argues that we should relocate and reposition our understanding of adoption as a social construct, understand adoption's inherent contradictions and the nature and origins of the knowledge positions and political projects of each set of stakeholders. Conclusions support the premise that the starting point of a reconstructed adoption process involves the institutionalized recognition of the complexities of adoptive relationships and the need for respect and recognition of adopted persons' life histories. Thirty-four notes.

 

KEY TERMS:         adoption;  adoption process;  socialization;  australia

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Proceedings Paper

 

 

TITLE:                    Community Notification: Neither a Panacea nor a Calamity.

 

AUTHOR:               Berliner, L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Harborview Sexual Assault Center, Seattle, WA.

 

SOURCE:                8(2): pp. 101-104;  New York, NY, Plenum Publishing Corp., April 1996

 

ABSTRACT:           This article discusses community notification of the release of convicted sex offenders. Community notification has provoked opposition from offender treatment providers who fear that it does not enhance community safety and is a short-sighted response to the problem of sex offending. Many of the arguments opposing community notification misunderstand its role, are based on speculation, and might jeopardize the justifications for treatment alternatives. Sex offender treatment providers take risks when they denigrate or oppose the wishes of the community. The author argues that community notification should be seen as a component of a social response to convicted sexual offenders. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         sex offenders;  safety;  communities;  legislation

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.plenum.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Making Families Work and What to Do When They Don't: Thirty Guides for Imperfect Parents of Imperfect Children.

 

AUTHOR:               Borcherdt, B.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

SOURCE:                Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1996;  224 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           The essays in this book describe strategies and techniques for coping with misunderstandings that can affect family relationships. Using the principles of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy, family members are advised to avoid overreacting to situations and become more tolerant of personal differences in family relationships. Topics include: sources of family disturbances; role of nature and nurture; emotional dependency; family strengths; problem-solving and conflict resolution; behavior management; benefits and drawbacks to silence; agreeing to disagree; family rules; impact of family relationships on mental health; manners; and myths about the perfect family life. Family members are told to recognize that they are not perfect and not to expect others to be perfect. 9 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:         family therapy;  self help programs;  parenting;  parent education;  child rearing

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Hearsay Testimony in Child Sexual Abuse Cases: Questions of Accuracy,.

 

AUTHOR:               Adams, J. K.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Oklahoma Family Law Journal

 

SOURCE:                11(2): pp. 70-76, June 1996

 

ABSTRACT:           This article reviews research about the impact of various interviewing methods on children's testimony and describes the risks of inaccuracies in hearsay. Recent studies have found that interview procedures such as repeated questioning, delayed questioning, suggestive or misleading questions, the emotional tone of the interview, peer pressure, and interviewer authority and bias can negatively affect the accuracy of children's statements. Hearsay evidence offered in child abuse cases may also be inaccurate due to misinterpretation by the witness, intentional lies by the declarant, and inaccurate memory or misunderstanding by the declarant. These limitations are especially of concern when declarations are obtained using improper interview procedures. The article proposes that video or audio recordings be made of all interviews with children to allow the court to determine whether improper questioning procedures were used and to identify inaccuracies in hearsay testimony. Videotapes also eliminate the need for repeated interviews. Constitutional challenges to the practice of videotaping have successfully been addressed by several states. 11 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         child witnesses;  testimony;  sexual abuse;  credibility;  false allegations;  hearsay rule;  videotaping

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Understanding Birth Parents: Lessons from Attribution Theory.

 

AUTHOR:               Munro, E.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Adoption and Fostering

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    London School of Economics (Great Britain).

 

SOURCE:                20(2): pp. 44-49;  London (England), British Agencies for Adoption and Fostering, Summer 1996

 

ABSTRACT:           This article explains how attribution theory offers insights into how breakdowns in communication among birth parents, foster parents, and professionals can be avoided or resolved. The author first discusses factors that are likely to lead to critical attitudes and to disagreements between carers and social workers, focusing on fundamental attribution error and inaccurate attributions. The fundamental attribution error is the tendency to underestimate the influence of situational factors and to overestimate the role of dispositional factors in controlling behavior. The concept of inaccurate attributions involves misunderstandings of difficult behavior. The author advocates training both foster carers and social workers toward developing a more tolerant view, and, where possible, replacing blame with compassion based on appreciation of the social and psychological forces that are outside a person's conscious control. Central to this process is the sharing of clear and accurate information so that carers can be fully aware of what they are taking on and social workers, in turn, have a realistic perception of the child's well-being, including relations with his or her birth family. 21 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         foster families;  social workers;  psychology;  training

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Attachment Therapy: Treatment for the Disordered Child. An Outcome Study.

 

AUTHOR:               Goodwin, L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1996

 

SOURCE:                Doctoral Dissertation. Professional School of Psychology, Sacramento, CA, 1996;  125 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           Attachment therapy, thought by some to be effective for children suffering from Reactive Attachment Disorder, has long been the subject of controversy. The author asserts that this is due, in part, to misunderstanding of the theory of attachment and bonding and of the practice of the attachment therapy itself. Clinicians and scientists point out that there has never been a published empirical study examining the outcome of this therapy. This study examines both issues. The author presents the results of the attachment therapy as practiced in Colorado by Evergreen Consultants in Human Behavior and at the Attachment Center at Evergreen. Literature on attachment and bonding is reviewed as is the attachment therapy itself. Therapeutic goals and techniques are outlined for the 2-week intensive attachment therapy offered at Evergreen. An outcome study of 38 children aged 5 through 15 who were treated over a 2-year period is discussed. Comparison of pre- and post-test treatment symptoms checklists suggests a 50% reduction in overall symptomatology following the therapy with significant reduction in all individual symptoms except one, indicating that the intensive therapy practiced at Evergreen appears effective. There is no significant correlation between the age of the child at the time of the therapy and the outcome score, suggesting that the therapy was equally effective on all ages examined. Similarly, no significant correlation is found between post-treatment scores and months elapsed following treatment, indicating that recidivism was not present as a function of time in this study. Numerous references and tables. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         attachment disorder;  bonding;  treatment;  outcomes

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Dissertation

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.attachmentcenter.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Sexual Abuse in Nine North American Cultures: Treatment and Prevention.

 

AUTHOR:               Fontes, L. A. (Editor).

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1995

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN.

 

SOURCE:                Newbury Park, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., April 1995;  323 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This book assesses cultural strengths and challenges and attempts to identify ways cultural norms can be used to protect children from sexual abuse or to enhance their recovery from sexual abuse. Sexual abuse is often mishandled by professionals working with minority clients because of cultural and linguistic misunderstandings, racism, and homophobia. The introduction discusses ways that culture can contribute to a context for understanding the prevention, occurrence, and detection of sexual abuse and recovery from sexual abuse. Chapters explore the issue of sexual abuse as it relates to various groups bound by common beliefs, history, and practices, including African Americans; Puerto Ricans; Asian, Pacific Islander, and Filipino Americans; Cambodians; Jews; Anglo Americans; Seventh Day Adventists; homosexuals; and lesbians. Chapters include discussions of cultural and treatment issues and provide case studies. The final chapter considers the issue of matching clients and service providers for ethnicity, the impact of biases on child protective work involving ethnic or minority populations, and the use of culturally diverse treatment teams. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  treatment programs;  prevention;  african americans;  puerto ricans;  asian americans;  jews;  homosexuality

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Questioning Child Witnesses.

 

AUTHOR:               Saywitz, K.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1994

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Violence Update

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University of California, Los Angeles. Dept. of Psychiatry.

 

SOURCE:                4(7): p. 3, 6, 8, 10;  Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., March 1994

 

ABSTRACT:           This article reviews the special needs and problems of questioning child witnesses. Children should not be seen as miniature adults with adult powers of understanding and reasoning. Length of questions, vocabulary used, and grammar must match the level of a child, not an adult. Use of measurements, such as time or distance, is not easy for children, and their perception of reason and perspective is not equal to that of adults. Be sure the child understands that he or she can be right and you, the interviewer, can be wrong. Particular phases of the interview are described in detail: preparation, setting and context, rapport and observations, instructions, questioning protocol, and closure. When children are interviewed as though they are adults, misunderstandings and avoidable errors can arise in testimony that can undermine credibility.

 

KEY TERMS:         child development;  trials;  testimony;  expert witnesses;  competency;  child witnesses

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com

 

 

TITLE:                    False Allegations of Sexual Touching by Physicians in the Practice of Pediatrics.

 

AUTHOR:               Silber, T. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1994

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Pediatrics

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC.

 

SOURCE:                94(5): pp. 742-745;  Elk Grove Village, IL, American Academy of Pediatrics, November 1994

 

ABSTRACT:           This article discusses false accusations of sexual touching made by adolescents and/or their parents against their physicians. Three cases are considered. They include a 15 year old African-American adolescent male, a 12 year old African-American adolescent male, and a 16 year old Caucasian adolescent female. Each case is presented and followed by information on the investigation and a conclusion. The cases fall into one of the three types of false allegations: (1) misunderstanding; (2) distortion; (3) misrepresentation. The need for procedures that will accurately identify physicians as impaired or misunderstood as well as limit the potential for victimization of innocent pediatricians is discusses. 18 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         false allegations;  physicians;  pediatricians;  sequelae

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.aap.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Evaluation of the Partners in Time Project.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    Human Services Research Institute, Cambridge, MA.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1994

 

SOURCE:                Human Services Research Institute, Cambridge, MA, January 18, 1994;  44 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This report evaluates the two-year Partners in Time (PIT) project, which provided in-home respite services for adoptive families of children with disabilities in the Greater Philadelphia area. The PIT program ran from October 1991 through September 1993, and focused on training 40 older adults as respite workers, educating them on adoption issues, and matching them with adoptive families needing short (two to four hours per week) periods of respite. The evaluation team used four questionnaires to examine the needs, expectations, and satisfaction of families and respite workers with the PIT program. Pre-test questionnaires were administered to six families and ten respite workers before they met. Post-test questionnaires were administered during the last two months of the grant period to six families and five respite workers. The three cases in which matched families and respite workers completed both tests are treated as cases studies for this evaluation, and their survey results are discussed in detail. The overall program evaluation indicates a basic misunderstanding during the first six months regarding the families that PIT was attempting to serve. The program first narrowly targeted adoptive families of children with disabilities, and only after focusing more widely on any family with an adopted child with special needs--minority, siblings, adopted after age five, etc.--did the program see a slight increase in recruitment results. The other change suggested is to introduce the program concept at the beginning of the adoption process, during the preparation of prospective adoptive families. The evaluator recommended against subsequent use of this model without first utilizing adoptive family focus groups to suggest new services. Sample questionnaires are included.

