TITLE:    Erroneous Concerns About Child Sexual Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:    Oates, R. K.;  Jones, D. P. H.;  Denson, D.;  Sirotnak, A. et al.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Sydney Univ., Westmead, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Pediatrics and Child Health.

 

SOURCE:    24(1): pp. 149-157;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., January 2000

 

ABSTRACT:    More than 500 case records of child sexual abuse reports to the Denver Department of Social Services over 12 months were reviewed to assess the incidence and nature of concerns about sexual abuse, especially those that were erroneous. Forty-three percent of the cases were substantiated, 21 percent were inconclusive, 34 percent were not considered to be abuse cases, and 2 percent were classified as erroneous. Of the 14 erroneous concerns emanating from children, three cases were allegations made in collusion with a parent, three cases were misinterpretations of an innocent event, and eight cases were identified as false allegations of sexual abuse. The data indicate that erroneous concerns of sexual abuse from children are uncommon. The four categories of concern in this study, in contrast to the simple classification of substantiated and unsubstantiated, provide a means of encouraging open minded assessments of the typical concerns which a child protection agency receives. 14 references and 2 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    sexual abuse;  sexual abuse reporting;  false allegations;  child witnesses;  child abuse research;  assessment;  unfounded reports;  incidence

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Does Childhood Sexual Abuse Cause Borderline Personality Disorder?

 

AUTHOR:    Bailey, J. M.;  Shriver, A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:    25(1): pp. 45-57;  Taylor and Francis, Levittown, PA., 1999;  p. 219

 

ABSTRACT:    This article reports the findings of a survey of psychologists about the likelihood that patients with various personality disorders would engage in behaviors relevant to several alternative interpretations. Relative to patients with other personality disorders and to the typical outpatient, patients with borderline personality disorder were rated as especially likely to misinterpret or misremember social interactions, to lie manipulatively and convincingly, and to have voluntarily entered destructive sexual relationships, possibly even at young ages. The article offers several alternative explanations for the link between childhood sexual abuse and borderline personality disorder, including reports of sexual abuse made because theindividual with borderline personality disorder misinterpreted the situation or intentionally misreported it for some reason; that memories were suggested; and that studies that include adolescents in the sample skew findings regarding sexual activity. Methodological implications of the study are also discussed in the article. 46 references and 1 table. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    sexual abuse;  sequelae;  adults abused as children;  personality disorders;  personality problems;  models;  child abuse research;  interpersonal relationships

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.taylorandfrancis.com

 

 

TITLE:    Analysis of Missed Cases of Abusive Head Trauma.

 

AUTHOR:    Jenny, C.;  Hymel, K. P.;  Ritzen, A.;  Reinert, S. T.;  Hay, T. C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of the American Medical Association

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Brown Univ. School of Medicine, Providence, RI. Dept. of Pediatrics.

 

SOURCE:    281(7): pp. 621-626;  Chicago, IL, American Medical Association, February 17, 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    Abusive head trauma (AHT) is a dangerous form of child abuse that can be difficult to diagnose in young children. This study determined how frequently AHT was previously missed by physicians in a group of abused children with head injuries and determined factors associated with the unrecognized diagnosis. The study methodology consisted of a retrospective chart review of cases of head trauma presenting between January 1990 and December 1995 at an academic children's hospital. One hundred seventy-three children younger than 3 years with head injuries caused by abuse comprised the study population. Twenty-five (14.5 percent) of the 173 children died as a result of their head injuries. A total of 54 (31.2 percent) of 173 abused children with head injuries had been seen by physicians after AHT and the diagnosis was not recognized. The mean time to correct diagnosis among these children was 7 days with a range of 0 to 189 days. AHT was more likely to be unrecognized in very young white children from intact families and in children without respiratory compromise or seizures. In 7 of the children with unrecognized AHT, misinterpretation of radiological studies contributed the delay in diagnosis. Fifteen children (27.8 percent) were reinjured after the missed diagnosis. Twenty-two (40.7 percent) experienced medical complications related to the missed diagnosis. Four of 5 deaths in the group with unrecognized AHT might have been prevented by earlier recognition of abuse. The study provides recommendations to facilitate the diagnosis of AHT. The authors concluded that although diagnosing head trauma can be difficult in the absence of a history, it is important to consider inflicted head trauma in infants and young children presenting with nonspecific clinical signs. 5 tables and 22 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    physical abuse;  unrecognized trauma;  head injuries;  abused children;  diagnostic errors

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    The Role of Cranial MRI in Identifying Patients Suffering From Child Abuse and Presenting With Unexplained Neurological Findings.

 

AUTHOR:    Chabrol, B.;  Decarie, J.;  Fortin, G.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Timone, Marseille (France). Neuropediatrics Unit.

 

SOURCE:    23(3): pp. 217-228;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science, Ltd., 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This article examines the usefulness of cerebral MRI to detect possible child abuse in children with unexplained neurologic findings. Between 1990 and 1997, 208 children were referred for suspected physical child abuse to the Child Protection Clinic of Ste-Justin Hospital, a tertiary care pediatric hospital. Among them, 39 children presented initially with neurological findings. For 27 of them, the CT scan results prompted the diagnosis of child abuse. However, in 12 children, even if a CT-Scan was performed, the diagnosis and/or the mechanisms of the neurologic distress remained obscure. Investigation was completed with MRI study in those 12 cases. The MRI findings were diagnostic for physical abuse in 8 cases. A diagnosis of child abuse was made in 2 or more cases by a combination of MRI and skeletal survey findings. In 1 case, MRI was suggestive but the diagnosis of child abuse could not be confirmed. One case was misinterpreted as normal. MRI is the test of choice to rule out child abuse when faced with a child presenting unexplained neurologic signs lasting for few days. The fact that MRI can better differentiate collections of different ages makes this imaging test particularly useful in identifying cases of child abuse. These results, however, always have to be integrated in a well conducted multidisciplinary clinical approach. 22 references, 1 table and 6 figures. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    head injuries;  physical abuse;  neurological examinations

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    CHILD WELFARE REFORM SYSTEMS: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

SOURCE:    NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:    court reform;  juvenile courts;  court improvement projects;  program evaluation;  permanency planning;  expedited permanency planning;  multidisciplinary teams;  mediation;  judges;  connecticut;  termination of parental rights;  lawyers;  child protection;  state courts;  substance abusing parents;  family courts;  drug treatment programs;  child welfare services;  judicial responsibility;  adoption;  asfa;  judicial role;  legal processes;  hearings;  california;  courts role;  trial courts;  spouse abuse;  child witnesses of family violence;  program models;  interagency collaboration;  systems reform;  service delivery;  alternative dispute resolution;  oregon;  prosecution;  victims rights;  interagency cooperation;  failure to protect;  civil courts;  courts;  training;  child abuse reporting;  child witnesses;  suggestibility;  case management;  courts responsibility;  court jurisdiction;  program development;  state surveys;  childrens rights;  program planning;  criminal justice system;  investigations;  program descriptions;  federal programs;  grants;  professional training;  dependency;  court appointed special advocates;  family group conferencing;  community based services;  tennessee;  evaluation methods;  judicial decisions;  program coordination;  service coordination;  management information systems;  best practices;  historical perspective;  program improvement;  federal case law;  policy formation;  conferences;  nevada;  juvenile delinquency;  accountability;  pennsylvania;  state laws;  child welfare reform;  new york;  state statutory law;  public notification;  statute of limitations

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:    Sexual Abuse Allegations in Divorce and Custody Cases: Frustrations of Inquiry.

 

AUTHOR:    Goldstein, S. L.;  Tyler, R. P.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Child Abuse Forensic Institute, Napa, CA.

 

SOURCE:    Presented at: The 14th National Symposium on Child Sexual Abuse, Huntsville, AL, March 17, 1998;  pp. 442-447

 

ABSTRACT:    This paper provides guidelines for the investigation of allegations of sexual abuse during divorce and child custody proceedings. Social workers and police investigators are advised to consider who the child told about the abuse, what prompted the disclosure, who has spoken to the child and how they responded to the disclosure, what evidence is available, and if there are any alternative explanations. The investigation should determine whether the allegation is sincere or malicious, and if sincere, whether the abuse actually occurred or whether the child's statements were misinterpreted. The first steps in an investigation are to prevent witnesses from conferring with each other and to prevent the offender from destroying evidence. Attempts should be made to obtain an admission or confession by the offender before he is aware of police involvement. The child should also be examined by a trained medical professional as soon as possible.

 

KEY TERMS:    sexual abuse;  child custody;  divorce;  investigations;  disclosure;  false allegations

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Proceedings Paper

 

 

TITLE:    From Memories of Abuse to the Abuse of Memories.

 

AUTHOR:    Laurence, J.;  Day, D.;  Gaston, L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Concordia Univ., Montreal (Canada). Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:    In: Lynn, S. J. and McConkey, K. M. (Editors). Truth in Memory. New York, NY, Guilford Publications, Inc., 1998;  pp. 323-346

 

ABSTRACT:    This chapter examines the malleable nature of memory, asserting that human memory, by nature, is not reliable and should not be the major focus of therapy. Research studies are cited to support the hypothesis that memories are constantly reinterpreted and affected by experience and expectation. Details and sequence are easily distorted and new memories are frequently created for events that never occurred. Contrary to what Freud believed, memories are not recorded permanently in the brain. The majority of contemporary therapists hold this mistaken view as well, and are likely to diagnose repression or dissociation when a patient cannot remember a traumatic event that the therapist is sure caused the present symptoms. Too much emphasis is placed on self-awareness and understanding of events. The chapter explains the therapists role in interpreting and misinterpreting memories and social attitudes that perpetuate the occurrence of pseudomemories. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:    memory;  repression;  suggestibility;  adults abused as children;  therapists role;  social attitudes

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.guilford.com

 

 

TITLE:    Recovered Memories in the Courtroom.

 

AUTHOR:    Underwager, R.;  Wakefield, H.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Institute for Psychological Therapies, Northfield, MN.

 

SOURCE:    In: Lynn, S. J. and McConkey, K. M. (Editors). Truth in Memory. New York, NY, Guilford Publications, Inc., 1998;  pp. 394-434

 

ABSTRACT:    This chapter applies the Daubert test for admissibility of evidence into court proceedings to the presentation of expert testimony regarding recovered memories. In the ruling for Daubert versus Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, the United States Supreme Court required judges to determine admissibility of evidence based on its acceptance as scientific knowledge and relevance to the case. Criteria for consideration as scientific knowledge include testability of the evidence, peer review and publication, known rate of error, and consensus within the scientific community. Several supreme courts and trial courts have found little scientific support for repressed memories and dismissed cases involving recovery. However, the criteria are not objective and may be misinterpreted by biased judges who elect to consider the totality of the circumstances of the evidence. The chapter reviews the nature of memory and summarizes findings from the research about suggestibility and the creation of pseudomemories. The scientific evidence of repression, dissociation and posttraumatic stress disorder, dissociative identity disorder, and body memories are discussed. The chapter also describes civil litigation, statutes of limitations, and strategies for assessing claims of repressed memories. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:    memory;  repression;  courts;  legal processes;  expert testimony;  false memory syndrome;  lawsuits;  rules of evidence

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.guilford.com

 

 

TITLE:    What Children Can't Tell Us and Why: Child Sexual Abuse, Hearsay, and the Rule of Completeness.

 

AUTHOR:    Schudson, C. B.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Wisconsin State Court of Appeals, Milwaukee.

