TITLE:    Medicolegal Aspects of Child Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:    Myers, J. E. B.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Pacific Univ., Sacramento, CA. McGeorge School of Law.

 

SOURCE:    In: Reece, R. M. (Editor). Treatment of Child Abuse: Common Mental Health, Medical, and Legal Practitioners. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD., 2000;  p. 36

 

ABSTRACT:    Children s statements during examinations and interviews have forensic as well as medical significance. Under certain circumstances, the child s statements are inadmissible as evidence, due to the hearsay rules of evidence. There are, however, important exceptions. They include the excited utterance exception, disclosure under the doctrine of fresh complaint, statements made during diagnostic or treatment services, and the residual and child hearsay exceptions. Interviewing techniquesmust include the avoidance of suggestive or leading questions. Confidentiality and privileged communication have well-defined boundaries, and child abuse reporting laws override confidentiality and privilege. A professional called upon to appear in court as an expert witness should review only those portions of the record needed for the testimony and should document the parts of the record reviewed. Privileged and nonprivileged materials should be separated in the record. If one takes the record tocourt, limit what is taken to the intended testimony. If possible, do not take the record to the witness stand, and if it is taken, refer to it only if necessary. Expert testimony usually takes one of three forms: an opinion, an answer to a hypotheticalquestion, or a lecture providing information to the judge or jury. Be prepared for cross-examination, understanding that the defense attorney will try to raise doubts about the expert testimony. This is done by trying to limit the expert s ability to explain, by undermining the expert s assumptions, by impeaching the expert with a learned treatise, or by raising the issue of the expert s bias toward the prosecution. 33 references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    medical aspects of child abuse;  physicians role;  legal processes;  expert testimony;  expert witnesses;  rules of evidence;  hearsay rule;  confidentiality

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.press.jhu.edu

 

 

TITLE:    Awareness and Prevention of the Maltreatment of Children With Disabilities: A Dialogue for

 

INST. AUTHOR:    Georgia Univ., Athens. Center for Continuing Education.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

SOURCE:    Georgia Univ., Athens. Center for Continuing Eduation., 2000;  p. 70

 

ABSTRACT:    This manual describes efforts to prevent and intervene in the abuse of people with developmental disabilities. The first section reports on the prevalence of abuse and neglect, nationwide and in Georgia. Section Two outlines the components of prevention efforts at the individual, family, service system, and cultural levels, as well as in residential care. Section Three examines the indicators of abuse, reporting requirements, investigation and case management, treatment issues, legal issues, and the use of child protective service teams in Georgia. Special considerations for interviewing abuse victims with developmental disabilities, such as the role of facilitated communication, are also discussed. The remainder of the manual lists national agencies and organizations on abuse and disability, curricula and publications on prevention, abuse, and disability, early intervention services, and county DFCS offices. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:    developmental disabilities;  prevention;  child abuse;  intervention strategies;  georgia;  prevalence;  institutional abuse and neglect;  professional training

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Book

 

 

TITLE:    Making an Impact - Children and Domestic Violence: A Reader.

 

AUTHOR:    Hester, M.;  Pearson, C.;  Harwin, N.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Sunderland Univ., (United Kingdom). School of Humanities and Social Studies.

 

SOURCE:    Jessica Kingsley Publishers, Philadelphia, PA., 2000;  p. 98

 

ABSTRACT:    Commissioned by the British Department of Health, this resource provides background information about the link between domestic violence and child abuse. It can be used as part of individual study or as a supplement to group training. Part One defines domestic violence and reviews its impact on parenting and the coping ability of the victim. Factors that influence the effect of the abuse on children are also discussed. Part Two addresses the legal context of child safety. Protections under the criminal law, the civil law, and housing law are outlined. The third section focuses on intervention strategies and services for victims, children, and batterers. Topics include: risk and need assessment; disclosure of domestic violence; monitoring and recording domestic violence; interviewing children about domestic violence; responding to disclosures by children; child abuse interventions; group therapy; and community approaches to intervention with batterers. Multiagency involvement and cooperation are also examined. 2 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    spouse abuse;  child witnesses of family violence;  sequelae;  great britain;  legal processes;  child protection;  intervention strategies;  interagency cooperation

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.taylorandfrancis.com

 

 

TITLE:    Online Victimization: A Report on the Nation's Youth.

 

AUTHOR:    Finkelhor, D.;  Mitchell, K. J.;  Wolak, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    New Hampshire Univ., Durham. Crimes Against Children Research Center.

 

SOURCE:    National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, Alexandria, VA., 2000;  p. 116

 

ABSTRACT:    Fifteen hundred youth aged 10 through 17 who regularly use the Internet were surveyed for this study about their exposure to sexual solicitation, sexual material, harassment, and knowledge about Internet safety. Approximately 20 percentof the youth interviewed reported that they were solicited or approached sexually while using the Internet during the previous year. One in thirty-three indicated that they received an aggressive sexual solicitation, defined as when they were asked to meet someone, or a contact called them on the telephone or sent them letters, money, or gifts. One-fourth of the teens indicated that they had unwanted exposure to photographs of nude people or individuals engaged in sex in the last year. Very few of theincidents were reported to the authorities and only one-fourth of the survey participants who reported a sexual solicitation told a parent. However, almost 40 percent of those surveyed who had unwanted exposure to sexual material informed a parent. Fewer than 20 percent of youth and their parents could identify an authority to whom they could report an incident. One third of the homes had filtering or blocking software on the computer. The results indicate a need for more aggressive prevention campaigns to raise public awareness about the threats of sexual exploitation and options for reporting unwanted exposure to sexual material. An array of prevention and intervention strategies, designed with assistance from young people, are needed to address the problem at different age levels. 4 references, 20 figures, and 10 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    internet crimes;  sexual exploitation;  sex offenses;  prevalence;  statistical data;  risk factors;  prevention;  adolescents

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Technical Report

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.missingkids.com

 

 

TITLE:    Medicaid and Children: Overcoming Barriers to Enrollment. Findings From a National Survey.

 

AUTHOR:    Perry, M.;  Kannel, S.;  Valdez, R. B.;  Chang, C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Lake Snell Perry and Associates.

 

SOURCE:    Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, Washington, DC., January 2000;  p. 118

 

ABSTRACT:    More than 1,300 low income parents were interviewed for this study about the barriers to enrolling children in Medicaid. The sample included parents of children who were currently receiving Medicaid benefits, as well as parents of children who were eligible for Medicaid but not insured. The findings revealed that the majority of eligible, uninsured children lived in two-parent, working families. Parents of children enrolled in Medicaid were more likely than parents of non-participating children to receive welfare benefits. Uninsured children were also less likely to obtain medical care or prescription medication than children participating in Medicaid. Almost all of the parents reported that general health insurance for the children is very important and 81 percent of the parents of uninsured children believe that Medicaid is a good program. Barriers to enrollment identified by parents include difficulty collecting the required documentation, the complexity of the enrollment process, hours of operation of the Medicaid office, lack of knowledge about eligibility, public image about welfare administration, and language differences. More convenient application procedures and bilingual services would facilitate enrollment for the eligible, but non-participating families. 11 figures and 2 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    medicaid;  child health;  barriers;  statistical data;  health insurance;  statewide planning;  low income groups;  parental attitudes

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Technical Report

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.kff.org

 

 

TITLE:    Handbook for Child Protection Practice.

 

AUTHOR:    Dubowitz, H. (Editor);  Depanfilis, D. (Editor)

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Maryland Univ., Baltimore. School of Medicine.

 

SOURCE:    Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA., 2000;  p. 145

 

ABSTRACT:    This comprehensive reference reviews all aspects of child protection practice, from reporting and screening to assessment and intervention. Interviewing, service planning, evaluation and closure, and legal and ethical issues are also discussed. Topics include: determinations of urgency of response; engagement; culturally sensitive assessment strategies; coordination between child protective services and law enforcement; screening for substance abuse; criteria for substantiation; safety evaluation; family preservation and permanency planning; family assessment; strengths assessment; concurrent planning; family meetings; adjustments to foster care placements; treatment for sexual abuse perpetrators and physically abusive behavior; family services; and liability. Specific considerations for neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and psychological maltreatment are highlighted. The book also provides lists of additional resources about parenting, child welfare competencies, and child protection. 17 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    child protection;  practice protocols;  child abuse reporting;  investigations;  identification;  risk assessment;  service planning;  intervention

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:    Characteristics, Experiences, and Outcomes of Adolescents Served in Long-Term Foster Care.

 

AUTHOR:    Downs, A. C.;  Wolf, M.;  Pecora, P. J.;  Williams, J.;  Dye, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Casey Family Program, Seattle, WA.

 

SOURCE:    Presented at: Society for Research in Adolescence Biennial Meeting, Chicago, IL., March 30-April 2, 2000;  p. 203

 

ABSTRACT:    Pre-care, care, and initial post-care characteristics of 1,611 individuals who received long-term foster care through The Casey Family Program from 1966-1998 were investigated using in-depth case record reviews. The findings suggested that services provided during foster care were directly related to the severity of pre-care maltreatment, with more abuse leading to more services. The findings also indicate that some services were directly related to more positive outcomes at case closure; specifically, independent living and employment experiences were related to attainment of high school diploma or GED. A historical analysis of services over a 33 year period indicated that in recent years, youth served were more likely to come from abusive backgrounds filled with family violence and caregiver substance abuse. In recent years, youths were more likely to be placed in kinship foster care and were more likely to receive an array of specialized services (e.g., mental health care). These results will be supplemented by interviews with alumni who consent to be interviewed in a subsequent study. 2 references and 12 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    foster care research;  outcomes;  long term foster care;  adolescents;  sequelae;  individual characteristics;  service delivery;  program evaluation

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Proceedings Paper

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.casey.org

 

 

TITLE:    Violence Against Social Care Staff. Qualitative Research Report on Qualitative Research Among Social Care. Professionals.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    Research Perspectives, London (United Kingdom).

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

SOURCE:    Research Perspectives, London (United Kingdom)., April 2000;  p. 222

 

ABSTRACT:    Child welfare workers in the public and private sectors in Great Britain were interviewed individually and in focus groups for this qualitative study to determine the incidence and effects of violence in the workplace. Managers, social workers, day and home care workers and office-based staff believed that violence could be prevented by greater funding of social services, more supportive social attitudes, mobile phones, security in office buildings, notices about expected client behavior, professional training, and acceptable methods of defense. Proactive management support for workers can help to reduce the negative effects of violence against the worker, with procedures established for debriefing after an incident, reporting processes, and facilitation of police or court protection.

 

KEY TERMS:    child welfare research;  qualitative research;  violence;  risk factors;  worker safety;  prevention;  child welfare workers;  great britain

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Technical Report

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.doh.gov.uk/

 

 

TITLE:    Tips for Investigating Child Fatalities.

 

AUTHOR:    Lee, D.;  May, J.;  O'Keefe, E.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Update

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    American Prosecutors Research Institute, Alexandria, VA. National Center for Prosecution of Child Abuse.

 

SOURCE:    13(1): pp. 1-2;  American Prosecutors Research Institute, Alexandria, VA. National Center for Prosecution of Child Abuse., 2000;  p. 268

 

ABSTRACT:    This article provides checklists for the investigation of child fatalities. Suggestions are presented for identifying and interviewing witnesses, examining the suspected crime scene, creating a timeline of the child s last hours or days, and analyzing data. Potential witnesses include the medical professionals who treated the child, emergency personnel, patrol officers, parents, caregivers, and neighbors. After hearing the parents explanation of the child s death, investigators should specifically seize the object involved in the child s death, clothes and diapers of the child, the caretakers clothes, bottles and food containers, poisons and medicines, home videos and photographs, and medical records. The timeline will clarify the progression of the events that lead to the child s death and the veracity of the caretaker s explanation.

 

KEY TERMS:    investigations;  child fatalities;  interviews;  protocols;  guidelines;  police operating procedures;  police responsibility;  police role

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Assessing the Value of Structured Protocols for Forensic Interviews of Alleged Child Abuse

 

AUTHOR:    Orbach, Y.;  Hershkowitz, I.;  Lamb, M. E.;  Sternberg, K. J.;  et al.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

 

SOURCE:    24(6): pp. 733-752;  Elsevier Science, Ltd., New York, NY., June 2000;  p. 273

 

ABSTRACT:    This study evaluated the effectiveness of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Investigative Interview Protocol, a structured protocol of universally recommended guidelines for forensic interviews. The protocol was designed to maximize the amount of information obtained using recall memory probes, which are likely to elicit more accurate information than recognition memory probes. Forensic investigators were trained to use the protocol while conducting feedback-monitored simulation interviews. The utility of the protocol was then evaluated by comparing 55 protocol interviews with 50 prior interviews by the same investigators, matched with respect to characteristics likely to affect the richness of the children's accounts. The comparison was based on an analysis of the investigators' utterance types, distribution, and timing, as well as quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the information produced. As predicted, protocol interviews containedmore open-ended prompts overall as well as before the first option-posing utterance than non-protocol interviews did. More details were obtained using open-ended invitations and fewer were obtained using focused questions in protocol interviews than in non-protocol interviews, although the total number of details elicited did not differ significantly. In both conditions, older children provided more details than younger children did. The findings confirmed that implementation of professionally recommended practices affected the behavior of interviewers in both the pre-substantive and substantive phases of their interviews and enhanced the quality (i.e., likely accuracy) of information elicited from alleged victims. 101 references and 6 tables.(Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    interviews;  investigations;  child witnesses;  protocols;  validity;  sexual abuse;  measures

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Family Decision Meeting Project.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    Portland State Univ., OR. Child Welfare Partnership.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

SOURCE:    Portland State Univ., OR. Child Welfare Partnership., 2000;  p. 278

 

ABSTRACT:    Participants in 26 Family Unity Meetings in Oregon were interviewed before and after their meetings to determine the satisfaction of families with the family group decision making process and best practices for facilitation. In additionto interviews with caseworkers and birth parents, data were collected from observations of meetings and written evaluations. Findings revealed that the needs of the family were best addressed when more family members attended the meetings. However, family members did not realize that non-relatives who could also provide support could have also been invited. Barriers to attendance included the schedules of providers, geographical distance for family members, and employment. Several factors influenced the degree that family members participated in the discussion, such as knowledge about the meeting process; personal characteristics and comfort with speaking in the group; support for their position; and efforts by providers to involve the family in the conversation. Participants who were not willing to share information during the meeting attributed their resistance to distrust of the system, intra-family dynamics (loyalty, fear), legal implications, or confidentiality. Recommendations for improving the process address preparation of participants, meeting format, logistics (timing and location), clarification of the goal of the meetings, and adequate facilitation. The Oregon model involves a series of meetings, rather than one meeting endorsed by other family group approaches. The series format promotes team building, accountability, management of segments of the plan, and early identification of problems. 7 references and 10 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    decision making;  family group conferencing;  program models;  program evaluation;  child welfare research;  oregon;  qualitative research;  case plans

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Final Report

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.fgdm.org/

 

 

TITLE:    Evaluation of Yoga and Meditation Trainings With Adolescent Sex Offenders.

 

AUTHOR:    Derezotes, D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Utah Univ., Salt Lake City. Graduate School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:    17(2): pp. 97-113;  Kluwer Academic-Human Sciences Press, Inc., Dordrecht (The Netherlands)., April 2000;  p. 281

 

ABSTRACT:    This program evaluation assessed the effectiveness of yoga and meditation instruction for treating adolescent sex offenders. A literature review shows little content on the use of yoga and meditation instruction in general, and no content on the use of such methods with adolescent sex offenders. There is evidence, however, that such techniques can contribute to the improved physical and mental health of adults. Adolescent participants, their parents, and their trainers in the program were interviewed about their overall impressions of the program, what they liked and disliked about the yoga, breathing, and medication trainings, impact on relaxation, self-awareness, control of thoughts and feelings, and the potential impact onrecidivism. All of the participants reported that the training had a positive effect on their ability to relax and recognize their thoughts and feelings. However, some indicated that they would have liked more assistance from staff. They all indicated that they used yoga techniques on their own, but the majority felt more comfortable with an instructor. None of the youth committed repeat sexual offenses during the study period. The article recommends that the program be replicated and tested in other sites, with modifications for greater flexibility to meet individual needs. Yoga and meditation should be integrated throughout the program and parents and the community should be more involved. 32 references and 1 figure. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    program evaluation;  adolescent sex offenders;  sex offenders therapy;  therapeutic effectiveness;  childrens therapy;  treatment programs;  treatment evaluation

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.wkap.nl

 

 

TITLE:    In Their Own Voices: Transracial Adoptees Tell Their Stories.

