TITLE:                    Christianity and Child Sexual Abuse: The Survivor's Vhoice Leading to Change.


AUTHOR:               Kennedy, M.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse Review


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Let's Balance the Scales for Disabled Children, London (United Kingdom).


SOURCE:                9(2): pp. 124-141;  John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex (United Kingdom)., 2000;  p. 447


ABSTRACT:           The British Children Act of 1989 states that due consideration should be given to the child's religious persuasion, racial origin and cultural and linguistic background. Children who have been sexually abused and who grow up in families with strong Christian beliefs have additional concerns not readily identified by the child protection worker or therapist. Drawing upon 10 years' work experience, this paper aims to present the views and struggles of adult Christian women and men who have been sexually abused. Much of what is presented can be applied to other faith communities, since the difficulties lie sometimes with patriarchal communities, with male deities and with tenets of belief that can hinder the child from disclosing. Beliefs such as Honor thy father and they mother, abstinence from sex before marriage, and forgiveness of all have significant impact on survivors. 31 references and 2 tables. (Author abstract)


KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  disclosure;  sequelae;  adults abused as children;  religion;  cultural identity;  cultural factors;  churches role


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.wiley.com



TITLE:                    Revisiting Home Visiting: Summary of a Workshop.


AUTHOR:               Margie, N. G. (Editior).;  Phillips, D. A. (Editor).




SOURCE:                National Academy Press, Washington, DC., 1999;  29 pp.


ABSTRACT:           Practitioners, policymakers, and researchers attended a workshop sponsored by the Board on Children, Youth, and Families of the National Research Council to review research about the effectiveness of home visitation programs. Attendees discussed the wide variation in goals for home visiting services, from increasing the competence of parents to preventing child abuse and facilitating home-school-community partnerships. There are also differences within programs, as providers customize services to meet the needs of families. Evaluations of home visitation programs are difficult because of the disparity and the lack of appropriate outcomes measures for program goals. Meeting participants identified the characteristics of suitable outcomes measures and reviewed lessons learned about family engagement, staffing, cultural and linguistic diversity, domestic violence and substance abuse, and maternal depression. Other issues regarding service delivery were also discussed, such as impact on the community, team approaches, and collaboration with child care providers. Recommendations for the development of home visiting programs and policy include the creation of a research agenda that considers various approaches and the elements of effective service delivery; evaluations linked with knowledge about child development and parenting; and dissemination of the findings of evaluation research. 8 references and 1 table.


KEY TERMS:         child welfare research;  home visitation programs;  therapeutic effectiveness;  program evaluation;  personnel needs;  cultural differences;  spouse abuse;  substance abuse


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Technical Report



TITLE:                    Legislation Mandating or Authorizing the Creation of Multidisciplinary/Multi-Agency Child Protection Teams (Current through December 31, 1999): Colorado.






JOURNAL TITLE:    Investigations Number 15


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES  Administration for Children and Families  Administration on Children, Youth and Families  Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION  330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565  Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE  99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321


SOURCE:                In: Authorization for Multidisciplinary Team


KEY TERMS:         Statute;  Colorado;  Agency;  Child;  child abuse or neglect;  Creation;  Department;  evaluation;  Legislation;  Multi-Agency;  Multidisciplinary/Multi-Agency;  neglect;  services;  treatment


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Statutes


INTERNET URL:   http://www.ndaa-apri.org



TITLE:                    Legislation Regarding Termination of Parental Rights (Current through December 31, 1999): Minnesota.






JOURNAL TITLE:    Permanency Planning Number 38


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION, 330 C Street, SW; Washington, DC, 20447; (703) 385-7565, Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366


SOURCE:                In: Termination of Parental Rights


KEY TERMS:         Statute;  Minnesota;  abandonment;  Agency;  Child;  circumstances;  conduct;  Failure;  Family;  Indian child;  Indian;  infant;  jurisdiction;  juvenile;  Legislation;  neglect;  Parent;  parental rights;  Parental;  Placement;  professional;  relationship;  Rights;  services;  sibling;  subdivision;  Termination;  treatment


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Statutes


INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch



TITLE:                    A Multicultural/Multimodal/Multisystems Approach to Working with Culturally Different Families.


AUTHOR:               Gopaul-McNicol, S.




AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Howard Univ., Washington, DC.


SOURCE:                Westport, CT, Praeger Publishers, 1997;  156 pp.


ABSTRACT:           This book is divided into four parts. Part I examines historical and contemporary perspectives of the influence of culture on an individual's functioning. This section also serves notice to the mental health field regarding the need for an ethical mandate to examine alternatives to traditional assessment and counseling techniques. Part II explores intellectual assessment issues with the culturally different. Educational and visual motor assessments are evaluated for their applicability with culturally diverse clients. Ways of misassessing and misdiagnosing the personality of culturally different individuals are discussed. Best practices in report writing for the linguistically and culturally different client are examined. Part III offers treatment interventions with a focus on salient issues to be aware of when counseling the culturally different. Major treatment approaches in counseling the culturally different are examined and the MULTI-CMS (Multicultural/Multimodal/Multisystems) model for treatment is explored in detail. Two case studies of linguistically and culturally diverse families are presented. Part IV offers training suggestions for mental health workers with an emphasis on the major competencies needed for developing one's multicultural skills. Finally, a vision for the mental health field of the future is proposed via a multisystem interdisciplinary approach. Bibliography and index. (Author abstract modified)


KEY TERMS:         mental health services;  cultural differences;  measures;  evaluation




INTERNET URL:   http://www.greenwood.com



TITLE:                    Transcultural Child Development: Psychological Assessment and Treatment.


AUTHOR:               Johnson-Powell, G. (Editor).;  Yamamoto, J. (Editor).;  Wyatt, G. E. (Editor).;  Arroyo, W. (Editor).




AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.


SOURCE:                New York, NY, John Wiley and Sons, 1997;  378 pp.


ABSTRACT:           This book is written for mental health professionals who need to understand individual development and treatment issues for children of different ethnic, racial, and cultural backgrounds. Chapters in part I describe the social, cultural, and historical forces which have produced the United States' diverse communities. The many ways in which culture affects symptom formation and its associated meaning in psychiatric disorders are discussed. The main portion of the book focuses on individual ethnic groups, addressing not only the established minorities but also newer immigrant groups. The full list includes: Puerto Rican, Central American, Middle Eastern, Asian Indian, Native Hawaiian, Hmong, West African, Mexican, and Micronesian children, as well as Filipino Americans, Korean Americans, Chinese Americans, African Americans, and children from the former Soviet Union. Clinicians experienced in the treatment of children from specific cultural backgrounds discuss each culture and its relationship to the mainstream culture of the United States. The focus of these discussions is on how these groups' cultural relationships may contribute to, alleviate, mask, or create a false impression of psychological disorders in children. Each chapter provides cultural data about the specific group and describes the help-seeking behavior as well as patterns of adaptation that children from these diverse backgrounds present. The final chapter provides guidelines to the diagnostic assessment and treatment of culturally and linguistically diverse children. The book provides mental health professionals with an understanding of the biological, psychological, social, and cultural factors that influence the development of children from other cultures. Index.


KEY TERMS:         psychotherapy;  psychopathology;  ethnic groups;  child psychology;  cultural differences;  child development;  cultural competency




INTERNET URL:   http://www.wiley.com



TITLE:                    Commentary on Talking About Feelings (Aldridge and Wood, 1997).


AUTHOR:               Harris, P. L.;  Jones, D. P. H.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Oxford Univ., (United Kingdom). Dept. of Experimental Psychology.


SOURCE:                21(12): pp. 1217-1220;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., December 1997


ABSTRACT:           This critique examines the conclusions made by Aldridge and Wood (1997) about the ability of children to describe their feelings and emotions about traumatic or painful situations. Aldridge and Wood based their assertion that children are unable to discuss their feelings on a review of the literature and analyses from an interview study. However, the critique suggests that their arguments are flawed and that their literature review was incomplete. Aldridge and Wood failed to consider recent research that demonstrated the linguistic capabilities of children and their use of words to describe feelings. In addition, the interview study conducted by the researchers may have inadvertently affected the answers given by the children to questions about various scenarios. Future research should be designed with the knowledge that children may appraise situations differently than adults do, may misinterpret the interviewer's question, and may tend to focus on only one element of an emotional situation although if asked, could answer about more aspects. 10 references.


KEY TERMS:         competency;  child witnesses;  emotions;  language development;  interviews;  psychological interviews;  child abuse research;  research methodology


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article



TITLE:                    Interviewing Children In and Out of Court. Current Research and Practice Implications.


AUTHOR:               Saywitz, K. J.;  Goodman, G. S.




AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    California Univ., Los Angeles. School of Medicine.


SOURCE:                In: Briere, J., Berliner, L., Bulkey, J. A., Jenny, C., et al. (Editor). The APSAC Handbook on Child Maltreatment. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., January 1996;  pp. 297-318


ABSTRACT:           This chapter reviews literature on child witnesses. Research concerning the memory and suggestibility of children is highlighted, focusing on findings about free recall and open-ended questions, specific and leading questions, and trauma and memory. Findings on the language and communication abilities of children as they relate to children's testimony are presented, including findings concerning linguistic complexity, word choice and grammatical construction, the content of legal questions, and the comprehension abilities of children. Studies on the legal knowledge of children are reviewed. Results of efforts to improve the quality of children's testimony and reduce their stress are presented, focusing on the effectiveness of innovative questioning techniques, court preparation schools, and investigative process reforms. The need for and use of special court procedures is discussed. Research suggests that children of different ages require different interview techniques, so guidelines for interviewing preschool children, school-age children, and adolescents in forensic settings and for presenting their testimony in court are provided. 106 references.