 

SOURCE:    In: Ventrell, M. and Anderson, J. (Editors). Serving the Needs of the Child Client: Keeping Pace with the Practice of Law for Children. National Association of Counsel for Children, Denver, CO, October 1998;  pp. 193-200

 

ABSTRACT:    This article proposes that Federal Rule 106, the rule of completeness be applied to child sexual abuse cases to permit the admission of hearsay testimony to place a child's statements in the context of the disclosure process. The discussion asserts that judicial decisions to deny hearsay testimony are based on a misinterpretation of Ohio v. Roberts. In practicality, hearsay testimony is often vital to ensure the completeness of the evidence presented in the case- for both the prosecution and the defense. The U.S. Supreme Court affirmed the use of hearsay testimony in the case of White v. Illinois, as presented by a babysitter, a mother, a police officer, and medical professionals. In the unanimous decision, the Court determined that the hearsay was necessary to discover the truth of the allegations and that is should be admitted without regard to the availability of the child victim. The court acknowledged the progressive nature of disclosure and the influence of interviewers in the child's account of the incident. Federal Rule 106, the rule of completeness, instructs courts to consider other statements which may clarify testimony or correct any misinterpretations of the child's statements. This logic was first used in the Wisconsin case of State v. Sharp.

 

KEY TERMS:    sexual abuse;  hearsay rule;  child witnesses;  disclosure;  state case law;  federal case law;  judicial decisions;  rules of evidence

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Proceedings Paper

 

INTERNET URL:    http://NACCchildlaw.org

 

 

TITLE:    Sexual Abuse Allegations in Custody Visitation Cases: Difficult Decisions in Divisive Divorces.

 

AUTHOR:    Goldstein, S. L.;  Tyler, R. P.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    APSAC Advisor

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Child Abuse Forensic Institute, Napa, CA.

 

SOURCE:    11(3): pp. 15-18;  Chicago, IL, American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children, Fall 1998

 

ABSTRACT:    This article examines the difficulty in investigating sexual abuse allegations in divorce custody cases. These cases are difficult to investigate because of the lack of evidence, possible biases and the bitterness between the parties. The problems are compounded by shrinking budgets and staff in many investigative agencies. Questions are listed that should be paid close attention to when credibility issues arise, including: to whom did the child first disclose?; why is the child telling now?; what evidence is available to confirm what the child is saying? Three types of sexual abuse allegations are identified: (1) those in which there is a sincere, legitimate and valid report made which is true because the abuse actually occurred; (2) those in which there is a sincere, legitimate, and valid report made which is a misinterpretation or those in which a direct and correct report of some behavior or statements made by the child, but there was no abuse; and (3) those where there is a deliberately malicious false allegation made. Four investigative concerns are summarized, and recommendations for interviewing are made.7 7 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    investigations;  false allegations;  interviews;  child custody;  abuse allegations

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.apsac.org

 

 

TITLE:    Children Living at Home: The Initial Child Proetction Enquiry. Ten Pitfalls and How to Avoid Them: What Research Tells Us.

 

AUTHOR:    Cleaver, H.;  Wattam, C.;  Cawson, P.;  Gordon, R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1998

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University of Leicester (Great Britain). School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:    London (England), National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, 1998;  25 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:    This practice guide describes current child abuse research findings relevant to the initial visit to a family in a child protection inquiry. Ten pitfalls for child protection caseworkers are reviewed: (1) pressures from high status referrers or the press, with fears that a child may die, lead to over-precipitate action; (2) Professionals think that when they have explained something as clearly as they can, the other person will have understood it; (3) assumptions and pre-judgements about families lead to observations being ignored or misinterpreted; (4) parents' behavior, whether cooperative or uncooperative, is often misinterpreted; (5) not enough weight is given to information from family, friends, and neighbors; (6) not enough attention is paid to what children say, how they look and how they behave; (7) attention is focused on the most visible or pressing problems and other warning signs are not appreciated; (8) when the initial inquiry shows that the child is not at risk of significant harm, families are seldom referred to other services which they need to prevent longer term problems; (9) when faced with an aggressive or frightening family, professionals are reluctant to discuss fears for their own safety and ask for help; and (10) information taken at the first inquiry is not adequately recorded, facts are not checked and reasons for decisions are not noted. A brief summary of each issue is provided, along with key questions for a caseworker to ask him/herself in each area. 61 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    child protection;  investigations;  protocols;  great britain

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Booklet

 

 

TITLE:    Costochondral Junction Fractures and Intra-Abdominal Trauma in Non-Accidental Injury (Child Abuse).

 

AUTHOR:    Ng, C. S.;  Hall, C. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Pediatric Radiology

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Great Ormond Street Hospital, London (England). Dept. of Radiology.

 

SOURCE:    28(9): pp. 671-676;  New York, NY, Springer-Verlag, Inc., September 1998

 

ABSTRACT:    Rib fractures are a common skeletal manifestation of nonaccidental injury in infants and young children and are highly specific for abuse. There are relatively few descriptions of fractures involving the costochondral junctions in nonaccidental injury. This article, aimed at pediatric radiologists, presents 3 cases of children, 2 boys and 1 girl, 7, 18, and 36 months of age, with anterior rib fractures which involved the sixth to ninth costochondral junctions. The fractures were bilateral in 2 children and symmetrical in the other. They had appearances analogous to bucket handle metaphyseal fractures of long bones. They were difficult to visualize and healed with minimal callus formation. These fractures were associated with major abdominal visceral injuries, which in themselves carry a significant morbidity and mortality. The importance of recognizing such fractures is highlighted. The authors express caution in not misinterpreting these subtle costochondral fractures as normal variants. 1 table, 3 figures, and 33 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    rib fractures;  abdominal injuries;  unexplained injuries;  nonaccidental physical injury;  trauma

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.nrc.ca/cisti/cisti/html

 

 

TITLE:    Foster Parents and AIDS: Considering the Best Interests of a Foster Child in In re Interest of John T.

 

AUTHOR:    Plager, J. L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Nebraska Law Review

 

SOURCE:    77(3): pp. 617-646;  Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Coll. of Law, 1998

 

ABSTRACT:    This article analyzes the Nebraska case, In re Interest of John T., in which the Department of Social Services (DSS) tried to remove a child from the custody of a foster parent with AIDS. The foster mother and her husband did not disclose her health status to foster care staff during the screening process and a child, John T., was placed with them. After an anonymous report about the foster mother's health, DSS requested and obtained court approval for a placement change for the boy. However, a court of appeals determined that the transfer would not be in the best interests of the boy since he had formed attachments with the family and was not at risk for contracting the disease. The Nebraska Supreme Court refused to hear the DSS appeal and later approved a writ of mandamus for the boy to be returned to his foster parents. The boy was adopted by the foster father one month after the death of the foster mother. The foster father is currently suing the state for discrimination against his wife. The article reviews relevant laws and outlines several errors of the court, including the consideration of the rights of foster parents equivalent to those of biological parents, and the misinterpretation of the best interests of the child standard. The article asserts that the court decisions were politically motivated by a fear of charges of discrimination.

 

KEY TERMS:    foster parents;  best interests of the child;  AIDS;  childrens rights;  courts role;  judicial decisions;  parental rights;  nebraska

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.wshein.com

 

 

TITLE:    The Symbolic Crises of Adoption: Popular Media's Agenda Setting.

 

AUTHOR:    Waggenspack, B. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1998

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Adoption Quarterly

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg.

 

SOURCE:    1(4): pp. 57-82;  Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1998

 

ABSTRACT:    Although adoption is a fairly common means of family building, the public lacks the orientation to express positive adoption symbols, to put a positive face on adoption. Adoptive families find their realities and those of others at odds, and the results are reflected in insensitive remarks, questioning motives, and damaged self-esteem. Symbolic crises are the result of changing adoption patterns and motives, language transformations that create tension, and media misinterpretations. This paper articulates the dimensions of the symbolic crises faced by adoptive families and adoption advocates created by media agenda-setting. Through statistical analysis of media coverage, the author finds that, although there is a growing recognition of positive adoption stories, on balance there was at least a 2:1 ratio of negative to positive family adoption stories in drama and news between 1993 and 1998. The author analyzes these stories and other cultural phenomena--such as the Cabbage Patch Kid doll craze of the early 1980s--to explore how misinterpretation of adoption by the media brings on the symbolic crisis. References. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    adoption myths;  mass media;  social influences;  emotional adjustment

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:    The Culture Factor in CPS: Essential or Elusive?

 

AUTHOR:    Brissett-Chapman, S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1997

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Baptist Home for Children and Families, Bethesda, MD.

 

SOURCE:    In: Morton, T. D. and Holder, W. (Editors). Decision Making in Children's Protective Services: Advancing the State of the Art. Child Welfare Institute, Atlanta, GA. National Resource Center on Child Maltreatment, November 1997;  pp. 75-92

 

ABSTRACT:    This chapter describes the importance of integrating cultural factors into child protection decisions. Even through culture has an importance influence on parent-child dynamics and family relationships, it is often excluded from the development of standard assessment instruments. Recent research has identified the dimensions of culture which affect attitudes and behavior, such as interdependence versus independence; active achievement versus passive acceptance; authoritarianism versus equalitarianism; and expressive versus restrained. However, the experiences of families, combined with the subjective biases of child protection workers have formed barriers to interaction and accurate assessment of risk. For example, the standard list of behavioral indicators of child maltreatment contains attitudes and values which may be misinterpreted due to cultural differences. In response, researchers and policy makers are endorsing the concept of cultural competency to help workers achieve rapport with the community and customize assessments and services. 31 references and 1 table.

 

KEY TERMS:    child protective services;  decision making;  child welfare workers;  risk assessment;  cultural factors;  cultural competency

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

 

TITLE:    Commentary on Talking About Feelings (Aldridge and Wood, 1997).

 

AUTHOR:    Harris, P. L.;  Jones, D. P. H.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1997

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Oxford Univ., (United Kingdom). Dept. of Experimental Psychology.

 

SOURCE:    21(12): pp. 1217-1220;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., December 1997

 

ABSTRACT:    This critique examines the conclusions made by Aldridge and Wood (1997) about the ability of children to describe their feelings and emotions about traumatic or painful situations. Aldridge and Wood based their assertion that children are unable to discuss their feelings on a review of the literature and analyses from an interview study. However, the critique suggests that their arguments are flawed and that their literature review was incomplete. Aldridge and Wood failed to consider recent research that demonstrated the linguistic capabilities of children and their use of words to describe feelings. In addition, the interview study conducted by the researchers may have inadvertently affected the answers given by the children to questions about various scenarios. Future research should be designed with the knowledge that children may appraise situations differently than adults do, may misinterpret the interviewer's question, and may tend to focus on only one element of an emotional situation although if asked, could answer about more aspects. 10 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    competency;  child witnesses;  emotions;  language development;  interviews;  psychological interviews;  child abuse research;  research methodology

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Assessment with Native American Families.

 

AUTHOR:    James, A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1996

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Family Resource Coalition Report

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Dept. of Counselling Psychology.

 

SOURCE:    14(3-4): pp. 29-29;  Family Resource Coalition of America, Chicago, IL., Fall-Winter, 1995-1996

 

ABSTRACT:    This article discusses the assessment considerations that therapists need to address in their work with Native American families. Therapists must consider issues at both the individual and group levels. Assessment issues include determining which family members should be present during therapy sessions and whether the therapeutic setting will be a barrier to therapy, identifying the family's level of involvement with Native American culture and the family's coping strengths, obtaining the family's psychosocial history, and determining whether the family has a substance abuse problem. Therapists must also understand the Native American child-rearing practices so that they do not misinterpret these practices as child neglect. In addition, consultation with Native American mental health practitioners may be useful so that culturally specific behaviors are not misdiagnosed as mental health problems. 7 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    case assessment;  cultural competency;  american indians;  culture;  diagnoses;  alcohol abuse;  neglecting parents

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.frca.org

 

 

TITLE:    Meeting Defenses in Sexual Abuse Cases.