 

AUTHOR:    Simon, R. J.;  Roorda, R. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    American Univ., Washington, DC. School of Public Affairs.

 

SOURCE:    Columbia Univ. Press, New York, NY., June 2000;  p. 285

 

ABSTRACT:    Twenty-four transracial adoptees were interviewed for this book about the transracial adoption experience. The adoptees were asked about their relationship with their family and friends as they were growing up, the reaction of the community, and their perspective of racial identity. All but one of the interviewees were in their 20s during the study and most were adopted before their sixth birthday. While some of the adoptees believed that black children should be adopted by black families, others were satisfied with their family background. Racial identity was important to several of the adoptees, but not to all of those interviewed. Most recommended that white families adopting black children make an effort to form connections with the black community, by attending a black church or living in a diverse neighborhood. The book also provides a historical perspective of transracial adoption and reviews findings from relevant research. 5 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    transracial adoption;  interracial families;  racial identity;  adoption outcomes;  historical perspective;  case studies;  adopted adults;  african americans

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.columbia.edu/cu/cup

 

 

TITLE:    Cultural Factors in Child Maltreatment and Domestic Violence in Korea.

 

AUTHOR:    Doe, S. S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Children and Youth Services Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Indiana Univ. Northwest. Div. of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:    22(3-4): pp. 231-236;  Elsevier Science, Ltd., New York, NY., March-April 2000;  p. 286

 

ABSTRACT:    Recent laws enacted and proposed in Korea illustrate the country s growing recognition of the social problems of child maltreatment and domestic violence. However, differences in perceptions of the use of corporal punishment and intervention exist among teachers, physicians, and social workers, as well as in the general public. In Korean culture, children are taught to be obedient and to live up to adults expectations, quietly carrying out their important duties like schoolwork.In such an adult-centered culture that has largely ignored children s opinions and perceptions, corporal punishment has been accepted as a disciplinary action often employed by parents and teachers. Until recently, little public attention has been paid to children at risk of being abused in the name of disciplining. Empirical studies conducted in the 1990s found that physical punishment is prevalent, with boys and younger children most likely to be disciplined. Social workers and physicians are more likely than teachers to perceive corporal punishment as child maltreatment and to support government intervention. Similarly, traditional patriarchal values also contributed to domestic violence, as husbands imposed the hierarchical order in the family. One study found that as many as 30 percent of couples interviewed had experienced some form of violence in the previous year. Coverage by the media and advocacy by various civic and non-profit organizations has prompted the establishment of a national level public policy for preventing child abuse and domestic violence. 6 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    child abuse research;  spouse abuse;  asia;  cultural factors;  cultural values;  corporal punishment;  social problems;  public awareness

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Remember the Children: Mothers Balance Work and Child Care Under Welfare Reform. Growing Up in Poverty Project. Wave 1 Findings: California, Connecticut, Florida.

 

AUTHOR:    Fuller, B.;  Kagan, S. L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    California Univ., Berkeley. School of Education.

 

SOURCE:    California Univ., Berkeley. School of Education., February 2000;  p. 293

 

ABSTRACT:    Wave One of the Growing Up in Poverty Project investigated the impact of welfare to-work initiatives on the quality of care provided to children whose mothers are joining the laborforce. Almost 1,000 single mothers of preschool childrenin California, Connecticut, and Florida were interviewed. Data were also collected from visits to child care providers and assessments of early language and social development. The analysis found that center-based care was more popular among families inFlorida, and that family child care was used most often in California and Connecticut. Fifty-four percent of mothers in California and 77 percent of mothers in Connecticut arranged for unregulated care offered by relatives. While the quality of home-based care was similar in all three states, child care centers in California were of higher quality than centers in Connecticut and Florida. Almost half of mothers in California and Florida received child care subsidies compared to 13 percent of mothers in Connecticut. Although more women are moving into jobs and training, wages are low and families are still living in poverty. Mothers in all three states faced an array of challenges, including social isolation, stress, and household members with a substance abuse problem. Gaps in insurance and clinical medical and mental health services and child development are also reviewed. Numerous figures and tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    welfare reform;  child care;  state surveys;  california;  connecticut;  florida;  statistical data;  outcomes

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Technical Report

 

INTERNET URL:    http://pace.berkeley.edu/

 

 

TITLE:    How Sexual Abuse Interviews Go Astray: Implications for Prosecutors, Police, and Child Protection Services.

 

AUTHOR:    Wood, J. M.;  Garven, S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Maltreatment

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Texas Univ., El Paso. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:    5(2): pp. 109-118;  Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA., May 2000;  p. 304

 

ABSTRACT:    This article argues that child sexual abuse interviews can go astray in two different ways: improper interviewing has the potential to elicit false allegations from children and clumsy interviewing does not typically produce false allegations, but may have other negative consequences, particularly for child victims. The article clarifies the distinction between the two kinds of bad interviewing and suggests that clumsy interviewing is the more common of the two. The potential negative consequences of both improper and clumsy interviewing are described, along with implications for prosecutors, police, and child protection services. Improper interviewing can probably be eliminated rather easily, but clumsy interviewing may be considerably more resistant to change. 65 references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    sexual abuse;  interviews;  investigations;  child witnesses;  sequelae;  leading questions;  methods;  false allegations

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Developmental, Familial, and Peer Determinants to Adoption Placement.

 

AUTHOR:    Weir, K. N.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Adoption Quarterly

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University of Southern California, Los Angeles. Marriage and Family Therapy Program.

 

SOURCE:    3(3): pp. 25-50;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 2000;  p. 404

 

ABSTRACT:    This article focuses on the developmental, familial, and peer deterrents that form barriers to adoption placement among teen mothers in a residential facility. An Eriksonian developmental model is used to explore developmental issues ofidentity, projective identification, and industry among teens. The findings suggest that family cutoffs and re-admissions also serve as deterrents to adoption placement. Additionally, peer pressure from residents of the facility form barriers to adoption placement. The teen mothers interviewed for the study expressed how they were deterred from adoption placement and constrained into child-rearing as pregnancy resolution strategies. This qualitative study suggests that family therapy interventions can facilitate adoption placement by addressing the constraints teen mothers face. 40 references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    barriers;  adoption research;  adoption;  adolescent child bearing;  adolescent parents;  pregnancy counseling;  family therapy;  intervention strategies

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:    Childhood Experiences of Domestic Violence.

 

AUTHOR:    McGee, C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, London (United Kingdom). Child Protection Research Group.

 

SOURCE:    Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London (United Kingdom)., 2000;  p. 405

 

ABSTRACT:    Fifty-four children and their mothers were interviewed for a study about the best ways to support children who have witnessed domestic violence, the perceptions of children and their mothers about support services, and the typical +; sources of support sought by families. Study participants were asked about the forms of domestic violence and child abuse they experienced, triggers of violence, characteristics of abusers, and the effects of witnessing violence on the child's identity, +; health, education, friendships, and relationships with family members. This book summarizes the findings of the study and identifies methods of coping and barriers to assistance for the women and children. The responses of social service agencies, law +; enforcement, schools, courts, and health professionals to the needs of children affected by domestic violence are also reviewed and assessed. The final chapter outlines recommendations for raising public awareness of domestic violence, legal protection, +; professional training, support services, and the protection of children during contact with the abuser. Numerous references, 1 figure, and 1 table.

 

KEY TERMS:    child witnesses of family violence;  spouse abuse;  service delivery;  intervention strategies;  policy formation;  battered women;  child protection;  sequelae

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.jkp.com

 

 

TITLE:    Questioning the Child Witness: What Can We Conclude From the Research Thus Far?

 

AUTHOR:    Quas, J. A.;  Goodman, G. S.;  Ghetti, S.;  Redlich, A. D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Trauma, Violence, and Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    California Univ., Irvine. Dept. of Psychology and Social Behavior.

 

SOURCE:    1(3): pp. 223-249;  Sage Publications Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA., July 2000;  p. 461

 

ABSTRACT:    In recent years increasing numbers of studies have investigated children's memory, suggestibility, and false event reports. This article highlights key findings from and implications of this research for interviewing child witnesses. First, developmental changes in children s memory and suggestibility are discussed, spanning from the early childhood years through middle childhood, suggesting that the most consistent and robust predictor of differences in children's performance is age. Second, theory and research concerning relations between emotional distress and children's memory are reviewed, with an emphasis on methodological differences that have led to varied results across studies and sheds light on the degree to which emotional distress helps versus hinders children ' memory and suggestibility. Third is a description of factors associated with the context of an interview that may influence children's susceptibility to false suggestions, in particular discussing the implications of questioning tactics and contextual features of forensic interviews. Fourth, recent studies are discussed concerning individual differences in children's mnemonic capabilities, suggestibility, and false memories. Finally, recommendations are provided about what can and cannot be concluded from research on questioning child witnesses, with an eye on aiding professionals in understanding the research and its capabilities and limitations. Numerous references. (Author abstract modified.)

 

KEY TERMS:    child witnesses;  research;  false allegations;  memory;  suggestibility;  stress;  risk factors;  literature review

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:    Assessing Children's Experiences of Out-of-Home Care: Methodological Challenges and

 

AUTHOR:    Berrick, J. D.;  Frasch, K.;  Fox, A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Social Work Research

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    California Univ., Berkeley. School of Social Welfare.

 

SOURCE:    24(2): pp. 119-127;  National Association of Social Workers, Inc., Washington, DC., June 2000;  p. 499

 

ABSTRACT:    The U.S. foster care system has undergone profound changes over the past decade, with caseload growth, increases in the number of very young children entering care, and problematic behaviors among some children. This article discusses +; some of the methodological issues raised in a study conducted in California. The sample included 100 children ages 6 to 13 residing in kinship or non-kinship care for a minimum of six months. The study used face-to-face interviews with the children in +; the homes of their caregivers and was built on the previous work by the investigator, which also involved interviews with the children's kin and non-kin foster parents. From the interviews, three challenges emerged in conducting research with children in+; foster care: 1) the recruitment of the study sample; 2) development of the study instrument; and 3) selection and training of interviewers. Potentially problematic methodological concerns are highlighted, and a variety of strategies to minimize their +; effect are suggested. Conclusions support the importance of working collaboratively with social services agencies and the courts to overcome some of the obstacles faced in research of foster care. Techniques must be devised and defined to gain access to +; children in care and to incorporate their perspectives into the research enterprise. Twenty-four references.

 

KEY TERMS:    out-of-home care;  foster care;  behavior problems;  kinship care;  service delivery;  research methodology;  california;  data analysis

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.naswpress.org

 

 

TITLE:    Children and the Law: Doctrine, Policy and Practice.

 

AUTHOR:    Abrams, D. E.;  Ramsey, S. H.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Missouri Univ., Columbia. School of Law.

 

SOURCE:    West Group, St. Paul, MN., 2000;  p. 586

 

ABSTRACT:    Written for advanced law courses about child advocacy and juvenile law, this text reviews doctrine, policy, and practice regarding the rights of children, parents, and government; the competency of children; and the lawyer's representation of children. Emphasis is placed on collaborating with professionals from related disciplines, including psychology, sociology, medicine, education, and criminology to ensure effective representation. The chapters explain the definition of the parent-child relationship, children's abilities and disabilities, abuse and neglect, foster care, criminal abuse and neglect, adoption, medical decision-making, financial responsibilities and control, regulations of child behavior, and delinquency laws and procedures. Specific topics include strategies for interviewing child witnesses, the competency of children to advise counsel, child abuse and neglect reporting statutes, the child protection system, terminations of parental rights, racial bias,child's right to protection from harm, types of placements, adoption consent, and international adoption. Contemporary legal problems are presented in each chapter for class discussion.

 

KEY TERMS:    child advocacy;  lawyers;  lawyers responsibility;  lawyers role;  legal problems;  professional training;  federal case law;  state case law

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.westgroup.com

 

 

TITLE:    Emotional Well-Being Among Grandparents Raising Children Affected and Orphaned by HIV

 

AUTHOR:    Joslin, D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    William Patterson Coll., Wayne, NJ. Dept. of Community Health.

 

SOURCE:    In: Hayslip, B.; Goldberg-Glen, R. (Editors). Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: Theoretical, Empirical and Clinical Perspectives. Springer Publishing Co., Inc., New York, NY., 2000;  p. 619

 

ABSTRACT:    Twenty grandparents were interviewed for this exploratory study of the physical and emotional well-being of individuals caring for grandchildren who are affected or orphaned by HIV. The study participants were asked about their emotional health compared to the previous year, demographic characteristics, use of psychotropic medications, psychological distress, and attitudes about their surrogate parenting experience. Slightly more than half of the sample rated their emotional health as fair or poor and 45 percent reported that their well-being was worse than it was a year ago. Seven of the 20 participants indicated that they felt burdened by caregiving sometime during the previous six months, while equal numbers felt they were never or nearly always burdened. Half of the sample felt lonely during the past week. Feelings of hopelessness were most common among parents whose child recently died, had lower incomes, and were younger. Social isolation was reported by many of the people interviewed. Implications for further research are discussed in the chapter. 46 references and 5 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    kinship care;  grandparents;  parental stress;  hiv infection;  aids;  orphans;  emotional health;  child welfare research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.springerpub.com

 

 

TITLE:    Using a Microanalysis of a Videotaped Interview to Understand the Dynamics of a Grandparent-Headed Household.

 

AUTHOR:    Sands, R. G.;  Goldberg-Glen, R. S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:    In: Hayslip, B.; Goldberg-Glen, R. (Editors). Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: Theoretical, Empirical and Clinical Perspectives. Springer Publishing Co., Inc., New York, NY., 2000;  p. 626

 

ABSTRACT:    A microanalysis conducted of an interview in which a custodial grandmother revealed that her husband is the father of one of her grandchildren reveals clues about the grandmother's state of mind and her feelings about caregiving. Researchers performed the microanalysis by reviewing a videotape of the interview and noting the verbal as well as nonverbal responses of the grandmother and the interviewer. In a previous survey, the interviewee had expressed her displeasure with the custodial role. The microanalysis provided the reasons for her attitude by finding that she referred to the child as that instead of he and that the woman was previously avoiding questions about her relationship with her husband. These findings indicate that follow-up interviews may be needed to obtain more in-depth information than can be collected in a written questionnaire. In addition, interviewers should be trained to read clues that an interviewee is protecting some key information about the family. 22 references and 2 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    kinship care;  grandparents;  interviews;  qualitative research;  videotaping;  research methodology;  data analysis;  disclosure

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.springerpub.com

 

 

TITLE:    Trends and Correlates of Coresidency Among Black and White Grandmothers and Their Grandchildren: A Panel Study, 1967-1992.

 

AUTHOR:    Caputo, R. K.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Yeshiva Univ., New York, NY. Wurzweiler School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:    In: Hayslip, B.; Goldberg-Glen, R. (Editors). Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: Theoretical, Empirical and Clinical Perspectives. Springer Publishing Co., Inc., New York, NY., 2000;  p. 633

 

ABSTRACT:    Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience, Mature Women's Cohort were analyzed to examine racial differences in the prevalence of coresident grandparenting, the characteristics of coresident grandmothers and grandchildren, predictors of coresident grandparent status, and the incidence of three generation households and skipped-generation households. The sample included 5,083 women originally interviewed from 1967 through 1992. Of the sample, 422 Black women and 323 White women reported coresident or caregiver status. Throughout the 15 years of the survey, Black women were more likely than White women to report living with grandchildren. However, the differences between Black and White respondents decreased during the survey period. Approximately seven percent of Black women were coresident grandparents, compared to half of a percent of White women. In 1992, almost 18 percent of Black respondents were coresident grandparents, compared to about 2 percent of White respondents. Overall, 60 percent of Black grandmothers had resided with grandchildren sometime between 1967 and 1992, while 15 percent of White women had lived with their grandchildren. The duration of coresidency was also longer for Black families. Correlates of coresidency for Black and White women were number of own children and years of coresidency, and age. Number of own children was a stronger predictor of coresidency for White women than Black women. Although income status had no statistical impact on coresidency in 1992 for White or Black respondents, 38 percent of Black women in skipped and three generation households lived in poverty. The policy implications of these findings are discussed. 21 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    kinship care;  grandparents;  child custody;  statistical data;  trend analysis;  racial differences;  longitudinal studies;  prevalence

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.springerpub.com

 

 

TITLE:    A Comparison of Low-Income Caregivers in Public Housing: Differences in Grandparent and Nongrandparent Needs and Problems.

 

AUTHOR:    Kauffman, S.;  Goldberg-Glen, R. S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Widener Univ., Chester, PA. Center for Social Work Education.