 

KEY TERMS:         family support systems;  post adoption services;  respite care;  respite care programs;  intergenerational relationships;  special needs;  pennsylvania;  program evaluation

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Technical Report

 

 

TITLE:                    Adoptive Families and Professionals: When the Experts Make Things Worse.

 

AUTHOR:               Nickman, S. L.;  Lewis, R. G.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1994

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.

 

SOURCE:                33(5): pp. 753-755;  Baltimore, MD, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, June 1994

 

ABSTRACT:           Adoptive parents' contact with professionals is often more damaging than helpful, especially when families are in turmoil during the adolescence of a later-adopted child. Some adopters of infants report problems in their interactions with professionals who lack a clear understanding of the distinctions between foster care and adoption, or among the several varieties of adoption. Sometimes professionals' interventions are not well-framed and parents feel misunderstood. Failure to recognize and support existing bonds during times of family stress is common. Some professionals may seek to save the good' parents from the bad' adolescent, or vice-versa, and many parents are excluded from the planning for their child. Intrusions into family life range from the relatively minor, such as insensitivity of teachers in school, to the significant, such as unfounded accusations of child abuse by adoptive parents. Failure of therapists to provide appropriate psychotherapy is also a common complaint of parents adopting children with complex histories. When helping adoptive families under stress, professionals should emphasize positive aspects of situations rather than questioning the placement. They should not be quick to question the commitment of adoptive families who may not meet their stereotypes of a typical middle-class family. Protective service workers assigned to assess adoptive families should be wary of using a uniform standard for what constitutes close, warm, parental involvement. Psychotherapists, social workers, judges, pediatricians, and other experts serving children must take adoption attachment seriously; otherwise they risk contributing to the dissolution of adoptive families. References.

 

KEY TERMS:         child welfare workers;  professional services;  adoptive families;  adopted adolescents;  behavior problems;  parental background

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wwilkins.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Questioning Young Children in Court. A Linguistic Case Study.

 

AUTHOR:               Walker, A. G.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1993

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Law and Human Behavior

 

SOURCE:                17(1): pp. 59-81;  New York, NY, Plenum Publishing Co., 1993

 

ABSTRACT:           This study focuses on the cross-examination of a child witness from a linguistic perspective. A linguistic analysis of court transcripts indicated that the child demonstrated the ability to understand and communicate and so met the test for competency as a witness. Misunderstandings during cross-examination were caused by the form of the questions of the attorneys, including use of age-inappropriate words and expressions, complex syntactic constructions, and general ambiguity. Examples of questions and answers from the transcripts are provided. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         child witnesses;  competency;  testimony;  interviews;  legal processes

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.plenum.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Abuse and Deaf Children: Some Factors to Consider.

 

AUTHOR:               Ridgeway, S. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1993

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    National Centre for Mental Health and Deafness, Prestwich (England).

 

SOURCE:                2(3): pp. 166-173;  Chichester (Great Britain), John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., September 1993

 

ABSTRACT:           This paper examines the problems and needs of deaf women who have been abused. Deaf children are uniquely disadvantaged in terms of access to information on safety and abuse. This is often due to misunderstood linguistic and cultural needs that relate to the deaf community. Extremely little support is available for deaf people who have been or are being abused. There are few appropriately trained counselors equipped with the necessary skills in communicating with deaf people and even fewer trained in deaf awareness. A number of risk factors have been identified and are illustrated in this article. Three case studies are described to highlight the issues involved. 12 references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         characteristics of abused;  deafness;  children with disabilities;  children at risk;  adults abused as children;  female victims

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.wiley.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Fiscal Issues and Stability in Special-Needs Adoptions.

 

AUTHOR:               Barth, R. P.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1993

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Public Welfare

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    California Univ., Berkeley. School of Social Welfare.

 

SOURCE:                51(3): pp. 21-28;  American Public Human Services Association, Washington, DC, Summer 1993

 

ABSTRACT:           The author notes that local implementation of the Adoption Assistance Program (AAP) varies widely, and suggests that the impact of its funding practices on placements and stability at State and local levels have been ignored or misunderstood. The author reviews recent changes in California to illustrate the AAP's impact on placements and examine how assistance funding schemes differ. The fiscal implications of possible changes in how adoption assistance is funded are considered. Federal adoption assistance programs were mandated to promote permanent placements of special-needs children and to ensure that children with special needs or medical conditions have their needs met. Several studies, as well as anecdotal evidence, indicate that financial issues are central to the decision to adopt and, in particular, that adequate adoption subsidies are crucial for those undertaking special-needs adoption. Both the economic status of adoptive families and level of adoption subsidies have been found have an effect on disruptions. With California's 1991 realignment of payment sources and adjustment of State-County funding ratios, subsidies seem to be closely but not perfectly correlated with economic need and the level of children's disabilities. Based on the case example of California, the author provides an analytical framework to show how specialists at all levels must determine the balance of resources and economic factors at work in adoption and foster care. Given that the overall Federal, State, and county costs for foster care are nearly three times greater than those for adoption payments and administrative costs, there seems a clear incentive to use adoption assistance to maximize placement rates and stability. The author advocates for additional adoption reform at the Federal level to lift the cap (limited to foster care rates) on adoption assistance rates.

 

KEY TERMS:         title iv e federal adoption assistance;  state adoption subsidies;  financial assistance;  fiscal impact;  special needs;  permanency planning

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.aphsa.org

 

 

TITLE:                    The Social Ecology of Treatment: Case Study of a Service System for Maltreated Children.

 

AUTHOR:               Crittenden, P. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1992

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    American Journal of Orthopsychiatry

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Miami Univ., FL. Dept. of Pediatrics.

 

SOURCE:                62(1): pp. 22-34;  American Orthopsychiatric Association, New York, NY, January 1992

 

ABSTRACT:           Difficulties in improving services for maltreated children can be attributed to misunderstanding of how the forces determining service availability and procedures operate. Research in the past decade points to an ecological model that postulates that child maltreatment is a result of a hierarchy of influences, including cultural, subcultural, political, community, family, and individual factors. This article provides a perspective on the social ecology of treatment. A case study of an attempt to modify 1 service delivery system is presented and analyzed in terms of social ecological theory. Recommendations are made for improving services to families, both directly and by means of system interventions. 16 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         treatment;  children;  services;  service delivery;  case studies

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.amerortho.org

 

 

TITLE:                    New Myths About the Child Welfare System.

 

AUTHOR:               Finkelhor, D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1992

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child, Youth and Family Services Quarterly

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    New Hampshire Univ., Durham. Family Research Lab.

 

SOURCE:                15(1): pp. 3-5;  Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., Winter 1992

 

ABSTRACT:           This article takes a revisionist standpoint in the area of child abuse reporting. Three main points are espoused: unfounded reports are steadily increasing; much reported child abuse is not serious and is not really child maltreatment; and unsubstantiated reports unavoidably involve traumatic experiences for the family. These problems are caused by analyses that are based on anecdote, stereotype, misunderstanding, and actual distortion. In recent years, unfounded reports have risen from 35 percent in 1976 to 65 percent at present. The distinction between mere reports and substantiated reports is often misunderstood. Professionals, faced with mandatory reporting requirements, are overreacting. A process of prioritization in which investigators and child welfare workers spend time on the most serious cases is suggested. If child abuse were more clearly defined, workers could more easily decide when to intervene. More child welfare workers are clearly needed. But the system also needs to earn a boost in public confidence and esteem. 12 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         child welfare services;  unfounded reports;  false allegations;  proof;  mandatory reporting;  permissive reporting;  reporting procedures;  public opinion

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Status Report: NIJC Study on Child Abuse and Neglect and Child Sexual Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:               Melton, A.;  Chino, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1992

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Tribal Court Record

 

SOURCE:                5(2): pp. 20-21;  National Indian Justice Center, Petaluma, CA, Spring-Summer 1992

 

ABSTRACT:           This article summarizes research on child abuse in Native American communities conducted by the National Indian Justice Center and funded by the Indian Health Service. According to the Indian Health Service, 34.4 percent of Indian children are at risk for maltreatment. Federal employees were reluctant to report abuse because they were afraid of reprisal, believed that the report would not be investigated, or misunderstood the procedures. Training is needed to increase knowledge of reporting procedures and to improve interagency coordination. Three-quarters of survey respondents did not have computerized records, which are essential for effective case tracking and coordination of services.

 

KEY TERMS:         american indians;  indian reservations;  caseload;  reporting procedures;  professional training;  interagency cooperation;  multidisciplinary teams;  incidence

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.nijc.indian.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Commentary: Abuse of the Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome.

 

AUTHOR:               Elias, H. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1992

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Sexual Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    San Diego North County Municipal Court, Vista, CA.

 

SOURCE:                1(4): pp. 169-171;  Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1992

 

ABSTRACT:           This article comments on and affirms the work of R. C. Summit, the psychiatrist who defined the Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome (CSAAS), and addresses how CSAAS has been misunderstood and misinterpreted. CSAAS involves acceptance or accommodation of abuse by a child. The abuse usually is committed by a relative or someone close to the victim; therefore, disclosure is difficult or impossible and may lead to recantation. This article states that too much importance has been placed on CSAAS and that the original definition offered by Summit is accurate and constructive and should be used. CSAAS has been misunderstood by those on both sides of the issue, including the courts, the legal system, expert witnesses, child protection advocates, and prosecution and defense attorneys alike. Only by understanding CSAAS can it be applied effectively to the court system and for the benefit of abused children.

 

KEY TERMS:         trials;  courts role;  medical aspects of child abuse;  courts responsibility;  medical evidence;  sexual abuse accommodation syndrome;  disclosure

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Commentary: Summit's Abuse of the CSAAS.

 

AUTHOR:               MacFarlane, K.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1992

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Sexual Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Children's Institute International, Los Angeles, CA.