 

AUTHOR:    Morgan, J. T.;  Brickman, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1996

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    NRCCSA News

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    DeKalb County Office of the District Attorney, GA.

 

SOURCE:    5(3): p. 1, 3, 8;  National Resource Center on Child Sexual Abuse, Huntsville, AL, May-June 1996

 

ABSTRACT:    Everyone involved in the prosecution of a child sexual abuse case must be prepared to argue and present evidence to counter the defense of the alleged perpetrator. There are 11 common defenses: imagination of the child; misinterpretation; mental or emotional problems of the child; accidental contact; victim has a history of lying; divorce or custody situation; retaliation by the mother; inadequate evidence; incomplete or erroneous police work; mutual consent; and conspiracy. Prosecutors are advised to question the child about details to corroborate their story and increase credibility. In addition, police investigation procedures should be thorough to avoid any question about the collection of evidence. Accusations of lying and conspiracy can be met by establishing the lack of motive for alleging abuse.

 

KEY TERMS:    sexual abuse;  prosecution;  district attorneys;  defense;  police operating procedures;  testimony;  legal processes

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:    Hearsay Testimony in Child Sexual Abuse Cases: Questions of Accuracy,.

 

AUTHOR:    Adams, J. K.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1996

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Oklahoma Family Law Journal

 

SOURCE:    11(2): pp. 70-76, June 1996

 

ABSTRACT:    This article reviews research about the impact of various interviewing methods on children's testimony and describes the risks of inaccuracies in hearsay. Recent studies have found that interview procedures such as repeated questioning, delayed questioning, suggestive or misleading questions, the emotional tone of the interview, peer pressure, and interviewer authority and bias can negatively affect the accuracy of children's statements. Hearsay evidence offered in child abuse cases may also be inaccurate due to misinterpretation by the witness, intentional lies by the declarant, and inaccurate memory or misunderstanding by the declarant. These limitations are especially of concern when declarations are obtained using improper interview procedures. The article proposes that video or audio recordings be made of all interviews with children to allow the court to determine whether improper questioning procedures were used and to identify inaccuracies in hearsay testimony. Videotapes also eliminate the need for repeated interviews. Constitutional challenges to the practice of videotaping have successfully been addressed by several states. 11 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    child witnesses;  testimony;  sexual abuse;  credibility;  false allegations;  hearsay rule;  videotaping

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    A Public Role in the Private Family: The Parental Rights and Responsibilities Act and the Politics of Child Protection and Education.

 

AUTHOR:    Woodhouse, B. B.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1996

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Ohio State Law Journal

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia. School of Law.

 

SOURCE:    57: pp. 393-429;  Ohio State Univ., Columbus. School of Law., 1996

 

ABSTRACT:    This paper examines the implications of the proposed Parental Rights and Responsibilities Act and identifies the negative impact on children and families. The law emphasizes the rights of parents to raise their children without state intervention and establishes a federal cause of action as a remedy for unjustified interference. It narrows the definition of child abuse and neglect and requires clear and convincing evidence for state actions. Several flaws exist in the design of the legislation, including the inconsistency between the conservative legislators' commitment to federalism and their endorsement of a federal cause of action, the misinterpretation of cases cited to justify the need for the bill, and failure to recognize the existing procedures that protect parents' rights. If adopted, the bill would raise the standard for emergency interventions and inhibit protection of children in suspicious cases. Child protective services may opt for nonintervention when faced with the threat of legal costs and agencies are placed in the position of enforcing parental rights rather than advocating for their own goals for child protection. Finally, the language of the bill is unclear and confusing. The paper acknowledges the concept of family privacy, but highlights the need to balance that privacy with the government's role to advocate for the rights of children.

 

KEY TERMS:    parental rights;  parental responsibilities;  legislative intent;  proposed legislation;  government role;  state case law;  intervention;  lawsuits

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.wshein.com

 

 

TITLE:    Child Sexual Abuse: Representing the Accuser.

 

AUTHOR:    Haralambie, A. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1995

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Family Advocate

 

SOURCE:    17(3): pp. 61-64, 66;  Chicago, IL, American Bar Association, Section of Family Law, Winter 1995

 

ABSTRACT:    This article offers guidelines for representing the accuser in an alleged child sexual abuse case. These guidelines deal with determining whether an allegation is justified by the evidence, is a fabrication, or is a good-faith misinterpretation; keeping the focus of the case on the best interests of the child; finding and using effective expert witnesses; obtaining physical evidence; and precluding or impeaching evidence of questionable scientific value. Types of cases that create proof problems are discussed, including custody or visitation cases, child protection services cases, and criminal cases. In addition, suggestions are provided for handling client anger, misconstrued parent-child communications, and inconclusive findings. 3 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    sexual abuse;  false allegations;  expert witnesses;  expert testimony;  physical examinations;  evidence;  nonabusive parents;  lawyers role

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.abanet.org/family/advocate

 

 

TITLE:    Wading Through the Muddy Waters of Recovered Memory.

 

AUTHOR:    Robbins, S. P.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1995

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Families in Society

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Houston Univ., TX. Graduate School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:    76(8): pp. 478-489;  Milwaukee, WI, Families International, Inc., September 1995

 

ABSTRACT:    This article reviews the professional debate about recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse and addresses conceptual errors, unwarranted assumptions, and factual inaccuracies in Benatar's essay Running Away from Sexual Abuse: Denial Revisited' in the May 1995 Families in Society. Despite the fact that many therapists believe that repression or dissociation is a common response to childhood sexual abuse, little support for this idea is found in scientific studies. The article reviews the recent literature in this area and cautions social workers to avoid getting caught in the extreme polemics of this debate. Current studies indicate that the majority of abused women remember and acknowledge their childhood abuse. In addition, Benatar's essay misinterpreted theories about memory and traumatization. Although it is important to be open to new findings in this area, social workers must be able to distinguish between conjecture and fact. Numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    repression;  memory;  adults abused as children;  social workers responsibility;  research reviews;  sexual abuse

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Ethical and Practical Issues in the Assessment of Sexual Abuse: A Response to Milchman.

 

AUTHOR:    Eisen, M. L.;  Macur-Brousil, R. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1995

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Sexual Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Mt. Sinai Hospital, Chicago, IL. Under the Rainbow Program.

 

SOURCE:    4(4): pp. 123-128;  Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1995

 

ABSTRACT:    This article attempts to clarify some of the confusion created in another article concerning the issue of confidentiality in divorce, custody, and visitation cases involving allegations of sexual abuse. The authors use the Ethical Principles of Psychologists to demonstrate how the author of the other article misinterpreted principles concerning confidentiality and informed consent. The authors also propose general recommendations for dealing with these issues, including collecting as much information as possible from all the parties involved in a case, exercising conservative judgment in evaluating the evidence and protecting the child from harm, and having a working understanding of current knowledge related to these issues. 1 reference.

 

KEY TERMS:    confidentiality;  ethics;  sexual abuse;  case assessment;  child custody

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:    The Body Keeps the Score: Memory and the Evolving Psychobiology of Posttraumatic Stress.

 

AUTHOR:    van der Kolk, B. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1995

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA; Massachusetts General Hospital Trauma Clinic, Boston, MA. Dept. of Psychiatry.

 

SOURCE:    In: Falconer, R., et al. (Editors). Trauma, Amnesia, and the Denial of Abuse. Family Violence and Sexual Assault Institute, Tyler, TX, 1995;  pp. 57-71

 

ABSTRACT:    This chapter explores the psychobiological effect of trauma on memory. The observation has been made that trauma is stored in somatic memory and expressed as changes in the biological stress response. Intense emotions at the time of trauma can initiate the long-term conditional responses to reminders of the event that are characteristic of posttraumatic stress disorder. The inability of people with PTSD to integrate traumatic experiences and their tendency, instead, to relive continuously the past are mirrored physiologically and hormonally in the misinterpretation of innocuous stimuli as potential threats. The psychobiological effects have implications for both the psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy of PTSD. 134 references, 2 figures, and 2 tables. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    posttraumatic stress disorder;  memory;  symptoms;  sequelae;  trauma

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

 

TITLE:    Juvenile Detention to Protect Children From Neglect.

 

AUTHOR:    Beyer, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1995

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    District of Columbia Law Review

 

SOURCE:    3(2): pp. 373-388;  District of Columbia Univ. School of Law, Washington, Fall 1995

 

ABSTRACT:    This article examines court decisions to detain juveniles to protect them from inadequate supervision or neglect. Juvenile detention for protection reasons is usually ordered when caretakers are unable to care for the youth because of caretaker illness, homelessness, or illegal activity; when the caretaker does not want to care for the youth; or when the caretaker has not provided adequate supervision. A 1995 study of detention hearings in the District of Columbia Superior Court revealed that of 48 youth detained at a shelter house, 26 percent were placed because of reasons related to the neglect of a caretaker. However, a case analysis illustrates how many judges may misinterpret reasons for the detention of dangerous youth and the need for supervision of neglected youth. Detention can be a turning point for youth who have committed no serious crimes, as they are exposed to older, more aggressive, and criminally experienced youth. The article proposes a model for detention decisions based on an assessment of the needs of the youth. Alternatives for protection include: community services for families; diversion from the delinquency system; handling the case as neglect and referring to child protective services; identifying the child as a Person in Need of Supervision (PINS); non-secure detention; and enhanced probation.

 

KEY TERMS:    juvenile delinquency;  imprisonment;  child neglect;  child protection;  child placement;  dispositional alternatives;  judicial decisions

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Screening for Child Abuse: Problems and Possibilities.

 

AUTHOR:    Doueck, H. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1995

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Applied Nursing Research

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    New York State Univ., Buffalo. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:    8(4): pp. 191-198;  Philadelphia, PA, W. B. Saunders Co., November 1995

 

ABSTRACT:    This article reviews some of the considerations in developing and implementing an assessment instrument to measure risk for child abuse in a health care setting. Research about the validity of risk assessment measures is summarized and methodological challenges are highlighted. Barriers to the development of an effective and valid instrument include lack of clear definitions of abuse and neglect; misinterpretations of the predictability of the results; and challenges in specificity and sensitivity. Nurses are advised to utilize child abuse risk assessments as part of a comprehensive screening procedure to improve the accuracy of findings and reduce the risk of mis- identifying families. Assessments should include both quantifiable and clinical evaluations by a well-trained health professional. The benefits of risk assessment instruments are briefly outlined in the article. 54 references and 3 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    risk assessment;  evaluation methods;  child abuse;  measures;  validity;  ethics;  health personnel;  child abuse research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Divorcing Parents Are Often Unfairly Accused of Child Sexual Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:    Sheridan, R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1994

 

SOURCE:    In: de Koster, K. and Swisher, K. L. (Editors). Child Abuse: Opposing Viewpoints. San Diego, CA, Greenhaven Press, Inc., 1994;  pp. 48-55

 

ABSTRACT:    This chapter compares the phenomenon of false accusations of sexual abuse made during divorce proceedings to the Salem witchhunts of the 1600s. The degree of emotionalism in the situation inhibits a logical review of the facts and results in a misinterpretation of children's behavior. Fueled by spite and desire for revenge, the mother manipulates the child into accusing the father. Improper interviewing techniques during an investigation can also elicit false accusations. The essay discusses factors that contribute to false allegations of child abuse and examines the premises that corroborate the truth of the child's story.