 

SOURCE:    In: Hayslip, B.; Goldberg-Glen, R. (Editors). Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: Theoretical, Empirical and Clinical Perspectives. Springer Publishing Co., Inc., New York, NY., 2000;  p. 634

 

ABSTRACT:    This chapter describes the public housing service system and presents the findings of an assessment of the needs of 82 public housing residents in Chester, Pennsylvania. The needs of grandparent caregivers, parent caregivers, and non-child households are compared. Each study participant was interviewed about the composition of the family, economic issues, attitudes, service needs, and barriers to service. Grandparent caregivers reported fewer problems with transportation, unemployment, juvenile crime, family violence, financial stress, and mental illness, but they indicated that they had more health problems and conflicts among children. Teenage children were more difficult for grandparents to manage and more grandparent caregivers reported the arrest of a family member. The findings suggest that grandparent caregivers may be better off financially than other public housing residents, but need assistance with managing child behavior and coping with the arrest of a child and sudden caregiving responsibilities. 9 references and 2 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    grandparents;  public housing;  low income groups;  needs assessment;  kinship care;  child custody;  social services;  service delivery

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.springerpub.com

 

 

TITLE:    Intercountry, Transracial Adoption and Ethnic Identity: A Korean Example.

 

AUTHOR:    Huh, N. S.;  Reid, W. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    International Social Work

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Hallym Univ., Chuncheon City, Kang won Do (South Korea). Dept. of Social Welfare.

 

SOURCE:    43(1): pp. 75-87;  Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA., 2000;  p. 717

 

ABSTRACT:    Thirty adoptive Caucasian families with a total of 40 adopted Korean children were interviewed for this study about the development of ethnic identity in transracially-adopted children. Parents and children were asked about the family'sparticipation in Korean cultural activities, the child's identification with Korean culture, and parent-child communication about the adoption. Parent and child participation in Korean cultural activities was the most significant predictor of the child's ethnic identity. Families with greater involvement in cultural activities also reported better communication about the child s birth and adoption history. Eighty percent of the children with high levels of ethnic identity categorized themselves as Korean American, compared to 20 percent of children with low ethnic identity scores. Slightly more than half of the children with lower ethnic identity classified themselves as Korean. Data from the qualitative part of the study was used to conceptualize a typical process for ethnic development, beginning with the recognition and rejection of differences from age 4 through 6 years. Ethnic identification starts during ages 7 and 8 and acceptance of difference and ethnic dissonance occurs during ages 9 to 11. The integration of Korean heritage and American culture begins during early adolescence (ages 12-14). Implications for practice are briefly discussed. 24 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    intercountry adoption;  transracial adoption;  ethnic identity;  korean americans;  adoption research;  ethnic studies;  cultural identity;  cultural factors

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:    Beyond Searching For Deficits: Evidence That Physically and Emotionally Abused Women Are Nurturing Parents.

 

AUTHOR:    Sullivan, C. M.;  Nguyen, H.;  Allen, N.;  Bybee, D.;  Juras, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Emotional Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Michigan State Univ., E. Lansing. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:    2(1): pp. 51-71;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 2000;  p. 727

 

ABSTRACT:    Eighty women who had a history of recent domestic violence and their children aged 7-11 were interviewed for this study of the interrelationships between women's experience of physical and emotional abuse, their parenting stress, quality of maternal parenting, and children's behavioral adjustment. The participating mothers and children agreed that the mothers were emotionally available to their children, and that mothers were more likely to use noncorporal punishment with their children than corporal punishment. Multivariate analysis indicated that mothers' experience of physical and emotional abuse had no direct impact on their level of parenting stress or use of discipline with their children. Rather, assailants' abuse of mothers had a direct impact on children's behavioral adjustment. The study illuminates the importance of identifying battered women's parenting strengths and assets. Research and policies implications are also discussed. 46 references and 1 figure. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    adults abused as children;  sequelae;  parenting skills;  parental stress;  spouse abuse;  emotional response;  child behavior;  mothers

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:    Adoption With Contact: A Study of Adoptive Parents and the Impact of Continuing Contact With Families of Origin.

 

AUTHOR:    Sykes, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Adoption and Fostering

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Wiltshire Mental Health Care NHS Trust (United Kingdom).

 

SOURCE:    24(2): pp. 20-32;  British Agencies for Adoption and Fostering, London (United Kingdom)., 2000;  p. 735

 

ABSTRACT:    Adoption practice in the 1990s has seen a substantial increase in adoptive families where there continues to be contact with families of origin. This study examines the impact of contact experiences for adoptive parents at least two years after placement. Thirty adoptive parents in 17 families completed a written questionnaire about their experience and about half of the respondents were interviewed for more information. The analysis of the narratives from the interviews considered the impact on parenthood, specifically themes of control, entitlement to parent, communication, bonding, and ownership, as well as the relationships between adoptive and birth parents. The findings suggest that the passage of time and a greater sense of control assist in establishing confidence, while adopters develop a more empathic view towards birth mothers. This has emotional costs to the adoptive mother. The study suggests that contact is more likely to be sustained where adoptive parents are able to develop a coherence in their understanding of their own past experiences. The implications for practice are discussed. 43 references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    adoption research;  post adoption contact;  open adoption;  sequelae;  birth mothers;  visitation;  emotional response;  parental attitudes

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.baaf.org.uk

 

 

TITLE:    Concurrent Planning: Tool for Permanency. Survey of Selected Sites.

 

AUTHOR:    Lutz, L. L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

SOURCE:    National Resource Center for Foster Care and Permanency Planning, New York, NY. Hunter Coll. of Social Work., April 2000;  p. 773

 

ABSTRACT:    Twelve sites were surveyed for this study about best practices for implementing concurrent planning for children in foster care. Program coordinators answered questions about target populations, involvement with birth parents, preparation of stakeholders, caseload and agency organization, differential assessment and service planning, case reviews, and the role of resource families. The most effective programs featured intensive case work with the birth families of the children; frequent visits between the children and their birth families; communication with birth families about alternatives for permanency planning and their progress toward reunification; searches for absent parents and resolution of paternity; searches for relatives to participate in permanency planning or to care for the child; frequent reviews of the effectiveness of services; and the preparation of foster parents to support family reunification. The interviewees noted that changes were necessary in the organizational structure of their agency and the attitudes of social workers to facilitate the new system of care. Although most of the concurrent planning coordinators believed that the twelve-month time requirement of the Adoption and Safe Families Act was appropriate, some indicated that it may not be long enough to make a determination for families affected by substance abuse or mental illness. Evaluations of the programs in the sample found that concurrent planning and practices resulted in a greater number of children being placed with relatives, an increase in the quality of care provided by foster and adoptive parents, and that 30 - 50 percent of the children in expedited permanency planning and concurrent planning were returned home. 1 figure and 4 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    concurrent planning;  permanency planning;  asfa;  program evaluation;  outcomes;  best practices;  surveys;  demonstration programs

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Technical Report

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.hunter.cuny.edu/socwork/nrcfcpp

 

 

TITLE:    Child Psychological Maltreatment in Palestinian Families.

 

AUTHOR:    Khamis, V.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Bethlehem Univ., West Bank (Palestine). Dept. of Social Sciences.

 

SOURCE:    24(8): pp. 1047-1059;  Elsevier Science Inc., New York, NY., 2000;  p. 795

 

ABSTRACT:    This study was designed to identify predictors of child psychological abuse in Palestinian families. It examined the relative contributions of child characteristics, parents' sociodemographics, and economic hardships, family characteristics such as family values, family ambiance, gender inequities, parental support, harsh discipline, psychological abuse, and other forms of abuse. The sample consisted of 1,000 school age children from 12 to 16 years. Two school counselors interviewed the children at school, and with the available parent at home. Results showed that child school performance was specifically associated with child psychological abuse. Parents who perceived that the family did not have enough money to meet the child's needs were more likely to abuse their children psychologically. Gender inequities, harsh discipline, family ambiance, and lack of parental support were the most salient predictors of abuse. Child psychological abuse occurred concurrently withother forms of abuse such as physical abuse and child labor. Parental psychological abuse proved to be weakened with high traditional family values. Conclusions suggested that a significant portion of the sample could be considered psychologically abused. The authors recommend that intervention and prevention efforts should be focused on child welfare, educational programs for high-risk parents, and mobilization of the community and social services agencies. Two tables; numerous references. (Author abstract modified.)

 

KEY TERMS:    child abuse;  middle eastern cultures;  family;  psychological abuse;  socialization;  questionnaires;  data analysis;  predictor variables

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    What Do Young Children Know About Sex? Research on the Sexual Knowledge of Children Between the Ages of 2 and 6 Years.

 

AUTHOR:    Brilleslijper-Kater, S. N.;  Baartman, H. E. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (The Netherlands). Dept. of Education.

 

SOURCE:    9(3): pp. 166-182;  John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY., 2000;  p. 811

 

ABSTRACT:    The authors conducted research on the sexual knowledge of 63 Dutch children between the ages of two and six. The sample included 32 girls and 31 boys, each with average or above average IQ and with no previous experience of sexual abuse. Each child was interviewed individually for 30 minutes during nursery or school, showing them 15 pictures to measure sexual knowledge. Results found that young children have a very limited knowledge of sexuality; they possess only basic knowledge of genital differences, gender identity, sexual body parts, and non-sexual functions of the genitals. Knowledge of pregnancy and birth, reproduction and adult sexual behavior was found to be very limited and decreased. Non-sexually abused children appearto interpret situations that show physical intimacy between adults and children in terms of their own experience. None of the children discussed sexual activities; older children generally knew more than younger ones; and no significant differences in knowledge between boys and girls were found. These results are in agreement with other theoretical findings on the sexual development of children, including the developmental categorization of children s understanding of reproduction by other studies. The authors recommend that more research is essential, particularly in comparing the knowledge of children who have been sexually abused with that of non-abused children. One table; numerous references. (Author abstract modified.)

 

KEY TERMS:    sexual abuse;  sexual behavior;  children;  diagnosis;  netherlands;  data collection;  data analysis;  psychosexual development

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.wiley.com

 

 

TITLE:    Effects of Prenatal Cocaine-Crack and Other Drug Exposure on Electroencephalographic Sleep Studies at Birth and One Year.

 

AUTHOR:    Scher, M. S.;  Richardson, G. A.;  Day, N. L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Pediatrics

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Cleveland Univ. Hospitals, OH. Div. of Pediatric Neurology.

 

SOURCE:    105(1): pp. 39-48;  American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village, IL., January 2000

 

ABSTRACT:    This study investigated the effect of prenatal cocaine use on electroencephalographic (EEG) sleep patterns, a marker of central nervous system development. The longitudinal study interviewed women at the end of each trimester about cocaine, crack, alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and other drug use. Two- hour paper- and computer-generated EEG sleep recordings were obtained on a sample of the full-term infants on the second day of life and at 1 year postpartum. Eligible newborns were full- term, had received no general anesthesia, and had a 5-minute Apgar score of greater than 5. All infants whose mothers used one or more lines of cocaine during their first trimester or any crack were selected for the EEG study. A comparison group was chosen randomly from the group of women who did not use cocaine or crack during their pregnancy. The 37 women who used cocaine or crack during the first trimester were older, less educated, less likely to be working, and used more tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs than the 34 women who did not use cocaine or crack during the first trimester. There were no differences in infant birthweight, length, head circumference, or gestational age between the two exposure groups. After controlling for the significant covariates, prenatal cocaine exposure was associated with less well-developed spectral correlations between homologous brain regions at birth, and with lower spectral EEG power values at 1 year of age. Prenatal alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco use were found to affect state regulation and cortical activities. These results indicate that the neurotoxic effects of prenatal cocaine-crack use can be detected with quantitative EEG measures. 61 references and 6 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    prenatal influences;  drug exposed infants;  cocaine;  sequelae;  neurology;  neurological impairments;  neurological examinations;  longitudinal studies

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.pediatrics.org

 

 

TITLE:    Supervised Visitation: The Families and Their Experiences.

 

AUTHOR:    Pearson, J.;  Thoennes, N.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Family and Conciliation Courts Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Center for Policy Research, Denver, CO.

 

SOURCE:    38(1): pp. 123-142;  Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA., January 2000

 

ABSTRACT:    Data were collected from reviews of 676 case files and interviews with 201 participating parents to provide a profile of families receiving supervised visitation services, their experiences, and the outcomes from one of four programs. Findings indicate that the visitation programs successfully serve a wide variety of families and garner high ratings of user satisfaction, but half of the families exit without formal closure. Families that drop out receive fewer court hearings and evaluations for the problems that brought them into the programs in the first place, suggesting that they may feel neglected. In most cases that formally exit the program, the visitation situation improves over time, although interviewed parents give mixed reports about their visitation situations after they leave the programs. 13 references and 11 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    visitation;  family services;  family characteristics;  outcomes;  program evaluation;  model programs;  foster care;  family reunification

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:    Factors Associated With Stress Among Grandparents Raising Their Grandchildren.

 

AUTHOR:    Sands, R. G.;  Goldberg-Glen, R. S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Family Relations

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:    49(1): pp. 97-105;  National Council on Family Relations, Minneapolis, MN., January 2000

 

ABSTRACT:    This cross-sectional study of 129 grandparents raising their grandchildren examined the extent to which social supports are related to the grandparents' stress (psychological anxiety). The sample included 129 grandparents consisting of 32 African American and 32 white middle aged grandparents; and 34 African American and 31 white older grandparents. Trained female interviewers, matched with interviewees by race, conducted face-to-face interviews with grandparents. Participants were asked sociodemographic information about themselves and others in their household, to describe the circumstances surrounding their becoming surrogate parents, to offer health and life stage information, and to answer questions about supports, stressors, and satisfactions. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that contextual factors, stressors related to caretaking, and lack of supports accounted for 35 percent of the variance. Younger grandparents, children with psychological and physical problems, and low family cohesion were associated with stress. Implications for clinical and educational intervention are discussed. When there was a lack of support and resources, there was heightened psychological anxiety after controlling for background and contextual conditions and caretaking stressors. 5 tables and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    anxiety;  grandparents;  interviews;  psychological stress;  family support systems;  support systems;  caretakers

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.ncfr.com

 

 

TITLE:    Child Characteristics Which Impact Accuracy of Recall and Suggestibility in Preschoolers: Is Age the Best Predictor?

 

AUTHOR:    Geddie, L.;  Fradin, S.;  Beer, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    East Carolina Univ., Greenville, NC. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:    24(2): pp. 223-235;  Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY., February 2000

 

ABSTRACT:    This study determined whether individual difference factors of metamemory, intelligence, and temperament can improve the ability to predict accuracy of recall and suggestibility in preschoolers. Fifty-six children ranging in age from 43 months to 83 months were recruited from 13 child care centers in a rural southwestern town. Children participated in a circus day event conducted by 2 female undergraduate psychology students dressed as clowns. About 10 days after the event, children were interviewed regarding their experiences. Bivariate correlations and multiple regression analyses were performed in order to determine which factors were related and unique contributors to accuracy of memory and suggestibility. Of principal importance is the finding that child characteristics such as metamemory ability, intellectual functioning, and temperament may indeed be helpful in determining a child's capacity to accurately recall information in an interview, although for the most part age is the best predictor. Findings also underscore the importance of considering a child's socioeconomic status and race when planning and conducting interviews with young children. Possible explanations for these findings as well as implications for future research and clinical application are discussed. 2 tables and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    preschool children;  memory;  suggestibility;  individual characteristics;  predictor variables;  interviews;  intelligence

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Child Welfare Employee Licensure Study Guide.

 

AUTHOR:    Ahern, C.;  Bailey, R.;  Hamilton, J.;  Harris, R. et al.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Illinois State Dept. of Children and Family Services, Springfield. Division of Training and Development.

 

SOURCE:    Illinois State Dept. of Children and Family Services, Springfield. Division of Training and Development., February 2000;  176 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:    This self-study guide was developed to prepare child welfare workers in Illinois to meet licensing standards as required by state law. All investigators, supervisors, and child welfare specialists employed by the Department of Children and Family Services and its contractors must meet practice standards. The guide explains relevant child welfare laws and initiatives and outlines best practices in professionalism, human diversity, human behavior and development, juvenile court system, interviewing, assessment, service planning, documentation, and intervention. Ethics, cultural competence, attachment, parents' and children's rights in juvenile court, interviewing techniques, risk assessment models, investigation procedures, substance abuse and domestic violence, and permanency planning are specifically discussed. The guide includes review questions at the end of each section, as well as a practice exam.