KEY TERMS:         interviews;  child witnesses;  memory;  suggestibility;  testimony;  preschool children;  school children;  adolescents


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book


INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com



TITLE:                    Native Language and Family-Centered Practice.


AUTHOR:               Soto, L. D.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Family Resource Coalition Report


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park.


SOURCE:                14(3-4): pp. 8-10;  Family Resource Coalition of America, Chicago, IL., Fall-Winter, 1995-1996


ABSTRACT:           This article examines the repression of native languages in the United States. The history of linguistic repression in the United States is briefly reviewed. The benefits of native language preservation for children and their families are identified, including providing background knowledge that makes English more comprehensible, enhancing the development of literacy, providing cognitive flexibility, and promoting a sense of biculturalism. The impact of linguistic and cultural repression on family support program participants in one community is discussed. Suggestions offered by these bilingual families that may help professionals who advocate on behalf of families are presented. The need to implement family-centered practices that create collaborative and democratic climates within communities is stressed. 11 references and 1 photograph.


KEY TERMS:         family centered services;  culture;  family support systems;  communication;  myths


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.frca.org



TITLE:                    Handbook of Multicultural Assessment: Clinical, Psychological, and Educational Applications.


AUTHOR:               Suzuki, L. A. (Editor).;  Meller, P. J. (Editor).;  Ponterotto, J. G. (Editor).




AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    New York Univ., NY. Dept. of Psychology.


SOURCE:                San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1996;  748 pp.


ABSTRACT:           This book presents information on psychometrics, assessment, and evaluation as they relate to the application of testing and assessment in multicultural environments. Part 1 addresses general issues in multicultural assessment, principally the challenges of using assessment and testing strategies in culturally appropriate ways and on ethical concerns in using assessment tests with minorities. Part 2 focuses on the use of tests and procedures to assess social and emotional functioning of minority group members. Contributors identify sources of controversy in the assessment of ethnic and cultural minorities, address psychometric and other issues, examine the multicultural usage of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2, and explore multicultural issues in the use of projective methods for personality assessment. Part 3 discusses cognition and educational assessment with racial or ethnic minority groups, including issues related to intellectual assessment across cultures; the use of curriculum-based measurement with diverse learners, nonverbal ability measures with multicultural populations, and achievement testing with culturally and linguistically diverse students; multicultural concerns relevant to neuropsychological assessment; and the multicultural implications of performance-based assessment. Part 4 examines emerging issues in assessment related to multicultural considerations in the areas of language, family systems, qualitative, and racial and ethnic identity assessment. Contributors also discuss the multicultural assessment of alcohol and other drug use, the assessment of culturally diverse infants and preschool children, and the assessment of the multicultural competence of counselors and clinicians. The book concludes with an examination of present trends and future directions in multicultural assessment. Numerous references, 9 figures, 13 tables, and 6 exhibits.


KEY TERMS:         psychometrics;  cultural sensitivity;  multicultural;  ethics;  cultural differences;  personality tests;  psychological tests;  intelligence tests




INTERNET URL:   http://www.josseybass.com



TITLE:                    Persistant Issues in Multicultural Assessment of Social and Emotional Functioning.


AUTHOR:               Moreland, K. L.




AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Fordham Univ., New York, NY.


SOURCE:                In: Suzuki, L. A., Meller, P. J., and Ponterotto, J. G. (Editors). Handbook of Multicultural Assessment: Clinical, Psychological, and Educational Implications. San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1996;  pp. 51-76


ABSTRACT:           In this chapter examining issues in the multicultural assessment of social and emotional functioning, the author identifies sources of controversy in the assessment of ethnic and cultural minorities, such as the Euro-American model of science, instrument universality or cultural sensitivity, assimilation or pluralism, cultural or socioeconomic status, group personality or individual differences, and racism. He considers psychometric issues relevant to multicultural assessment, including functional, conceptual, linguistic, and metric equivalence; reliability; validity; and bias. Test administration and interpretation issues are discussed. Assessors need to be aware of the methods they can use at the interpretation phase to overcome their own bias and the variables that can moderate the interpretation of personality data, such as acculturation and value orientation. The author concludes by making recommendations for practice. 94 references.


KEY TERMS:         personality tests;  cultural sensitivity;  psychometrics;  minority groups;  multicultural


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book


INTERNET URL:   http://www.josseybass.com



TITLE:                    Language Comprehension and Expression Among Adolescents Who Have Experienced Childhood Physical Abuse.


AUTHOR:               McFadyen, R. G.;  Kitson, W. J. H.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Aberdeen Univ. (Great Britain).


SOURCE:                37(5): pp. 551-562;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science, Inc., 1996


ABSTRACT:           The present study compared the expressive and receptive language abilities of 20 adolescents who had experienced physical abuse as children with the abilities of a closely matched control group of 20 adolescents who had not experienced maltreatment. All of the participants were residents of special schools, referred for a variety of behavior problems and under a treatment plan for family reunification. In addition, all subjects were from families of lower socioeconomic status and in good physical health. Instruments included the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and a linguistic analysis of a 10-minute discussion. Comprehension abilities of the two groups (as measured on a standard test) did not differ significantly. There were also no significant differences in expressive vocabulary. The syntactic expression of the abused group was significantly more impaired than that of the non-abused group. The abused used significantly less self-related language and also had a significantly greater tendency to engage in self- repetition. The two groups did not differ significantly, however, on several other aspects of functional communication. Explanations of the results are offered. It is also suggested that there are individual differences in the types of problems experienced by the physically abused group. 61 references and 7 tables. (Author abstract modified)


KEY TERMS:         adolescents;  child development;  language development;  verbal ability;  sequelae;  child abuse research


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.elsevier.com



TITLE:                    Linguistic and Socioemotional Influences on the Accuracy of Children's Reports.


AUTHOR:               Carter, C. A.;  Bottoms, B. L.;  Levine, M.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Law and Human Behavior


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    State Univ. of New York, Buffalo. Dept. of Family Medicine.


SOURCE:                20(3): pp. 335-358;  New York, NY, Plenum Publishing Co., June 1996


ABSTRACT:           A basic but largely neglected issue in research on the reliability of children's testimony is the impact of certain questioning tactics (e.g., use of legalese and socioemotional intimidation) on the accuracy of children's reports. In the present study, 60 5- to 7-year-old children were interviewed about a standardized play event with free-recall cues and detailed questions that were specific or misleading. Linguistic complexity of questions (complex or simple) and socioemotional context of interview (supportive or intimidating) were varied between subjects. Results indicated that children were significantly less accurate in reporting the event when questioned with complex, developmentally inappropriate questions rather than simple questions, yet children rarely voiced their comprehension failures. In addition, children interviewed by a warm, supportive interviewer were more resistant to misleading questions about the event than were children interviewed in an intimidating manner. Theoretical interpretations and implications for investigative interviewing and policy are discussed. 74 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract)


KEY TERMS:         child witnesses;  competency;  interviews;  testimony;  courts responsibility;  child development;  lawyers role;  investigations


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.plenum.com



TITLE:                    Memory Systems and the Psychoanalytic Retrieval of Memories of Trauma.


AUTHOR:               Brenneis, C. B.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Wisconsin Univ., Madison.


SOURCE:                44(4): pp. 1165-1187;  American Psychoanalytic Association, New York, NY, 1996


ABSTRACT:           This article presents a psychoanalytic perspective of the issues of recovered memories of childhood trauma. Based on trauma research, the concept of a special traumatic memory has evolved. Overwhelming psychic experience is thought to generate a defensively altered state of consciousness (specifically dissociation), which encodes memory in unassimilated visual, somatic, and behavioral, rather than linguistic modes. Analytic revocation and interpretation of the original layered states of consciousness then permits the transformation of early traumatic memory into later explicit memory. Examined from the vantage point of contemporary cognitive research and theory, underlying flaws may be found in these propositions when they are extended to patients without explicit memory of trauma: first, dissociation is a chameleonlike process, perhaps as closely associated with suggestibility as with trauma; second, state-dependent learning does not adequately account for the absence of explicit memory; and third, implicit memory does not map onto explicit memory in any direct or simple fashion. Consequently, the clinical application or current propositions about traumatic memory to patients without explicit memory of trauma may warrant considerable caution. Provisional guidelines are offered for estimating the validity of retrieved memories of trauma. 68 references. (Author abstract)


KEY TERMS:         psychoanalytic theories;  memory;  repression;  psychoanalysis;  adults abused as children;  trauma;  dissociation;  validity


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.analyticpress.com/home.html



TITLE:                    A National Adoption Strategic Plan.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Roundtable


SOURCE:                10(2): pp. 1-5;  Spaulding for Children, Southfield, MI. National Resource Center for Special Needs Adoption., 1996


ABSTRACT:           This article presents excerpts from the National Adoption Strategic Plan. The preamble identifies the services that the child welfare system must provide to ensure appropriate and timely targeting of adoptive placements. Other sections describe the plan, the mission of the Adoption Network Partners, and the vision of the plan. Adoption goals contained in the plan are presented, including increasing the number of adoptions for special needs, minority, and older children, as well as children in sibling groups; minimizing trauma and improving healthy development; considering cultural, ethnic, and racial factors in adoption decision making; and decreasing the length of time children are in out-of-home care. Other goals concern increasing the number of prospective adoptive families; providing holistic, culturally, and linguistically relevant services; providing access to all necessary information to meet the needs of the adopted child; and increasing public awareness about adoption.