 

KEY TERMS:    false allegations;  divorce;  custody disputes;  incest

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

 

TITLE:    Investigation and Prosecution of Child Sexual Abuse, Sessions III and IV: Charging, Plea Negotiating, and Sentencing.

 

AUTHOR:    Rainey, R. H.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1994

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    National Center for Prosecution of Child Abuse.

 

SOURCE:    In: The Tenth National Symposium on Child Sexual Abuse, Huntsville, AL, February 22-26, 1994. National Children's Advocacy Center, National Resource Center on Child Sexual Abuse, National Network of Childrens' Advocacy Centers, 1994;  36 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:    This workshop session outlined and discussed screening, filing, negotiation, pre-trial disposition, and sentencing in child sexual abuse cases. Handouts included outlines of a prosecutor's guide for child witnesses, a case-in-chief for child abuse cases, a pre-trial motions in child abuse cases, and suggested guidelines for meeting untrue defenses in child sexual abuse cases. The prosecutor's guide reviewed pre-prep, prep, actual testimony, post-prep, pre-trial, trial, and post-trial suggestions and suggested final notes for dealing with a child victim. The case-in-chief document reviewed aspects of the victim, eyewitness, hearsay and fresh complaint witness, corroborative witness, information on the defendant, medical evidence, and a conclusion. The pre-trial motions handout analyzed the philosophy of pre-trial motions and prosecution of offense, defense, and common defense motions. The untrue defenses document focused on the probable defenses such as misinterpretation, mental illness, retaliation, custody, brainwashing, reasonable doubt, and blaming someone else. Improbable defenses were also listed.

 

KEY TERMS:    sexual abuse;  conferences;  children at risk;  legal processes;  prosecution;  sentencing

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

 

TITLE:    Misinterpretation of a Primary Prevention Effort.

 

AUTHOR:    Underwager, R.;  Wakefield, H.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1994

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Issues in Child Abuse Accusations

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Institute for Psychological Therapies, Northfield, MN.

 

SOURCE:    6(2): pp. 96-107;  Institute for Psychological Therapies, Northfield, MN, Spring 1994

 

ABSTRACT:    In 1990, the authors gave an interview to the editor of Paidika, The Journal of Paedophilia, a scholarly journal published in Holland. The interview was published in 1993. Since that time, statements from the interview have been taken out of context and misinterpreted as indicating that the authors approve of pedophilia and child sexual abuse. In this article, they respond to these criticisms and accusations. 44 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    pedophilia;  interviews;  false allegations;  sexual abuse

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    A Survey of Health Care and Child Protective Services Provider Knowledge Regarding the Toe Tourniquet Syndrome.

 

AUTHOR:    Biehler, J. L.;  Sieck, C.;  Bonner, B.;  Steumky, J. H.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1994

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Miami Children's Hospital, Coral Gables, FL. Dept. of Pediatrics.

 

SOURCE:    18(11): pp. 987-993;  Oxford (Great Britain), Elsevier Science, Ltd., November 1994

 

ABSTRACT:    The authors believe that digital hair strangulation should be included among the conditions that may be confused with child abuse. Digital hair strangulation (toe tourniquet syndrome) occurs primarily in infants and is characterized by a constricting band of foreign material that becomes tightly wrapped around a digit or digits (most often the toes). The consensus in the medical literature is that this condition is not the result of intentional injury. As no reference to the toe tourniquet syndrome exists in child abuse literature, it was hypothesized that child welfare workers would be more likely than physicians and public health nurses to misinterpret this condition as resulting from intentional injury. A survey was conducted to test this hypothesis. Professionals from the fields of medicine, nursing, and child welfare were provided with a history and photographic findings of a child with a typical case of the toe tourniquet syndrome. Participants were surveyed regarding their interpretation of the described injuries. More than 50% of all respondents indicated that they would report this case as suspected abuse. Child welfare workers found the injuries suggestive of abuse significantly more often than public health nurses did. Child welfare workers were significantly more likely to make a referral for suspected child abuse than osteopathic physicians, allopathic physicians, or public health nurses. This indicates a need for information regarding the toe tourniquet syndrome to appear in child abuse literature. Recognition of the toe tourniquet syndrome may prevent unjustified reporting of child abuse. 2 tables and 15 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    surveys;  diagnoses;  child welfare workers;  nurses;  physicians;  child abuse reporting;  injuries

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Should Psychological Tests Be Used in Making Decisions Related to Child Maltreatmemt?

 

AUTHOR:    Milner, J. S.;  Caldwell, R. A.;  Bogat, G. A.;  Davidson, W. S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1994

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Northern Illinois Univ., Family Violence Research Program.

 

SOURCE:    In: Gambrill, E. and Stein, T. J. (Editors). Controversial Issues in Child Welfare. Needham Heights, MA, Allyn and Bacon, 1994;  pp. 98-108

 

ABSTRACT:    This chapter presents a debate about the issue of whether psychological tests should be used in making decisions related to child maltreatment. The argument supporting the position that psychological tests should be used in decisions related to child maltreatment contends that, because they can provide information that will increase the validity of clinical decisions, they should be part of the decision making process. General reasons why psychological tests should be used are presented, including providing objective data if they have adequate psychometric support and being an efficient means of obtaining information. Policy issues are also addressed. The rebuttal to this viewpoint argues that both false-positive and false-negative misclassifications of families based on test outcomes can result in increased danger to children. The argument opposing the use of psychological tests in the area of child maltreatment contends that psychological tests are not appropriate for determining whether an adult is a child abuser, whether a child has been abused, or whether an adult has the potential to become a child abuser. Problems with using psychological tests in each of these areas are identified. Generally, test scores in each of these cases can be misused, misinterpreted, or misapplied, which outweighs the benefits of collecting the data. The rebuttal to this viewpoint focuses on arguments made about the accuracy of psychological tests, the lack of evidence showing that test results improve the judgment of child protection service workers, and the classification problems associated with single-stage screening in low-base-rate situations. 10 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    decision making;  psychological tests;  psychological evaluation;  high risk groups;  screening tests

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.abacon.com

 

 

TITLE:    Misconceptions and Allegations as Symptomatic Behavior for Abused Children in Foster Placement and Adoption.

 

AUTHOR:    McNamara, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1994

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Family Resources, Greensboro, NC.

 

SOURCE:    In: McNamara, J. (Editor). Sexually Reactive Children in Adoption and Foster Care. Greensboro, NC, Family Resources, 1994;  pp. 87-103

 

ABSTRACT:    This article examines why abused children may misinterpret situations and falsely allege sexual abuse in out-of-home placements. Guidelines for working with children to establish trust and understanding are provided. Abused children may misinterpret or manipulate situations in response to past experiences and feelings, as a result of flashbacks, by reconstruction of events, for attention, or for revenge against adults. Caregivers should understand that even if the child misinterpreted the situation, he or she may still be traumatized. Parents and other adults should view events from the child's perspective and seek to create a safe environment. Adults are advised to involve familiar adults in meetings with children, clarify expectations, take special care in touching the child, establish roles within the family, and document progress. Guidelines for minimizing misinterpretation and false allegations are included. 18 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    foster children;  adopted children;  sexual abuse;  false allegations;  symptoms

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

 

TITLE:    Sexually Reactive Children in Adoption and Foster Care.

 

AUTHOR:    McNamara, J. (Editor).

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1994

 

SOURCE:    Greensboro, NC, Family Resources, 1994;  147 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:    The articles in this anthology address various aspects of working with sexually reactive children in adoption or foster care. The term sexually reactive describes child sexual behavior that is the result of an inappropriate or traumatic sexual experience. Sexually abused children who are sexually reactive may exhibit sexualized behavior or become abusive themselves. Article topics include: the effects of sexual abuse on adjustment to adoption; sexual behavior during development; special needs; the treatment of attachment disorder caused by abuse; techniques for working with dissociative processes; misinterpretation and false allegations by abused children; treatment of sexually abusive children; and parenting skills. Numerous references, 1 figure, and 4 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    adopted children;  foster children;  child behavior;  sexual abuse;  sexually abusive children;  sexual behavior

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Book

 

 

TITLE:    False Statements and the Differential Diagnosis of Abuse Allegations.

 

AUTHOR:    Bernet, W.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1993

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Vanderbilt Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Hospital, Nashville, TN.

 

SOURCE:    32(5): pp. 903-910;  Baltimore, MD, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, September 1993

 

ABSTRACT:    The objective of this article was to classify and define the various ways in which false statements occur in allegations of abuse. Forty articles, chapters, and books that contained examples of false statements made by children or caregivers in the context of an abuse allegation were reviewed. Concepts of indoctrination, suggestion, fantasy, delusion, misinterpretation, miscommunication, innocent lying, deliberate lying, confabulation, pseudologia phantastica, overstimulation, group contagion, and perpetrator substitution were clarified. The correct classification of abuse allegations is important in both clinical and forensic child psychiatry. The definitions in this paper, which are based on clinical experience, should be studied through systematic research. 68 references and 1 table. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    child psychiatry;  literature reviews;  sexual abuse;  false allegations;  fantasies

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.wwilkins.com

 

 

TITLE:    Credibility of Child Witnesses: The Role of Communicative Competence.

 

AUTHOR:    Saywitz, K. J.;  Nathanson, R.;  Snyder, L. S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1993

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    California Univ. School of Medicine at Los Angeles, Torrance. Dept. of Psychiatry.

 

SOURCE:    In: Saywitz, K., Nathanson, R., Snyder, L., and Lamphear, V. (Editors). Preparing Children For the Investigative and Judicial Process: Improving Communication, Memory and Emotional Resiliency. Final Report. University of California School of Medicine at Los Angeles, Torrance, 1993;  20 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:    This chapter examines the ability of both adult questioners and child witnesses to communicate during child abuse investigations and legal proceedings. Adults have the responsibility to be sensitive to the developmental level of the child and phrase questions in language that the child can understand. A child's response or lack of response to a question that is too complex or abstract can be misinterpreted. The article discusses communication breakdowns that can occur as a result of the form, content, or pragmatics of questions. Child development in areas of comprehension, logic, memory, distinction between fantasy and reality, knowledge of the legal system, and suggestibility is described. 69 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    child witnesses;  competency;  testimony;  language development;  interviews

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:    How Case Outcome Is Influenced by Suspicion and Varying Perceptions.

 

AUTHOR:    Cleaver, H.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1993

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Bristol Univ., Totnes (England). Dartington Social Research Unit.

 

SOURCE:    In: Abramczyk, L. W. and Ross, J. W. (Editors). International Reunification Symposium, Charleston, SC, September 10-12, 1992. South Carolina Univ., Columbia, College of Social Work, 1993;  pp. 14-20

 

ABSTRACT:    This chapter presents a study in which interviews of 30 families following a report of child abuse were conducted to examine the effect of suspicions of child abuse on the perceptions of parents and investigators and how those perceptions influence the progress of an investigation. The study found that the behavior of guilty parents and innocent parents who feel they have failed their child is similar and can be misinterpreted by suspicious investigators. Many parents were angry about the way they were treated when confronted. Professionals are advised to be direct and clear when presenting a case, yet supportive and considerate of the emotions of the parents.