 

KEY TERMS:    child welfare workers;  licensing;  professional training;  staff development;  illinois;  competency based training;  assessment;  intervention strategies

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Training Material

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.state.il.us/dcfs

 

 

TITLE:    OUT OF HOME CARE: RESIDENTIAL CARE AND GROUP HOMES: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

SOURCE:    NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  2000

 

KEY TERMS:    orphanages;  orphans;  social policies;  policy formation;  child welfare reform;  family preservation;  outcomes;  adoption;  funding;  child welfare services;  institutional abuse and neglect;  foster care drift;  judicial role;  permanency planning;  florida;  historical perspective;  deinstitutionalization;  model programs;  program descriptions;  program development;  residential care institutions;  welfare reform;  political factors;  private sector;  poverty;  therapeutic effectiveness;  child placement;  economic disadvantage;  attitudes;  child development;  research reviews;  psychological characteristics;  research methodology;  maternal deprivation;  foster care;  incidence;  statistical data;  predictor variables;  social workers attitudes;  public opinion;  government role;  discipline;  state statutory law;  federal statutory law;  vocational training;  state laws;  licensing;  standards;  state surveys;  personnel;  treatment programs;  program models;  federal aid;  grants;  religious organizations;  family characteristics;  family life;  program costs;  cost effectiveness;  costs;  operating expenses;  program planning;  federal laws;  sequelae;  residential care;  michigan;  child welfare research;  managed care;  residential treatment;  program administration;  out of home care;  foster children;  direct service providers;  emotionally disturbed children;  behavior modification;  therapeutic intervention;  intervention strategies;  service delivery;  program evaluation;  family programs;  shared family care;  adolescent sex offenders;  sex offenders therapy;  hispanics;  american indians;  african americans;  models;  parenting;  group dynamics;  control;  interviews;  adolescents;  focus groups;  family therapy;  canada;  cultural conflicts;  residential schools;  environmental stress;  trauma;  counselors;  disclosure;  mental health services;  social services;  mental disorders;  institutions

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
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330 C St., SW
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Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
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INTERNET URL:    http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:    Legislation Requiring or Authorizing Joint Investigations and Cooperation Between Law Enforcement and Child Protection Agencies in Child Abuse Cases (Current through December 31, 1999): Kentucky.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Investigations Number 14

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES  Administration for Children and Families  Administration on Children, Youth and Families  Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION  330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565  Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE  99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321

 

SOURCE:    In: Authorization for Joint Investigations

 

KEY TERMS:    Statute;  Kentucky;  Abuse;  advocate;  Child;  Child Abuse;  Child Abuse Cases;  Child Protection Agencies;  Commission;  conduct;  Cooperation;  Court;  Department;  Investigation;  Joint Investigation;  Law Enforcement;  Legislation;  offense;  professional;  services;  treatment

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Statutes

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.ndaa-apri.org

 

 

TITLE:    Legislation Mandating or Authorizing the Creation of Multidisciplinary/Multi-Agency Child Protection Teams (Current through December 31, 1999): Kentucky.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Investigations Number 15

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES  Administration for Children and Families  Administration on Children, Youth and Families  Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION  330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565  Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE  99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321

 

SOURCE:    In: Authorization for Multidisciplinary Team

 

KEY TERMS:    Statute;  Kentucky;  Abuse;  advocate;  Agency;  assessment;  Child;  child's welfare;  Commission;  conduct;  Court;  Creation;  Department;  Legislation;  Multi-Agency;  Multidisciplinary team;  Multidisciplinary/Multi-Agency;  offense;  professional;  services;  treatment

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Statutes

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.ndaa-apri.org

 

 

TITLE:    Legislation Mandating or Authorizing the Creation of Multidisciplinary/Multi-Agency Child Protection Teams (Current through December 31, 1999): Oklahoma.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Investigations Number 15

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES  Administration for Children and Families  Administration on Children, Youth and Families  Children's Bureau;  NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT INFORMATION  330 C Street, SW, Washington, DC, 20447, (703) 385-7565  Outside Metropolitan Area: (800) FYI-3366;  NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE  99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 739-0321

 

SOURCE:    In: Authorization for Multidisciplinary Team

 

KEY TERMS:    Statute;  Oklahoma;  Abuse;  Agency;  Child;  Child Abuse;  Creation;  Department;  Director;  Human Services;  jeopardy;  Legislation;  Multi-Agency;  Multidisciplinary/Multi-Agency;  neglect;  professional;  services;  treatment

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Statutes

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.ndaa-apri.org

 

 

TITLE:    Interviewing Ethnic Children and Families About Child Maltreatment.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

ABSTRACT:    Fontes teaches how to help diverse ethnic children speak as comfortably and accurately as possible about experiences of child abuse and neglect.  She discusses building rapport with children and families of diverse backgrounds, and how to conduct interviews with children who do not speak English.  This tape will help professionals who work with immigrant children, including social workers, forensic interviewers, psychotherapists, law enforcement professionals, physicians, nurses, educators, and attorneys.

 

TARGET AUDIENCE:    professionals

 

KEY TERMS:    ethnic groups;  child neglect;  interviews;  professional personnel

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Audiotape

 

YEAR:    2000

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.sagepub.com/

 

BROAD TERMS:    Child Welfare

 

 

TITLE:    Patterns of Abuse:  Exploding the Cycle.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    2000

 

ABSTRACT:    This video explores the link between animal abuse and human cruelty. Experts and survivors are interviewed about the various forms of abuse, its effect on society, and intervention tactics necessary to stop the cycle of violence.

 

TARGET AUDIENCE:    professionals;  general public

 

KEY TERMS:    animal cruelty

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Videotape

 

YEAR:    2000

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.pyramidmedia.com

 

BROAD TERMS:    Public Awareness

 

 

TITLE:    Mandated Reporting of Suspected Child Abuse: Ethics, Law, and Policy.

 

AUTHOR:    Kalichman, S. C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Wisconsin Medical Coll., Milwaukee. Dept. of Psychiatry and Mental Health Sciences.

 

SOURCE:    Second Edition. American Psychological Association, Washington, DC., 1999;  p. 48

 

ABSTRACT:    This guide for human services professionals explores the legal, ethical, and practice implications of mandatory reporting laws. The first section reviews the evolution of child abuse reporting laws and outlines the ethical dilemmas faced by professionals who are required to report suspected cases of abuse. Concepts of duty to warn, confidentiality, informed consent, diluting professional roles, the effects of reporting on child and family services, and conflicts between reporting laws and ethical standards are explained. Section Two explains therapeutic aspects of mandatory reporting laws and uses case studies to illustrate reasons that professionals may or may not report abuse. The final section presents guidelines for each stepof the reporting process, from interviewing children and informing parents and guardians to working with child abuse investigators. Ethical standards, definitions, and a hierarchical approach to managing uncertainty are discussed. Numerous references, 12 figures, and 10 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    mandatory reporting;  ethics;  public policy;  reporting procedures;  state statutory law;  decision making;  confidentiality;  sequelae

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.apa.org/

 

 

TITLE:    Materials for Interviewing-Questioning Children.

 

AUTHOR:    Walker, A. G.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

SOURCE:    Presented at: ABA Ninth National Conference on Children and the Law, Washington, DC, April 8-10, 1999. American Bar Association, Washington, DC. Center on Children and the Law.;  p. 85

 

ABSTRACT:    This document contains several papers prepared to help interviewers ask children about alleged child abuse and neglect experiences. The materials include a checklist, facts about children's language skills, guidelines for interviews, and a bibliography about the preparation and interviewing of child witnesses and testimonial aspects of child witnesses. Emphasis is placed on assessing the development and language skills of the child and forming questions that are clear and understandable. Interviewers are advised to ask simple questions, avoid legal terminology and abstract concepts, and be clear about the meanings of pronouns and literal language. 16 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    child witnesses;  interviews;  leading questions;  suggestibility;  testimony;  child development;  language development;  best practices

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Technical Report

 

 

TITLE:    Coordination of Family Preservation Services in a Rural Community: A Case Study.

 

AUTHOR:    Freer, R.;  Wells, K.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Family Preservation Journal

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Arkansas State Univ., Jonesboro. Dept. of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:    4(2): pp. 53-74;  Eddie Bowers Publishing, Inc., Dubuque, IA., 1999;  p. 147

 

ABSTRACT:    This case study examined the aspects of communities, human service agencies, workers, and families that affect the coordination of family preservation services in a rural area. Information was sought from all workers who provided services to each of five families and from the families' case records. Thirty-one workers were interviewed with a semi-structured instrument containing rating scales and questions with open-ended response formats. Analyses of data from the interviews andcase records revealed that services were coordinated to a moderate degree but that coordination deteriorated over time. Although workers met together frequently to review cases, there was no case in which all of the workers were present at the same meeting. The discussions usually addressed how to find services for families instead of how those services contributed to the overall treatment plan. Implications of findings for future research are reviewed in the article. 39 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    family preservation;  service coordination;  interagency collaboration;  program descriptions;  rural environment;  community role;  agency role;  family role

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Foster Parents' Understanding of Children's Problematic Attachment Strategies: The Need for Therapeutic Responsiveness.

 

AUTHOR:    Tyrrell, C.;  Dozier, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Adoption Quarterly

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Delaware Univ., Newark. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:    2(4): pp. 49-64;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 1999;  p. 165

 

ABSTRACT:    Foster mothers and biological mothers were interviewed regarding their understanding of children's insecure attachment strategies and their knowledge of foster care issues. In addition, parent sensitivity was assessed and case workers in the foster care system reported on foster mothers' effectiveness. As expected, foster mothers reported significantly more attachment-related difficulties with their foster children than biological mothers reported with their natural children. Foster mothers were not significantly different from biological mothers in their understanding of attachment strategies, knowledge about foster care issues, or sensitivity. Case workers' reports of foster parent effectiveness were significantly related to foster parents' knowledge about foster care issues but were not significantly related to parents' understanding of attachment strategies. The importance of sensitivity to attachment issues among foster parents is discussed in the article. 37 references and 2 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    foster parents;  birth mothers;  behavior problems;  attachment behavior;  intervention;  parenting skills;  parental reactions;  foster care research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:    Effective Interviewing of Children: A Comprehensive Guide for Counselors and Human Service Workers.

 

AUTHOR:    Zwiers, M.;  Morrissette, P.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Markham-Stouffville Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada). Mental Health Services.

 

SOURCE:    Taylor and Francis, Philadelphia, PA., 1999;  p. 175

 

ABSTRACT:    This book provides guidelines for conducting child-focused interviews for assessment, research, or legal purposes. The first two chapters outline child and professional variables that influence the quality of interviews. Emphasis is placed on understanding child development and the rapport between the child and the professional. The remaining chapters discuss practical considerations for interviews with children, the use of language, issues for special circumstances, and the ethics of interviewing. Recommendations for the research interview and diagnostic clinical interviews are also presented. Specific topics include: establishing rapport; timing of the interview; recording; pacing; types of questions; working with challenging children; aggression and withdrawal; data collection and analysis; informed consent; custody evaluation; child abuse; and psychopharmacology. Numerous references and 1 table.

 

KEY TERMS:    interviews;  evaluation methods;  assessment;  suggestibility;  credibility;  social workers role;  communication techniques;  leading questions

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Book

 

 

TITLE:    Epidemiology of Family Violence Involving Children.

 

AUTHOR:    Haugaard, J. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Dept. of Human Development.

 

SOURCE:    In: Ammerman, R. T.; Hersen, M. (Editors). Assessment of Family Violence: A Clinical and Legal Sourcebook, Second Edition. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA., 1999;  p. 185

 

ABSTRACT:    This chapter summarizes the data from epidemiological studies of family violence involving children as victims and as aggressors. The studies of children as victims of physical and sexual abuse are categorized as community or national samples of households; cases reported to child protective services or other agencies; and research using college students as subjects. Although comparisons between studies are difficult because of differences in methodology and definitions, data from national or community samples indicate that 2 percent to 3 percent of all children are seriously physically abused by a parent. Data about sexual abuse is less consistent in these types of studies. Research with samples of identified victims suggests that reports of child abuse increased significantly from 1970 to 1992. Young children and children from low-income families are at greatest risk of maltreatment. Studies of college students are limited by the selectiveness of the sample and concerns about its representativeness to the general population. However, three studies indicate that 6 percent to 8 percent of undergraduates had been sexually abused by a father or father-figure. Finally, two nationally-based studies collected data about violence inflicted on parents by their children. In both studies, 9 percent of parents or children interviewed reported some type of parental abuse. 45 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    epidemiology;  family violence;  child witnesses of family violence;  statistical data;  prevalence;  incidence;  literature reviews;  research reviews

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.josseybass.com

 

 

TITLE:    Physical Punishment by Mothers and Fathers in British Homes.

 

AUTHOR:    Nobes, G.;  Smith, M.;  Upton, P.;  Heverin, A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Interpersonal Violence

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University of East London (England). Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:    14(8): pp. 887-902;  Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA., August 1999;  p. 238

 

ABSTRACT:    The relative extent to which mothers and fathers administer physical punishment sheds light on family relationships, parental roles and, perhaps, the identity of potential abusers. In this study, 362 British mothers and 103 fathers of randomly selected children from 366 two-parent families were interviewed. According to self-reports, the proportions of mothers and fathers who had used physical punishments were similar, as were the frequencies with which they used them. About 50 percent more mothers than fathers smacked or hit their children weekly or more often, whereas fathers were more prone to restrain or push their children. A nonsignificantly higher proportion of fathers than mothers had used severe punishment. Fathers whotook an equal share in caretaking used no more frequent or severe physical punishments than did mothers. These findings are compared with those of previous studies and discussed in terms of mothers and fathers caretaking and disciplinarian roles in different families. 31 references and 2 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    great britain;  punishment;  corporal punishment;  physical abuse;  incidence;  mothers;  fathers;  child abuse research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:    Childhood Victimization, Running Away, and Delinquency.

 

AUTHOR:    Kaufman, J. G.;  Widom, C. S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency

 

SOURCE:    36(4): pp. 347-370;  Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA., November 1999;  p. 243

 

ABSTRACT:    This study examines the interrelationship among childhood victimization, running away, and delinquency, and whether running away served to mediate or moderate this relationship. Data are from a prospective cohorts design study in which documented cases of childhood abuse and neglect were compared to matched controls, and followed-up and interviewed between 1989 and 1995. Results indicate that being abused or neglected in childhood increases the likelihood that a youth will runaway fromhome, both childhood victimization and running away increase the risk of juvenile arrest, and chronic runaways were at greater risk of arrest as juveniles. Furthermore, running away does not mediate the relationship between childhood victimization and delinquency, because running away increases the risk of juvenile arrest for both childhood victims and nonvictims. The effect of running away is stronger for nonabused and nonneglected youths than for abused and neglected children. Implications of these findings for research and policy are discussed. 41 references, 3 figures, and 5 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    juvenile delinquency;  runaway children;  child abuse history;  sequelae;  predictor variables;  risk factors;  child abuse research;  utilization

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:    Secret-Keeping Behaviors of Black and White Children as a Function of Interviewer Race, Racial Identity, and Risk for Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:    Dunkerley, G. K.;  Dalenberg, C. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Trauma Research Institute, San Diego, CA.

 

SOURCE:    2(2): pp. 13-35;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 1999;  p. 319

 

ABSTRACT:    The tendency for children to keep the secret of child abuse is an important practical impediment to adequate research, prevention, assessment, and treatment. While some studies have established that children will readily keep adult secrets, few have investigated the predictors of ease of disclosure. In this research, race of the interviewer requesting the secret strongly affected disclosure, with Black children particularly showing an unwillingness to disclose a negative secret to a different race interviewer. Children at high risk for sexual abuse (as assessed by the Finkelhor checklist) also were more likely to keep the secret. 53 references and 4 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    disclosure;  children at risk;  racial factors;  racial identity;  interviews;  child abuse research;  child witnesses;  sexual abuse

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:    Questioning Children Who May Have Been Sexually Abused: An Integration of Research Into

 

AUTHOR:    Faller, K. C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:    2(2): pp. 37-59;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 1999;  p. 320

 

ABSTRACT:    This article derives from an Open Forum on Leading Questions sponsored by the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children. It represents the thoughts of participants in the Open Forum, and the article attempts to integrate analogue research that relates to questioning children about past events into questioning practice with children who may have been sexually abused. It proposes a continuum of questions that includes four categories: most preferred; preferred; less preferred; and least preferred. General and invitational questions are most preferred, while presumptive questions and use of coercion are least preferred methods of interviewing. 37 references and 1 table. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    interviews;  sexual abuse;  child abuse research;  leading questions;  assessment;  child witnesses;  suggestibility;  best practices

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:    Addressing Challenges and Controversies in Child Sexual Abuse Interviewing: The Forensic Evaluation Protocol and Research Project.