 

SOURCE:                1(4): pp. 165-167;  Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1992

 

ABSTRACT:           This article comments on the work of R. C. Summit, the psychiatrist who defined the Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome (CSAAS), and addresses how CSAAS has been misunderstood and misinterpreted. CSAAS involves acceptance or accommodation of abuse by a child. The abuse usually is committed by a relative or someone close to the victim; therefore, disclosure is difficult or impossible and may lead to recantation. This article takes issue with the fact that CSAAS has not been admitted as evidence because it is a clinical opinion or theory and not a scientifically accepted condition. This article agrees with Summit's assertion that CSAAS was never a medical theory to begin with and, therefore, should not be treated by the courts as if it were.

 

KEY TERMS:         trials;  courts role;  medical aspects of child abuse;  judicial responsibility;  medical evidence;  sexual abuse accommodation syndrome;  disclosure

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Professional Controversies in Child Sexual Abuse Assessment.

 

AUTHOR:               Milchman, M. S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1992

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Psychiatry and Law

 

SOURCE:                pp. 49-83;  Federal Legal Publications, New York, NY., Spring 1992

 

ABSTRACT:           This article examines controversies that arise in the legal arena between the child protective (or child advocacy) position and the defense protective position in the assessment of child sexual abuse. It argues that the child protective position is based on valid empirical generalizations that, nevertheless, can cause injustice to occur because they are mistaken for scientific laws. It also argues that the defense protective position offers important criticisms that, nevertheless, can cause injustice to occur because they are based on a misunderstanding of the nature of scientific reasoning. Clinical examples of errors in both positions are discussed. 98 references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         child advocacy;  rights of accused;  child protection organizations;  lawyers role;  legal processes;  sexual abuse

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.bellhowell.infolearning.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Response to the Abuse of the Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome.

 

AUTHOR:               Salter, A. C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1992

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Sexual Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Dartmouth Univ. Medical School, Hanover, NH.

 

SOURCE:                1(4): pp. 173-177;  Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1992

 

ABSTRACT:           This article discusses why children do not disclose sexual abuse immediately after the abuse has occurred or for a long time afterward. These reasons demonstrate the manner in which the Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome (CSAAS) has been used and misunderstood in court. CSAAS involves acceptance or accommodation of abuse by a child. The abuse usually is committed by a relative or someone close to the victim; therefore, disclosure is difficult or impossible and may lead to recantation. Courts usually try to use expert testimony to discover why a child does not disclose abuse. The legal argument deems that if abuse has occurred there is no valid reason for a child not to disclose it. This legal argument is dismissed by presenting evidence supporting the idea that most children do not disclose abuse for reasons that are not understood or considered by the court. 15 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         child behavior;  courts role;  medical aspects of child abuse;  recantation;  medical evidence;  sexual abuse accommodation syndrome;  disclosure

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Abuse of the Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome.

 

AUTHOR:               Summit, R. C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1992

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Sexual Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Harbor/UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA.

 

SOURCE:                1(4): pp. 153-163;  Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1992

 

ABSTRACT:           This article defines the Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome (CSAAS) and addresses how it has been misunderstood and misinterpreted by many people and institutions, including the court system and judges. The article is written by R. C. Summit, a psychiatrist who first evaluated and developed CSAAS. CSAAS involves acceptance or accommodation of abuse by a child. The abuse usually is committed by a relative or someone close to the victim; therefore, disclosure is difficult or impossible and may lead to recantation. This article takes issue with the Kentucky courts where CSAAS has not been admitted as evidence because it is a clinical opinion or theory and not a scientifically accepted condition. According to Dr. Summit, CSAAS was never a medical theory; therefore, barring it as testimony, unless the medical profession defines it as a disorder, admits to a prejudicial misunderstanding of CSAAS and an avoidance of the condition and the plight of children who have been abused. 7 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         trials;  courts role;  medical aspects of child abuse;  judicial role;  judicial responsibility;  medical evidence;  sexual abuse accommodation syndrome;  disclosure

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Out of Darkness: Exploring Satanism and Ritual Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:               Sakheim, D. K., (Editor).;  Devine, S. E., (Editor).

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1992

 

SOURCE:                New York, NY, Lexington Books, 1992;  331 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           Written primarily for therapists, this book offers 11 chapters of psychological insight into the history, beliefs, and practices of ritual, religious, and satanic abuse and the treatment of its survivors. A thorough understanding of this type of abuse is needed to avoid the revictimization that survivors often experience because of lack of acceptance, misunderstanding, or skepticism about such abuse by therapists and mental health professionals. Chapters detail a history of satanic religions and their beliefs and practices, a critical analysis of claims regarding satanic cult activities, child forensic evaluation, and the law enforcement perspective. Psychological testing and self-development theory as well as diagnosis and treatment of abused children are reviewed, and the actual experiences of 5 families are examined. Psychological recognition and treatment of ritual abuse survivors and therapy issues in working with those experiencing posttraumatic stress symptoms are summarized. The goal of the collection is to present a complete picture of ritual abuse as well as a sensitivity to the complex issues involved. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         adults abused as children;  cults;  ritual abuse;  sadism;  psychological evaluation;  abusive parents;  therapists role;  law enforcement

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

 

TITLE:                    How Children Tell: The Process of Disclosure in Child Sexual Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:               Sorensen, T.;  Snow, B.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1991

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Welfare

 

SOURCE:                70(1): pp. 3-15;  Washington, DC, Child Welfare League of America, Inc., January-February 1991

 

ABSTRACT:           This article presents a study that examined the disclosure process in a sample of sexually abused 3- to 17-year-olds, most of whom at first denied the abuse. Disclosure is described as a process with definable phases and characteristics, seldom the single event that typical investigations consider disclosure to be. Misunderstanding the nature of disclosure can lead to injustices and harm to children. 20 references, 3 tables, and 5 figures. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  sexual abuse reporting;  disclosure;  psychotherapy;  childrens therapy;  child abuse research;  detection;  testimony;  child abuse;  research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Believe the Client Slogans as Miscommunication.

 

AUTHOR:               Conte, J. R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1991

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Interpersonal Violence

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Washington Univ., Seattle.

 

SOURCE:                6(2): pp. 243-245;  Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., June 1991

 

ABSTRACT:           This article discusses the problem of confirming allegations of child sexual abuse and asserts that the slogan believe the child, used by social service and mental health professionals, has been misunderstood by many. A general posture of believing children's statements does not imply accepting every statement as a literal, accurate portrayal of facts but rather requires an understanding of the distortions made possible by emotion, difficulty of expression, and other factors. Professionals should recognize the complexity of interpreting children's testimony. 2 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         false allegations;  child witnesses;  testimony;  evidence;  sexual abuse;  professionals responsibility;  unfounded reports

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Sexual Coercion. A Sourcebook on Its Nature, Causes, and Prevention.

 

AUTHOR:               Grauerholz, E., (Editor).;  Koralewski, M. A., (Editor).

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1991

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN.

 

SOURCE:                Lexington, MA, Lexington Books, 1991;  241 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This book addresses concerns related to the nature, causes, and prevention of sexual coercion. Chapters review the literature on rape and child sexual coercion; analyze the literature on sexual harassment, particularly that occurring in academe and the workplace; examine the nature of prostitution; present a feminist interpretation of sexual violence; explore the individual and social psychological correlates of sexual violence; and consider a biological or evolutionary basis for sexual coercion and examine evidence suggesting a psychological adaption to rape and sexual violence. In addition, chapters discuss the theory and practice of self-defense; suggest ways parents can interact with their children to help prevent their becoming victims and offenders; propose a method that dating couples can use to reduce misunderstandings about sexuality; argue for a comprehensive, direct approach to teaching sexuality in schools; review changes in the legal system concerning rape and sexual harassment and discuss possible future legal reforms; present a feminist agenda for economic change aimed at preventing sexual coercion; and examine what is known about the nature, causes, and prevention of sexual coercion. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         rape;  sexual exploitation;  sexual abuse;  prostitution;  etiology;  prevention;  feminism;  theories

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

 

TITLE:                    Home Is Where the Hurt Is. Family Violence and the Chemical Link.

 

AUTHOR:               Baker, S. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1991

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Focus

 

SOURCE:                14(4): pp. 33, 38-42, August-September 1991

 

ABSTRACT:           This article explores the relationship between family violence and chemical dependency. The issue of whether chemically dependent perpetrators are responsible or accountable for their behavior is addressed, and the implications of misunderstandings about the concepts of responsibility are considered. Misconceptions about the behavior of chemically dependent individuals are examined, and the factors that contribute to a lack of clarity about victimization are outlined. In addition, the cultural view of women and children as being the property of men is discussed, and the consequences of failing to work through individual losses and to obtain healthy closure are identified. 2 references and 2 photographs.

 

KEY TERMS:         alcoholism;  behavior;  drug addiction;  victimization;  victim blaming;  social attitudes;  sociocultural dimensions

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Does Childhood Disability Cause Abuse? A Critical Review.

 

AUTHOR:               Starr, R. H., Jr.;  Kurtz, K.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1991

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Maryland Univ., Baltimore County.

 

SOURCE:                American Psychological Association Meeting, San Francisco, CA County, 1991;  5 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This paper reviews the research on whether the stress of parenting a child with a handicap or disability would be a major precursor of abuse. Available data do not support the conclusion that the child plays a role as precipitator. Two methods are used to examine whether children with handicaps are at increased risk for abuse: retrospective studies, and prospective, longitudinal studies. The existing body of knowledge is reviewed. Recent studies show percentages varying from 3 to 23 percent for abuse in handicapped children. Problems inherent in studies attempting to assess this type of abuse are reviewed. Three conclusions are drawn: some abused children are handicapped but not all handicapped children are abused; the more obvious the handicap, the less risk for abuse (i.e., attention deficit children are not always diagnosed as special and therefore are more often misunderstood); children with health problems and limited social support are often more at risk than those with handicaps. 28 references and 1 figure.

 

KEY TERMS:         risk assessment;  child behavior;  parental stress;  physical disabilities;  children with disabilities;  retrospective studies;  longitudinal studies;  prospective studies

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Proceedings Paper

 

 

TITLE:                    Putting Children on the Stand.

 

AUTHOR:               Federle, K. H.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1991

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Tulane Law School, New Orleans, LA.