KEY TERMS:         waiting children;  adoption services;  networking;  special needs;  child placement


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.spaulding.org



TITLE:                    Post-Adoption Issues in Intercountry Adoption.


AUTHOR:               Selman, P.;  Wells, S.




AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Newcastle Univ. (England). Dept. of Social Policy.


SOURCE:                In: Phillips, R. and McWilliam, E. (Editors). After Adoption: Working With Adoptive Families. London (England), British Agencies for Adoption and Fostering, 1996;  pp. 192-210


ABSTRACT:           This chapter highlights the special needs of British adoptive parents and intercountry adopted children. The needs of children adopted from abroad may include dealing with health, linguistic, and behavior and emotional problems. It is vital that health progress be monitored and parents are given all the medical support that their children need. Attachment disorders may also have to be dealt with. Children in a transracial adoption may be coping with a loss of their birth country, identity problems, and a lack of background information about their origins. Next, the chapter discusses British adoptive parents' experiences of adopting from abroad. Access to post adoption services is vitally important as many service agencies in Britain have limited experience of the problems of adopted children and often no experience in foreign born adoptees. The chapter ends with a case study in intercountry adoption. Numerous references.


KEY TERMS:         intercountry adoption;  post adoption services;  adoptive parents;  great britain;  case studies;  identity;  language development;  attachment disorder


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book



TITLE:                    Sexual Abuse in Nine North American Cultures: Treatment and Prevention.


AUTHOR:               Fontes, L. A. (Editor).




AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN.


SOURCE:                Newbury Park, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., April 1995;  323 pp.


ABSTRACT:           This book assesses cultural strengths and challenges and attempts to identify ways cultural norms can be used to protect children from sexual abuse or to enhance their recovery from sexual abuse. Sexual abuse is often mishandled by professionals working with minority clients because of cultural and linguistic misunderstandings, racism, and homophobia. The introduction discusses ways that culture can contribute to a context for understanding the prevention, occurrence, and detection of sexual abuse and recovery from sexual abuse. Chapters explore the issue of sexual abuse as it relates to various groups bound by common beliefs, history, and practices, including African Americans; Puerto Ricans; Asian, Pacific Islander, and Filipino Americans; Cambodians; Jews; Anglo Americans; Seventh Day Adventists; homosexuals; and lesbians. Chapters include discussions of cultural and treatment issues and provide case studies. The final chapter considers the issue of matching clients and service providers for ethnicity, the impact of biases on child protective work involving ethnic or minority populations, and the use of culturally diverse treatment teams. Numerous references.


KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  treatment programs;  prevention;  african americans;  puerto ricans;  asian americans;  jews;  homosexuality




INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com



TITLE:                    Making Children into Competent Witnesses: Reactions to the Amicus Brief In re Michaels.


AUTHOR:               Lamb, M. E.;  Sternberg, K. J.;  Esplin, P. W.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Pyschology, Public Policy, and Law


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.


SOURCE:                1(2): pp. 438-449, 1995


ABSTRACT:           This article discusses ways in which skilled interviewers, with realistic goals regarding the amount and quality of information that can be obtained from young informants, can enhance the quality of children's accounts. The article is presented as a reaction to the amicus brief of M. Bruck and S.J. Ceci In re Michaels. The discussion is informed by a review of the scholarly literature on children's memory, communicative styles and skills, and suggestibility, as well as by field research on the usefulness of different interview strategies. Recommendations include: assess the child's linguistic style and skills, prepare the child for the interview, establish rapport, explain the extent of information needed from the interview, use a combination of focused and open-ended questions, and record the interview to evaluate the information provided. Numerous references. (Author abstract modified)


KEY TERMS:         child witnesses;  competency;  investigations;  interviews;  memory;  suggestibility;  language development;  research reviews


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article



TITLE:                    Reweaving Timelines.


AUTHOR:               Stiffler, L. H.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Adoption Therapist


SOURCE:                6(4): pp. 15-18;  Hope Cottage Adoption Center, Dallas, TX., Fall 1995


ABSTRACT:           For adoptees and birth parents in closed adoptions, connections to the past are distorted. The author discusses a method of therapy based on neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) to help with temporal perception and orientation. She describes guided fantasies of being a child who has lost a parent temporarily, and a parent who has lost a child. These mental/emotional exercises help people experience the abandonment a child feels, and the grief a birth parent feels. She also uses an exercise to imagine the reunion of parent and child. When adoptees and birth parents are reunited the history and connections of the intervening years need recognition by the persons involved. A birth mother's development may be stopped at the point of pregnancy. She may have been unable to grieve and resolve the loss of the child, and have denied or repressed many of her feelings. Birth fathers also have deep pain and guilt, and reunions may cause trouble in the birth father's present family. Adoptive parents are haunted by the fear that the birth parents will appear and take away the child's love. They are reminded of their past loss of a biological child. In the NLP method, people mark timelines, and deal with the past, present, and future. They consolidate identity in a flexible brief therapy process. A glossary of terms is provided.


KEY TERMS:         psychotherapy;  closed adoption;  reunions;  psychological aspects;  treatment;  grief;  adoption triads


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article



TITLE:                    Facilitated Communication: A Response by Child Protection.


AUTHOR:               Richer, J.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (England). Dept. of Pediatrics.


SOURCE:                18(6): pp. 531-537;  Oxford (Great Britain), Elsevier Science, Ltd., June 1994


ABSTRACT:           This commentary on abuse allegations by autistic children using facilitated communication identifies important arguments supporting and opposing the use of facilitated communication. The commentary identifies the main purpose of the technique, makes several points about autism, discusses the desire to communicate with an autistic child, addresses the issue of whether the child or the facilitator is producing the communication when this technique is used, and outlines the features of facilitated communication that might promote communication by autistic children. The issue of the remarkable spelling and linguistic abilities demonstrated by some autistic children in their facilitated communication output is addressed. The issue of allegations of abuse by autistic children reported through facilitated communication is discussed, and the points that must be considered in evaluating such allegations are outlined. The author concludes that most such allegations would fail legal tests. 23 references.


KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  unfounded reports;  communication techniques;  facilitated communication;  children with disabilities;  case assessment;  child behavior;  developmental disabilities


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article



TITLE:                    Understanding Children's Language, Session II.


AUTHOR:               Walker, A. G.




SOURCE:                In: The Tenth National Symposium on Child Sexual Abuse, Huntsville, AL, February 22-26, 1994. National Children's Advocacy Center, National Resource Center on Child Sexual Abuse, National Network of Childrens' Advocacy Centers, 1994;  29 pp.


ABSTRACT:           This workshop session presented forensic linguistic information on child language development and its effect on courtroom testimony. Included in the session was information on interviewing/questioning children, examples of testimony, child language development facts, and elements of the cognitive interview. The checklist for interviewing children recommended framing the event and using clear language, gave guidelines for asking the questions and listening to the answers, and provided global checks for the interviewer, which are detailed in the testimony examples that follow. Suggestions for alleviating testimony challenges were offered, including a prototype voir dire for judges and attorneys for use with young children. Selected bibliographies were handed out on preparation of child witnesses and testimonial aspects of child witnesses. Numerous references.


KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  conferences;  children at risk;  language development;  communication techniques;  testimony


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book



TITLE:                    Improving Children's Testimony: The Question, the Answer, and the Environment.


AUTHOR:               Saywitz, K. J.




AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance. Dept. of Psychiatry.


SOURCE:                In: Zaragoza, M. S.; Graham, J. R.; Hall, G. C. N.; Hirschman, R.; and Ben-Porath, Y. S. (Editors). Memory and Testimony in the Child Witness. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, November 1994;  pp. 113-140


ABSTRACT:           This chapter describes barriers to effective communication and memory and presents strategies for overcoming them. It emphasizes that the competency of the child to testify has as much to do with the interview method and environment as it does the developmental level of the child. Vocabulary, linguistic complexity, pragmatics, and content of the questions can affect a child's understanding and answers. In addition, children may need assistance to accurately remember and relate the details of a specific incident. Children's recall can be enhanced using pictorial cues and other memory jogging techniques. The chapter also discusses the effects of environment on memory function and provides suggestions for maximizing memory and minimizing stress during questioning. Numerous references.


KEY TERMS:         child witnesses;  competency;  testimony;  interviews


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book


INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com



TITLE:                    Kinship Care: A Tradition in the Latino Community.


AUTHOR:               Roche, O. I.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Common Ground


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Massachusetts Dept. of Social Services, Fitchburg.