 

KEY TERMS:    outcomes;  parental attitudes;  parental reactions;  investigations;  police attitudes;  social workers attitudes

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

 

TITLE:    Meeting Typical Defenses in Child Sexual Abuse Cases.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1993

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Pediatric Trauma and Forensic Newsletter

 

SOURCE:    1(4): pp. 25-29;  Albuquerque, NM, Pediatric Trauma and Forensic Newsletter, 1993

 

ABSTRACT:    This article provides prosecutors with guidelines for countering typical defenses in child sexual abuse cases. The prosecutor needs to use various sources of information to determine what the defense will be and then attempt to dismantle the defense's case at every stage of the proceeding. Categories of defenses are described. These defenses focus on claims that the child made up the allegation and that nothing actually happened, the child misinterpreted an innocent event, the child was retaliating against parental restrictions, the child was brainwashed by human services or other professional personnel, a parent planted the story of sexual abuse in the child's mind to gain an advantage in a custody dispute, and someone else was the perpetrator. Suggestions for dismantling each of these defenses are presented.

 

KEY TERMS:    sexual abuse;  prosecution;  defense;  district attorneys;  false allegations;  custody disputes;  guidelines;  suggestibility

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Cultural Considerations in the Assessment and Treatment of Child Sexual Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:    Heras, P.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1992

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Sexual Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Clinical and Consulting Psychology, P.C., San Diego, CA.

 

SOURCE:    1(3): pp. 119-124;  Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1992

 

ABSTRACT:    This article focuses on the importance of considering cultural factors in the assessment and treatment of child sexual abuse. The issues of understanding the context of the abuse, understanding how family structure affects therapeutic assessment of sexual abuse, and understanding what is culturally different and what is dysfunctional are explored. Case examples are presented to illustrate how failure to understand sexual abuse within different social and cultural contexts can lead to problems with treatment. Differences in family structure and dynamics of ethnic groups that can create the potential for misinterpretation are examined, including the authoritarian structure of the family, the need to maintain family cohesion and preserve family harmony, the emphasis on the family unit over the marital dyad, the use of face saving as an appropriate way of preserving self-integrity, the use of indirect communications, and the lack of trust in any type of institution or system. 1 reference and 1 table.

 

KEY TERMS:    sexual abuse;  case assessment;  case reports;  cultural factors;  cultural differences;  ethnic groups;  cultural sensitivity;  cultural values

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:    Commentary: Abuse of the Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome.

 

AUTHOR:    Elias, H. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1992

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Sexual Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    San Diego North County Municipal Court, Vista, CA.

 

SOURCE:    1(4): pp. 169-171;  Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1992

 

ABSTRACT:    This article comments on and affirms the work of R. C. Summit, the psychiatrist who defined the Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome (CSAAS), and addresses how CSAAS has been misunderstood and misinterpreted. CSAAS involves acceptance or accommodation of abuse by a child. The abuse usually is committed by a relative or someone close to the victim; therefore, disclosure is difficult or impossible and may lead to recantation. This article states that too much importance has been placed on CSAAS and that the original definition offered by Summit is accurate and constructive and should be used. CSAAS has been misunderstood by those on both sides of the issue, including the courts, the legal system, expert witnesses, child protection advocates, and prosecution and defense attorneys alike. Only by understanding CSAAS can it be applied effectively to the court system and for the benefit of abused children.

 

KEY TERMS:    trials;  courts role;  medical aspects of child abuse;  courts responsibility;  medical evidence;  sexual abuse accommodation syndrome;  disclosure

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:    Commentary: Summit's Abuse of the CSAAS.

 

AUTHOR:    MacFarlane, K.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1992

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Sexual Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Children's Institute International, Los Angeles, CA.

 

SOURCE:    1(4): pp. 165-167;  Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1992

 

ABSTRACT:    This article comments on the work of R. C. Summit, the psychiatrist who defined the Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome (CSAAS), and addresses how CSAAS has been misunderstood and misinterpreted. CSAAS involves acceptance or accommodation of abuse by a child. The abuse usually is committed by a relative or someone close to the victim; therefore, disclosure is difficult or impossible and may lead to recantation. This article takes issue with the fact that CSAAS has not been admitted as evidence because it is a clinical opinion or theory and not a scientifically accepted condition. This article agrees with Summit's assertion that CSAAS was never a medical theory to begin with and, therefore, should not be treated by the courts as if it were.

 

KEY TERMS:    trials;  courts role;  medical aspects of child abuse;  judicial responsibility;  medical evidence;  sexual abuse accommodation syndrome;  disclosure

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:    The Rehabilitation of the Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome in Trial Courts in Kentucky: Commentary.

 

AUTHOR:    Summit, R. C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1992

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Sexual Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Harbor/UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA.

 

SOURCE:    1(4): pp. 147-151;  Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1992

 

ABSTRACT:    This article takes issue with misinterpretation of the Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome (CSAAS) in Kentucky's court system. CSAAS involves acceptance or accommodation of abuse by a child. The abuse usually is committed by a relative or someone close to the victim; therefore, disclosure may be difficult or impossible for the child and may lead to recantation. CSAAS is not admissible evidence in Kentucky because it is a clinical opinion or theory and not a scientifically accepted condition. This article asserts that it is the responsibility of the court system, and of judges especially, to allow an expert witness to testify about what is known about CSAAS and to admit such testimony as evidence. Because child sexual abuse has no specific test at the clinical level, courts have held that the occurrence of sexual abuse is questionable and debatable. This latter point is criticized and the role of judges is discussed. 2 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    trials;  courts role;  kentucky;  court case dispositions;  medical evidence;  sexual abuse accommodation syndrome;  judicial responsibility;  disclosure

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:    Abuse of the Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome.

 

AUTHOR:    Summit, R. C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1992

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Sexual Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Harbor/UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA.

 

SOURCE:    1(4): pp. 153-163;  Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1992

 

ABSTRACT:    This article defines the Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome (CSAAS) and addresses how it has been misunderstood and misinterpreted by many people and institutions, including the court system and judges. The article is written by R. C. Summit, a psychiatrist who first evaluated and developed CSAAS. CSAAS involves acceptance or accommodation of abuse by a child. The abuse usually is committed by a relative or someone close to the victim; therefore, disclosure is difficult or impossible and may lead to recantation. This article takes issue with the Kentucky courts where CSAAS has not been admitted as evidence because it is a clinical opinion or theory and not a scientifically accepted condition. According to Dr. Summit, CSAAS was never a medical theory; therefore, barring it as testimony, unless the medical profession defines it as a disorder, admits to a prejudicial misunderstanding of CSAAS and an avoidance of the condition and the plight of children who have been abused. 7 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    trials;  courts role;  medical aspects of child abuse;  judicial role;  judicial responsibility;  medical evidence;  sexual abuse accommodation syndrome;  disclosure

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:    The Sexual Abuse Cycle.

 

AUTHOR:    Lane, S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1991

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    RSA, Inc., CO.

 

SOURCE:    In: Ryan, G. D. and Lane, S. L. (Editors). Juvenile Sexual Offending. Causes, Consequences, and Correction. Lexington, MA, Lexington Books, 1991;  pp. 103-141

 

ABSTRACT:    This chapter explores the concept of the sexual abuse cycle, which was developed to provide a theoretical framework to help juveniles and clinicians objectively examine sexually abusive behaviors and develop intervention strategies to prevent recurrence. Although the initial concept of the sexual abuse cycle was developed for violent sexual offenders and rapists, the concept has been applicable for those who engage in other types of sexually abusive or exploitive behavior. The cycle is a model representing cognitive and behavioral progressions occurring prior to, during, and after sexually abusive behavior. The theoretical assumptions represented by the cycle concerning sexual abuse and the power, compensatory, arousal, addictive, and cognitive aspects of sexual abuse are discussed. The precipitating, compensatory response, and integration phases of the cycle are described, and their components are detailed. The precipitating phase involves exposure to an event, the subsequent misinterpretation of the event as having a negative meaning about the individual, and the individual's use of avoidance behaviors to cope with the situation. In the compensatory response phase, the potential offender attempts to decrease negative feelings and perceptions through power-based or compensatory thoughts and behaviors. Lastly, in the integration phase, the individual attempts to rationalize the experience of sexually abusing someone in an attempt to accept it without self-depreciation. 25 references and 6 figures.

 

KEY TERMS:    adolescent sex offenders;  sexual abuse;  behavior patterns;  theories;  sexual behavior;  fantasies

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

 

TITLE:    Factors Contributing to False Allegations of Child Sexual Abuse in Custody Disputes.

 

AUTHOR:    Green, A. H.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1991

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. Coll. of Physicians and Surgeons.

 

SOURCE:    In: Robin, M. (Editor). Assessing Child Maltreatment Reports: The Problem of False Allegations. //The Child and Youth Services Series//. Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1991;  pp. 177-189

 

ABSTRACT:    This chapter describes the mechanisms and psychodynamics underlying the increasingly observed phenomenon of false or unsubstantiated allegations of child sexual abuse initiated during child custody disputes. Behaviors or symptoms that may be used to form the basis of a false allegation are discussed, including misinterpretation of normal caretaking practices involving physical or affectionate contact between parent and child during bathing, toileting, dressing, hugging, or kissing; misinterpretation of normal sexual behaviors in children; misinterpretation of common psychosocial and physical symptoms; and confusion with parental sexual overstimulation. False allegations made by a child are considered. These allegations may be based on fantasy, revenge, or retaliation. The role of the professional in initiating or confirming false reports of sexual abuse is examined in terms of assessing sexual abuse allegations in child custody disputes, assessing the child, evaluating the parents, and observing the child with each parent. In addition, the consequences of false allegations are identified. 11 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    sexual abuse;  false allegations;  custody disputes;  child custody;  unfounded reports;  sexual behavior;  symptoms;  professionals role

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:    Darkness Invisible.

 

AUTHOR:    Donovan, D. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1991

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Psychohistory

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Children's Center for Developmental Psychiatry, St. Petersburg, FL.

 

SOURCE:    19(2): pp. 165-184;  New York, NY, Association for Psychohistory, Fall 1991

 

ABSTRACT:    This article describes traditional psychiatry's denial of maternal child abuse and neglect. The author asserts that Freud misinterpreted the myth of Oedipus to indicate jealousy between a father and son when the story actually demonstrates the reality of maternal abuse and abandonment. The author concludes that the structure of psychoanalysis was purposefully elaborated by Freud to deny the reality of child abuse. A case study of an abused woman who failed to receive adequate care in traditional facilities is presented as evidence of modern problems in the mental health profession, including a tendency to focus on neurology and research at the expense of human experience. The author explores the significance of Garbage Pail Kids collecting cards as indications of society's unhealthy view toward children and reveals how Cabbage Patch Kids dolls deny the reality of human cruelty, especially maternal cruelty, rejection, and abandonment.

 

KEY TERMS:    maternal abuse;  sociocultural dimensions;  child psychiatry;  cultural factors;  psychoanalytic theories

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.bellhowell.infolearning.com

 

 

TITLE:    The Protection and Reliability of Children as Witnesses.

 

AUTHOR:    Westman, J. C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1991

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Wisconsin Univ. Medical School, Madison.

 

SOURCE:    In: Westman, J. C. (Editor). Who Speaks for the Children? A Handbook of Individual and Class Child Advocacy. Sarasota, FL, Professional Resource Exchange, Inc., 1991;  pp. 99-111

 

ABSTRACT:    This chapter examines issues surrounding the use of child witnesses during investigations and trials of adults. Court procedures are being adapted to protect the child from the stress of the legal process. The adaptations include a reduction in the number of interviews for an investigation, involvement of qualified professionals, and ongoing support. Alternatives to the traditional style of testimony are being tested in the courtroom. Children are more competent than most people expect to provide accurate testimony; however, they can be influenced by misinterpretation of events, suggestibility or coaching, and loyalty conflicts. Child advocacy teams should be used to determine competency and support the child through the court procedures. 30 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    child witnesses;  competency;  courts;  testimony;  videotaping;  closed circuit television;  legal processes

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

 

TITLE:    Child Rearing in African American Families.