 

SOURCE:                In: Michaels, L. F. (Editor). Children's Law Update. National Association of Counsel for Children, Denver, CO, 1991;  pp. 65-79

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter on child witnesses identifies the components of witness competency and the determinants of witness credibility. Guidelines are provided for interviewing a child client or witness effectively and preparing the child for a trial. These guidelines include meeting with the child several times before beginning the interview process, adopting a nonjudgmental attitude, interviewing the child in an unhurried manner, conversing with the child in language he or she can understand, explaining the role of the child in the legal proceeding, engaging the child in general conversation about his or her interests and activities, allowing the child to freely report information, selecting words carefully to avoid misunderstanding, and conveying a sense of accomplishment to the child and his or her parents at the conclusion of the interview. Suggestions for preparing the child witness for the competency examination, direct examination, and cross-examination are also presented. These suggestions include explaining the competency examination, simulating direct examination, and showing the child a videotape of the cross-examination process. 22 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         child witnesses;  competency;  testimony;  trials;  lawyers;  attitudes;  interviews

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://NACCchildlaw.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Investigation and Case Management Issues and Strategies.

 

AUTHOR:               Blush, G. J.;  Ross, K. L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1990

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Issues in Child Abuse Accusations

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Professional Counseling Associates, Sterling Heights, MI.

 

SOURCE:                2(3): pp. 152-160;  Institute for Psychological Therapies, Northfield, MN, Summer 1990

 

ABSTRACT:           This article discusses sexual abuse allegations arising in the context of a custody and visitation dispute, which provide a difficult challenge to professionals. These cases are often misunderstood and mismanaged, which does great harm to all parties involved. Cases that turn out to be false are characterized by a loss of control, usually in the early stages of the allegation. Frequently observed case management problems are described and suggestions made as to how to manage such cases more effectively. Professionals must be open-minded and sensitive to both the rights of children and of adults. Professionals must follow specific procedures in interviewing the presenting adult, the alleged victim, the alleged perpetrator, and significant others involved in the case. 13 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         custody disputes;  sexual abuse;  case management;  divorce;  false allegations;  multidisciplinary teams;  investigations;  interviews

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Children's Knowledge of Legal Terminology.

 

AUTHOR:               Saywitz, K.;  Jaenicke, C.;  Camparo, L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1990

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Law and Human Behavior

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Harbor-California Univ. at Los Angeles Medical Center, Torrance.

 

SOURCE:                14(6): pp. 523-535;  New York, NY, Plenum Publishing Co., December 1990

 

ABSTRACT:           This article presents a study that examined age-related patterns in communicative abilities relevant to providing testimony, specifically, knowledge of legal terms commonly used with children in court. Subjects were 60 public school students comprising 3 groups of 20 each in kindergarten and third and sixth grades. Results indicate that grade-related patterns emerged in children's knowledge of legal terms and their misunderstanding of terms. In addition, knowledge of legal terms appeared to be influenced more by age than experiential factors such as television viewing of court-related programs and direct experience with the legal system. Results suggest that age-appropriate word choice in the examination of children may be an important factor in eliciting accurate testimony. Implications of these results for future research, court preparation of children, and training of legal professionals are discussed. 22 references and 4 tables. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         child witnesses;  language development;  testimony;  school children;  competency;  courts

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.plenum.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Mandated Reporters and CPS: A Study in Frustration. Misunderstanding and Miscommunication Threaten the System.

 

AUTHOR:               Zellman, G. L.;  Antler, S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1990

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Public Welfare

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Rand Corp., Santa Monica, CA.

 

SOURCE:                48(1): pp. 30-37;  American Public Human Services Association, Washington, DC, Winter 1990

 

ABSTRACT:           Using data from a national study of mandated reporting that included a survey of mandated reporters and interviews in selected child protective agencies, this article examines problems and their implications for mandated reporters and for child protection services (CPS) agencies. These problems include: continuing annual increases in the number of reports made to child protective agencies; insufficient child protective agency resources; perceptions by mandated reporters that child protective services effectiveness is declining due to the lack of resources; and more difficulty in attaining access to child protective agencies to make reports. The best CPS situation found benefited from regular consultative interaction with the local professional community. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         mandatory reporting;  child abuse reporting;  child protective services;  national surveys

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.aphsa.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Color of Justice. Culturally Sensitive Treatment of Minority Crime Victims.

 

AUTHOR:               Ogawa, B.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1990

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Health Center Pacific.

 

SOURCE:                California State Office of the Governor, Sacramento. Office of Criminal Justice Planning, 1990;  324 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This book deals with the challenges facing the American criminal justice system as it seeks to serve racial and ethnic minority crime victims. Chapter 1 describes the demographics of the emerging color lines in the United States and the shaping of a national cultural identity, outlines the history and present circumstances of Southeast Asians and Native Americans, and presents a case example to illustrate how the values from another culture can be misunderstood and misused. Chapter 2 provides data on the rate of crime victimization among minorities, especially blacks and Hispanics; examines the vulnerability of minorities to certain types of crime and the treatment of black female sexual assault victims; and presents case studies describing varying cultural responses to violent crimes. Chapter 3 describes the current level of hate violence in the United States and presents cases important to understanding racism and violence. Chapter 4 focuses on the development of appropriate language and interactive skills within the criminal justice system, the recruitment of minority police officers, and the effectiveness of home visits by victim advocates. Chapter 5 presents multicultural definitions of mental health and provides examples of culturally sensitive approaches. Appendices offer figures concerning American minority populations and California minority populations. Numerous references, 6 tables, 2 figures, and 5 illustrations.

 

KEY TERMS:         cultural sensitivity;  criminal justice system;  program descriptions;  minority groups;  crime;  victims;  ethnic groups;  case reports

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

 

TITLE:                    Structure, Function, and the Continuing Discussion of the Westermarck-Freud Incest-Theory Debate: A Response to Walter.

 

AUTHOR:               Spain, D. H.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1990

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Ethos

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Washington Univ., Seattle.

 

SOURCE:                18(4): pp. 447-453, December 1990

 

ABSTRACT:           In this article the author takes exception to another researcher's interpretation of theories explaining possible reasons for the occurrence or nonoccurrence of incest promoted by Freud and Westermarck and later discussed and analyzed by Fox and this author. This criticism revolves around differences in the interpretations of what are understood to be proximate factors (called proximal by this author) as opposed to ontogenetic ones. This author states that this debate has long been based on a cultural misunderstanding: Freud's theory of incest was based on structural biology while Westermarck's was based on functional biology. The author separates his opinion from the other researcher, Alex Walter, by demonstrating that his reasons for thinking that Freud's theory is dissimilar to Westermarck's are different from Walter's. 11 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         behavior theories;  biosocial theories;  incest;  evaluation methods;  psychology;  psychological theories

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Urban American Indians: Strengthening the Family.

 

AUTHOR:               Legatski, P.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1990

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Denver Indian Health and Family Services, CO.

 

SOURCE:                In: Empowering Families. Papers From the Third Annual Conference on Family-Based Services, Charlotte, NC, November 12-16, 1989. National Association for Family Based Services, Riverdale, IL, 1990;  pp. 101-107

 

ABSTRACT:           This article presents an overview of cultural, historical, and sociodemographic factors that have formed distinguishing characteristics of urgan Native Americans and their families. The impact of language on psychotherapy for Native Americans is discussed. A list presents differences between Native American and dominant culture values. These factors are often misunderstood by therapists who serve Native Americans and by the general public. These misconceptions need to be eliminated through education, by understanding the importance of these factors to Native Americans and noting the differences between Native American and other cultures. The article describes the Denver Indian Health and Family Services program that has developed programs and protocols sensitive to the cultural identity and characteristics of Native Americans. 14 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         american indians;  demography;  urban environment;  family characteristics;  family programs;  service delivery;  program descriptions;  cultural factors

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Proceedings Paper

 

 

TITLE:                    Support Persons and Comforting Laps in Court: Dangerous Decisions From Hawaii Threaten Sexually Abused Children.

 

AUTHOR:               Schudson, C. B.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1990

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    RoundTable

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Wisconsin Circuit Court Judge

 

SOURCE:                2(3): pp. 12-14, 35, Summer 1990

 

ABSTRACT:           Judge Charles B. Schudson, a Wisconsin Circuit Court Judge, presents an analysis of current developments in Hawaii's courts that threaten sexually abused children. Two recent Hawaii Supreme Court decisions are especially alarming. A defendant's conviction for numerous counts of first degree rape was reversed because the victim-witness aide placed her hands on the witness's shoulders when she broke down and cried (State versus Suka, Hawaii 1989). The court claimed that the closeness and touching of an aide may have bolstered the credibility of the witness, thereby violating the defendant's right to a fair trial. In another case of sexual assault, the Hawaii Supreme Court reversed the defendant's convictions because an 8-year-old girl was allowed to testify while sitting on the lap of a sexual abuse counselor (State versus Rulon, Hawaii 1990). Both decisions are seriously flawed in several ways. Until the Hawaii decisions, appellate courts had respected the discretion of trial judges in deciding whether or not the presence or laps of support might enable children to testify. The decisions of the Hawaii Supreme Court show both misunderstanding of law and insensitivity to children.

 

KEY TERMS:         courts;  state courts;  sexual abuse;  hawaii;  child witnesses;  testimony

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    More Than Kindness: A Compassionate Approach to Crisis Childbearing.

 

AUTHOR:               Olasky, S.;  Olasky, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1990

 

SOURCE:                Wheaton, IL, Crossway Books, 1990;  234 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           The authors of this book applaud pro-life activists but suggest that their work should be accompanied by personal involvement with individual mothers and children who need help. Part One discusses conventional solutions to crisis childbearing and examines reasons they have failed, focusing on government programs and nongovernmental organizational efforts, such as those of the Children's Defense Fund and the Ford Foundation. Part Two discusses Bible-based efforts to prepare these mothers to help their children after birth, detailing what works and where improvement is needed. Part Three deals with the difficult issues of adoption, supporting the two-parent family, and ways in which they can be not only pro-life but consistently pro-family. Part Four summarizes the findings, proposes personal and church agendas, lists resources, and deals with common misunderstandings.

 

KEY TERMS:         unplanned pregnancy;  unwed mothers;  adolescent parents;  adolescent pregnancy

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

 

TITLE:                    Violence and the Systemic View: The Problem of Power.