SOURCE:                11(2): p. 14, May 1994


ABSTRACT:           This article discusses the extended family support systems of Latin American families, especially when there is abuse in the home. These family support options can last as long as the care is needed, even extending for the life of the child into adulthood. In the past, the grandmother was the most common extended family member to care for the child; often she already cared for the children of her other working children. Aunts and uncles would help with the financial needs of caring for a grandchild in need; medical care would be sought from public assistance. Today, many grandmothers are working themselves or on government aid and thus unable to care for grandchildren in need. With additional support from public, private, and government organizations, this kinship care system can and should be continued for the positive benefit of the child and the continuance of cultural, ethnic, linguistic, and religious heritage.


KEY TERMS:         family support systems;  extended families;  hispanics


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article



TITLE:                    It's Time to Acknowledge Kinship Care as a Specialized Child Welfare Service.


AUTHOR:               Wilson, D. B.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Common Ground


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Child Welfare League of America, Washington, DC.


SOURCE:                11(2): p. 12, May 1994


ABSTRACT:           This article presents the Child Welfare League of America (CWLA) position on kinship care and defines kinship care as the full-time care, nurturing, and protection of children by relatives, members of their tribe or clan, godparents, stepparents, or other adults who have a kinship bond with a child. CWLA suggests that kinship care be considered a specialized program, per se, and not a part of an already existing program area. It further suggests that separate administration of a kinship care program would result in more needed services available to those involved in such a care system. The value of such a program would extend or speed up the possibility of family reunification and encourage ethnic and linguistic continuation and maintenance. Kinship care programs should also include legal and financial assistance for the family and the kin, all for the benefit of the child in need.


KEY TERMS:         kinship care;  family support systems;  extended families;  family advocacy;  child protection;  child welfare services


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article



TITLE:                    Addressing the Challenges of Diversity.


AUTHOR:               Garcia, E. E.




AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Languages Affairs.


SOURCE:                In: Kagan, S. L. and Weissbourd, B. (Editors). Putting Families First: America's Family Support Movement and the Challenge of Change. San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1994;  pp. 243-275


ABSTRACT:           This chapter focuses on the delivery of family support services to culturally and linguistically diverse populations. The findings of a report that presented international data on the status of children and families are highlighted. Data on family income and poverty are reviewed. The concepts of group culture and individual-oriented culture are discussed. The process of Americanization is explained. Differences between the experiences of European immigrants and other immigrants regarding assimilation are highlighted. Reasons why Americanization programs have failed are presented. Elements of a plan of action for achieving the goals of acknowledging differences between and within cultures, diverging from the Americanization concept, and ensuring that support services are culturally appropriate are described. These elements include personal commitment, a new knowledge base concerning effective practices with linguistically and culturally diverse students, and new leadership. Problems with the current system of assessing professional service providers and administrators who are serving culturally diverse children and families are also examined. 47 references, 1 table, and 1 exhibit.


KEY TERMS:         family support systems;  culture;  comparative analysis;  poverty;  family income;  professional personnel;  cultural factors;  immigrants


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book


INTERNET URL:   http://www.frca.org



TITLE:                    Excellence in Children's Law. //Children's Law Manual Series.//


AUTHOR:               Ventrell, M. R. (Editor).




AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    National Association of Counsel for Children, Denver, CO.


SOURCE:                National Association of Counsel for Children, Denver, CO, 1994;  360 pp.


ABSTRACT:           This manual, which is the 1994 edition of the Children's Law Manual Series, presents papers contributed by speakers at the 1994 National Children's Law Conference. This conference was sponsored by the National Association of Counsel for Children. Papers describe a model for providing direct legal and social services to children, examine the backlash against child protection agencies, address the issue of whether or not children have a constitutional right to psychological parentage, discuss Munchausen by Proxy Syndrome, review the communicative competency of adults and children, offer guidelines for interviewing young children about sexual abuse, present a comprehensive approach to representing children, and provide a family violence assessment form for guardians ad litem. Papers discuss the McMartin Tunnel Project, examine denial and backlash in child abuse cases occurring in day care, present several perspectives on family preservation, discuss facilitated communication, determine whether risk assessment is compatible with the Wisconsin Children's Code, examine the effect of the judicial system on the adolescent incest victim, address cognitive and linguistic issues related to child testimony, explain budget advocacy for children, and discuss the termination of the parent-child legal relationship in cases of child sexual abuse. Other topics include parental kidnapping, expert testimony, attorney-client confidentiality, sex offender treatment, and juvenile offenders. Numerous references, 1 figure, and 8 tables.


KEY TERMS:         childrens rights;  munchausen syndrome by proxy;  child witnesses;  sexual abuse;  child advocacy;  guardians ad litem;  family preservation;  risk assessment




INTERNET URL:   http://NACCchildlaw.org



TITLE:                    When Children Testify: Cognitive and Linguistic Considerations.


AUTHOR:               Russ, I.




SOURCE:                In: Ventrell, M. R. (Editor). Excellence in Children's Law. National Association of Counsel for Children, Denver, CO, 1994;  pp. 293-303


ABSTRACT:           This chapter presents 32 facts about and suggestions for interviewing child witnesses. These facts and suggestions are divided into the categories of psychosocial issues, cognitive issues, and linguistic issues. The baseline of consideration is a 5-year-old child, unless other noted. Researchers have found that children are at least as truthful as adults and that they can generally distinguish between reality and fantasy. However, when children testify in court they may be asked questions that are developmentally inappropriate, so their responses may in turn be inappropriate. These facts and suggestions will help interviewers understand child development and obtain appropriate and useful responses from child witnesses. 8 references.


KEY TERMS:         child witnesses;  testimony;  language development;  cognitive development;  preschool children;  school children


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book


INTERNET URL:   http://NACCchildlaw.org



TITLE:                    The Use of Dolls in Interviewing Young Children.


AUTHOR:               DeLoache, J. S.




AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Illinois Univ. Dept. of Psychology.


SOURCE:                In: Zaragoza, M. S.; Graham, J. R.; Hall, G. C. N.; Hirschman, R.; and Ben-Porath, Y. S. (Editors). Memory and Testimony in the Child Witness. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, November 1994;  pp. 160-178


ABSTRACT:           This chapter examines the use of anatomically correct dolls in interviewing children who are suspected of being sexually abused. Assumptions about the use of anatomically correct dolls are discussed, focusing on the linguistic, emotional, and cognitive benefits that are assumed to result from the use of anatomical dolls in interviewing children. Major concerns about the use of these dolls are identified, including the issues of whether the dolls actually elicit sexualized play by abused children and whether they might elicit sexual behavior from nonabused children. Research on the use of anatomically correct dolls as they relate to these two issues is reviewed. Results fail to provide support for the efficacy of using anatomically correct dolls to interview very young children. Studies of young children's use and understanding of external symbols are also described. Results of these studies reveal that symbolic relations that are obvious to older children and adults are not obvious to younger children. The appropriateness of using anatomically correct dolls to interview children 3 years old and younger is questioned based on the results of this research on the early development of symbolization. Numerous references, 1 figure, and 1 table.


KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  anatomical dolls;  research reviews;  preschool children;  interviews;  detection


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book


INTERNET URL:   http://www.sagepub.com



TITLE:                    Handbook on Questioning Children: A Linguistic Perspective.


AUTHOR:               Walker, A. G.




SOURCE:                American Bar Association, Washington, DC, 1994;  119 pp.


ABSTRACT:           This handbook on the linguistic complexity of questioning children offers guidelines for questioning them in a court-related context so that they understand a legal proceeding and so that they can be understood. Facts about the linguistic abilities of preschoolers, school-age children, and adolescents are presented. Guidelines on questioning children are organized around principles that interviewers should keep in mind, and problems that interviewers should be aware of in both adults' questioning and children's answers are identified. Language-related reasons for inconsistencies in children's testimony are given. Appendixes provide handouts concerning the interviewing and questioning of children. 92 references.


KEY TERMS:         language development;  interviews;  child witnesses;  testimony;  guidelines




INTERNET URL:   http://www.abanet.org



TITLE:                    Factors Influencing the Reliability and Validity of Statements Made by Young Victims of Sexual Maltreatment.


AUTHOR:               Lamb, M.;  Sternberg, K.;  Esplin, P.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD.


SOURCE:                15: pp. 255-280;  Ablex Publishing Corp., Greenwich, CT., 1994


ABSTRACT:           This article summarizes relevant literature about the reliability and validity of information provided by young children who disclose sexual maltreatment. Current knowledge about fantasy, language, memory, and suggestibility is highlighted. Overall, findings indicate that children can accurately recall the details of experiences, with the proper interview techniques. These techniques include preparation before the interview to determine the child's linguistic abilities, establish rapport and expectations for truth, and encourage free recall. Considerable emphasis is placed on the need to use directive or leading questions sparingly and only in specific circumstances and to develop systematic procedures for evaluating children's testimony. The Criterion Based Content Analysis is recommended to assess the credibility of children's allegations. Numerous references and 1 figure. (Author abstract modified)


KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  child witnesses;  competency;  disclosure;  reliability;  validity;  literature reviews;  interviews


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article



TITLE:                    Child Maltreatment, Attachment, and the Self System: Emergence of an Internal State Lexicon in Toddlers at High Social Risk.


AUTHOR:               Beeghly, M.;  Cicchetti, D.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Development and Psychopathology


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Children's Hospital, Boston, MA. Child Development Unit.