 

AUTHOR:    Carnes, C. N.;  Nelson-Gardell, D.;  Wilson, C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    National Children's Advocacy Center, Huntsville, AL.

 

SOURCE:    2(2): pp. 82-103;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 1999;  p. 322

 

ABSTRACT:    This article describes a forensic evaluation protocol, designed at the National Children s Advocacy Center (NCAC). The means by which the NCAC forensic evaluation protocol addresses the challenges and controversies inherent in the fieldof sexual abuse allegation assessment are discussed. Results of a two-year study are reported, in which efficacy of the protocol is demonstrated in three areas: in gathering facts to validate true abuse, thus assisting the child protective and legal systems in case decision making; in determining when initial concerning statements of children are actually not due to sexual abuse, but to other events or circumstances; and in uncovering false allegations and vindicating the falsely accused. A multi-site research project currently underway that involves more than 40 Children s Advocacy Centers across the United States, which will further test the efficacy of the model and further refine practice, is described. The multi-site project will also include data on the evaluators own abuse history and whether or not this affects evaluation outcomes. 33 references and 2 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    sexual abuse;  interviews;  forensic psychiatry;  protocols;  assessment;  false allegations;  program evaluation;  validity

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:    Overcoming Obstacles to Just Evaluation and Successful Prosecution of Multivictim Cases.

 

AUTHOR:    Dalenberg, C. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Trauma Research Institute, San Diego, CA.

 

SOURCE:    2(2): pp. 141-163;  Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY., 1999;  p. 324

 

ABSTRACT:    The multivictim case presents special difficulties for the child protection system, including enhanced probability of multiple interviews and potential contamination of children s narratives by a variety of sources. Further, multivictimcases have been empirically shown to be more likely to involve severely abused children, fantastic claims, and other complicating factors. This paper presents several complications likely to arise in such cases and a number of potential routes to mitigate the problems that occur. The complications include the impact of repeated interviews and delayed interviews, the use of leading questions, bizarre detail disclosed by the child, allegations of extreme trauma or abuse, contamination of testimony,the involvement of the child s therapist, advocacy groups and the media, and accusations against the interviewer. 46 references and 6 tables. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    multivictim cases;  investigations;  barriers;  memory;  interviews;  protocols;  testimony;  suggestibility

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:    Maternal Disciplinary Practices in an At-Risk Population.

 

AUTHOR:    Socolar, R. S.;  Winsor, J.;  Hunter, W. M.;  Catellier, D.;  Kotch, J. B.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill. Dept. of Pediatrics.

 

SOURCE:    153: pp. 927-934;  American Medical Association, Chicago, IL., September 1999;  p. 392

 

ABSTRACT:    A total of 186 maternal caregivers were interviewed for this study of factors associated with the disciplinary practices of mothers in at-risk families. A measure, based on coding parental responses, was used to assess disciplinary practices of mothers of 7- to 9-year old children for 5 different misbehaviors. Limit setting was the most commonly used disciplinary practice for 4 of 5 misbehaviors, with 63 percent of mothers reporting that this method generally worked best. Spanking was more likely used as a secondary response for each misbehavior, when the primary one had not succeeded. Conversely, teaching or verbal assertion was always less likely as a secondary response. Teaching or verbal assertion was used more commonly for lying than for any other misbehavior, limit setting for disobeying, spanking for stealing, and spanking with an object for being disrespectful. Regression modeling for the 4 most common disciplinary practices showed that black race, lack of Aid to Families with Dependent Children receipt, more-educated mothers, and female sex of the child were associated with higher use of teaching or verbal assertion; a biological father in the home was associated with less use of limit setting; and black race and report for child maltreatment were associated with more use of mild spanking. The findings indicated that disciplinary practices varied depending on the type of misbehavior and other contextual factors, including child, parent, and family characteristics. 51 references and 5 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    discipline;  punishment;  risk factors;  families at risk;  longitudinal studies;  mothers;  predictor variables;  child abuse research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.ama-assn.org/peds

 

 

TITLE:    Novices, Old Hands and Professionals: A Study of Adoption by Single People.

 

AUTHOR:    Owen, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom). School of Cultural and Community Studies.

 

SOURCE:    British Agencies For Adoption and Fostering, London (United Kingdom)., 1999;  p. 411

 

ABSTRACT:    Thirty single parents and the 48 children they adopted were interviewed for a study of the process and outcomes of adoption by single adults. Parents and children were interviewed separately as well as together about their adoption +; experience. Data were also collected from a review of agency case records. Topics of the study included the characteristics of adopters, attitudes of agencies, the approval process, post-placement child care, employment and finances, family and community+; relationships, changes in the family, contact with the birth family, and placement outcomes. Overall, the placements were successful and relationships between the adoptive parents and children were very good. The adoptive parents were very attentive to +; the children and advocated on their behalf for services. All parties reported commitment and satisfaction with the adoption. The final chapter of the book outlines recommendations for policy and practice. Numerous references, 3 figures, and 13 +; tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    adoption;  single adoptive parents;  single parent families;  adoption research;  adoption process;  post adoption services;  adoption outcomes;  post adoption contact

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.baaf.org.uk

 

 

TITLE:    The Sibling Relationships of Adopted Children and Patterns of Contact After Adoption.

 

AUTHOR:    Neil, E.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:    In: Mullender, A. (Editor). We Are Family: Sibling Relationships in Placement and Beyond. British Agencies for Adoption and Fostering, London (United Kingdom)., 1999;  p. 568

 

ABSTRACT:    More than 120 adopted children were interviewed for this study about their relationships with their birth siblings, patterns of contact, and factors influencing contact arrangements. Of the 85 children with siblings, 39 percent had fullsiblings, 76 percent had half-siblings with the same mother, and 34 percent of the children had half siblings with the same father. Twenty-two percent had one sibling, 22 percent had two siblings, 18 percent had three siblings, 15 percent had four siblings, and 22 percent had five to ten siblings. Approximately one-third of the children with brothers and sisters were placed with at least one of their siblings. Reasons for the lack of placement with siblings included: the siblings were not in care or adopted; siblings did not enter care at the same time; and the siblings had never lived together. However, approximately half of the children with siblings had one or more brothers and sisters who were also in placement and 76 percent had siblings whowere living with a birth parent or relative. Forty-two percent of the children with siblings had some sort of contact with all of their siblings. Twenty-three percent reported contact with only some of their siblings and 35 percent had no contact with brothers, sisters, or parents. The adopted children in the study were more likely to have face-to-face contact with their siblings if their brothers and sisters were also in placement. Indirect contact was more common with siblings who still lived with the birth parents. Contact with siblings who had the same father was rarer than contact with siblings who shared the same mother. Implications of the study for research and practice are discussed.

 

KEY TERMS:    sibling relationships;  adopted children;  visitation;  adoption research;  birth

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.baaf.org.uk

 

 

TITLE:    Sibling Separation and Contact in Permanent Placing.

 

AUTHOR:    Dance, C.;  Rushton, A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    King's College, London (United Kingdom). Institute of Psychiatry.

 

SOURCE:    In: Mullender, A. (Editor). We Are Family: Sibling Relationships in Placement and Beyond. British Agencies for Adoption and Fostering, London (United Kingdom)., 1999;  p. 592

 

ABSTRACT:    The characteristics of 32 singly placed children and 40 sibling groups were examined in this study to determine how decisions are made to place children singly or in groups and what plans are made to ensure contact between separated siblings. Data collected one year after the permanent placement was made indicated that most placements were an extension of previous placements. Only two of the singly placed children were separated from siblings with whom they had been placed. Six of the sibling group placements were reunions after separation. Eleven of the 32 singly placed children and 13 of the 40 sibling groups had one or more siblings living in a different placement. These separations were attributed to different times of placement or placement availability. In some cases, problems were identified with the behavior of one child or the interaction between children. The tolerance and commitment of caregivers and caseworkers may influence decisions about the separation of children with behavior problems. Plans for face-to-face contact between separated siblings were made for 29 of the 72 placements in the sample. Two other cases had plans for contact by mail. Social workers interviewed for the study indicated that lack ofcontact with siblings is problematic for placed children especially those who are placed alone. Feedback from caseworkers and parents about actual contacts during the first year of placement was positive. 9 references, 3 figures, and 3 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    adoption research;  sibling relationships;  siblings;  visitation;  separation;  birth families;  outcomes;  decision making

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.baaf.org.uk

 

 

TITLE:    Single Adopters and Sibling Groups.

 

AUTHOR:    Owen, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom). School of Cultural and Community Studies.

 

SOURCE:    In: Mullender, A. (Editor). We Are Family: Sibling Relationships in Placement and Beyond. British Agencies for Adoption and Fostering, London (United Kingdom)., 1999;  p. 601

 

ABSTRACT:    Thirty single adoptive parents and their adopted children in Great Britain were interviewed to explore the structure of single adoptive families and the characteristics of sibling relationships in those families. Twenty-eight of the single parents were women and the majority had professional qualifications in health, education, or social welfare. All of the adoptive parents began by adopting one child. Twelve subsequently adopted a second child and seven more planned to adopt at least one other child. The additional adoptions took into careful consideration the needs of the first adopted child and the parent's desire for their child to have sibling relationships. One-third of the children had contact with their birth siblings either as part of parental contact or with only their brothers and sisters. The adopters supported these relationships because they realized the importance of attachment for their adopted children. The older birth children also provided support to their adopted brothers and sisters as their extended family. Overall, single parent adoptions were determined to be successful and further consideration of single parents by adoption agencies is recommended. 13 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    siblings;  adoptive parents;  single adoptive parents;  adoption research;  sibling relationships;  visitation;  family relationships;  great britain

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.baaf.org.uk

 

 

TITLE:    Adult Birth Siblings: Who Are They and Why Do They Search?

 

AUTHOR:    Pavlovic, A.;  Mullender, A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University Coll., Northampton (United Kingdom). Dept. of Sociology.

 

SOURCE:    In: Mullender, A. (Editor). We Are Family: Sibling Relationships in Placement and Beyond. British Agencies for Adoption and Fostering, London (United Kingdom)., 1999;  p. 603

 

ABSTRACT:    Twenty-four individuals searching for siblings through the Adoption Contact Register for England and Wales were interviewed about their motivations for searching for siblings, the meaning of sibling relationships, and the implications of sibling relationships for policy and practice. The participants were from a wide range of care experiences, including conventional families, stepfamilies, kinship care, adoption, foster care, group homes, and orphanages. Although sibling status did not matter to the individuals seeking half- or stepsiblings, it was important to those looking for full siblings (both parents in common). Participants described the following elements in their attempts to identify what it means to be a sibling: blood ties; lifelong relationships; shared history; childhood memories of siblings; the need to resolve a personal emotional issue; and parental feelings toward the missing sibling. The intense feelings of loss experienced by the searchers demonstrates the need to reform legal and social work practices to preserve sibling relationships. 5 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    siblings;  sibling relationships;  birth families;  adopted adults;  reunions;  search for birth children;  adoption research;  reunion registries

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.baaf.org.uk

 

 

TITLE:    Looking Back: Childhood Separations Revisited.

 

AUTHOR:    Prynn, B.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University of East London, Essex (United Kingdom). Centre for Adoption and Identity Studies.

 

SOURCE:    In: Mullender, A. (Editor). We Are Family: Sibling Relationships in Placement and Beyond. British Agencies for Adoption and Fostering, London (United Kingdom)., 1999;  p. 605

 

ABSTRACT:    Individuals aged 30-90 were interviewed about the lifelong impact of separation from siblings. The interviewees reported a wide variety of circumstances, from locating a sibling after her death to continuous contact between siblings living in different households. Sibling relationships were very important to these study participants as sources of support and identity. Long-term separations often resulted in feelings of isolation, severed bonds between siblings, and unsuccessful reunions. A few of the interviewees were able to establish relationships with their siblings. Participants who were raised in foster homes sometimes formed sibling-type relationships with the other foster children in the home. 19 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    siblings;  sibling relationships;  separation;  adoption research;  adopted adults;  lifelong impact;  reunion;  foster families

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.baaf.org.uk

 

 

TITLE:    Comparing Mothers of Children in Kinship Foster Care: Reunification vs. Remaining in Care.

 

AUTHOR:    Harris, M. S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Illinois Univ., Chicago. Jane Addams Coll. of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:    In: Gleason, J.; Hairston, C. F. (Editors). Kinship Care: Improving Practice Through Research. Child Welfare League of America, Washington, DC., 1999;  p. 655

 

ABSTRACT:    Twenty African American mothers of children with experience in kinship foster care were interviewed to identify differences in the characteristics and constructs of mothers whose children return home and mothers whose children remain incare. Ten mothers in the reunification sample and 10 mothers in the placement sample were asked about demographic characteristics, involvement with the child welfare system, problems and strengths that influenced their ability to care for their children, object relations, severity of substance abuse problems, and the availability of support from extended family. Findings indicated that the women whose children had been returned to them had higher incomes and were more likely to be employed thanthe women whose children remained in care. The mothers of reunified children also had less severe drug problems and mental illness. No statistically significant differences were found in object relations or the quality of support from extended family members. Mean rankings revealed slightly higher levels of development and positive maternal relationships among the reunified mothers. The implications of these findings for policy and research are discussed. 34 references and 4 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    kinship care;  family characteristics;  birth mothers;  predictor variables;  family reunification;  demography;  african americans;  child welfare research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.cwla.org

 

 

TITLE:    The Effect of Caregiver Preparation and Sense of Control on Adaptation of Kinship Caregivers.

 

AUTHOR:    Petras, D. D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Illinois Univ., Chicago. Jane Addams Coll. of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:    In: Gleason, J.; Hairston, C. F. (Editors). Kinship Care: Improving Practice Through Research. Child Welfare League of America, Washington, DC., 1999;  p. 658

 

ABSTRACT:    Eighty kinship care providers were interviewed for this study to determine the impact of preparation and sense of control on satisfaction with the kinship care arrangement. Participants were asked about experience caring for children, relationships with caseworkers, family health, depression, satisfaction, and child behavior. A positive correlation was found between caregiver depression and child behavior problems, and between caregiver satisfaction and the denial of responsibility for success. The association between denial of responsibility and satisfaction is attributed to the cultural history of African Americans, the absolution of responsibility for the behavior of the children's parents, and the spiritual faith of the caregivers. These findings can be used to develop policies and services that will support kinship caregivers. 39 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    kinship care;  foster parents;  foster parents training;  foster parent retention;  outcomes;  control;  child behavior;  child welfare research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.cwla.org

 

 

TITLE:    Child Rearing Perspectives of Grandparent Caregivers.

 

AUTHOR:    Osby, O.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Illinois Univ., Chicago. Jane Addams Coll. of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:    In: Gleason, J.; Hairston, C. F. (Editors). Kinship Care: Improving Practice Through Research. Child Welfare League of America, Washington, DC., 1999;  p. 776

 

ABSTRACT:    Ten grandparent kinship caregivers were interviewed for this study to examine the reasons for placement and the world views of grandparents who take on parenting responsibilities for their grandchildren. The ethnographic interview facilitated information-sharing about the grandparents' background, life experiences, child rearing beliefs, and values regarding family and home. Perceptions of the legal and child welfare systems and recommendations for reform were also solicited. Mostreported that they agreed to take care of their grandchild or great-grandchild because of the substance abuse or maltreatment behavior of the child's parents. Many of the grandparents had taken care of the child before. Some believed that their role in life was to care for children, while others resisted the responsibility. Few could name other relatives who could care for the children. Caregivers who did have support from family members were the most satisfied with their role. Other caregivers had no support from the family, friends, church, or community and felt very isolated. Many of the grandparents expressed frustration with the court process and the rights retained by the parents. Some felt that the rules and regulations for kinship care providers were too restrictive and that their parenting experience was not valued. This world view analysis can be used to inform assessment procedures, formulate a relevant service plan, and create innovative interventions. 13 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    kinship care;  grandparents;  child rearing;  parenting;  parental attitudes;  child welfare services;  family support systems;  case studies

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.cwla.org

 

 

TITLE:    Casework Practice With Fathers of Children in Kinship Foster Care.