 

AUTHOR:    Taylor, R. L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1991

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Connecticut Univ., Storrs.

 

SOURCE:    In: Everett, J. E., Chipungu, S. S., and Leashore, B. R. (Editors). Child Welfare. An Africentric Perspective. New Brunswick, NJ, Rutgers Univ. Press, 1991;  pp. 119-155

 

ABSTRACT:    This chapter presents an overview of research on child socialization and child-rearing practices in African American families. Limitations of the research and trends in theory and interpretation of findings are discussed. Criticisms of previous research focus on ethnocentric bias, the tendency to use a social-deficit model to interpret African American social behavior, and the misinterpretation of evidence of the cultural values of African American families. Theories that address the socialization of African American children are described and findings of research on the influence of parental and family background characteristics, child-rearing orientations, and parent-child interaction are reported. Implications for social service policy and practice are explored. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:    african americans;  child rearing;  ethnic studies;  sociocultural dimensions;  cultural differences;  cultural values;  family characteristics

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

 

TITLE:    Sexualized Doll Play Among Young Children: Implications for the Use of Anatomical Dolls in Sexual Abuse Evaluations.

 

AUTHOR:    Everson, M. D.;  Boat, B. W.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1990

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    North Carolina Univ. Medical School, Chapel Hill. Program on Childhood Trauma and Maltreatment.

 

SOURCE:    29(5): pp. 736-742;  Baltimore, MD, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, September 1990

 

ABSTRACT:    This study examines the incidence of explicit sexual doll play in a large, demographically diverse sample of children between ages 2 and 5 years to determine whether the use of anatomical dolls will induce children to act out in sexual ways that are likely to be misinterpreted as evidence of sexual abuse. The 6 percent incidence of demonstrations of apparent sexual intercourse found in this sample compared favorably with the rate of less than 2 percent across prior studies of anatomical doll play among presumably nonabused children. However, higher rates of explicit sexual play were associated with being older, poor, black, and somewhat with being male, with over 20 percent of some subgroups of children displaying such behavior. These results appear to support the contention that anatomical dolls are not overly suggestive to young, sexually naive children but are useful in assessing sexual knowledge and exposure to sexual intercourse. 26 references and 6 tables. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    anatomical dolls;  sexual abuse;  sexual behavior;  evaluation methods;  preschool children;  demography;  play

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.wwilkins.com

 

 

TITLE:    Principals as Secondary Enforcers in Child Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:    Bridgeland, W. M.;  Duane, E. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1990

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Education and Urban Society

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing.

 

SOURCE:    22(3): pp. 314-324;  Thousand Oaks, CA, Corwin Press, Inc., May 1990

 

ABSTRACT:    This article discusses the role of elementary school staff in child abuse detection and reporting. A group of 25 Michigan school principals and a group of 25 Ontario (Canada) principals were interviewed about their schools' reporting procedures, programs, and interaction with social services, children, and families in child abuse cases. Principals criticized child protective services for being lax and failing to involve the school and provide them with feedback, which led to conflicts with teachers, who usually report their suspicions to the principal. Schools have instituted abuse awareness programs and encouraged communication. Relationships with parents may be damaged once principals report abuse, although at other times parents are relieved. There is the danger that parents may retaliate with allegations of sexual abuse by the school staff, who feel they can no longer be as supportive and caring as they once were because touching may be misinterpreted. Male teachers are particularly vulnerable to allegations of sexual abuse. Policy makers need to be aware of the effects of mandatory reporting on a school's relationships with children, parents, and child protective services as well as relationships between principals and staff. 5 references and 4 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    schools role;  mandatory reporting;  sexual abuse;  false allegations;  school personnel;  teachers role;  parental reactions;  child protective services

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.bellhowell.infolearning.com

 

 

TITLE:    The False Child Molestation Outbreak of the 1980s: An Explanation of the Cases Arising in the Divorce Context.

 

AUTHOR:    Sheridan, R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1990

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Issues in Child Abuse Accusations

 

SOURCE:    2(3): pp. 146-151;  Institute for Psychological Therapies, Northfield, MN, Summer 1990

 

ABSTRACT:    This article explores false allegations of child molestation in the context of divorce cases and discusses the use of a rational, rather than an emotional, approach to understanding uncorroborated molestation charges developed by adults based on what children tell them following some not-clearly-understood behavior or appearance. The Salem witch-hunt of 1692 is cited as the classic irrational child molestation case of all time. Causes of false reports are examined, with the most common being the misinterpretation of a young child's account of an overnight visit with the father. Causes of the failure to detect false reports are considered, including the difficulty in obtaining the facts by ordinary investigative means. The article suggests that, if emotionalism is recognized and put aside, as the rational approach is focused on, valid cases can be distinguished from invalid cases. 10 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    false allegations;  proof;  divorce;  marital conflicts;  maternal behavior;  paternal deprivation;  state laws;  sexual abuse

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: Can They Cause False Allegations?

 

AUTHOR:    Krivacska, J. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1990

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Educational Program Consultants, Milltown, NJ.

 

SOURCE:    Presented at: The 98th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Boston, MA, August 14, 1990;  9 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:    This paper demonstrates how false allegations may result from child sexual abuse prevention programs (CSAP). CSAP programs are described and potential outcomes as they relate to the accurate or inaccurate discrimination of a sexually abusive act are identified. Incidence and prevalence rates for child sexual abuse are also presented and the potential for false-positives is examined. Factors which contribute to the degree of accuracy of CSAP programs as identification instruments are explored, particularly the phenomena of misinformation and misinterpretation. Implications of CSAP programs as identification instruments in divorce or custody cases is also explored. Several approaches aimed at reducing the occurrence of false allegations resulting from CSAP programs are discussed, including incorporating age appropriate sex education into therapy, reducing the use of abstract or vaguely defined concepts, and discontinuing use of the empowerment model as it is applied to children. 2 tables and 25 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    prevention programs;  sexual abuse;  children;  false allegations;  prevalence;  treatment programs

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Proceedings Paper

 

 

TITLE:    Assessment Problems in Cases of Elder Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:    Bookin, D.;  Dunkle, R. E.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1989

 

SOURCE:    In: Filinson, R. and Ingman, S.R. Elder Abuse. Practice and Policy. New York, NY, Human Sciences Press, Inc., 1989;  pp. 65-76

 

ABSTRACT:    This chapter examines problems in assessing elder abuse cases due to many factors: the abuser's view of using force in the family; ageism; varying professional standards; how the abuse is misinterpreted by those reporting it; and professional perceptions different from those of the victim. Legislation has improved the reporting of elder abuse but more guidelines are required and more funds are necessary to provide services. It is concluded that the protective service worker's role must be better understood by other professionals and by the community at large to aid in uncovering and processing cases.

 

KEY TERMS:    elder abuse;  elder abuse reporting;  social workers role;  standards;  elder abuse laws;  community attitudes

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.plenum.com

 

 

TITLE:    Expert Evidence in Child Sex Abuse Cases: A Comment.

 

AUTHOR:    Robertson, B.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1989

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    New Zealand Law Journal

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Victoria Univ., Wellington (New Zealand).

 

SOURCE:    pp. 163-166;  Butterworths of New Zealand Ltd., Wellington., May 1989

 

ABSTRACT:    This article examines the evidentiary problems that can occur in child sex abuse cases. In particular, problems related to hearsay and the possible use of video recordings of interviews between a child victim and expert witness are discussed. The nature of the hearsay rule prevents the story from one witness being told by another. Therefore, a conflict is created when the expert witness gives evidence of what has passed between the alleged victim and himself. When hearsay is allowed, there are possibilities of error through victim himself being untruthful, and through the expert misinterpreting or misrecollecting the statements made by the victim. When a witness gives evidence of what he himself has observed, then error can be eliminated through cross-examination. The admission of video recordings of interviews is explored. A video does overcome the problems of memory and allows the viewer to form his or her own perceptions. Three cases are cited. 6 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    new zealand;  sexual abuse;  videotaping;  expert testimony;  courts;  hearsay rule;  investigative powers

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.wshein.com

 

 

TITLE:    New Child Abuse Spectrum in an Era of Increased Awareness.

 

AUTHOR:    Marshall, W. N.;  Puls, T.;  Davidson, C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1988

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    American Journal of Diseases of Children

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Kino Community Hospital, Tucson, AZ. Dept. of Pediatrics.

 

SOURCE:    142(6): pp. 664-667;  American Medical Association, Chicago, IL, June 1988

 

ABSTRACT:    This article examines the growing public and professional awareness of child abuse. Three hundred eighty-two children were evaluated for abuse or neglect during a 30-month period in a pediatric clinic in a county hospital. Fifty-one percent of the children exhibited signs of sexual abuse, 34 percent of physical abuse, and 15 percent of neglect. Thirteen children were hospitalized. Children examined for sexual abuse had a mean age of 5.8 years and a median age of 5 years; 71 percent had normal findings on examination, including 48 percent of those with a history of penetration. Fourteen children were brought for evaluation on the basis of caretakers' misinterpretation, overconcern, or malice. The current spectrum of patients seen for child abuse or neglect reflects increased public and professional awareness of the problem. Earlier recognition of abuse, especially greater readiness to consider sexual abuse, brings younger, less physically injured children to the clinic. 26 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    identification;  diagnoses;  incidence;  prevalence;  public opinion;  social attitudes

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.ama-assn.org

 

 

TITLE:    Preschool Children's Erroneous Allegations of Sexual Molestation.

 

AUTHOR:    Yates, A.;  Musty, T.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1988

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    American Journal of Psychiatry

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Arizona Univ., Tucson. Dept. of Psychiatry.

 

SOURCE:    145(8): pp. 989-992;  Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Press, Inc., August 1988

 

ABSTRACT:    Occasionally, a preschool child may erroneously accuse a parent of molestation. When this occurs, the child usually believes that his or her story is correct. A false accusation can be made when an adult has persuaded a child that the sexual events actually occurred; when a child in the oedipal stage has misinterpreted caregiving ministrations; when a child's thought processes are confused by primary process material; or when a child is secondarily involved in the projective identifications of a dominant caregiver. More than one of these mechanisms may operate in a given case. Four case reports of children's making false or unsubstantiated allegations of molestation are presented. 13 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    preschool children;  sexual abuse;  false allegations;  unfounded reports;  parents;  incest

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.appi.org

 

 

TITLE:    Should Young Children Testify in Cases of Sexual Abuse?

 

AUTHOR:    Yates, A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1987

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    American Journal of Psychiatry

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Arizona Univ., Tucson. Dept. of Psychiatry.

 

SOURCE:    144(4): pp. 476-480;  Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Press, Inc., April 1987

 

ABSTRACT:    This article addresses the following 2 questions: does a child have the competency and recall to testify accurately, and is it moral to allow a child to testify. Children as young as age 3 are testifying in cases of sexual abuse and molestation. Very young children can accurately recall emotionally charged, personally significant events. They demonstrate more errors of omission, difficulties with time and number of concepts, and occasional misinterpretations of others' actions. Children's testimony can be influenced by an overly authoritative or ingratiating attorney stance, an attorney's preconceived notions, age-inappropriate questions, and the child's limited attention span. Children may be helped or harmed by testifying. The risk of further traumatization can be minimized through the judge's use of discretionary power, inclusion of professionals trained in child development in the investigative and court process, and use of videotaping or one-way screens. 33 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    sexual abuse;  child witnesses;  literature reviews;  competency;  trauma;  psychiatrists role;  testimony

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.appi.org

 

 

TITLE:    Policing Wife-Abuse: The Contribution Made by Domestic Disturbances to Deaths and Injuries Among Police Officers.