 

AUTHOR:               Dell, P. F.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1989

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Family Process

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk. Dept. of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences.

 

SOURCE:                28(1): pp. 1-14;  Family Process, Syracuse, NY., March 1989

 

ABSTRACT:           This article argues that violence is a lineal concept that is difficult to address from a systemic perspective. Bateson's epistemological disqualification of the concept of power is often misunderstood to imply a corresponding systemic disqualification of the concept of violence; this position is examined in light of feminist criticism. It is argued that violence and power belong to the domain of human experience and human experience cannot be invalidated by theory. It is suggested that the appropriate invalidation of power and violence in the domain of systemic explanation should be understood both as a deliberate choice that follows from adopting a systemic perspective, and as a fundamental limitation of that perspective. In neither case, however, should the systemic view be considered a valid disqualification of the human experience of violence and power. 44 references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         control;  psychological theories;  family therapy;  behavior theories

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Children Who Molest. A Treatment Program.

 

AUTHOR:               Johnson, T. C.;  Berry, C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1989

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Interpersonal Violence

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Children's Inst. International, Los Angeles, CA. Child Sexual Abuse Center.

 

SOURCE:                4(2): pp. 185-203;  Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., June 1989

 

ABSTRACT:           Children under the age of 13 who initiate sexually abusive behavior with other children are currently underidentified and misunderstood. In response to the need for specialized treatment resources for child perpetrators, the Support Program for Abuse Reactive Kids (SPARK) was begun in the Child Sexual Abuse Center at Children's Institute International in January 1985. The program format, including the admissions criteria, treatment model, and testing/evaluation process, is described. Group therapy for the offender and family sessions are considered essential. 12 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         sex offenders therapy;  sexually abusive children;  sexual abuse;  adolescent sex offenders;  group therapy;  nonpunitive approach;  program models;  program evaluation

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Barriers to Accessing Services: Relinquishing Legal Custody as a Means of Obtaining Services for Children with Serious Emotional Disabilities.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    Portland State Univ., OR. Research and Training Center.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1989

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Focal Point

 

SOURCE:                3(3): pp. 1-16;  National Association of Childbirth Education, Riverside, CA, Summer 1989

 

ABSTRACT:           This article examines the issue of parents having to give custody of their emotionally disturbed children to the state in order to obtain costly residential treatment for the children. The authors feel this situation is due to officials' misunderstanding of the provisions of Title IV-E of the Social Security Act and reluctance to use time limited voluntary placement agreements. Sidebar articles detail alternatives, parental experiences, and survey results. A resource listing is included.

 

KEY TERMS:         emotionally disturbed children;  out of home care;  child custody;  barriers;  voluntary relinquishment;  residential care

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Helping Young Women Through the Adoption Process.

 

AUTHOR:               Pierson, A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1989

 

SOURCE:                Loving and Caring, Inc., Lancaster, PA, 1989;  44 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This booklet deals with the problems and alternatives confronting the woman or teenager who discovers she is pregnant. In such a situation, she has four choices concerning her pregnancy: abortion, marriage, single- parenting, or adoption. The focus of this booklet is on the last option, adoption. Adoption is a volatile and misunderstood issue today. It also represents the solution least selected by women today. Today approximately 50 to 60 percent of unwed teenagers choose abortion. Of those who carry to term, 97 percent choose to parent while a scant 3 percent choose the adoption option. After analyzing the social conditions and attitudes for the small percentage choosing adoption, the booklet presents counseling techniques, a sample dedication service, and many insights which have been gained from birth mothers who have placed their children in adoption. Many of these insights were derived from a survey undertaken by the author in 1989 to which 91 women responded from all over the country.

 

KEY TERMS:         adoption;  adolescent pregnancy;  counseling;  surveys;  unplanned pregnancy

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

 

TITLE:                    Maternal Responses to the Sexual Abuse of Their Children.

 

AUTHOR:               De Jong, A. R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1988

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Pediatrics

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Dept. of Pediatrics.

 

SOURCE:                81(1): pp. 14-21;  Elk Grove Village, IL, American Academy of Pediatrics, January 1988

 

ABSTRACT:           To define categories of maternal response and determine their relationship to variable features of the abuse situation, a questionnaire was administered to mothers of 103 children returning for a routine 2- to 3-week followup of a sexual abuse episode. Three categories of response were identified: nonsupportive, supportive without emotional changes, and supportive with emotional changes. Nonsupportive mothers (n = 32) believed that the abuse complaint was a lie, a misunderstanding, or the child's fault. They rarely considered pressing charges or requested counseling. Supportive mothers (n = 71) believed that the child was telling the truth and that the assailant was primarily responsible. Anger, fear, anxiety, and guilt were commonly expressed. Thirty-nine of the supportive mothers reported behavior or mood changes including sleep, appetite, or somatic complaints and recurrent crying. Most were pressing charges. The 32 supportive mothers without behavior or mood changes also frequently pressed charges but sought counseling less often. Maternal emotional responses do not appear to be related to variable features of the abuse situation but are significantly related to the approach to subsequent psychologic and legal issues. 15 references, 13 figures, and 2 tables. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  maternal behavior;  parental behavior;  sequelae;  mother child relationships;  emotional response

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.aap.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Clarifying Erroneous Child Sexual Abuse Allegations.

 

AUTHOR:               Mantell, D. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1988

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    American Journal of Orthopsychiatry

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Connecticut Univ. Medical School, Farmington. Dept. of Psychiatry.

 

SOURCE:                58(4): pp. 618-621;  American Orthopsychiatric Association, New York, NY, October 1988

 

ABSTRACT:           A review of several hundred court cases involving child sexual abuse allegations has shown that both children and adults make false reports. Various kinds of false reports are defined, described, and grouped according to type: misunderstandings, misreporting, distortion through illness, distortion by design, professional error, misrepresentation, and a grouping of less common instances. It is concluded that cases involving child sexual abuse require an informed and unemotional examination of possible distortion. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  false allegations;  proof;  unfounded reports;  legal processes;  testimony;  child abuse reporting;  court records

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.amerortho.org

 

 

TITLE:                    A Loving Choice.

 

AUTHOR:               Brandsen, C. K.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1988

 

SOURCE:                Bethany Christian Services, Grand Rapids, MI, 1988;  29 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           The author contends that a loving choice is making an adoption plan for one's child on the basis of the child's needs first. It could be a mature and responsible position for a person to separate one's needs and desires from those of the child. This pamphlet explores the birth parents' options, misunderstandings about adoption, making a good adoption plan which consists of learning from each others' family, the birth father/mother, being involved, gifts, letters, and photographs. In conclusion, the author notes that an unplanned pregnancy need not ruin a person's life. Having faced such a pregnancy courageously and learning from it, people have gone on to lead happy, meaningful lives.

 

KEY TERMS:         birth mothers;  birth fathers;  illegitimacy;  adoption;  unplanned pregnancy;  adolescent pregnancy

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Booklet

 

 

TITLE:                    Why Adoptees Search: Motives and More.

 

AUTHOR:               Andersen, R. S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1988

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Welfare

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Veterans Administration Hospital, St. Louis, MO.

 

SOURCE:                67(1): pp. 15-19;  Washington, DC, Child Welfare League of America, Inc., January 1988

 

ABSTRACT:           This article explores the motives of adoptees who search for their birth parents. The author, an adoptee and a psychiatrist, sees the issue of why adoptees search as self-evident. The adoptee, like any other person, is interested in himself and his family origins and history. Searching is not merely an intellectual activity for the adoptee but rather an emotional experience. Adoptees' motives for searching are often misunderstood because people fail to realize the emotional components of the search.

 

KEY TERMS:         adopted children;  adoption records controversy;  birth parents;  search for birth parents

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.cwla.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Responding to AIDS: Rural Community Strategies.

 

AUTHOR:               Rounds, K. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1988

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Social Casework

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:                69(6): pp. 360-364;  Family Service Association of America, New York, NY., June 1988

 

ABSTRACT:           Small towns and rural communities often react with fear and misunderstanding toward persons with AIDS. The author discusses factors that influence how rural communities respond to AIDS and proposes strategies for providing education and care and for influencing policy. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:         aids;  education;  health education

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Our National Priorities for Prevention.

 

AUTHOR:               Cohn, A. H.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1987

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse, Chicago, IL.

 

SOURCE:                In: Helfer, R. E. and Kempe, R. S. (Editors). The Battered Child. Fourth Edition. Chicago, IL, University of Chicago Press, 1987;  pp. 444-455

 

ABSTRACT:           This chapter traces progress in child abuse prevention since 1968, characterizes the nation's response to child abuse in the mid-1980s, and maps out prevention priorities for the future. The positive response from both public and private sectors to concern over child abuse prevention has been considerable, with substantial legislative activity at the Federal and State levels. Certain legislative activities suggest some movement back toward criminal solutions to the problem of child abuse. Some public misunderstandings about certain facets of the problem are discussed. Goals of the National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse are also listed. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:         prevention;  prevention programs;  public awareness;  state laws;  federal laws;  national organizations;  national programs

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.press.uchicago.edu

 

 

TITLE:                    When Friends Ask About Adoption: Question and Answer Guide for Non-Adoptive Parents and Other Caring Adults.

 

AUTHOR:               Bothun, L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1987

 

SOURCE:                Chevy Chase, MD, Swan Publications, 1987;  88 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This question-and-answer guide for non-adoptive parents and other caring adults focuses on common concerns, questions, and misunderstandings about adoption. Although the guide prepares people to answer questions 5-7 year- old children might ask, it is not designed to be read to them nor to be discussed with them until the question actually is asked. In the chapter entitled Why the Secrecy? the author answers the question with a summary of the history of adoption. In the final chapter she discusses the bias against adoption prevalent in the U.S.

 

KEY TERMS:         guidelines;  parents;  adoptive parents;  adopted children

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

 

TITLE:                    Marital Rape: The Misunderstood Crime.

 

AUTHOR:               Finkelhor, D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1986

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    New Hampshire Univ., Durham.