SOURCE:                6(1): pp. 5-30;  New York, NY, Cambridge University Press, Winter 1994


ABSTRACT:           The ability to talk about the internal states (IS) and feelings of self and others is an age- appropriate development of later toddlerhood hypothesized to reflect toddlers' emergent self-other understanding and to be fundamental to the regulation of social interaction. This study examined the effects of child maltreatment on the emergence of 40 low-socioeconomic status 30-month-old toddlers' IS lexicons. Children's lexicons were derived from maternal interviews and from observations of children's spontaneous IS utterances in 4 laboratory contexts. Results from both data sources indicted that maltreated toddlers produced significantly fewer IS words, fewer IS word types, and proportionately fewer IS words denoting physiological states and negative affect than nonmaltreated toddlers. In addition, maltreated toddlers were more context bound in IS language use and more restricted in their attributions of internal states to self and other. Gender differences were also observed. Individual differences in children's IS language production were significantly related to general linguistic maturity in both groups but to toddlers' conversational skills only in the comparison group. In addition, a cumulative risk model describing the effects of the child's attachment relationship with the caregiver on early IS language was tested. Toddlers most severely at risk (maltreated/insecure) had the most compromised IS language. Thus, secure attachment may serve as a protective mechanism against self-dysfunction in maltreated toddlers. 8 tables and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)


KEY TERMS:         attachment;  low income groups;  language development;  interviews;  self concept;  preschool children


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article



TITLE:                    Questioning Young Children in Court. A Linguistic Case Study.


AUTHOR:               Walker, A. G.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Law and Human Behavior


SOURCE:                17(1): pp. 59-81;  New York, NY, Plenum Publishing Co., 1993


ABSTRACT:           This study focuses on the cross-examination of a child witness from a linguistic perspective. A linguistic analysis of court transcripts indicated that the child demonstrated the ability to understand and communicate and so met the test for competency as a witness. Misunderstandings during cross-examination were caused by the form of the questions of the attorneys, including use of age-inappropriate words and expressions, complex syntactic constructions, and general ambiguity. Examples of questions and answers from the transcripts are provided. Numerous references.


KEY TERMS:         child witnesses;  competency;  testimony;  interviews;  legal processes


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.plenum.com



TITLE:                    Optimizing Children's Testimony: Research and Social Policy Issues Concerning Allegations of Child Sexual Abuse.


AUTHOR:               Goodman, G. S.;  Batterman-Faunce, J. M.;  Kenney, R.




AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    California Univ., Davis. Dept. of Psychology.


SOURCE:                In: Cicchetti, D. and Toth, S. L. (Editors). Child Abuse, Child Development, and Social Policy. Norwood, NJ, Ablex Publishing Corporation, 1993;  pp. 139-166


ABSTRACT:           This review of social policy and research on the accuracy of children's testimony suggests that supportive contexts must be provided for interviewing children in both forensic and courtroom settings. Sources for errors in testimony are categorized into discussing the wrong event, memory lapse due to time since event, linguistic and communicative factors, socioemotional context of the interview, fantasizing, and lying. Policy suggestions offered include increased funding for field testing of techniques to optimize children's testimony; more intense training of professionals who work with children; appropriate court preparatory programs for child witnesses; and court experimentation to determine the most appropriate context to ensure accurate, complete child witness testimony. 80 references.


KEY TERMS:         victims rights;  legal rights;  testimony;  social policies;  competency;  research reviews;  child witnesses


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book



TITLE:                    Abuse and Deaf Children: Some Factors to Consider.


AUTHOR:               Ridgeway, S. M.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse Review


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    National Centre for Mental Health and Deafness, Prestwich (England).


SOURCE:                2(3): pp. 166-173;  Chichester (Great Britain), John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., September 1993


ABSTRACT:           This paper examines the problems and needs of deaf women who have been abused. Deaf children are uniquely disadvantaged in terms of access to information on safety and abuse. This is often due to misunderstood linguistic and cultural needs that relate to the deaf community. Extremely little support is available for deaf people who have been or are being abused. There are few appropriately trained counselors equipped with the necessary skills in communicating with deaf people and even fewer trained in deaf awareness. A number of risk factors have been identified and are illustrated in this article. Three case studies are described to highlight the issues involved. 12 references. (Author abstract)


KEY TERMS:         characteristics of abused;  deafness;  children with disabilities;  children at risk;  adults abused as children;  female victims


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.wiley.com



TITLE:                    Acts Without Agents: An Analysis of Linguistic Avoidance in Journal Articles on Men Who Batter Women.


AUTHOR:               Lamb, S.




JOURNAL TITLE:    American Journal of Orthopsychiatry


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Bryn Mawr Coll., PA. Dept. of Human Development.


SOURCE:                61(2): pp. 250-257;  American Orthopsychiatric Association, New York, NY, April 1991


ABSTRACT:           This article describes a study designed to examine ways in which academic writing style presents a certain perception of reality about the battering of women by men, and how the language used may obscure issues of responsibility. Articles on woman abuse by men were surveyed in 11 journals across 4 disciplines. Introductory sections from 46 articles were coded for linguistic choices--such as use of the passive voice, nominalization, and diffuse terminology. In half or more of the references to abuse, sentence structure and language were deemed problematic, with diffusion of responsibility the most frequent strategy of avoidance. Professional and gender biases were found, with articles by social workers less likely, and articles with male authors more likely, to contain problematic writing. Numerous references and 2 tables. (Author abstract modified)


KEY TERMS:         male batterers;  battering;  battered women;  stereotypes;  professionals responsibility;  attitudes


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.amerortho.org



TITLE:                    The Clinical Child Interview. //The Guilford School Practitioner Series//.


AUTHOR:               Hughes, J. N.;  Baker, D. B.




AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Dept. of Educational Psychology.


SOURCE:                New York, NY, Guilford Press, 1990;  230 pp.


ABSTRACT:           This book, which serves as a reference for those working with children, provides developmentally sensitive approaches and strategies that permit children to share their subjective experience with an interviewer. Chapters present the rationale, purposes, and benefits of the child interview; discuss developmental changes in children's linguistic, cognitive, and psychosocial functioning; offer guidelines for interviewing children at different developmental levels; describe structured diagnostic interviews for children, focusing on their administration, scoring, and psychometric properties; examine psychodynamic approaches to child interviewing, including the use of the play interview; summarize conceptual and methodological advances in behavior assessment and explore the implications of these advances for behavior interviewing; offer considerations in conducting parent, family, and child interviews, as well as guidelines for interviewing maltreating parents; explain interviewing approaches for children with externalizing problem behaviors; and provide information on interviewing children with internalizing behavior problems, with an emphasis on methods for conducting child interviews that assist in the identification and amelioration of internalizing behavior problems. Case examples are used throughout the text to illustrate interviewing techniques and the value of interviewing. Numerous references and 15 tables.


KEY TERMS:         psychological interviews;  child development;  child behavior;  psychometrics;  psychopathology;  interviews;  behavior problems;  case reports




INTERNET URL:   http://www.guilford.com



TITLE:                    Today's Challenge: Teaching Strategies for Working With Young Children at Risk Due to Prenatal Substance Exposure.


INST. AUTHOR:    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA. Prenatally Exposed to Drugs Program.




SOURCE:                Los Angeles Unified School District, CA, July 1990;  23 pp.


ABSTRACT:           This document offers guidelines for adapting preschool programs to encompass the needs of children who were exposed prenatally to potentially harmful drugs, such as cocaine or alcohol. Children who were exposed as fetuses do not share a common behavioral or learning profile and must be treated as individuals in educational settings. However, characteristic behaviors have been identified, including irritability, tremors, hyperactivity, delays in linguistic development, poor task orientation, and motor delays. A pilot program comprising 4 classes of children ages 3 through 6 was created by the Los Angeles, CA, school district to develop effective teaching and child care methods for drug exposed children and to promote these children's cognitive, social, and physical development. Protective factors to be built into a classroom for these children are described. These factors focus on curriculum, play, child-to-adult ratio, room environment, transition time, routines and rituals, rules, and observation and assessment. Differences between impaired and normal children in the areas of learning, play, social and emotional development, communication, motor behavior, and home environment are enumerated, and teaching strategies for impaired children as they relate to each of these areas are listed.


KEY TERMS:         prenatal influences;  drug exposed infants;  preschool children;  preschool programs;  guidelines;  cognitive development;  learning disabilities;  teachers role


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Technical Report



TITLE:                    Mentally Retarded Sex Offenders.


AUTHOR:               Schoen, J.;  Hoover, J. H.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Offender Rehabilitation


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    South Dakota Developmental Center.


SOURCE:                16(1-2): pp. 81-91;  Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1990


ABSTRACT:           Data about the behavioral characteristics of mentally retarded sexual offenders are critically reviewed. The term mental retardation is an oversimplification; there are many nuances of thinking and linguistic differences. The assessment and treatment of retarded sexual offenders will be impacted by various adaptive behavior domains. Like all offenders, mentally retarded sexual offenders may display multiple problems. Systematic limitations on the normative expression of sexuality may impact on criminality in mentally retarded offenders. There appear to be no qualitative differences between retarded and nonretarded sexual offenders in various relevant ways. Possible interactions between mental retardation and the provision of services and directions for future research are discussed. 30 references. (Author abstract modified)


KEY TERMS:         sexual abuse;  sex offenders;  sex offenses;  mental retardation


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.haworthpressinc.com



TITLE:                    Language Issues in Interviewing the Child Sexual Abuse Victim.