 

AUTHOR:    Ellis, D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1987

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Family Violence

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    York Univ., North York, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Sociology.

 

SOURCE:    2(4): pp. 319-333;  New York, NY, Plenum Publishing Corp., 1987

 

ABSTRACT:    This article examines the claim that domestic calls account for a disproportionate number of deaths and injuries to police officers. The misinterpretation of statistics in research reports of the 1960's is analyzed. The widespread implementation of family crisis units in police departments that resulted from these reports did nothing to reduce deaths or injuries during domestic calls. The later shift to arresting wife abusers has seemingly decreased the number of family disturbance calls police must handle. The emergence of the women's movement helps explain the shift in emphasis from crisis intervention to arresting batterers. 42 references and 2 tables. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    family disturbance calls;  feminism;  police operating procedures;  mandatory arrests;  interdisciplinary approach;  injuries;  police responsibility;  police role

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.plenum.com

 

 

TITLE:    Psychodynamics of Exaggerated Accusations: Positive Feedback in Family Systems.

 

AUTHOR:    Schuman, D. C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1987

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Psychiatric Annals

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Tufts Medical School, Boston, MA.

 

SOURCE:    17(4): pp. 242-247;  Thorofare, NJ, Slack, Inc., April 1987

 

ABSTRACT:    This article discusses the dynamics surrounding allegations of intrafamilial child sexual abuse and considers factors that can lead to exaggerated claims. A positive feedback loop is described that operates between the child and parent or between the child and evaluator that can have the effect of exaggerating whatever initial report was given. Increases in child abuse reporting since the beginning of the 1970s could reflect an increase in incidence or in public awareness. A growing body of anecdotal evidence suggests that separated or divorcing spouses may use false allegations of abuse as weapons in custody or settlement battles. There is also anecdotal concern over misinterpretation of comments made by children in day-care centers. Four case examples are presented of false accusations, all occurring in the context of divorce, grief over death or illness, or other forms of family breakdown. 14 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    case reports;  custody disputes;  interviews;  unfounded reports;  divorce;  incest;  false allegations

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.slackinc.com/wwwslack.htm

 

 

TITLE:    Handbook for Use with Reasonable Efforts: Workbook. Project to Unify Judicial and Agency Approaches in the Southeast.

 

AUTHOR:    Annin, J. B.;  Black, B. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1987

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Tennessee Univ., Knoxville. Office of Research and Public Service.

 

SOURCE:    Tennessee Univ., Knoxville. Office of Research and Public Service, January 1987;  190 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:    Accompanying the workbook, Reasonable Efforts, this handbook is intended as a case management tool designed not only to document agency efforts with a family but to demonstrate the risk-based rationale for providing those services. Child welfare agencies can use this guide to present the parts of the case history related to the reasonable efforts requirements at judicial proceedings, case staffings, and case reviews. It provides forms, designed by an interagency team, to record and organize information. Included are the statutory chart record of evidence which allows the worker to report child abuse or neglect allegations in statutory terms; a child and family risk assessment instrument and narrative; preplacement prevention and reunification services summary; and an action plan. Resources provided include a commentary on the risk assessment matrix factors which describes the behavior and conditions associated with each factor; a description of services used to prevent out-of-home placement or promote reunification which establishes definitions of terms; and service descriptions which characterize the fit between the identified problems and the resources used to help solve them. The handbook also suggests minority cultural/ethnic considerations and provides warnings on how recorded information may be misinterpreted.

 

KEY TERMS:    reasonable efforts;  family reunification;  risk assessment;  service delivery;  family support systems;  federal statutory law;  case management

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Technical Report

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:    The Mistaken Diagnosis of Child Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:    Kirschner, R. H.;  Stein, R. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1985

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    American Journal of Diseases of Children

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Institute of Forensic Medicine, Cook County, Chicago. Office of the Medical Examiner.

 

SOURCE:    139(9): pp. 873-875;  American Medical Association, Chicago, IL, September 1985

 

ABSTRACT:    This paper reports 10 cases of mistaken clinical diagnosis of child abuse because the treating emergency room physicians mistook life-threatening illness or postmortem artifacts for inflicted injury. In all cases, the children had died suddenly, and their deaths were reported to the Office of the Medical Examiner of Cook County (Illinois) in accordance with statutory requirements. This investigation included review of all medical records, police reports, and other pertinent information. A complete autopsy was performed in each case. In 3 cases, treating physicians misinterpreted normal postmortem changes as indicative of injury. In 2 cases, children were misinterpreted as having head injury secondary to progressive lethargy and coma due, in fact, to meningitis. Other cases involved misinterpretations of symptoms from purpura fulminans, atypical parietal suture lines, vigorous attempts to resuscitate after respiratory arrest, mongolian spots, and severe congenital heart disease. The histories related by the parents were in all cases truthful and consistent with the results of the physical examinations. All of the families were from the inner city, and, with 2 exceptions, the involved hospitals were small and without pediatric personnel in the emergency department. The treating physicians lacked experience with severe childhood illness and death and exhibited suspicion and hostility toward the parents. Tables list lesions simulating child abuse as reported in the literature as well as elements of the mistaken diagnoses in the 10 cases investigated. 17 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    diagnostic errors;  differential diagnoses;  sudden infant death syndrome;  illinois;  hospital emergency services;  case reports

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.ama-assn.org

 

 

TITLE:    Adoption and the American Indian Child: A Manual for Social Service Workers.

 

AUTHOR:    Zokan delos Reyes, L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1985

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Bureau of Indian Affairs (DOI), Washington, DC.

 

SOURCE:    National American Indian Court Judges Association, Washington, DC, 1985;  16 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:    This booklet presents the issues that social service workers should address during Indian child welfare cases in which adoption through a state court is being considered. It provides basic information about the requirements of the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (ICWA) in cases of Indian adoption. Background material explains that the ICWA, which is intended to establish standards to help keep Indian families intact and prevent unnecessary out-of-home placement, is sometimes misinterpreted by many social service agencies as prohibiting the adoption of any Indian child. The way adoption is perceived by Indian communities and the appropriate circumstances for Indian child adoption is discussed. Specific information is provided about ICWA requirements for voluntary and involuntary termination of parental rights, preferred adoptive homes, diligent search for a suitable adoptive home, and obligations of the state upon finalization of an Indian adoption. The manual includes a directory of Bureau of Indian Affairs Area offices and seven organizations that maintain national or regional registries of prospective Native American adoptive families and/or children.

 

KEY TERMS:    adopted children;  child placement;  american indians;  family preservation;  childrens rights;  termination of parental rights;  pl 95-608

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Booklet

 

 

TITLE:    Nonmedical Management of the Failure-to-Thrive Child in a Pediatric Inpatient Setting.

 

AUTHOR:    Elver, G. L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1982

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    John F. Kennedy Inst., Baltimore, Md.

 

SOURCE:    In: Accardo, P. J. (Editor). Failure to Thrive in Infancy and Early Childhood: A Multidisciplinary Team Approach. Baltimore, Md., University Park Press, 1982;  pp. 243-263

 

ABSTRACT:    Nonmedical management of the failure-to-thrive (FTT) child in hospital settings is described, and the role of child life care staff in treatment is discussed. The child life specialist is trained to promote the maximum physical, cognitive, and psychosocial development of children. Child life staff and other child care professionals play a key role in the effective nonmedical diagnosis and treatment of both the organic and nonorganic FTT child. Knowledge of development and attachment behavior in addition to good observational skills provides information necessary for both diagnosing etiology and determining goals. Important aspects of nonmedical treatment include: desensitization of the child to adult interaction; development of trust and acceptance of nurturing; and sensory, play, and language stimulation. Signs of recovery, including behavior problems, selective attachment, and rejection of nurturing behavior of staff, are often misinterpreted by staff as signs of regression or failure. The mother of a FTT child is also failing to thrive in mothering and must be treated concurrently with the child.

 

KEY TERMS:    failure to thrive;  infant care;  hospitals;  pediatric services;  allied health personnel;  mother child relationships;  childrens therapy;  hospitals role

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

 

TITLE:    Length of Time in Foster Care: A Measure in Need of Analysis.

 

AUTHOR:    Friedman, R. M.;  Baron, A.;  Lardieri, S.;  Quick, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1982

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Social Work

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University of South Florida, Tampa.

 

SOURCE:    27(6): pp. 499-503;  Washington, DC, National Association of Social Workers, November 1982

 

ABSTRACT:    One of the key measures used in evaluating foster care programs -- length of time in foster care -- is critically examined. The increased emphasis in child welfare on accountability and quantitative evaluation of programs carries the potential for significantly improving programs. It also increases the risk of misuse and misinterpretation of data. It is usually presumed that foster care programs should aim to reduce the average length of time youngsters spend in care and that such reductions indicate increased program effectiveness. Several variables that affect length of time in foster care are examined (age of child, seriousness of child's and family's problems, changes in agency procedures, the deinstitutionalization movement), and suggestions for avoiding misinterpretations of data are offered. It is cautioned that all the suggetions offered make the task of the researcher more complex and time consuming. Given the political and practical pressures on social service programs to produce quick and unrealistic changes, program evaluators and program administrators must educate legislators and other policymakers about the need for adequate evaluation strategies. 10 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    foster care;  programs;  program evaluation;  data analysis

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.naswpress.org

 

 

TITLE:    The Study of Mental Ability Using Twin and Adoption Designs.

 

AUTHOR:    Bouchard, T. J., Jr.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1981

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Progress in Biological and Clinical Research

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:    69: pp. 21-23, 1981

 

ABSTRACT:    This article explores some of the problems in methodology that have impacted determinations of validity in research studies of intelligence with twins and adopted individuals. The author states that these studies all have biases of one sort or another, and suggests that these can be significantly reduced by models that consider many different familial relationships. Because the majority of twin and adoption studies use children as subjects, their results need to be confirmed with adult adoptees and adult twins. Since the traditional twin design has assumed the DZ twins have half their genes in common, this should be tested in some way in every study. For example, a within-study frame of reference can be provided by establishing correlations for weight, height, hand length and widths, finger ridge counts, and finger pattern intensity. Adoption studies need to include more parents with serious child-rearing problems and low socio-economic status. In addition, no intelligence testing should be done with a single instrument. Even minor misinterpretation of instructions can have a significant impact on testing results. Thus each mental ability being measured should be tested with a minimum of two different measures. It is further argued that better tools for measuring the characteristics of environments need to be developed.

 

KEY TERMS:    research;  intelligence;  genetics;  family relationships

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Mother-Son Incest. (Letter).

 

AUTHOR:    Catanzarite, V. A.;  Combs, S. E.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1980

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of the American Medical Association

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    California Univ., San Diego.

 

SOURCE:    243(18): pp. 1807-1808;  Chicago, IL, American Medical Association, May 9, 1980

 

ABSTRACT:    A review of the sparse research literature on mother-son incest suggests that the true natural history and incidence of such incest are probably obscured by the sporadic reporting to which it is subject. Psychological or physical damage usually occur in these cases. Mother-son incest is particularly prone to misinterpretation due to extremely strong societal taboos. The blanket characterization of mother-son incest as stemming from or resulting in psychosis should be reexamined with the understanding that extremely pathological instances are the ones most likely to come to light.

 

KEY TERMS:    incest;  sexual abuse;  psychoses;  mother child relationships

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.ama-assn.org

 

 

TITLE:    Child Sexual Assault: Some Guidelines for Intervention and Assessment.