 

SOURCE:                In: Hatty, S. E. (Editor). National Conference on Domestic Violence, Volume 1, Canberra (Australia), November 11-15, 1985. Phillip, A.C.T. (Australia), Australian Inst. of Criminology, 1986;  pp. 203-214

 

ABSTRACT:           This paper attempts to demystify the behavior associated with forced sexual activity between intimates. Stereotypes surrounding this activity are mentioned. Interviews conducted with women subjected to marital rape are reported. The subject of marital rape is divided into battery, force only, and obsessive types. Detailed case examples of each are given. The impact of these experiences on the female partner is discussed. It is argued that criminal sanctions should be applied to offenders where appropriate. 7 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         marital rape;  sexual assault;  spouse abuse;  spouse abuse laws;  law enforcement

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Proceedings Paper

 

 

TITLE:                    Ethnocentric Perception of Childrearing Practices in Protective Services.

 

AUTHOR:               Gray, E.;  Cosgrove, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1985

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse, Chicago, Ill.

 

SOURCE:                9(3): pp. 389-396;  Oxford (Great Britain), Elsevier Science, Ltd., 1985

 

ABSTRACT:           This study was initiated with the hope of uncovering areas of child rearing in minority cultures that are likely to be misunderstood by the dominant culture, and that some patterns would be suggested that would aid our understanding of these areas. The protective services system in the United States may be committing a form of institutional abuse of minority families if the professionals who work in that system are not sufficiently well versed in the unique childrearing practices of each culture in the communities the system represents. It is easy for misunderstandings to occur from an ethnocentric perspective, and these misunderstandings are unlikely to be in the minority group's favor. Although there is wide agreement that this represents a problem, there is not enough information readily available to allow protective service professionals to adopt a cross-cultural perspective in conducting their work. To discover some of the possible misunderstandings by the dominant American culture of subculture childrearing practices, this study was conducted through in-person interviews with members of six minority groups, Mexican-, Japanese-, Vietnamese-, Filipino- and Samoan-Americans and Blackfeet Indians, in three communities in conjunction with an evaluation of child abuse prevention demonstration projects. The themes of delegating responsibility to children and issues of dominance and submission emerged as areas for awareness and sensitivity on the part of child protective services. 15 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         ethnic groups;  minority groups;  child rearing;  cross cultural studies;  cultural factors

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Caring and Communicating.

 

AUTHOR:               Green, H. G.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1985

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    American Journal of Diseases of Children

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Dallas County Health Dept., Tex.

 

SOURCE:                139(11): pp. 1082-1085;  American Medical Association, Chicago, IL, November 1985

 

ABSTRACT:           This paper describes observations made by the author after reviewing clinical information from 19 Baby Doe patients who were allegedly mistreated or neglected between January 1983 and March 1984. At the time of the review, the author was a maternal and child health physician with the U.S. Public Health Service. Under authority of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and stimulated by the well-publicized birth of a child with Down syndrome and esophageal atresia in 1982, the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has actively responded to reports of alleged discriminatory failure to care for handicapped infants. Investigators and consultants from the (HHS) Office for Civil Rights have visited hospitals and interviewed various persons. Observations made and unofficial conclusions drawn by one participant in 19 such investigations relate not only to the care provided to these children but also to elements of communication with family, hospital staff, and others. Misunderstandings, faulty interpretations, and unrealistic expectations have resulted in bitter feelings, confusion, and frank hostility. These observations reveal an immediate need for reexamination of interpersonal communications in the context of caring for these children. Tabular data and 9 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         baby doe;  communication;  observation;  children with disabilities;  medical treatment;  medical aspects of child abuse

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.ama-assn.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Child Abuse in Kafka's Eyes: The Victim's Invisible Metamorphosis.

 

AUTHOR:               Noy, R. S.;  Sharron, A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1984

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Victimology

 

SOURCE:                9(2): pp. 296-303;  Visage Press, Inc., Washington, DC., 1984

 

ABSTRACT:           This study asserts that Franz Kafka was a victim of several forms of abusive behavior in his childhood and adolescent years. A comparative reading of his story, The Metamorphosis,' and of a letter he wrote to his father when he was 36 reveals a detailed account of the emergence of a deviant self-identity. The Metamorphosis' is primarily an autobiographical account disguised as a fictional horror tale which takes place entirely within an apartment. The hero, Gregor, has turned into a giant insect in his sleep. He becomes a prisoner in his room until his death brings release. Gregor was victimized by his family in the same way that Kafka was misunderstood and mistreated by his family. Kafka's father was detached and passive, much like the father in the story. The story contains encoded' accounts of violence and agony which may imply real memories of battering in the Kafka household. In one scene, Gregor is chased by his father around the dining room table, while the mother pleads for her son's life. Kafka gives an identical account of this incident in his letter to his father. Kafka shows in his story and in his letter that child abuse is a complete set of relationships and not a collection of separate events. He describes the everlasting feeling of helplessness which was the outcome of shame, fear, and guilt. For many adults who were abused as children, this feeling persists into adulthood and colors their perception of the world. The study applies the concept of anomie and Merton's model of anomie to the victimology of child abuse. Mertons' five different responses, or types, are conformity, innovation, ritualism, retreatism, and rebellion. These responses are used to analyze Kafka's deviant self-identity, which was reflected in his attitudes toward socially approved goals (getting married, being a provider, etc.) and his inability to follow these goals. 1 table.

 

KEY TERMS:         abusive parents;  abused children;  deviant behavior;  self concept;  literature reviews;  case studies

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.bellhowell.infolearning.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Child Sexual Abuse. New Theory and Research.

 

AUTHOR:               Finkelhor, D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1984

 

SOURCE:                New York, The Free Press, 1984;  272 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           Providing theoretical and research perspectives, this book examines the nature and dynamics of child abuse and assesses the social forces shaping public and professional attitudes toward this problem. Initial chapters deal with previously neglected or misunderstood aspects of child abuse, including the evolution of abuse as a social problem, the moral issues of sex between adults and children, and the characteristics of high-risk children and perpetrators. Critical preconditions for sexual abuse are reviewed, including the motivation to sexually abuse and the ability to overcome internal and external inhibitors and the resistance of the child. The book discusses 2 models of sexual abuse. The first model incorporates 4 prior conditions (preconditions) that must be present to explain abuse. The second model, the family-systems model, applies the preconditions model to the particular dynamics of father-daughter incest. Recent field study data on the prevalence of child sexual abuse are presented. Results of a 1981 Boston study are reported; 521 parents were interviewed. A series of questions were designed to obtain data on the respondents' exposure to incidents of child sexual victimization. The 521 parents had a total of 1,428 children. Study results indicated that the actual prevalence of sexual abuse or attempted abuse known to parents in this sample was 4 percent of all their children. The need for more parent education on detecting and handling child sexual abuse is highlighted. A discussion of the extent of public knowledge about sexual abuse examines public misconceptions about the problem, such as its seriousness, the role of the offender, and the effect on victims. Reporting issues and the roles of government and community agencies as well as health care and legal professionals are reviewed. The need for parents to discuss sexual abuse with their children is emphasized. The results of surveys on parent-child interactions are highlighted, with attention to what parents actually say to their children about sexual abuse, the roles of fathers and mothers in educating their children about sexual abuse prevention tactics, characteristics of parents who feel comfortable in discussing the issues, and obstacles to parent-child communications. The book also examines boys as victims, women as perpetrators, long-term effects of childhood abuse , and problems affecting social service delivery. Topics requiring research are noted, including the prevalence and incidence of child abuse, risk factors, abused boys, offenders, and long-term effects of abuse. Additional areas which need action are evaluation of intervention strategies, more emphasis on prevention, and increased efforts to develop effective offender treatment. Chapter notes, data tables, an index, and approximately 300 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         literature reviews;  research needs;  parent education;  parental role;  models;  prevalence;  sexual abuse;  prevention

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Book

 

 

TITLE:                    Marital Rape: The Misunderstood Crime. (Editorial).

 

AUTHOR:               Finkelhor, D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1984

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    New Hampshire Univ., Durham. Family Violence Research Lab.

 

SOURCE:                New York County Lawyers' Association, May 3, 1984;  4 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           This address to the New York County Lawyer's Association examines the problem of marital rape. The popular perception of marital rape does not coincide with the brutal reality and the crime is therefore not taken seriously. Marital rapes can be classified into 3 categories: battering rapes which are part of an overall abuse pattern; nonbattering rapes, which entail less violence and appear to be motivated by the desire to assert control; and obsessive rapes, in which the husbands have unusual sexual preoccupations. It is estimated that marital rape happens to 10 to 14 percent of married women. Victims of marital rape are found to suffer greater and more prolonged trauma than other rape victims; they feel betrayed, trapped and isolated. It is concluded that marital rape should be treated as a criminal act; attorneys, doctors, and other professionals should be more sensitive to this problem.

 

KEY TERMS:         marital rape;  crime;  sexual assault;  abused wives;  characteristics of abused;  violation of personal rights;  victims

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Proceedings Paper

 

 

TITLE:                    Santosky v. Kramer: An Unfortunate Misunderstanding.

 

AUTHOR:               Besharov, D. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1983

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Osgoode Hall Law School, Toronto (Ontario).

 

SOURCE:                7(1): pp. 117-118;  Oxford (Great Britain), Elsevier Science, Ltd., 1983

 

ABSTRACT:           The United States Supreme Court's decision in Santosky v. Kramer is criticized along the lines of advocacy for children's rights. In this case, the Supreme Court ruled that there must be clear and convincing proof before parental rights can be terminated; in doing so, the Supreme Court overturned the laws of 17 states which allowed termination based on the less stringent standard of the fair preponderance of the evidence. The higher required quantum of evidence will place an unmanageable burden on child welfare agencies. The Court concluded that the child had only a limited interest in prompt and effective termination decisions. The termination of parental rights is often the only way out of foster care limbo; it is contended that the Court was confused on this issue. Also, the Court's reference to New York statistical data is proposed to be incorrect. If the Court's assessment of the child's interest in being freed for adoption is accepted by policy-makers and other courts, recent efforts to reform foster care through more effective permanency planning will have been undermined. Also undermined will be the recent progress toward according fundamental legal rights to children caught up in child welfare proceedings. 2 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         childrens rights;  us supreme court;  judicial decisions;  court case dispositions;  termination of parental rights;  rules of evidence;  evidence;  court doctrine

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Native Children in Treatment: Clinical, Social, and Cultural Issues.