AUTHOR:               Walker, A, G.




AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Amerian Univ., Washington, DC.


SOURCE:                Presented at National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect Annual Meeting of Children's Justice Act Grantees, Washington, DC, November 1990;  22 pp.


ABSTRACT:           This compilation of articles addresses language issues in determining competency of children testifying in sexual abuse cases. Facts about children's language skills are summarized, including appropriate developmental language abilities for children of various ages. Specific lexical skill ability for children of various developmental ages are provided, including the use of possessive pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs. Information about children's testimony based on experimental evidence is presented. Issues such as eyewitness testimony, exaggeration, memory, suggestibility, and truth are examined. Guidelines for questioning children, with a list of suggestions for specific questions, are provided. A prototype for determining whether a child is competent to testify as a witness is reviewed, including a series of questions designed to determine competency for children of school age and for children below school age. The author stresses that the use of shorter sentences, concrete rather than abstract concepts, and an awareness of a child's linguistic limitations, are the key to obtaining relevant testimony. A bibliography is provided.


KEY TERMS:         child witnesses;  leading questions;  suggestibility;  testimony;  communication techniques;  language development;  competency


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Proceedings Paper



TITLE:                    Research on the Consequences of Child Maltreatment and Its Application to Educational Settings.


AUTHOR:               Cicchetti, D.;  Toth, S.;  Hennessy, K.




AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Rochester Univ., NY. Mt. Hope Family Center.


SOURCE:                Rochester Univ., NY. Mt. Hope Family Center, 1989;  31 pp.


ABSTRACT:           This article presents research on the effects of child maltreatment in various areas of functioning, including the development of secure attachment relationships, an autonomous self, peer relationships, and school adaptation. Recent research has found an association between early experiences of care and later abilities to form positive peer relationships and motivation to achieve goals. Maltreated children have problems adapting to the school environment and are more dependent than children with secure attachment experience. Maltreated children tend to have a negative perception of themselves and talk less about their emotions than nonmaltreated children. The paper recommends that comprehensive evaluations be performed for maltreated children to assess their developmental organization and level of attachment. The evaluation should examine cognitive development and functioning, socioemotional functioning, and linguistic abilities. Implications of the research results for educational settings and policy development are discussed. 38 references. (Author abstract modified)


KEY TERMS:         sequelae;  child abuse research;  attachment;  peer relationships;  academic achievement;  schools role;  schools responsibility;  research reviews


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Technical Report



TITLE:                    Maternal Language Input and Child Maltreatment.


AUTHOR:               Christopoulos, C.;  Bonvillian, J. D.;  Crittenden, P. M.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Infant Mental Health Journal


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Virginia Univ., Charlottesville. Dept. of Psychology.


SOURCE:                9(4): pp. 272-286;  New York, NY, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Winter 1988


ABSTRACT:           The language input of mothers to their infants was examined in 3 groups of mother-infant dyads: abuse, neglect, and adequate. The speech of the 10 mothers in each group was coded for well-formedness, complexity, sentence type, and accepting and rejecting content. In comparison with the neglect group mothers, the adequate group mothers spoke to their infants much more: the adequate group mothers produced more complete grammatical utterances and used more indirect imperatives and acceptance phrases than did the neglect group mothers. There were relatively few differences on the linguistic measures between the adequate and abuse group mothers. On the content measures, the abuse group mothers were more rejecting than either the adequate or neglect group mothers. This research was partially supported by a grant from the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect. 28 references and 2 tables. (Author abstract modified)


KEY TERMS:         mother child relationships;  mothering;  infant care;  language development;  verbal ability


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.interscience.wiley.com



TITLE:                    Strange Language. Child Victims Under Cross Examination.


AUTHOR:               Brennan, M.;  Brennan, R. E.




SOURCE:                Third Edition. Riverina (Australia), Charles Sturt Univ., 1988;  103 pp.


ABSTRACT:           This book is based on a study of the language used in court to cross-examine child victims of sexual abuse. The study was conducted in Australia, and the references to court proceedings and related child protection and legal processes are based on the Australian system. The court appearances of 30 children, ages 6 to 15, were studied and the linguistic complexity of the questions asked during cross-examination and the effects of lawyers' word choices on children's ability to respond were analyzed. Results indicate that in an unacceptably large number of instances children's inability to respond to cross-examination questions was because of the strangeness of words and situations. The specific features of lawyer language that account for the mismatch between children's language abilities and lawyers' courtroom language are examined, and the issue of child credibility is addressed. The fact that cross-examination can be traumatic and psychologically harmful to child sexual abuse victims if confusing, punitive language is used to discredit their testimony is stressed. Numerous references, 2 tables, and 9 figures.


KEY TERMS:         testimony;  trials;  child witnesses;  sexual abuse;  legal processes;  lawyers;  australia





TITLE:                    Developmental Psychopathology in Infancy: Illustration from the Study of Maltreated Youngsters.


AUTHOR:               Cicchetti, D.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Rochester Univ., New York. Mt. Hope Family Center.


SOURCE:                55(6): pp. 837-845;  American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, December 1987


ABSTRACT:           Research on the etiology and sequelae of infant problems may reveal prototypes or precursors of later psychopathology. Infancy is a period of rapid developmental change, characterized by transitions and qualitative reorganizations within and among biological, social, emotional, cognitive, and linguistic systems. Consequently, it is argued that it is inappropriate to focus on discrete symptomatology to infer the presence of nascent or incipient infant psychopathology. Rather, disorders in infancy are best conceptualized as relational psychopathologies, that is, as consequences of dysfunction in the parent-child-environment system. Research in the area of child maltreatment is used to illustrate the developmental psychopathology perspective as it applies to relational disorders. Numerous references. (Author abstract modified)


KEY TERMS:         infants;  psychopathology;  abused children;  parent child relationships;  family environment


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.apa.org



TITLE:                    Violence Against Migrant Women and Children. An Overview for Community Workers. Second Edition.


AUTHOR:               Wiebe, K.




SOURCE:                Women Against Violence Against Women - Rape Crisis Center. Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada), 1985;  62 pp.


ABSTRACT:           This manual provides social workers, counselors, women's organizations, health care systems, and agencies with basic information on violence against women and children, especially immigrant women whose cultural and linguistic backgrounds make it difficult for them to adapt to Canadian society. In order to offer assistance, support, and information to immigrant victims of violence, professionals must become knowledgeable about violence, its dynamics, and the consequences of it. An overview of factors affecting immigrant women and children is provided for those new to the field. Sections on battering, child abuse, and sexual violence follow. Each section addresses the definition of the problem; myths about the problem; reasons why victims remain in the abusive situation; options and counseling available; and social, medical, and legal services available. Concerns of immigration status, procedures, and criminal injuries compensation are included in the appendices. A community resource list is provided, along with a form to be filled out listing the actual numbers to call in the specific geographic area of the victim. 87 references.


KEY TERMS:         womens advocacy;  battered women;  ethnic groups;  self help programs;  canada;  cultural differences;  migrant welfare services;  child abuse


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Technical Report



TITLE:                    Final Report. Grant 90-C-1743.


INST. AUTHOR:    Texas Migrant Council, Inc., Laredo.




SOURCE:                July 30, 1983;  116 pp.


ABSTRACT:           This final report describes the activities of the National Resource Center on Child Abuse and for Mexican Americans during a 4-1/2 year period. The Center's goals were: to increase the participation of the Mexican American Community in the identification, prevention, and treatment of child abuse and neglect, and to increase the cultural and linguistic awareness of existing agencies and professionals dealing with child abuse and neglect. Areas of the project's accomplishments are: literature and audiovisual development; information dissemination; training and technical assistance; public awareness, and research. In addition to a program description, this report includes a final financial status report, a property inventory, and a disposition statement. 11 tables/lists, 3 forms, and 40 letters. (Author abstract modified)


KEY TERMS:         resource centers;  mexican americans;  prevention;  professional training


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Final Report



TITLE:                    Performance Standards and Quarterly Report. January-March 1982.


INST. AUTHOR:    Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Region VII Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center.




SOURCE:                Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Region VII Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center, January-March 1982;  66 pp.


ABSTRACT:           The January-March 1982 performance standards, achievements, and quarterly report concerning 5 objectives of the Institute of Child Behavior and Development of the Region VII Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center in Iowa City, Iowa are presented. The major objectives include: to act as a Regional library of printed and audiovisual materials and as the disseminators of information and material on the prevention, identification, and treatment of child abuse and neglect; to facilitate interstate sharing and coordination of program innovations and child protection planning processes; to assist in establishing and improving training programs with specific (though not exclusive) focus on improving the capabilities of professionals and paraprofessionals with child protective responsibilities to respond with sensitivity to cultural and linguistic minority clients; to assist state and local agencies and organizations within each Region to address Region-specific objectives for improving and expanding child abuse and neglect prevention and treatment services; and to organize and facilitate multidisciplinary child abuse and neglect consultation, especially to small communities where such consultation is not available otherwise. Task-activity descriptors are tabulated along a reporting matrix. Titles of Region-specific publications are provided, and data on correspondence, computer searches, and requests are listed. Management tracking charts, including subobjectives and action steps are included.