 

AUTHOR:    O'Donnell, J. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Illinois Univ., Urbana-Champaign. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:    In: Gleason, J.; Hairston, C. F. (Editors). Kinship Care: Improving Practice Through Research. Child Welfare League of America, Washington, DC., 1999;  p. 777

 

ABSTRACT:    This study examined the characteristics of caseworkers that affect their work with the birth fathers of children in kinship care. Fifty-four caseworkers were interviewed about case assessment procedures, permanency planning activities, service provision, frequency and content of contacts with the child and family, and consultations on 100 cases. Almost two-thirds of the caseworkers participating in the study reported that they had no contact with the father of the focus child during the previous six months. Only 2 percent of fathers were involved in the most recent case review and 6 percent provided input for the most recent service plan. No correlations were found between the involvement of the father and caseworker characteristicsof race, length of professional experience, or size of caseload. Fathers of children placed with paternal relatives had more contact with caseworkers and were more involved in planning and service delivery than the fathers of children placed with material relatives. Few caseworkers attempted to involve fathers or noted the lack of paternal participation in case records, supervisory meetings, or discussions with the fathers' families. Limitations and implications of the study are described in the chapter. 23 references and 7 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    kinship care;  birth fathers;  caseworkers;  attitudes;  case management;  individual characteristics;  service delivery;  assessment

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.cwla.org

 

 

TITLE:    Caregiver Burden in Kinship Foster Care.

 

AUTHOR:    Cimmarusti, R. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL. Dept. of Counseling Psychology.

 

SOURCE:    In: Gleason, J.; Hairston, C. F. (Editors). Kinship Care: Improving Practice Through Research. Child Welfare League of America, Washington, DC., 1999;  p. 778

 

ABSTRACT:    Sixty-three kinship care providers were interviewed for this study to examine the relationship between the burden and social support felt by caregivers and their emotional distress (defined as depression, anxiety, hostility, somatization, obsessive-compulsiveness, phobic anxiety, and psychoticism). Instruments included the Caregiver Burden Inventory, the Social Support Appraisal Scale, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. Emotional distress varied widely among caregivers. No relationship was found between social support and caregiver burden or emotional distress. However, the Social Support Appraisal Scale may not have measured the types of support that are most important to kinship caregivers. The caregivers expressed a need for love and acceptance, as well as advice, money, food, other tangible goods, and spirituality. Major concerns noted by interviewees were behavior problems, family conflict, health issues, the child welfare bureaucracy, and caseworker attitudes. The findings indicate that caseworkers should ensure that accurate information is provided to caregivers and that the child welfare system is more accessible and respectful to kinship families. In addition, policies regarding assistance should allow moreflexibility in the level of services available. 47 references and 3 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    kinship care;  foster parents;  parental stress;  family support systems;  emotional adjustment;  emotional problems;  risk factors;  child welfare research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.cwla.org

 

 

TITLE:    Who Decides? Predicting Caseworkers' Adoption and Guardianship Discussions With Kinship Caregivers.

 

AUTHOR:    Gleeson, J. P.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Illinois Univ., Chicago. Jane Addams Coll. of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:    In: Gleason, J.; Hairston, C. F. (Editors). Kinship Care: Improving Practice Through Research. Child Welfare League of America, Washington, DC., 1999;  p. 779

 

ABSTRACT:    Data collected during the Achieving Permanency for Children in Kinship Foster Care project were analyzed for this study of the factors that influence caseworkers to discuss permanency options with kinship caregivers. Forty-one caseworkers were interviewed about 77 cases in which children in state custody were living in a kinship foster home. Most of the children qualified for the federal special needs adoption subsidy. Caseworkers were asked about the history of each case; permanency planning status; caseworker contact with biological parents, kinship care providers, and the child; services provided; supervision and consultation; and the caseworker's views of the situation. Independent variables included: caregiver age andmarital status; number of siblings of the child living in the kinship foster home; child age; number of years in kinship placement; caseworker's perception of assistance needed by the caregiver; and the presence of an adoption plan. Caseworkers reportedthat they discussed adoption with almost all of the kinship providers, except when reunification was imminent or when the caseworker believed that the caregiver needed the support of the child welfare system. Caseworkers were less likely to inform caregivers about private guardianship, especially when the kinship parents were caring for multiple children. This was attributed to the limitations on AFDC subsidies for legal guardians of multiple children. The policy implications of these findings arediscussed in the chapter. 24 references and 3 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    decision making;  adoption;  kinship care;  guardianship;  caseworkers;  predictor variables;  permanency planning;  subsidized guardianship

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.cwla.org

 

 

TITLE:    From Victim to Survivor: Recovered Memories and Identity Transformation.

 

AUTHOR:    Warner, S.;  Feltey, K. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University of Akron, OH.

 

SOURCE:    In: Williams, L. M. and Banyard, V. L. (Editors). Trauma and Memory. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., 1999;  pp. 161-172

 

ABSTRACT:    This chapter reviews the preliminary findings of a study of the memory recovery process and the transformation in identity from victim to survivor of childhood sexual abuse. Four women who reported recovered memories of abuse were interviewed about their lives before they recalled the abuse, the role of therapy in recovering memories, the impact of the recovered memories on their lives, and the overall effect of the memory process. An analysis of the patterns in responses revealed that all of the women were vaguely uncomfortable about their childhoods before they remembered their abuse. The women also reported depression, dysfunctional families, and a gradual process of remembering the abuse. Memory fragments and flashbacks were common. Therapy, especially specialized group therapy, helped the women cope with their experiences. They all reported greater satisfaction with their lives since they recovered their memories and have re-defined themselves as survivors, speaking publicly about their stories to raise awareness of the problem. (13 references.)

 

KEY TERMS:    memory;  trauma;  sequelae;  adults abused as children;  repression;  theories;  self concept;  qualitative research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:    Participation in Retrospective Child Sexual Abuse Research: Beneficial or Harmful? What Women Think Six Years Later.

 

AUTHOR:    Martin, J. L.;  Perrott, K.;  Morris, E. M.;  Romans, S. E.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Otago Medical School, Dunedin (New Zealand).

 

SOURCE:    In: Williams, L. M. and Banyard, V. L. (Editors). Trauma and Memory. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., 1999;  pp. 149-159

 

ABSTRACT:    This chapter describes the findings of a qualitative study that measured the impact of participation in sexual abuse research. A total of 354 women were interviewed 6 years after they participated in a study about the prevalence and effects of child sexual abuse. The sample included women with and without a history of child sexual abuse. Interviews focused on memories of the last interview and comfort with discussing sexual abuse experiences. Women without a history of child sexual abuse were highly comfortable discussing abuse, while survivors of sexual abuse were moderately comfortable with the topic. Half of all the women indicated that the original interview was a positive experience and 21 participants reported that it was a negative experience. Abused women were more likely to rate the interview as positive. Ethical implications of these findings for future research are discussed. 12 references and 3 figures.

 

KEY TERMS:    sexual abuse;  adults abused as children;  research methodology;  sequelae;  interviews;  memory;  trauma;  ethics

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:    Bulimia Nervosa, PTSD, and Forgetting: Results from the National Women's Study.

 

AUTHOR:    Brewerton, T. D.;  Dansky, B. S.;  Kilpatrick, D. G.;  O'Neil, P. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Medical Univ. of South Carolina, Charleston. Dept. of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences.

 

SOURCE:    In: Williams, L. M. and Banyard, V. L. (Editors). Trauma and Memory. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., 1999;  pp. 127-138

 

ABSTRACT:    This study analyzed data from the third wave of the National Women's Study to investigate the relationships between forgetting trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bulimia nervosa. A total of 3,006 women were interviewed and screened for bulimia, victimization, post-traumatic stress disorder, psychogenic amnesia, major depression, and alcohol and drug addiction. Eleven percent of the women indicated that they had forgotten some parts of traumatic events. Women diagnosed with bulimia nervosa were significantly more likely to report memory problems. Recall difficulties also were related to posttraumatic stress disorder, obesity, weight fluctuations, purging, and major depression. 38 references and 6 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    bulimia;  posttraumatic stress disorder;  memory;  trauma;  repression;  dissociation;  sequelae

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:    Memories for Child Sexual Abuse and Mental Health Functioning: Findings on a Sample of Women and Implications for Future Research.

 

AUTHOR:    Banyard, V. L.;  Williams, L. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    New Hampshire Univ., Durham. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:    In: Williams, L. M. and Banyard, V. L. (Editors). Trauma and Memory. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., 1999;  pp. 115-125

 

ABSTRACT:    This NCCAN-funded study examined the effects of trauma on memories of child sexual abuse to determine the value of dissociation for mental health functioning. The sample included 129 women who had documented histories of child sexual abuse 17 years previously. Thirty-eight percent of the participants reported no memories of the target abuse event. All of the participants were interviewed about family relationships, substance abuse, sexual history, psychological functioning, and history of abuse. Participants who did not remember begin abused were not told about it. Women who did recall their sexual abuse were asked about the clarity of their memories and if they had ever forgotten it. Women who had forgotten their abuse at some time were grouped with the participants who had no recall of abuse into the memory problems group and their psychological functioning was compared with women who always remembered abuse. Overall, there were no significant differences in the mental health of the women with and without memory problems. However, women who were older when the abuse occurred reported more symptoms. Implications for future research are discussed. 33 references and 6 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    trauma;  memory;  sexual abuse;  mental health;  adults abused as children;  child development;  repression;  dissociation

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:    Remembering Incest: The Complexities of This Process and Implications for Civil Statutes of Limitations.

 

AUTHOR:    Dorado, J. S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

SOURCE:    In: Williams, L. M. and Banyard, V. L. (Editors). Trauma and Memory. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., 1999;  pp. 93-111

 

ABSTRACT:    This chapter reports the findings of a study of the experiences of seven incest survivors to demonstrate the failure of the legal system to consider the process of recovering traumatic memories. Each study participant was interviewed for at least six hours about her victimization, the memory process, and her reactions to the memory of abuse. Qualitative data analyses revealed that memories often began with a precursor, or memory fragment that did not make sense when first remembered. The first recognized memories consisted of images of the perpetrator and feelings during the abuse. Two of the participants dissociated again after the first memories of abuse, making the memory process even more complex. These processes of remembering incest are different than other memories and are often not as clearly identified as assumed by the Michigan statute of limitations. The occurrence of memory fragments and periods of dissociation should be considered in the state statute. Implications for policy and research are discussed. 29 references and 1 figure.

 

KEY TERMS:    incest;  memory;  trauma;  statute of limitations;  legal processes;  lawsuits;  adults abused as children;  michigan

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:    The Criminal Justice System and Child Placement in Child Sexual Abuse Cases.

 

AUTHOR:    Cross. T. P.;  Martell, D.;  McDonald, E.;  Ahl, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Maltreatment

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA. Family and Children's Policy Center.

 

SOURCE:    4(1): pp. 32-44;  Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., February 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This study examines the relationship between declining to prosecute child sexual abuse and child placement. All cases involving child sexual abuse charges referred to prosecutors in four jurisdictions across the country are tracked. A sample of the child victims and families from these cases were interviewed at the time of referral for prosecution and eight to nine months later, and data on life events, including child placement, maternal support, and child and family adjustment were gathered. In cases declined for prosecution, 41 percent of children were placed outside the home since the first interview, as compared to 19 percent of children in accepted cases. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that children were significantly more likely to be placed outside the home when alleged abuse lasted for more than one month, families were more disturbed, maternal support was less, and cases were declined for prosecution. Possible explanations for the relationship between prosecution and child placement are discussed, as well as recommendations for practice and further research. 5 tables, numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    sexual abuse;  criminal justice system;  child placement

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:    Pregnancy and Delivery for Women with a History of Child Sexual Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:    Grimstad, H.;  Schei, B.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University Medical Center, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Community Medicine and General Practice.

 

SOURCE:    23(1): pp. 81-90;  Oxford (Great Britain), Elsevier Science, Ltd., January 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This study examined whether women with a history of child sexual abuse are at increased risk of delivering low birth weight infants. Secondary aims were to study smoking habits, obstetric complications, health care use, and health complaints during pregnancy among women with a history of child sexual abuse. In a case control study, 82 women with birth of a low birth weight infant (less than 2500 grams) (cases) and 91 women with birth of a normal birth weight infant (controls) were interviewed about experiences of child sexual abuse. Fourteen percent of the women disclosed a history of child sexual abuse involving at least genital touch. Birth of a low birth weight infant was not associated with a history of child sexual abuse. More women with a history of child sexual abuse were smokers during pregnancy than nonabused women (56 percent versus 31 percent). Abused women reported lower age at menarche and sexual debut. Nonscheduled contacts with the antenatal care clinic and discomfort during pregnancy were more frequent among abused women when controlled for low birth weight. Women who delivered low birth weight infants were not more likely to have experienced child sexual abuse than women who delivered non-low birth weight infants. Abused women were unemployed and daily smokers more often than nonabused women. Some of the abused women reported more health complaints and more use of health care services during pregnancy, but did not have more obstetric complications during pregnancy and delivery. 22 references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    adults abused as children;  sexual abuse;  sequelae;  pregnancy;  child abuse research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Preschoolers with Syphilis.

 

AUTHOR:    Christian, C. W.;  Lavelle, J.;  Bell, L. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Pediatrics

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, PA. Division of General Pediatrics.

 

SOURCE:    103(1): 5 pp.;  Elk Grove Village, IL, American Academy of Pediatrics, January 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This article describes the presentations and clinical manifestations of syphilis in 3 children aged 3 to 4 years old diagnosed at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. The presentations of these children included nephrosis and secondary syphilis, and subtle signs of late congenital infection in an otherwise asymptomatic child. One child had documented congenital infection, 1 had probable congenital infection that went untreated, and 1 did not have appropriate neonatal testing documented. None of the children gave a verbal history of sexual abuse, although it is likely that all three cases resulted from sexual abuse. The evaluation of preschool children with syphilis is confounded by the interpretation of acquired infection in consideration of a history of possible or documented congenital disease. The assessment is complicated further by problems with recognition of clinical disease, the inability of young children to provide a history, prenatal and neonatal testing methods used, changes in treatment recommendations made during the past decade, and inadequate follow-up to document cure of congenitally infected infants. With the increase in syphilis seen in recent years, physicians are more likely to encounter preschoolers with syphilis. However, their ability to document acquired infection is hampered by the difficulties encountered in following recommended guidelines for evaluation and follow-up and by limitations in interviewing young victims of sexual abuse. 22 references and 2 figures. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    preschool children;  syphilis;  symptoms;  case studies;  sexual abuse;  sequelae;  assessment;  child abuse research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.pediatrics.org/

 

 

TITLE:    Coping With Sexual Abuse: Development and Evaluation of a Videotape Intervention for Nonoffending Parents.

 

AUTHOR:    Jinich, S.;  Litrownik, A. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    California Univ., San Diego.

 

SOURCE:    23(2): pp. 175-190;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science, February 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This NCCAN-funded study was conducted to develop, apply, and evaluate a videotape intervention that targeted the development of supportive behaviors in mothers of children who were being examined because of suspected molestation; and to examine the relationship between mothers' reported responses to and beliefs about the molestation and their children's perception of support. Eighty-seven mothers who had children 4 to 12 years of age were recruited and randomly assigned to view either a treatment or control videotape during the time when their child was being examined. Observers who were blinded to this assignment observed and rated parent-child interactions in the waiting room prior to and again after the mothers viewed the videotape. One week after the brief intervention, 64 of the mothers and 30 of the children were interviewed. Mothers who viewed the treatment tape were more likely to engage in supportive behaviors with their child immediately after viewing the tape, and were able to identify more supportive behaviors at the 1-week follow-up. In addition, mothers' reports of how they responded to the molestation (including perceived blame) was related to child perceptions of parental support. The findings indicate that children who have been sexually molested are sensitive to the initial reactions of their nonoffending parent to the disclosure. In addition, there is some evidence that cost-effective interventions can be implemented during the early disclosure period. 21 references, 2 figures, and 3 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    sexual abuse;  intervention strategies;  nonabusive parents;  parent education;  parental reactions;  coping skills;  videotaping;  therapeutic effectiveness

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Age and Gender Differences in Children's and Adolescents' Adaptation to Sexual Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:    Feiring, C.;  Taska, L.;  Lewis, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ. Institute for the Study of Child Development.

 

SOURCE:    23(2): pp. 115-128;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science, February 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This study examined how age at the time of sexual abuse discovery and gender of the victim are related to psychological distress. Ninety-six children and 73 adolescents were interviewed within 8 weeks of discovery of abuse. Multivariate analyses were used to examine how age at discovery, and gender, with abuse characteristics as covariates, were related to shame, attribution style, depression, self-esteem, and traumatic events sequelae. Adolescents compared to children report a higher level of depressive symptoms, negative reactions by others, and lower levels of self-esteem, social support, and sexual anxiety. Girls compared to boys report higher levels of intrusive thoughts, hyperarousal, sexual anxiety, personal vulnerability, and perceiving the world as a dangerous place and lower levels of eroticism. These findings suggest the importance of considering individual differences in age and gender for understanding patterns of symptom expression. Treatment strategies need to reflect these individual differences in adjustment, such as targeting issues of sexual anxiety for girls and self-esteem for adolescents. 110 references and 1 table. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    sexual abuse;  resilience;  coping skills;  individual characteristics;  psychological characteristics;  age groups;  sex factors;  sequelae

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Satisfaction of Children in Out-of-Home Care.