 

AUTHOR:               Sullivan, T.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1983

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Care

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Central Toronto (Ontario) Youth Services..

 

SOURCE:                1(4): pp. 75-94;  Journal of Child Care, Calgary, AL (Canada)., May 1983

 

ABSTRACT:           Disproportionately large numbers of Indian children across Canada find their way into white alternate care facilities through initial intervention by provincially mandated child welfare organizations which remove children from their communities. Canadian child welfare authorities are devaluing native culture and assisting the process of social disorganization in Indian communities. The child welfare system must recognize the importance of cultural differences, cultural bonding, and traditional child-rearing practices. Removing children from Indian families exacerbates already existing problems of alcoholism, welfare dependency, crime, unemployment, emotional duress, and social organization. This practice also probably results in increased adult charges and convictions associated with child abuse which might otherwise be handled by responsible Indian authorities. Removing children adds to the breakdown of the extended family system. The noninterventionist Indian approach to child rearing, with its associated concept of developing self-control from infancy onwards, is often misunderstood by non-Indians. In order to reclaim their children, Indian communities should decide where nonintervention ends and where neglect begins. Indians need to meet the challenge of reorganizing the social roles necessary to ensure extended family and tribal responsibility for child welfare. A review of case summaries of 5 consecutive admissions to a children's mental health center reveals virtual denial and ignorance of the importance of the children's Indian origins. 25 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         american indians;  cultural differences;  child welfare services;  child rearing;  family characteristics;  mental health programs;  self concept;  canada

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    The Psychologist in Court Proceedings Involving Children.

 

AUTHOR:               Rosenberg, L. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1981

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, Md. Pediatric Cortical Function Lab.

 

SOURCE:                In: Protecting Children Through the Legal System. American Bar Association, Washington, D.C. National Legal Resource Center for Child Advocacy and Protection, 1981;  pp. 230-252

 

ABSTRACT:           The role and functioning of the psychologist in court proceedings involving children are described. Assessment or evaluation are the psychological services which most often interact with the legal profession, and the sources of psychodiagnostic information are frequently misunderstood. In attempting to integrate material from the behavioral history of the child, and current clinical assessment and psychological testing, the psychologist must recognize the differences which exist between the data sources. Topics discussed include: objectivity of psychological tests; issues associated with intelligence testing; bias against minorities in psychological tests; decision-making concerning intellectual retardation; the relationship between present level of functioning and the quality of care received in the past; presentation of psychological test material in court; the effects of sexual exposure which is not age appropriate on projective test responses; the concept of psychological harm; the interest of the court in the emotional status of the child; the role of psychological testing in child protective service evaluation; the value of psychological assessment of the parents; and conflicts between vigorous defense of treatment recommendations in court and establishment of trust necessary for successful treatment of parents. 31 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         evidence collection;  evidence presentation;  expert testimony;  psychologists;  psychologists role;  psychological tests;  psychological evaluation;  psychometrics

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

 

TITLE:                    The Child in Group Foster Care.

 

AUTHOR:               Stein, J. M.;  Derdeyn, A. P.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1980

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    South Carolina Medical Univ., Charleston. Dept. of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science.

 

SOURCE:                19(1): pp. 90-100;  American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Washington, DC., Winter 1980

 

ABSTRACT:           The major aspects and implications of separation and loss in foster children are examined in a review of case vignettes which illustrates the difficulties that these children have in establishing relationships with houseparents and psychotherapists. The concepts of attachment theory offer a framework for understanding the behavior of foster children and for the selection of patients for psychotherapy. Frequently, the maladaptive mode of approach behavior that the child takes toward the adult is misunderstood and is experienced as demanding or provocative. The fluctuation between aggression and intense clinging is consistent with the characteristic primitive defense patterns, which include splitting, projection, denial, and identification with the aggressor. Other syndromes that lead to rejection of and by the caretaker include the repetition compulsion, suppressed rage, idealization of the past and future, and perception of the caretaker as persecutor. Impediments to establishment of an alliance with the therapist include: appearance of acting-out symptoms; lack of impulse control and verbal skills; pressure from peer group members; fear that the therapist is an agent of the houseparent; fear that the therapist, as an object of attachment, will lash out like previous objects of attachment; and feelings of guilt on the part of the child. Non-directive, short-term psychotherapy designed to deal with feelings surrounding separation and loss seems the best response to these phenomena. The importance of the child psychiatrist's role as consultant to the houseparents cannot be overstressed. 24 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         foster care;  psychotherapy;  personality;  bonding;  behavior problems;  therapists role;  foster parents

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.aacap.org

 

 

TITLE:                    Hearing on Child Molestation.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    California Joint Committee for Revision of the Penal Code, Sacramento.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1980

 

SOURCE:                Hearing of California Joint Committee for Revision of the Penal Code, Los Angeles, (859), December 16, 1980;  308 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           Testimony at a California legislative hearing indicates that child molesting is a vastly underreported and misunderstood problem affecting a far greater number of children than previously believed. Very few cases are actually prosecuted, and punishment seldom matches the severity of the offense. Professionals with experience in case investigation testified about common offender profiles and operational methods. A clinical psychologist highlighted the underreporting problem, indicating that 80 percent of the cases involve offenders known to the victims. A rehabilitation expert testified that mental health professionals do not have the tools to render effective and dependable offender rehabilitation for most child molesters. There are unique problems surrounding intrafamily child sexual abuse. The child victim often must choose between self and family. A program has been designed to successfully treat intrafamily sexual abuse without breaking up the family. Representatives from the district attorney's office offered testimony outlining some of the problems in prosecuting a child molesting case.

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  incidence;  incest;  rehabilitation programs;  prosecution;  california

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Legislation-Hearing

 

 

TITLE:                    Psychosocial Problems in Young Foreign Adopted Children.

 

AUTHOR:               Wolters, W. H. G.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1980

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Acta Paedopsychiatrica

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, Utrecht (The Netherlands).

 

SOURCE:                46(1-2): pp. 67-81;  Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., NY., September 1980

 

ABSTRACT:           A clinical psychologist discusses the psychosocial problems of foreign born adopted children and their adoptive parents. The discussion is based on data collected from a sample of 25 children, mostly black, who were brought to the Netherlands for adoption. The parents of these children had been referred to a pediatrician or psychologist for help because of growing difficulty in dealing with their children. The emotional and social problems that confront these children are discussed and it is argued that their behavior problems are linked to the background, attitudes, and level of social and emotional maturity of their adoptive parents. It is noted that many parents misunderstand much of their child's behavior, both normal and abnormal, and that this can result in parental actions that are harmful to the child's development. Behavior problems resulting from poor functional development (sitting, standing, and so forth), previous neglect, and the need to adapt to a new situation are especially likely to cause difficulty between adopted children and their parents. Suggestions for how adoptive parents can be helped with their parenting skills are provided. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:         intercountry adoption;  netherlands;  behavior problems;  psychological aspects

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.nrc.ca/cisti/cisti/html

 

 

TITLE:                    A Comparative Study of Self-Identified Abusive Mothers and System-Identified Abusive Mothers.

 

AUTHOR:               Selfridge, E.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1978

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    United States International Univ., San Diego, Calif.

 

SOURCE:                Doctoral Dissertation. United States International Univ., San Diego, Calif., 1978;  102 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           Two groups of abusive parents, 19 who were self-identified and self-referred and 19 who were system-identified, were given 3 test instruments: the Michigan Screening Profile for Parenting, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Index, and the Thematic Apperception Test. The purpose of the study was to identify similarities and differences between the 2 groups. This assessment was necessary to make meaningful treatment decisions about the self-identified group. Ten personality characteristics were measured through the use of the above-mentioned instruments: (1) negative feelings toward their own parents, (2) frustration level, (3) isolation, (4) expectations of children, (5) symbiosis--parents' ability to differentiate the child's needs from their own, (6) threat--how threatened the parents feel by other people, (7) feeling unloved and misunderstood, (8) anxiety at the beginning of therapy, (9) anxiety in general, and (10) pathogenesis. Areas in which the 2 groups emerged similar were: expectations of children, symbiosis, threat, and feeling unloved and misunderstood. The areas of significant difference were: negative feelings toward their own parents, frustration level, isolation, anxiety state, anxiety trait, and pathogenesis. Both the groups were at high ranges on each of these scales; the self-identified group scored even higher than the other group within this high range. These data indicate that the self-identified abusive parents do correctly and consistently identify themselves as abusive parents. They operate at peak level anxiety, stress, and frustration, approaching a breaking point. Second, since the system-identified mothers experience as much and more stress and strain as normal persons, they are constantly aware of their feelings and difficulties, and consequently are amenable to treatment.

 

KEY TERMS:         comparative analysis;  personality tests;  individual characteristics;  identification

 

 

TITLE:                    Symposium on Prevention: Helping Parents Parent.

 

AUTHOR:               Mondale, W. F.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1977

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Congress of the United States, Washington, DC. Senate.

 

SOURCE:                In: Proceedings of the First National Conference on Child Abuse and Neglect, January 4-7, 1976. National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (DHEW), Washington, D.C., (OHD) 77-30094, 1977;  pp. 51-53

 

ABSTRACT:           The passage of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act by a vote of 57 to 7 in the Senate and 354 to 36 in the House of Representatives indicated a bipartisan support rarely equalled even though the atmosphere at the time of passage was not conducive to major breakthroughs in children's legislation. Child abuse and neglect are nearly always symptoms of a family in trouble and nothing less than a concentrated effort to identify and head off the circumstances leading to abuse will offer the prospect of eliminating it in the future. Among the kinds of support needed to keep the family together and help it solve its problems is day care. In 1971 the Congress passed a bill designed to provide day care to children of needy families and it was vetoed by the President. Similar legislation is faced with resistance from conservatives. Help is needed to correct growing public misunderstanding. The challenge to those who are committed to ending child abuse is to prove that they are not simply indulging in a social fad.

 

KEY TERMS:         legislation;  child abuse laws;  day care services;  economic disadvantage;  political factors

 

 

TITLE:                    A Field Trial of Child Advocacy in Wisconsin.

 

AUTHOR:               Westman, J. C.;  Stiles, C. L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1976

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Dept. of Psychiatry.