KEY TERMS:         statewide planning;  regional programs;  resource centers;  prevention;  program administration;  standards


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Technical Report


INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch



TITLE:                    Nonorganic Failure-to-Thrive Syndromes: Reactive Attachment Disorder of Infancy and Psychosocial Dwarfism of Early Childhood.


AUTHOR:               Harris, J. C.




AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    John F. Kennedy Inst., Baltimore, Md. Dept. of Child Psychiatry.


SOURCE:                In: Accardo, P. J. (Editor). Failure to Thrive in Infancy and Early Childhood: A Multidisciplinary Team Approach. Baltimore, Md., University Park Press, 1982;  pp. 229-241


ABSTRACT:           Reactive attachment disorder of infancy and psychosocial dwarfism of early childhood are described as nonorganic failure-to-thrive (FTT) syndromes. Diagnostic criteria for each of the disorders include: no organic etiology; height and weight below the third percentile for infants and height below the third percentile for older children; growth acceleration with environmental stimulation; delayed developmental milestones, especially intellectual, linguistic, and social; and dysfunctional parent-child relationships. Endocrine changes secondary to malnutrition have contributed to diagnostic confusion in the past. Similar treatment approaches to disturbed parent-child relationships are required for recovery in both reactive attachment disorder in infancy and psychosocial dwarfism in early childhood; however, the parent and child behaviors in psychosocial dwarfism require a more comprehensive focus and long-term therapeutic intervention. Recovery from growth failure is only one aspect of rehabilitation; adaptation to psychological deprivation requires continuing emotional support and guidance.


KEY TERMS:         failure to thrive;  infants;  parent child relationships;  treatment;  psychosocial dwarfism;  diagnoses;  bonding;  child development


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book



TITLE:                    Language Patterns of Opponents to a Child Protection Program.


AUTHOR:               Adams, P. L.;  Roddey, G. J.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Psychiatry and Human Development


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Louisville Univ., Ky. Dept. of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences.


SOURCE:                11(3): pp. 135-157;  New York, NY, Plenum Publishing Corp., Spring 1981


ABSTRACT:           An analysis of the language used by a community faction that attempted to agitate against a community group organized to help sexually abused girls, most of whom suffered from incest, indicates the importance of the form and implications of words used by such factions. Statements made by the faction were collected and compiled into lists of phrases characterized by linguistically significant interplays of parts of speech. Analysis of 53 selections from the complete list allowed them to be identified according to logical fallacies, argumentative type, and syntax of rationalizations. Nine major linguistic categories were discovered. These allowed the perpetrating husband to blame the wife for not satisfying him; to assert his God-like authority over the family; to see the child victim as an extension of his ego; to minimize remote contributory conditions giving rise to the incestuous situation by opting rigidly for literal and direct evidence of proximate conditions; to assert that incest is a victimless crime; to use the taboo status of incest to prevent investigation; to refer to sexual freedom as an excuse for incest; to excuse incest on the basis of hidden and mysterious desires within women; and to refer to the sacredness of manliness as a means of dissuading investigation. Using constructions that fall into these linguistic categories, health care professionals, members of the legal profession, and the community at large have rationalized away instances of incest. 10 references.


KEY TERMS:         communication;  incest;  responsibility


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.plenum.com



TITLE:                    Accomplishments of the Five National Child Abuse and Neglect Minority Resource Centers.


AUTHOR:               Wilder, A.




AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Alabama Univ., Birmingham. School of Social Work.


SOURCE:                National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (DHHS), Washington, DC, December 1981;  47 pp.


ABSTRACT:           A description of 5 National Child Abuse and Neglect Minority Resource Centers is presented, including National Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center for Mexican American Migrants, The Alliance of Black Social Workers-National Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center, Puerto Rican Congress of New Jersey, National Indian Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center, and National Urban League Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center. The objectives of this set of projects are to identify and demonstrate methods of increasing professional awareness of child abuse and neglect issues and services needs, improving professional skills in dealing with this problem, fostering interdisciplinary cooperation, increasing cultural and linguistic sensitivity of existing agencies and professionals working in this field, and improving and expanding minority participation in its prevention and treatment efforts. Background information, goals and objectives, and accomplishments of each of these 5 projects are presented. Appendices include project information profile, and resource materials developed by the National Minority Resource Centers on Child Abuse and Neglect.


KEY TERMS:         program descriptions;  resource centers;  mexican americans;  african americans;  puerto ricans;  american indians;  urban environment;  program evaluation


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Technical Report


INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch



TITLE:                    Child Neglect.


AUTHOR:               Cantwell, H. B.




AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Denver Dept. of Social Services, Colo.


SOURCE:                In: Kempe, C. H.; Helfer, R. E. (Editors). The Battered Child. Third Edition. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1980;  pp. 183-197


ABSTRACT:           Emotional and physical child neglect is a pervasive problem in America largely because it is ignored by the public and professional sectors. Statistics resulting from a nationwide survey indicate that the numbers of neglect cases are far greater than those of abuse. Neglectful parenting can be attributed to lack of knowledge, judgment, and motivation. Symptoms of child neglect can include flattened occiputs, bald spots, low body weight, and developmental delays in motor skills and linguistic and other social skills. Multidisciplinary intervention, involving school nurses, social workers, judicial personnel, and other professionals, is crucial to proper treatment of neglected children and neglectful families. Agencies which refer a child to the protective agency must state their concerns specifically, including exactly what efforts have been made toward remediation and what is hoped to be accomplished. Minimal well-child care involves 5 visits to a physician during the first 24 months of the child's life. Of course, children with specific handicaps, chronic health problems, or histories of failure to thrive should receive special attention. Emotional neglect, which is the most difficult form of neglect to define, tends to arouse controversy in the multidisciplinary setting because the medical and social service professionals tend to see neglect from the viewpoint of the child, while legal personnel tend to see neglect from the point of view of the family's right to privacy. Finally, court action should not be neglected when parents fail to respond positively to the efforts of the multidisciplinary team.


KEY TERMS:         child neglect;  emotional neglect;  intervention;  agency role


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book


INTERNET URL:   http://www.press.uchicago.edu



TITLE:                    Curricula and Training Programs in the Southeast: Sensitization of Students and Workers to the Needs of Minority (Racial, Cultural, Linguistic) Clients.


INST. AUTHOR:    Regional Inst. of Social Welfare Research, Inc., Athens, Ga.




SOURCE:                Regional Inst. of Social Welfare Research, Inc., Athens, GA, February 1980;  14 pp.


ABSTRACT:           A collaborative research effort, involving the Department of Health, Education and Welfare's Region IV Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center and the Research and Demonstration Center of the Atlanta University School of Social Work, determined the extent and nature of existing and planned curricula and training programs that sensitize child protective services workers to the needs of minority clients in the southeastern region's 8 states. Structured questionnaires were mailed to deans of social work schools, heads of sociology or human services departments of every identified post-high school educational institution, and relevant state departments. Of the 516 questionnaires mailed out, 293 were returned. Analysis of the data shows that 118 respondents offer 1 or more courses aimed at enhancing participants' abilities to work with minority clients; 76 respondents require such a course; and 18 respondents offer a training program that prepares students to deliver services to minorities, of which 13 use minority staff or participants. Findings suggest that students and workers are not being prepared sufficiently by state agencies and educational institutions to serve the large proportion of social service clients classifiable as cultural, racial, or linguistic minorities.


KEY TERMS:         curricula;  professional training;  minority groups;  child protective services;  questionnaires;  data analysis;  universities


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Technical Report


INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch



TITLE:                    Indian Culture and Its Relationship to Child Abuse and Neglect.


INST. AUTHOR:    National Indian Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center, Tulsa, Okla.




SOURCE:                National Indian Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center, Tulsa, Okla., Spring 1980;  6 pp.


ABSTRACT:           Child protective service workers and others dealing with abusive and neglectful Indian families must understand the cultural background of abuse among these families. Myths concerning white racial superiority and the necessity of assimilating the Indian minority into the Anglo culture must be dealt with and the cultural diversity among Indian tribes must be recognized. The Bureau of Indian Affairs lists 493 Indian tribes, each with distinct cultural and linguistic traits, kin systems, and social organizations. One generalization that can safely be made is that the concept and practice of the extended family was widespread among Indian tribes. Policies of the Federal government have gone far to destroy this supportive network. Early missionary schools and subsequent Federal boarding schools for Indian children were key factors in the dissolution of the extended family system. Since child-rearing practices among Indians are largely dependent on the existence of the extended family, the weakening or destruction of the extended family resulted in child abuse. This central problem is complicated by ancillary problems that include immaturity among Indian families associated with dependency on Federal institutions, feelings of racial inferiority, difficulties in seeking pleasure in the adult world and in adjusting to an adult world, feelings of loss of control and power, social isolation, and lack of parenting skills. The Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 constitutes an attempt to address these issues.


KEY TERMS:         social workers;  american indians;  cultural factors;  child rearing;  racial factors



TITLE:                    The Long-term Effects of Early Experience.


AUTHOR:               Rutter, M.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park (Denmark). Dept. of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.