 

AUTHOR:    Wilson, L.;  Conroy, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Welfare

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Wilson Resources, Inc., Tallahassee, FL.

 

SOURCE:    78(1): pp. 53-69;  Washington, DC, Child Welfare League of America, January-February 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    A randomly selected sample of 1,100 children in out-of-home care in Illinois from 1993 to 1996 were interviewed in person regarding their satisfaction with the homes in which they lived and with their caregivers. They reported whether they felt loved and safe and rated the quality of their lives before and after placement into care. The children rated their satisfaction with their living arrangements and with their caregivers as high, especially those who had lived in family foster care. 22 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    illinois;  program evaluation;  foster care;  out of home care;  kinship care;  residential care;  childs attitudes;  quality of care

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.cwla.org/

 

 

TITLE:    Prior Abuse Reported by Inmates and Probationers.

 

AUTHOR:    Harlow, C. W.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Bureau of Justice Statistics (DOJ), Washington, DC.

 

SOURCE:    Bureau of Justice Statistics (DOJ), Washington, DC, April 1999;  4 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:    This report summarizes findings from four studies conducted by the Bureau of Justice Statistics about the abuse histories of men and women in prison. Offenders interviewed during the surveys were asked about past physical or sexual abuse, offense history, substance abuse, and family characteristics. The prevalence of child maltreatment ranged from 6 percent to 14 percent for male offenders and from 23 percent to 37 percent for female offenders. Women also reported incidences of abuse as adults. Men were primarily abused by family members, while women were abused by both family members and husbands or boyfriends. Abuse was more common among prisoners who lived in foster care, had parents who abused drugs and alcohol, or had parents who had been in prison. Violent crime and heavy use of illegal drugs and alcohol were associated with a history of abuse. 4 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    adults abused as children;  crime;  imprisoned women;  correctional institutions;  incidence;  child abuse research;  physical abuse;  sexual abuse

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Technical Report

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs

 

 

TITLE:    Juvenile Sex Abusers: Perceptions of Social Work Practitioners.

 

AUTHOR:    Ladwa-Thomas, U.;  Sanders, R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse Review

 

SOURCE:    8(1): pp. 55-62;  New York, NY, John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., January-February 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    Seven child protection social workers with previous experience of working with adolescent sex offenders were interviewed to explore their definitions of abusive behavior, views as to the causes of young people abusing others, social work intervention, and personal resources needed to work with young abusers. There were 11 cases recalled, involving work with 13 perpetrators, 12 male and 1 female. While the limitations of the retrospective and subjective nature of this approach and the study very small sample are appreciated, there is considerable value in reflecting on previous practice with the benefit of current knowledge. The final section of the paper discusses means of improving practice in working with adolescent sex offenders and child protection training. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:    adolescent sex offenders;  social workers;  sexually abusive children;  child protection;  professional training

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.wiley.com

 

 

TITLE:    Lifetime Prevalence, Characteristics, and Associated Problems of Non-Consensual Sex in Men: Cross Sectional Survey.

 

AUTHOR:    Coxell, A.;  King, M.;  Mezey, G.;  Gordon, D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    British Medical Journal

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Royal Free and Univ. Coll. Medical School, London (England). Dept. of Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences.

 

SOURCE:    318: pp. 846-850;  British Medical Association, London (England), March 27, 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This cross sectional survey sought to identify the lifetime prevalence of non-consensual sexual experiences in men; the relationship between such experiences as a child and as an adult; associated psychological and behavioral problems; and help received. A total of 2,474 men (with a mean age of 46 years) in England participated in this confidential survey which was conducted by computer in one of 18 general practice physician's offices. Each participant entered their own data to increase the reporting of sensitive data. The main outcome measures were experiences of non-consensual and consensual sex before and after the age of 16 years, psychological problems experienced for more than 2 weeks at any one time, use of alcohol, self harm, and help received. A total of 71 out of 2,468 men (2.89 percent) reported non-consensual sexual experiences as adults; 128 out of 2,423 (5.35 percent) reported non-consensual sexual experiences as children, and 185 out of 2,406 (7.66 percent) reported consensual sexual experiences as children that are illegal under English law. Independent predictors of non-consensual sex as adults were reporting male sexual partners, non-consensual sex in childhood, age, and sex of interviewer. Non-consensual sexual experiences were associated with a greater prevalence of psychological problems, alcohol misuse, and self harm. These sexual experiences were also significant predictors of help received from mental health professionals. Almost 3 percent of men in England report non-consensual sexual experiences as adults. Over 5 percent of men reported sexual abuse as children. Medical professionals need to be aware of the range of psychological difficulties in men who have had such experiences. They also need to be aware of the relationship between sexual experiences in childhood and adulthood in men. 4 tables and 21 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    england;  sexual abuse;  surveys;  prediction;  epidemiology;  behavior problems;  male victims

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.bmj.com

 

 

TITLE:    Degrees of Memory of Childhood Sexual Abuse Among Women Survivors in Therapy.

 

AUTHOR:    Gold, S. N.;  Hughes, D. M.;  Swingle, J. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Family Violence

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Nova Southeastern Univ., Fort Lauderdale, FL. Center for Psychological Studies.

 

SOURCE:    14(1): pp. 35-46;  New York, NY, Kluwer Academic-Plenum Publishers, March 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    Past and current memory for childhood sexual abuse reported by a clinical sample of 160 women survivors was assessed utilizing a structured clinical interview. Response alternatives for memory were ordered along a continuum. To minimize treatment effects, participants were interviewed as early in the outpatient therapy as possible. Fairly complete recollection both in the past and currently was reported by 26.3 percent of the sample, 36.9 percent apparently lost and subsequently recovered sexual abuse memories, and 36.9 percent endorsed intermediate degrees of memory. Only 2.5 percent indicated a decrease in degree of recollection over time. Age at onset was the only abuse characteristic found to differentiate participants with fairly complete memory from the rest of the sample. Findings are interpreted as illustrating that conclusions about memory for abuse are highly dependent on the way inquiries are conceptualized and worded. Limitations of the study are reviewed. 1 table, 2 figures, and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    memory;  outpatient treatment;  interviews;  sexual abuse;  adults abused as children

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.wkap.com

 

 

TITLE:    A Child Interviewer's Guidebook.

 

AUTHOR:    Bourg, W.;  Broderick, R.;  Flagor, R.;  Kelly, D. M. et al.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    C.A.R.E.S. Northwest Program, OR.

 

SOURCE:    Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc., February 1999;  267 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:    This guidebook was originally developed in Oregon at the request of the Health Advisory Council on Child Abuse. The Health Advisory Council requested that the guidelines be written to provide interviewers with a clear, accessible summary of accumulated knowledge in the field of child interviewing. The guidebook promotes consistency in the quality of care provided to children when they are evaluated for possible abuse. The guidelines are part of a training package designed to provide child abuse evaluators with essential educational resources and are intended for use among professionals working in child abuse assessment centers. The recommendations are tailored to child evaluations that concentrate on eliciting reliable statements about possible abuse and maximizing the amount of information gained from the child, given the chid's age, circumstances, and readiness to talk. Although the guidelines focus on child sexual abuse, the principles are applicable to conversing and interviewing children about physical abuse as well as exposure to any risk factor, including domestic violence, parental drug and alcohol abuse, neglect, and witnessing a crime. The guidebook is divided into 19 chapters with 3 sections: getting ready for the child interview, basic interviewing skills, and specialty issues. Appendices contain the following information: core literature for child interviewers; C.A.R.E.S. (Child Abuse Response and Evaluation Services) Northwest Program social history questionnaire; sources for dolls and drawings; and C.A.R.E.S. protective order. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:    interviews;  evaluation;  oregon;  documentation;  sexual abuse;  guidelines

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:    Psychological Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on Male Inmates: The Importance of Perception.

 

AUTHOR:    Fondacaro, K. M.;  Holt, J. C.;  Powell, T. A.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Vermont Univ., Burlington. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:    23(4): pp. 361-369;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science, April 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This study examined the association between childhood sexual victimization and adult psychiatric disorders among male inmates. It further assessed the association between the perception of an event (as sexual abuse or not) and psychiatric diagnoses. A sample of 211 randomly-selected male inmates were interviewed. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule was used to assess psychiatric diagnoses. An additional questionnaire assessing childhood sexual abuse and perception of childhood sexual abuse was also administered. Forty percent of the inmates met standard criteria for childhood sexual abuse, which far exceeded rates found in the general population. Significant differences were found between inmates who had a history of childhood sexual abuse and those that did not for a variety of psychiatric diagnoses. Forty-one percent of those who met criteria for childhood sexual abuse did not consider themselves to have been abused. Those who did not consider themselves to have been abused had higher rates of alcohol abuse and dependence, while those who considered themselves to have been abused had higher rates of posttraumatic stress and obsessive-compulsive disorder. This study emphasizes the importance of perception or cognitive appraisal of the sexual experience (as abusive or not) and the need for further study regarding the potential mediating role of cognitive appraisal. Other implications of these findings include the need for primary prevention programs designed to reduce childhood sexual abuse, and inmate rehabilitation programs with an emphasis on the connection between victimization and criminality. 2 tables and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    sexual abuse;  imprisonment;  psychiatric diagnoses;  questionnaires;  posttraumatic stress disorder;  perception

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Predicting Child Maltreatment in the First 4 Years of Life From Characteristics Assessed in the Neonatal Period.

 

AUTHOR:    Kotch, J. B.;  Browne, D. C.;  Dufort, V.;  Winsor, J.;  Catellier, D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill. Dept. of Maternal and Child Health.

 

SOURCE:    23(4): pp. 305-319;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science, April 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This study examined the significance of neonatal risk factors from the individual, family, social, and parenting behavior domains of the ecological model of child maltreatment in predicting maltreatment reports in the first 4 years of life. It also examined the extent to which the interactions of life event stress and social support modify those risk factors. Mothers of 708 predominately at-risk infants were interviewed in their homes an average of 7 weeks after their infants' discharge from the hospital. State child abuse and neglect central registry data were tracked every 6 months until the infants reached their fourth birthdays. The incidence of maltreatment reports was higher in households where the mothers were depressed, complained of psychosomatic symptoms, and had not graduated from high school, consumed alcohol, participated in public income support programs, cared for more then one dependent child, or were separated from their own mothers at age 14 years. In interaction models including these 7 predisposing variables, there were significant interactions between social well-being and stress, as measured by an increase in total life events. Some predisposing risk factors measured soon after birth continue to be significant predictors of child maltreatment reports through the fourth year of life. In general, families with low levels of social support had a higher risk of a maltreatment report. For families with lower levels of maternal depression and/or life event stress, low social support significantly increased the risk of a maltreatment report by as much as a factor of 4. 4 tables, 3 figures, and numerous references. Appendices contain information of predisposing variables included in the analysis by domain and stress and social support variables. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    risk factors;  family support systems;  parental stress;  depression;  predictor variables;  ecological factors

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Prevalence and Risk Factors for Childhood Sexual Abuse in Women: National Survey Findings.

 

AUTHOR:    Vogeltanz, N. D.;  Wilsnack, S. C.;  Harris, T. R.;  Wilsnack, R. W. et al.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:    23(6): pp. 579-592;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science Ltd., June 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    The authors interviewed a national sample of 1,099 women, age 18 years and older, to determine the prevalence and characteristics of childhood sexual abuse. The authors also examined which family and background variables were predictive of child sexual abuse in this sample. The study employed a series of detailed descriptive questions regarding childhood sexual experiences that were administered in a highly structured format by trained female interviewers. Childhood sexual abuse prevalence rates were calculated using 2 definitions of child sexual abuse, one of which was slightly more inclusive. Prevalence rates for the more inclusive child sexual abuse definition ranged from 21 to 32 percent, depending on how respondents who provided incomplete information about their sexual experiences were classified. The less inclusive childhood sexual abuse definition resulted in prevalence rates ranging from 15 to 26 percent. Additional information about the types of abuse experienced, perpetrator characteristics, age at first abuse, and physical and affective consequences of the abusive experiences are reported. The risk of childhood sexual abuse was related to higher scores on a measure of father's rejection, and the interaction between parental drinking status and whether the respondent had lived with both parents during childhood. Further analysis of this interaction suggests that when respondents reported living with both birth parents, they were most at risk for childhood sexual abuse when their father was a nondrinker and their mother was a drinker. The study concludes that childhood sexual abuse in girls is highly prevalent and strongly and consistently associated with several problems in adulthood. However, the link between childhood sexual abuse and adult psychopathology is not clearly understood. Given the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse and its harmful sequelae, there is a need for researchers to develop longitudinal and prospective designs in order to understand the processes involved. 9 tables, 1 figure, and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    prevalence;  risk factors;  national surveys;  sexual abuse;  sequelae;  adults abused as children;  interviews

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Psychosocial Resources and Academic Performance in Abused Children.

 

AUTHOR:    Kinard, E. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Children and Youth Services Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    New Hampshire Univ., Durham. Family Research Lab.

 

SOURCE:    21(5): pp. 351-376;  New York, NY, Pergamon, May 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    Using the stress-social support-functioning model and the social network model of child development, this paper examined the impact of child abuse, maternal perceived social support, competence, depression, child perceived social support, and sociodemographic characteristics on child academic functioning. The sample consisted of 165 abused children and their mothers and a matched comparison group of 169 nonabused children and their mothers. Mothers and children were interviewed at 2 points, 1 year apart, and the children were between the ages of 7 and 11 years old at the time of the first interview. At time 1, lower achievement test scores were significantly predicted by abuse, lower perceived support from mothers, lower maternal education, male gender, and younger age. At time 2, abuse significantly predicted lower achievement scores on 2 of the 3 subtests even after controlling for time 1 scores. Abused children had lower grades in academic subjects, more days absent, more placements in special education programs, more retention in grade, and more school problems than did nonabused children. These findings held after controlling for maternal education, maternal employment, and child gender. An appendix provides the variables and coding scales used in the study questionnaires. 5 tables and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    academic achievement;  child development;  depression;  maternal behavior;  school children;  support systems;  interviews

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Enhancing Children's Memory Through Cognitive Interviewing: An Assessment Technique for Social Work Practice.

 

AUTHOR:    Aldridge, N. C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Georgia Univ., Athens. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:    16(2): pp. 101-126;  New York, NY, Kluwer Academic-Human Sciences Press, April 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This article summarizes current research on cognitive interviewing and discusses the theoretical rationale for the use of the mnemonic strategies, the enhancement in the cognitive interviewing technique, and the modifications and revisions conducted from using the cognitive interview with children ages 7 to 12 years. The cognitive interview is a memory retrieval procedure consisting of four general retrievals mnemonics which was developed to assist police officers in interviewing and interrogating witnesses. The cognitive interview has been accepted as one of the most successful interview techniques used in real-life investigations. The major conclusions drawn from the research are that the cognitive interview can enhance the completeness and accuracy of recollections by children and can offer a valuable technique for social workers interviewing and evaluating children who are victims or witnesses to crimes. 86 references. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    memory;  assessment;  cognitive interviews;  child witnesses;  social workers;  investigations;  interviews;  research reviews

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.wkap.com

 

 

TITLE:    Three Commentaries on When Cameras Roll, by Victor Vieth. (pro-gen).

 

AUTHOR:    Broderick, R.;  Berliner, L.;  Berkowitz, C. D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child Sexual Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Lane County Child Advocacy Center, Eugene, OR.

 

SOURCE:    7(4): pp. 123-132;  Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    These three responses critique the concepts presented in an article published in the same issue of the journal about the dangers of using videotaped interviews of child witnesses in court. While the first response agrees with the recommendations of the original article for professional training and guidelines, it disagrees that a videotape of a bad interview cannot be useful to the court. The response asserts that viewers of a videotape have access to the entire interview, including mistakes that might otherwise be excluded in the interviewer's report. In addition, the videotape records the child's non-verbal response, which can be vital for determining the credibility of his or her statements. The second response also agrees that professionals should be trained in interview techniques. However, it disagrees with recommendations for legal requirements for number of hours in training, the need for training for defense attorneys and judges, modified court rules, and mandatory standards for interviews. Instead, emphasis should be placed on the strengths of child witnesses and the role of videotaping in documenting evidence. The third response focuses on the ethical and clinical implications of videotaping from the perspective of the interviewer. It expresses concerns that the interview techniques are being reviewed and evaluated by judges and attorneys with no knowledge of child development or interviews. 2 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    videotaping;  child witnesses;  courts responsibility;  judicial role;  lawyers role;  professional training;  investigations;  interviews

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:    The Variability of Practice in Interviews Used by Professionals to Investigate Child Sexual Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:    Davey, R. I.;  Hill, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Family Consultation Service, King's Lynn (United Kingdom).