 

SOURCE:                In: Westman, J. C. (Editor). Proceedings of the University of Wisconsin Conference on Child Advocacy. Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Extension Health Sciences Unit, 1976;  pp. 179-197

 

ABSTRACT:           The accomplishments and problems encountered in testing the feasibility of a systematic effort aimed at child advocacy in Wisconsin are described. The Wisconsin Association for Mental Health served as the sponsoring organization. The aims were to promote recognition that children are the most important national resource, that children of varying ages are unique in their developmental needs, and that childhood is the target age for preventing both physical and mental disability in later life. Child-Adolescent Services Committees, composed of both lay and professional members, were formed in county chapters of the Wisconsin Association for Mental Health to assess community services in mental health, education, health, social services, law, and corrections. A number of issues were identified through 11 public hearings carried out by the state mental health association at the regional level. The Wisconsin Plan stimulates activity at local, regional, and state levels by drawing public attention to child advocacy. The experience of the child advocacy effort in Wisconsin showed that there is a general lack of awareness, misunderstanding, and neglect of children's problems in addition to limited application of existing knowledge. Child advocacy can realistically aim at a basic shift in attitude toward the young, both through speaking for individual children and promoting policies beneficial to all children. Child advocacy should not be linked with a specific program, but should seek to establish a broad base of local, state, federal, private, and consumer participation. 11 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         wisconsin;  child advocacy;  state health agencies;  public awareness

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

 

TITLE:                    The Impact of Family Therapy in the On-Going Treatment of the Self-Admitted Child Abuser.

 

AUTHOR:               Bolton, F. G.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1975

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Arizona Community Development for Abuse and Neglect, Phoenix.

 

SOURCE:                Arizona Community Development for Abuse and Neglect, Phoenix, 1975;  15 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           A discussion covers various aspects of the rehabilitation of abusive parents through family therapy. Less than 10 percent of abusive or neglectful parents demonstrate extreme mental disturbance and therefore the majority remain in the community for treatment. Family therapy is significant in aftercare (the process of facilitating the patient's functioning at a maximal level which takes place after admission of an abusive act) because abusive behavior is related to familial expectations and the family unit may make a significant contribution to the decay of mental health of an individual. Family members often hinder the rehabilitation process by their misunderstanding of the problem, unrealistic expectations of the patient upon return to the family, and overall lack of communication ability. Family therapists can provide crucial intervention at crisis points by: (1) providing simple education for the family on the patient's condition; (2) acting as a full partner in solution of family problems; and (3) offering new means of communication until the family is able to function fully as a stress-mediating unit. 22 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         parental rehabilitation;  family therapy;  family characteristics;  abusive parents;  family attitudes

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Unpublished Paper

 

 

TITLE:                    Emotional Reactions to Child Abuse Within a Hospital Setting.

 

AUTHOR:               Hill, D. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1975

 

SOURCE:                In: Ebeling, N. B.; Hill, D. A. (Editors). Child Abuse: Intervention and Treatment. Acton, MA, Publishing Sciences Group, Inc., 1975;  pp. 37-40

 

ABSTRACT:           Feelings of outrage and hostility are frequently apparent among hospital personnel when a battered child is admitted, and the parents are often treated with icy silence during the initial stages of treatment of the child. Anxiety and tension are often present in the hospital social worker as she is frequently caught in the middle between the medical staff and the family in working out a plan for the situation. Parents frequently feel misunderstood, threatened, and criticized. Another reaction of hospital staff frequently encountered is one of apathy, since they will never see the positive outcome of referral to an agency. Lack of sufficient services contributes to this feeling of apathy.

 

KEY TERMS:         emotions;  battered child syndrome;  hospital personnel;  social workers responsibility;  referral

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book

 

 

TITLE:                    Interdisciplinary Management of Child Abuse: Problems and Progress.

 

AUTHOR:               Newberger, E. H.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1975

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Children's Hospital Medical Center, Boston, Mass. Family Development Study.

 

SOURCE:                In: Fourth National Symposium on Child Abuse. Charleston, S.C., October 23, 1973. Denver, Amercian Humane Association, Children's Div., 1975;  pp. 16-26

 

ABSTRACT:           A discussion lists and explains problems associated with multidisciplinary management of child abuse, generally accepted beliefs on management in child abuse literature, and attributes of model systems for prevention and control of child abuse and neglect. Problems in management include a lack of interdisciplinary communication, coordination, and cooperation; misunderstanding of each discipline's responsibilities; and punitive attitudes. Axioms on management of abuse from a consensus in child abuse literature include: (1) the likelihood of repeated abuse; (2) child protection as the principal goal in initial management but followed by family rehabilitation; (3) necessity of interdisciplinary management; (4) the necessity for prompt intervention; and (5) a non-punitive emphasis. Attributes of model systems of child abuse control emphasize treatment of the problem as a family crisis with programs developed by the community. Generally, the community should be responsible for a popular system which includes complete family services and legal advocacy developed from systematic public policies and maintained with administrative flexibility by a centralized multidisciplinary organization. Services would be maintained on a 24-hour basis and all professional responsibilities would be well defined. Epidemiology of child abuse, conceptual approaches, and physicians' responsibilities are also briefly discussed.

 

KEY TERMS:         interdisciplinary approach;  models;  interagency cooperation;  community responsibility;  community based services;  prevention;  management information systems

 

 

TITLE:                    Children Become What Parents Make Them.

 

AUTHOR:               Fontana, V. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1975

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Psychiatric Annals

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    New York Univ., N.Y. Dept. of Clinical Pediatrics.

 

SOURCE:                5(12): pp. 59, 63-64, 67;  Thorofare, NJ, Slack, Inc., December 1975

 

ABSTRACT:           The value of effective parenting cannot be overestimated in the development of the child. However, the capability for such parenting varies from individual to individual. There are many misconceptions about parents who abuse and many misunderstandings about what constitutes abuse. Many factors influence the mother-child relationship and can, in turn, determine whether or not a child will be abused. Parents must learn to make the child comfortable, relieve any distress, and increase his self-esteem, while at the same time avoiding any unnecessary criticism, domination, deprivation, or unreasonable demands. Fathers often find it difficult to develop healthy relationships with their children, a situation which leaves the mother with the primary parenting responsibility. 2 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         parenting;  child development;  parental adequacy;  mother child relationships

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.slackinc.com/wwwslack.htm

 

 

TITLE:                    Maria Colwell and After.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1974

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    British Medical Journal

 

SOURCE:                1: p. 300;  London (England), BMJ, February 23, 1974

 

ABSTRACT:           In the management of nonaccidental injury and child abuse, both primary prevention and the prevention of further injury depend first of all on identification of families at risk. An improved relationship of mutual trust and respect among physicians, social workers, and police is essential. Three reasons for failure to deploy all resources in handling cases may be reluctance of the busy doctor to be disturbed, a misunderstanding on the part of the social worker as to how medical information can be secured, and a reluctance of doctors to refer their own patients. Proposed solutions both in prevention and management of nonaccidental injury must be tested by follow-up studies conducted on the basis of highly professional assessment. 5 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         interdisciplinary approach;  cooperative planning;  prevention;  battered child syndrome;  detection

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:   http://www.bmj.com

 

 

TITLE:                    Community Committee on Child Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:               Sayre, J. W.;  Foley, F. W.;  Zingarella, L. S.;  Kristal, H. F.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1973

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    New York State Journal of Medicine

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Rochester Univ., N.Y. Dept. of Pediatrics.

 

SOURCE:                73(16): pp. 2071-2075;  Medical Society of the State of New York, Lake Success., August 15, 1973

 

ABSTRACT:           A group of people representing medical, social services, and legal resources involved with the identification, reporting, protective, and legal aspects of child abuse have been holding regular monthly meetings to discuss their mutual concerns. This Committee on Child Abuse of Monroe County, New York, has been successful in identifying interagency problems and misunderstandings, discussing them openly and constructively, and suggesting ways of improving care of these complex cases. It provides a natural vehicle through which innovative community programs may be implemented in the future. Its history, composition, and accomplishments are briefly discussed. 9 references.

 

KEY TERMS:         committees;  new york;  interagency cooperation;  community programs

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:                    Public Welfare Responsibility for Child Protective Services.

 

AUTHOR:               Lacour, J.;  Erickson, H. C.;  Justis, G. R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:        1965

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Santa Clara County Dept. of Welfare, San Jose, Calif.

 

SOURCE:                Denver, Colo., American Humane Association, 1965;  22 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:           Problems in engaging community support for child protective services and in developing countywide and statewide programs are discussed. The initiation of child protective services is inhibited by community fears regarding the startling growth of public welfare and by the reluctance of public welfare administrators to assume the responsibilities of child protective services. Advice is provided to child protective service adherents on how to mobilize community support and move reluctant legislators. Above all, leadership in such activities should be given to someone other than the public welfare administrator or his staff. Leaders are urged to be aware of the overlapping legal authority of juvenile courts and public welfare departments, of divergent community opinion regarding the punishment or treatment of law offenders, and of misunderstandings that can develop about the nature of child protective services. The problems encountered in setting up a protective services program in Los Angeles County and in the State of Colorado are reviewed.

 

KEY TERMS:         child protective services;  support systems;  program planning;  community responsibility

 

 

TITLE:                    Sexual Abuse: The Emotional Damage.

 

AUTHOR:               Wojnar, S.

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Bay Psychiatrist Clinic, Green Bay, WI.

 

SOURCE:                In: Samples, M. S. (Editor). Conference Proceedings of the 5th Annual National American Indian Conference on Child Abuse and Neglect. May 4-6, 1987. Green Bay, Wisconsin. Oklahoma Univ., Norman. American Indian Inst.;  pp. 97-109

 

ABSTRACT:           Emotional damage resulting from sexual abuse of children is discussed. Common myths surrounding sexual abuse are examined: misunderstood affection; victim as seducer; the mother knowing about the abuse; and abuse and incest happening only to outcasts. Symptoms of adult sexual abuse in school-aged children are discussed, such as changes in behavior, indiscreet sex play, various physical complaints, and excessive nightmares or phobias. Problems of adult survivors are analyzed, including enormous difficulties with trust, anger, and general self-concept. Therapeutic strategies are offered for dealing with guilt and anxieties.

 

KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  sequelae;  identification;  adults abused as children;  treatment;  emotional abuse

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book