SOURCE:                22: pp. 800-815;  Mac Keith Press, London (England)., December 1980


ABSTRACT:           A review of literature on the long-term effects of early experience on intellectual and social development is presented. Emphasis is placed on the question of whether or not adverse environmental circumstances in an early critical period of development will invariably have negative long-term consequences. It is concluded that this is not the case because children's intellectual and linguistic development is highly sensitive to environmental change in both late and early childhood. Some residual consequences of early adversity may remain, but the impact on development will be slight if the environment is significantly improved. This also holds true for social development. Thus adoption studies have shown that infants who do not develop normal attachments and who are adopted after 4 years of age nonetheless usually develop deep attachments to their adoptive parents. There is, however, some evidence that early bonding is necessary for fully normal social development. The long-term effect of acute stress in early childhood is also considered, and it is concluded that multiple acute stresses may cause long-term psychological damage. Continuities do exist between infancy and maturity but the long-term impact is usually slight because of the changes and beneficial and adverse experiences that occur throughout life.


KEY TERMS:         attachment disorder;  outcomes;  intellectual development;  environmental influences


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.bellhowell.infolearning.com



TITLE:                    A Course in Intervention Strategies in Child Abuse and Neglect.


AUTHOR:               Faller, K. C.;  Bowden, M. L.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. School of Social Work.


SOURCE:                3(1): pp. 227-233;  Oxford (Great Britain), Elsevier Science, Ltd., 1979


ABSTRACT:           A course in intervention strategies at the University of Michigan School of Social Work is designed to assist social workers in dealing with families in which child abuse and neglect have been identified. Five overlapping approaches are taught. The first, the linguistics approach assumes that a person does not deal with the real world but rather with a model of it which the therapist can assess by listening to the person's language. The other 4 approaches are based on major hypotheses about the kinds of family malfunction which lead to abuse and neglect, and include family systems intervention, which views the family as a system of interacting parts and assesses the power configuration within the family; network therapy, aimed at increasing the family's social contacts; transactional analysis, which attempts to counteract unresolved symbiosis among family members; and behavior modification, directed toward altering child-rearing skills passed down by maltreating parents. The course encourages use of the least complicated and most compatible intervention feasible in order to improve the likelihood of its permanent impact on family functioning. 22 references.


KEY TERMS:         family therapy;  social workers;  professional training


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article



TITLE:                    Life Style Patterns in Families With Neglected Children.


AUTHOR:               Lagerberg, D.;  Nilsson, K.;  Sundelin, C.




AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Academic Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Pediatrics.


SOURCE:                Presented at the Second International Congress on Child Abuse and Neglect, London, September 12-15, 1978;  8 pp.


ABSTRACT:           Characteristic lifestyle patterns encountered in 26 abusive and neglectful families are discussed and analyzed. One basic characteristic of these families was a lack of structure or continuity. Each of the families experienced at least one of the following: frequent moves or frequent or unrealistic moving plans; instability or failure in employment or training; marital instability, divorces, or crises in interpersonal relationships; and children in the same family with different fathers or cases where the mother has other children placed outside the family. Health problems among the 40 parents in these 26 families were greater than those encountered in the population at large: somatic illness; mental illness requiring inpatient care; intellectual deficiency; and drug or alcohol addiction. Social isolation and a feeling of worthlessness were common among the parents. A typical life spiral is presented, including insecurity, low self-esteem, rejection in the family and at school, isolation, identity disturbances, lack of trust of adults, alienation, helplessness, inferiority, rejection by society, hopelessness, exhaustion, and advanced alcohol and drug addiction. Language is seen as the major foundation for treatment in that the linguistic capacities of the parents can affect treatment. 11 references.


KEY TERMS:         personality patterns;  family characteristics



TITLE:                    Speech and Language of Abused Children.


AUTHOR:               Blager, F. B.;  Martin, H. P.




AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Colorado Univ., Denver. Dept. of Speech Pathology and Audiology.


SOURCE:                In: Martin, H. P. (Editor). The Abused Child: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Developmental Issues and Treatment. Cambridge, Mass., Ballinger Publishing Co., 1976;  pp. 83-92


ABSTRACT:           Speech and language assessments were performed on 23 abused children who were enrolled at the Preschool for Abused Children at the National Center for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect in Denver. The fist group consisted of 10 preschool children, mean age 43 months at the time of testing, who for had been subjected to abuse within the preceding 6 months; child protection agencies and the courts were involved with all of the families. The second group consisted of 13 children involved in psychotherapy, mean age 5.25 years at the time of testing. This group was seen several years after physical abuse had occurred, and all parents had been involved in therapy. Linguistic tests were administered to both groups. The preschool group showed delayed speech and language development on all measured parameters. Results from the older group on the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Ability indicated that while the overall average scores were within normal limits, closer analysis of the individual profiles of the subtest scores showed more scatter of abilities and disabilities than would be expected. Factors which reconfirm that speech and language is a sensitive neurologic, social and emotional function, sensitive to structural central nervous system damage and to aberrations in parenting include age of the child, lack of experience, reaction to testing, relationship to trauma, type of intervention, and adaptiveness of the child. Variations in the measured performance of abused children was dependent upon age, time of therapeutic intervention, type of intervention, developmental potential, and the amount of support or nonsupport there was in the psycho-communicative aspects of their environment. 15 references.


KEY TERMS:         preschool children;  speech disorders;  language development;  family environment;  tests


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Chapter in Book



TITLE:                    Mother-to-Child Speech at 2 Years--Effects of Early Postnatal Contact.


AUTHOR:               Ringler, N. M.;  Kennel, J. H.;  Jarvella, R.;  Navojosky, B. J.;  Klaus, M. H.




JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Pediatrics


AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, Ohio. Dept. of Pediatrics.


SOURCE:                86(1): pp. 141-144;  St. Louis, MO, Mosby-Year Book, Inc., January 1975


ABSTRACT:           Ten primiparous mothers were randomly selected from two groups of women who had spent different amounts of time with their newborn infants. The speech behavior of the mothers in the two groups was compared while they were addressing their 2-year-old children in an informal play situation. Speech patterns of the mothers revealed that those who had been given extra contact with their infants during the neonatal period used significantly more questions, adjectives, words per proposition, and fewer commands and content words than did the control mothers. These observations suggest that the linguistic behavior of the young child may be shaped by hospital-care practices for the mother and her infant. 9 references.


KEY TERMS:         mother child relationships;  child abuse research;  comparative analysis


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Journal Article


INTERNET URL:   http://www.mosby.com



TITLE:                    Maternal Deprivation Reassessed.


AUTHOR:               Rutter, M.




AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    London Univ. (England). Inst. of Child Psychiatry.


SOURCE:                Middlesex, England, Penguin Books, Inc., 1972;  175 pp.


ABSTRACT:           Among the qualities necessary for normal development are a loving relationship, an attachment of the child to the parent, continuity of the relationship, stimulating interaction, relationship with one person, and mothering in the child's home. Factors which modify children's responses to short-term maternal separation or deprivation are reviewed, and possible psychological mechanisms are discussed. It is concluded that the syndrome of distress (protest, despair, detachment) is probably due to a disruption or distortion of the bonding process (not necessarily within the mother), and that the syndrome of developmental retardation is probably the result of deprivation of social, perceptual, and linguistic stimulation. The long-term effects of maternal deprivation are reviewed and modifying factors discussed. Although evidence is incomplete, it is usually necessary for the child to have experienced normal relationships during early childhood for affectionless psychopathy to be completely reversible. Complete reversal is probably difficult after three years of age, although improvement may still occur later. A change for the better in middle childhood is associated with a lower rate of disorder, although antisocial behavior is one of the most persistent of childhood psychiatric disorders. Possible mechanisms of the many long-term effects include nutritional deficiency, deficiency in stimulation, distorted intrafamilial relationships, failure to develop attachments, stress, and loss of attachment figure. Numerous references.


KEY TERMS:         maternal deprivation;  sequelae;  child development;  etiology;  mother child relationships;  antisocial behavior;  behavior theories



TITLE:                    Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Directory for Training and Education. HEW Region V.


INST. AUTHOR:    Wisconsin Univ., Milwaukee. Region V Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center.


SOURCE:                Wisconsin Univ., Milwaukee;  100 pp.


ABSTRACT:           Current information about personnel and programs for child abuse and neglect training and education available in Region V are presented. The directory is intended to improve the capabilities of professionals and paraprofessionals with child protective responsibilities; to stimulate awareness about the need for such training and education resources; and to promote the development and enrichment of such resources in Region V. National and state resources for helping service providers to respond with sensitivity to cultural and linguistic minorities are highlighted. Entries are grouped by state (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin) and include a description, restrictions or prerequisites, contact, and other relevant information. A Region V Resource Center brochure and a questionnaire for revising entries in this directory are included in the appendices.


KEY TERMS:         training;  education;  resource centers;  professional training


PUBLICATION TYPE:         Directory


INTERNET URL:   http://www.calib.com/nccanch



TITLE:                    Sensitively Assessing Children's Testimonial Competence.


PRINCIPLE INV.: Karen J. Saywitz


ORG. ADDRESS:    1124 West Carson Street, Torrance, CA 90502-2064


KEY TERMS:         child witnesses;  Child;  Children;  courts;  research;  Testify


STUDY DETAILS: Focus of This Project    : Policy
Type of Abuse            : Physical, Emotional, Sexual, Neglect;
Child Maltreatment Focus : Primary
Sample Size              : 475
Age of Subjects          : 4-7 years old
Co-Occurring Features    : Not specified