 

AUTHOR:    Sgroi, S. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1978

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Mount Sinai Hospital, Hartford, Conn. Dept. of Ambulatory and Community Medicine.

 

SOURCE:    In: Burgess, A. W. (Editor). Sexual Assault of Children and Adolescents. Lexington, Mass., D. C. Heath and Co., 1978;  pp. 129-142

 

ABSTRACT:    A multiprofessional, comprehensive examination of the target child for sexual assault is proposed which includes a complete medical evaluation of and interview with the target child, medical evaluation of and interview with siblings, interview with caretaking adults, interview with suspected perpetrators, and careful observation of interaction between family members. A broader spectrum of child sexual assault is emerging with a greater number of intrafamily cases perpetrated by individuals who are not pedophilies. Sexual contact between children and adults is usually nonviolent, and its dynamics are strongly influenced by the perpetrator's identity and relationship to the child; the greater the emotional distance between child and perpetrator, the less emotional trauma. Also, a single incident, though disruptive, may be easier for a child to integrate than a series of incidents occurring over time. The degree of force or violence used in the assault, and the degree of fear and-or shame invoked in the child by his or her participation largely determine the victim's reaction. The child's age and developmental level, and the expressed reaction of parents and significant others (which is as variable as is the child's reaction) should be considered. Professionals must guard against misinterpreting behavioral signs when trying to determine if child sexual assault actually occurred; specialized skills for investigative and therapeutic interviewing of child victims are necessary. Complete medical examination of the victim, including tests for venereal disease and documentation of foreign objects, and tests for gonorrheal infections of the throat, genitals, or rectum are recommended. Intrafamily cases are most disruptive and most difficult to resolve; intervention success in these cases depends largely on the presence of authoritative incentive to participate in rehabilitative programs. 26 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    interdisciplinary approach;  physical examinations;  case assessment;  sexual abuse;  sex offenses;  investigations;  interviews

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

 

TITLE:    Role Reversal in Abused-Neglected Families: Implications for Child Welfare Workers.

 

AUTHOR:    Flanzraich, M. J.;  Dunsavage, I.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1977

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Children Today

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    United Hospitals Medical Center, Newark, N.J. Family Life Education Center.

 

SOURCE:    6(6): pp. 13-15, 36;  Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, November-December 1977

 

ABSTRACT:    Role reversal behavior among abused or neglected children, who characteristically assume inappropriate levels of responsibility, display a high degree of aggression, and have parents who act dependent upon them, is discussed. This behavior results from the kind of interaction the parent establishes with the child in order to meet some of his own needs. In the absence of a responsible parent, the child becomes the source of authority, control, and decision making for the family. Abusive parents are particularly subject to role reversal because of their retarded ego development. These characteristics are common to both parents who abuse their children and those who neglect their children. Several cases are briefly cited to illustrate the etiology of the pattern. Child welfare workers need to be aware of role reversal so as not to misinterpret and perhaps inadvertently reinforce the child's behavior. Suggestions are proposed for child welfare workers who deal with these children. 13 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    role reversal;  etiology;  individual characteristics;  parent child relationships

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Hazards of Misdiagnosis Due to Vietnamese Folk Medicine.

 

AUTHOR:    Golden, S. M.;  Duster, M. C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1977

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Clinical Pediatrics

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Fitzsimons Army Medical Center, Denver, Colo. Dept. of Pediatrics.

 

SOURCE:    16(10): pp. 949-950;  Westminster Publications, Inc., Glenhead, NY., October 1977

 

ABSTRACT:    The Vietnamese folk remedy of Cao Gao, a dermabrasion practice, can be misinterpreted as evidence of child abuse due to the appearance of lesions. Two cases are briefly described. 3 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    cultural differences;  child rearing;  asia;  differential diagnoses

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    The Pediatrician and Children in Foster Care.

 

AUTHOR:    Fanshel, D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1977

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Pediatrics

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:    60(2): pp. 255-257;  Elk Grove Village, IL, American Academy of Pediatrics, August 1977

 

ABSTRACT:    There are some 330,000 children in the U.S. living under the auspices of public and private agencies, and a majority of these children require care because of the personal and social problems of their parents. The pediatrician has a psychological as well as medical role to play with such children. Physical symptoms may result from emotional turmoil. The physician is in a good position to assess intellectual development as well. The fundamental problem of the foster care system in the U.S. is the lack of permanency in the living arrangement. This is complicated by uncertainties regarding the parents' situations. The pediatrician should attempt to contact the natural parents early after the child enters foster care to keep them current on the health status of their children. It is beneficial for children to maintain contact with their natural parents. Parental visiting is a good predictor of the return of children to their own homes. Many times foster children mask their feelings of hurt and inner turmoil by behaving in a docile manner. This should not be misinterpreted as meaning that the child has made a good adjustment to parental abandonment.

 

KEY TERMS:    pediatricians role;  foster care;  emotional response

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.aap.org

 

 

TITLE:    The Follow-up of Abused Children: A Researcher's Nightmare.

 

AUTHOR:    Lynch, M. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1977

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Park Hospital for Children, Headington (England). Human Development Research Unit.

 

SOURCE:    International Society on Family Law Second World Conference, Montreal, Quebec (Canada), June 13-17, 1977;  21 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:    Difficulties in following up abused children are discussed. The amount of data collected is limited by time, money, and expertise available. The more impersonal the study, the less reliable are the results. Data interpretation is difficult, even mortality rates and reinjury rates can be misinterpreted. Mortality rates include death from reinjury, the long-term consequences of abuse, and deaths from unrelated causes. Reinjury rates are easily misconstrued, especially when related to intervention and its consequences. The severity and incidence of reinjury need to be evaluated. A large proportion of children are lost to follow-up: they cannot be located; the parents are uncooperative; they live too far from the research center; they were adopted and the name of the adoptive parents is unavailable; or the child died or was institutionalized.

 

KEY TERMS:    data analysis;  sequelae;  followup studies

 

 

TITLE:    Child Protection Records: Issues of Confidentiality.

 

AUTHOR:    Levine, R. S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1976

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Social Work

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Pittsburgh Univ., Pa. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:    21(4): pp. 323-324;  Washington, DC, National Association of Social Workers, July 1976

 

ABSTRACT:    Since attorneys are now successfully arguing that due process is equivalent to the social scientist's empirical search for the truth and that records maintained on clients by a social service agency are essential to the advocate in pursuit of the client's cause and in the interest of justice, it appears that child protection records should be open to review by involved lawyers. Such records are repositories of opinion, hearsay, and gossip which could affect the judicial outcome of a case and emended notations by caseworkers often reveal unconscious biases. Thus, access to the material gives the advocate an opportunity to probe and test the bias underlying the caseworker's decision making processes and judgments. Unfortunately, due to traditional adherence to confidentiality procedures and misinterpretation of the Social Security Act's confidentiality requirements, which has resulted in prohibition of client access to his own records, social workers continue to refuse attorneys access to child protection files. Guidelines presently disallow clients from probing their records except during periods of pertinent litigation and further judicial guidelines could be adopted to control attorneys' rights to records. Finally, public policy clearly favors the disclosure of records simply because public agencies should not be permitted to use the claim of confidentiality to mask potential or actual wrongdoings. 8 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    records;  confidentiality;  counselors role;  lawyers role;  due process

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.naswpress.org

 

 

TITLE:    Lend the Client an Ear.

 

AUTHOR:    Butler, R. V.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1965

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Public Welfare

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Aberdeen, SD.

 

SOURCE:    23(2): pp. 105-110;  American Public Human Services Association, Washington, DC, April 1965

 

ABSTRACT:    A sample case of marital discord resulting in child neglect on an Indian reservation illustrates a brief discussion of family unit casework with neglectful parents. Suggestions for proper interaction by the caseworker stress (1) listening and passive action rather than overt control of the situation; (2) home visits made quickly after initial contact with the child to prevent development of hostilities; and (3) the use of separate interviews to understand each client's feelings until they initiate joint interviews on their own. It is strongly recommended that caseworkers be aware of individual feelings as they are expressed in family interaction and the social value system operating within the family unit to avoid misinterpretation of a family's needs. 2 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    social workers responsibility;  caseworkers;  family counseling;  interviews;  home visits;  american indians;  family attitudes;  social values

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.aphsa.org

 

 

TITLE:    American Indian Women Against Domestic Violence Position Paper.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    Women of Nations, Saint Paul, MN.

 

SOURCE:    Women of Nations, Saint Paul, MN;  8 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:    The need for shelter advocates to become culturally competent in dealing with Native American women is discussed in this position paper. Native American women are likely to exhibit culturally specific behavior that may be misinterpreted by advocates not familiar with Native American values, kinship structures, child rearing practices, and reservation life. Often, the extent of their isolation goes unnoticed because of a lack of understanding or awareness of the kinds of investments Native American women have in their communities and cultural heritage. By becoming knowledgeable about local tribes, being respectful, and learning what support programs are available for Native Americans, an advocate can increase the effectiveness of services and the amount of options available to battered Native American women.

 

KEY TERMS:    american indians;  battered women;  shelters;  indian reservations;  woman abuse;  cultural values;  social services;  racial discrimination

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Unpublished Paper

 

 

TITLE:    Corporal Punishment Begets Aggression.

 

AUTHOR:    Pelton, C. L.

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    South Dakota Univ. School of Medicine, Vermillion.

 

SOURCE:    Pelton, C. L.;  2 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:    This paper explains that physical punishment can cause aggressive behavior in children. Children who have been physically abused tend to misinterpret situations and become aggressive in response to ambiguous stimuli. They have learned to communicate their emotions through actions instead of with words. Corporal punishment sets a bad example and can cause neurological injury. Treatment involves learning alternative responses to situations that tend to provoke an aggressive reaction. Insight therapy can be especially effective for controlling violence. 3 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    sequelae;  aggression;  corporal punishment;  conditioned response;  behavior theories;  rehabilitation;  social skills

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Information Packet or Sheet

 

 

TITLE:    Walking Our Talk in the Neighborhoods: Partnerships Between Professionals and Natural Helpers. //Family to Family: Tools for Rebuilding Foster Care. Building Community Partnerships in Child Welfare//.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD.

 

SOURCE:    Part 3. Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD;  30 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:    This report discusses building community partnerships in child welfare between professional and natural helpers; going beyond the buzzwords in specifying issues and alternatives in order to raise awareness of challenges and solutions; and providing concrete examples for the ways partnerships can work. The report was developed by Family to Family, an initiative conceived to make family foster care more family centered. Professional and bureaucrats alone have not been able to solve problems facing at risk families. Overreliance on professional helpers and formal agency and system solutions can fail to create strategies that are fully relevant to and congruent with the needs of specific neighborhoods, because those in charge may lack information and understanding. The report reviews reasons for needing natural helpers including strengths of natural helpers, common activities of natural helpers, and ways natural helpers can help professionals. Advocates for neighborhood transformation and increased respect for natural helpers are often misinterpreted as saying professionals are not necessary. However, they are necessary in many capacities which the report reviews. Although there are many potential advantages of professionals working more closely with natural helpers, there are also many potential challenges. These challenges include difficulties in meeting one another, lack of awareness of one another's cultures, personal histories, emotional reactions of some professionals and natural helpers, language differences between some professionals and natural helpers, lack of clarity regarding roles, financial complexities in natural helper and professional partnerships, budget constraints and other pressures on public agency staff, categorization of funding, and differences of opinion on how to be helpful. Two appendices list some activities of natural helpers and tools for professionals to use in teaching natural helpers. 2 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    systems development;  neighborhoods;  family services;  foster care;  child welfare;  family support systems

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Technical Report

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.aecf.org