 

SOURCE:    23(6): pp. 571-578;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science Ltd., June 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This study examined the variability of interview practices among professionals who interview children to investigate suspected sexual abuse; the relationship between interview practice and respondent characteristics; and the characteristics of interviewers who used the anatomically correct dolls in the course of their interviews. Sixty investigatory interviewers completed questionnaires focusing on professional background, training, and interview practice. The findings indicated that interview practice varied considerably and some practices were at odds with the recommendations of the literature. Most of this variability was not accounted for by the respondent variables examined. Where there was evidence for an association, the interviewers' professional background, number of interviews conducted in the previous year, and whether or not they used the anatomically correct dolls appeared to influence practice, whereas general training and specific training in child sexual abuse had no significant effect. Only a minority (36 percent) used the anatomically correct dolls and none of the interviewer characteristics evaluated differentiated them from non doll- users. Further research is needed to focus on the comparative effectiveness of different interview techniques and the comparative effectiveness of different training programs in influencing interviewing practice. 19 references, 2 figures, and 2 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    investigations;  sexual abuse;  interviews;  evaluation methods;  child abuse research;  practice protocols;  anatomical dolls;  professional training

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Intervention With Hispanic Sexual Abusers.

 

AUTHOR:    Loredo, C. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Travis County Juvenile Court, Austin, TX.

 

SOURCE:    In: Lewis, A. D. (Editor). Cultural Diversity in Sexual Abuser Treatment: Issues and Approaches. Brandon, VT, Safer Society Press, 1999;  pp. 121-149

 

ABSTRACT:    This chapter examines the values and cultural perspectives that may impact treatment for Hispanic sex offenders. It presents an overview of the history of Hispanics in the United States and identifies the primary values of Hispanic culture: familism; dignity; personalism; blood relationships; and co- parenthood. Role expectations of men and women are also discussed. Although the literature on treatment interventions for Hispanic Americans is limited, several authors have endorsed cognitive behavioral therapy within a group setting that permits bilingual dialogue. Therapists or interviewers treating clients who speak only Spanish are urged to select an interpreter who places the client's statements within a cultural context to ensure that the meaning of the comments are not misunderstood. Hispanic clients should be encouraged to ask questions about the legal process and be informed about the ramifications of their decision to enter treatment. When selecting a treatment approach, therapists are advised to involve priests and family members in the discussion of deviant sexual behavior and address issues of honor and shame. The desire of the victim's family to demand revenge and retribution must also be addressed. The chapter includes an outline of issues identified in a report by the National Task Force on Juvenile Sexual Offending regarding the system's response to minority youth. 74 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    sex offenders therapy;  hispanics;  intervention strategies;  therapeutic intervention;  cultural competency;  cultural values;  best practices;  adolescent sex offenders

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.safersociety.org

 

 

TITLE:    Children's Recall of Medical Experiences: The Impact of Stress.

 

AUTHOR:    Brown, D. A.;  Salmon, K.;  Pipe, M.;  Rutter, M. et al.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Otago Univ., Dunedin (New Zealand). Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:    23(3): pp. 209-216;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science, Ltd., 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This article discusses a study that compares children's reports of 2 medical events, to assess the effects of the type of event on children's recall. The study also compares the effect of props on children's event reports. Twenty children between the ages of 37 and 67 months were interviewed following either a voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) or a pediatric assessment (PA) at a hospital. Interviews were conducted between 8 and 8 days after the event an included a doll and prop items. Ratings of stress were significantly higher for children who underwent the VCUG that those who underwent the PA. Children who experienced the VCUG procedure reported more correct information than the children who experienced the PA. Age was correlated with the total amount of correct information reported. Stress levels were correlated with both errors and accuracy of information. Children who experienced a stressful medical procedure remembered more than children who experienced a neutral medical event, although this increase in amount recalled was at the expense of accuracy. These findings suggest that stress impacts negatively on recall; however, the unique structured nature of the VCUG procedure compared to the PA, and the familiarity of the PA prop items to the children who experienced the VCUG procedure, may also have contributed to differences in recall of the 2 events. 30 references and 1 table. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    child witnesses;  memory;  testimony;  stress

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Despair Turned Into Rage: Understanding and Helping Abused, Neglected, and Abandoned Youth.

 

AUTHOR:    Lavin, P.;  Park, C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Towson Univ., MD. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:    Washington, DC, Child Welfare League of America, Inc., 1999;  120 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:    The authors of this book by the Child Welfare League of America assert that many foster care adolescents, most of whom have been abused, neglected, and abandoned, are dealing with untreated depression that is the root of much of their antisocial behavior including anger and disrespect toward authority. The book's purpose is to emphasize and focus upon the early recognition and treatment of this depression. The authors base this book on their own experiences using actual case material and events. They wrote the book so that a wide range of child care workers and lay volunteers could both understand and use it. The interviewing techniques and interventions strategies presented are simple and easy to put into practice. The authors emphasized those interventions most likely to be effective in helping abused, neglected, and abandoned adolescents. While these interventions require some study and training, they are not complex or difficult to implement. 8 chapters and numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:    depression;  anger;  interviews;  intervention strategies;  antisocial behavior;  adolescents;  foster children;  child welfare league of america

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.cwla.org

 

 

TITLE:    Does Resolution of Interadult Conflict Ameliorate Children's Anger and Distress Across Covert, Verbal, and Physical Disputes?

 

AUTHOR:    Reiter, S. L.;  El-Sheikh, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Emotional Abuse

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Cleveland Clinic Foundation, OH.

 

SOURCE:    1(3): pp. 1-21;  Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, Inc., 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    Children's emotional responses to interadult arguments were examined in an effort to explicate the role of resolution of conflict in influencing children's responding across covert (such as silent treatment), verbal, and physical forms of disputes and aggression. Sixty 4 to 7 year-olds viewed videotaped segments of arguments between a male and female and were then interviewed. Across covert, verbal, and physical disputes, children perceived the actors as more angry, and reported experiencing more negative affect and less happy emotions during unresolved versus resolved arguments. Further, resolution ameliorated children's reports of feeling: sad during covert arguments, angry and fearful during verbal conflict, and angry and sad during physical disputes. Results extend findings regarding the ameliorative effects of resolution of verbal conflict on children's distress and anger to the contexts of covert and physical interadult disputes. 3 tables and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    anger;  aggression;  fear;  marital conflicts;  family violence;  emotions

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.haworthpressinc.com

 

 

TITLE:    Child Welfare Managed Care Reform Initiatives: The 1997-98 State Survey. Special Analysis. //Health Care Reform Tracking Project//.

 

AUTHOR:    Schulzinger, R.;  McCarthy, J.;  Meyers, J.;  Irvine, M. D.;  Vincent, P.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University of South Florida, Tampa. Research and Training Center for Children's Mental Health.

 

SOURCE:    University of South Florida, Tampa. Research and Training Center for Children's Mental Health, February 1999;  113 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:    This report describes the Health Care Reform Tracking Project, a 5-year national study (1995-1999) designed to track and analyze the impact of public sector managed care reforms on children and adolescents with emotional and substance abuse problems, and their families. The Tracking Project includes 2 national written surveys of all States and 2 impact studies. The information in this document focuses on 25 State and community child welfare managed care initiatives and was gathered primarily during the spring of 1998 as part of the 1997 and 1998 national survey. The report is organized by 4 sections presenting information collected through telephone interviews and survey instruments. Section 1 describes 4 major approaches used by States or communities to introduce managed care techniques into their child welfare programs. Issues examined for each approach include goals, target population and services, implementation stage, financing strategies, management mechanisms, managed care organizations, risk sharing arrangements and capitation or case rates, family involvement, and cultural competence. Section 2 describes the extent and nature of coordination between managed behavioral health care reform and child welfare managed care initiatives and the effects of this coordination on children in both systems who have serious mental health problems and their families. Section 3 discusses how 4 States use, or plan to use, managed care techniques to implement Title IV-E waivers. Section 4 concludes with a summary of positive findings and concerns about these child welfare managed care initiatives, an overview of lessons learned, and recommendations for further study. Three appendices include a list of all sites interviewed, a detailed summary profile of each site, and the interview protocol and list of the 17 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    behavior problems;  state surveys;  systems reform;  emotional problems;  substance abuse;  managed care

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Technical Report

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.fmhi.usf.edu

 

 

TITLE:    The Association of Childhood Sexual Abuse With Depressive Symptoms During Pregnancy, and Selected Pregnancy Outcomes.

 

AUTHOR:    Benedict, M. I.;  Paine, L. L.;  Paine, L. A.;  Brandt, D.;  Stallings, R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD.

 

SOURCE:    23(7): pp. 659-670;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science Ltd., July 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This study investigated the association during pregnancy of sexual abuse before the age of 18 on depressive symptomatology in pregnancy, controlling for the presence of negative life events and challenges, and the association of selected pregnancy outcomes (maternal labor and delivery factors, infant birth weight, and gestational age) with sexual abuse before age 18. Three hundred fifty-seven primiparous women aged 18 years and older were interviewed between 28 and 32 weeks gestation with reference to current functioning and past history. These interview instruments were used to obtain the information: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Life Events Questionnaire, and questions from the Conflict Tactics Scale. Medical record information was abstracted after delivery for pregnancy, labor and delivery factors, and pregnancy outcomes. Thirty-seven percent of the women reported past sexual abuse. Prevalence was not associated with ethnic background, educational level, or hospital payment source. Previously sexually-abused pregnant women reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptomatology, negative life events, and physical and verbal abuse before and during pregnancy. There were no significant associations found between past sexual abuse and labor or delivery variables or newborn outcomes. Previously sexually-abused pregnant women reported a wider constellation of past and current functioning problems than nonabused women although past sexual abuse was not associated with pregnancy outcome. Prenatal care provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the impact of life history and current life events during pregnancy, and to develop a coordinated intervention plan. 2 tables and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    sexual abuse;  outcomes;  pregnancy;  depression;  prenatal influences;  interviews

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Investigative Interviewing With Children: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Training Program for Child Protective Service Workers.

 

AUTHOR:    Freeman, K. A.;  Morris, T. L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    West Virginia Univ., Morgantown. Dept. of Psychology.

 

SOURCE:    23(7): pp. 701-713;  New York, NY, Elsevier Science Ltd., July 1997

 

ABSTRACT:    Previous research suggests that training workshops on investigative interviewing conducted with front-line workers, such as police officers or child protective service (CPS) workers, may result in improved knowledge about appropriate strategies to use. Limited research has addressed whether such training programs result in improvements in actual interviewing skills. The present investigation assessed the impact of a training workshop on CPS workers' knowledge about conducting and behavior during investigative interviews. Twelve CPS workers participated. To evaluate the impact of the training, a quasi-experimental design was used. Participants completed outcome measures prior to, immediately following, and 3 months following the training. Outcome measures included a questionnaire to assess knowledge about interviewing practices, simulated interviews with a colleague to assess participant behavior during an investigative interview, and questionnaires to gather information related to the simulated interviews. All participants completed 6 hours of training during 3 weekly 2-hour sessions. Participants' knowledge on the topic, as well as several interviewing skills during simulated interviews, improved following the training. However, the training failed to impact several key interviewing skills such as type of questions asked or the length of the interview. Knowledge-based workshop training programs may not adequately prepare CPS workers to conduct appropriate investigative interviews with children who were allegedly abused. Further, knowledge about how to conduct such interviews may not be the best indicator of whether someone is prepared for this aspect of the job. 3 tables and numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    child welfare workers;  investigations;  interviews;  program evaluation;  police training;  professional training;  outcomes;  questionnaires

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Physically Abused Adolescents: Behavior Problems, Functional Impairment, and Comparison of Informants' Reports.

 

AUTHOR:    Kaplan, S. J.;  Labruna, V.;  Pelcovitz, D.;  Salzinger, S. et al.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Pediatrics

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    New York Univ. School of Medicine, Manhasset. Div. of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

 

SOURCE:    104(1): pp. 43-49;  Elk Grove Village, IL, American Academy of Pediatrics, July 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This study ascertained whether physically abused adolescents exhibited increased internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Relevance to pediatric practice is also discussed. A cross-sectional design was used to compare the behavior of physically abused adolescents and comparison adolescents using self-reports, parent reports, and teacher reports. The level of agreement among raters was also examined. Subjects included 99 physically abused white adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 years recruited from child protective services. Comparison subjects were 99 community-recruited nonabused adolescents who were matched for age, gender, and income with the abused adolescents. Adolescent behavior was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist and the comparable Youth Self-Report and Teacher Report Form. The Child Global Assessment Scale was also used as a measure of functional impairment and of the need for mental health services. Parents and teachers rated the problems of abused adolescents as significantly greater than the problems of nonabused adolescents on all checklist subscales. Abused adolescents reported significantly greater problems only on externalizing behavior subscales. In addition, based on interviewer ratings, physically abused adolescents exhibited significantly greater functional impairment. The authors conclude that physically abused adolescents exhibit externalizing and internalizing behavior problems and experience greater functional impairment. Parent, teacher, and adolescent reports of externalizing behaviors were similar, but physically abused adolescents reported fewer internalizing behaviors than did the other informants. 2 tables and 32 references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    physical abuse;  adolescents;  behavior problems;  behavior rating scales;  teachers

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.pediatrics.org

 

 

TITLE:    The Relationship Between Children's Report of Trauma and Parents' Observation of Behavior.

 

AUTHOR:    Austin, J. S.;  Sims, S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Southeastern Louisiana Univ., Hammond.

 

SOURCE:    Presented at: APSAC 7th Annual Colloquium, San Antonio, TX, June 2-5, 1999;  9 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:    In many cases parents and other adults minimize the victim distress resulting from sexual abuse. In other cases, parents report the level of distress as being significantly higher than that reported by the children and often attribute all behavior to evidence of abuse. This study determined if there is a relationship between the actual distress experienced by the victim and the parents' observation of behavior indicators of abuse. Eighteen primarily white females between the ages of 8 and 16, who were interviewed by the Children's Advocacy Center for sexual abuse during the previous year, were administered the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children. Non-offending parents or caretakers of the victims were administered the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI). Scores on both measures were compared using multivariate analysis of variance to determine the relationship. A significant relationship was found between parent's total T score on the CSBI and both the children's Hyperresponsiveness Scale and Anxiety Scale. Numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    sexual abuse;  victimization;  observation;  behavior rating scales;  indicators;  trauma

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Proceedings Paper

 

 

TITLE:    The Outcome of Adoptions from Romania: Predictors of Parental Satisfaction.

 

AUTHOR:    Groothues, C.;  Beckett, C.;  O'Connor, T.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Adoption and Fostering

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    London Univ. Institute of Psychiatry (England). Dept. of Child Psychiatry.

 

SOURCE:    22(4): pp. 30-40;  London (England), British Agencies for Adoption and Fostering, Winter 1998-99

 

ABSTRACT:    In this British study, the authors examine the outcome of adoptions of 117 children from Romania and a comparison group of 52 adopted children from the United Kingdom, and consider associated factors in the context of previous research findings. The children were assessed at 4 years of age and their mothers were interviewed. The children had been with the adoptive family for at least 2 years. Overall the outcome in both groups was very positive, with no breakdowns and a high level of parental satisfaction. Negative parental evaluation of the adoptions was considered separately and a number of factors were found to be related to this outcome. Multivariate analysis showed that the child's level of hyperactivity at the time of interview was the most important factor. Despite the severe physical and developmental delay at placement of many of the Romanian children, the outcome picture for both groups was very similar. Numerous references. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    romania;  outcomes;  parent child relationships;  delayed development;  hyperactivity;  great britain;  interviews;  assessment

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Adopting Parenthood: An Enduring Transformation Marking Identity and Intimacy Capacities.

 

AUTHOR:    Shahmoon-Shanok, R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Zero to Three

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Jewish Board of Family and Children's Services, New York, NY. Institute for Clinical Studies of Infants, Toddlers and Parents.

 

SOURCE:    19(4): pp. 32-36;  National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families, Washington, DC, February-March 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This article examines the turning points prospective adoptive parents experience in reaching the decision to adopt, focusing particularly on identity and intimacy. As part of a larger study to explore the impact of prospective parenthood on mothers' and couples' identity and intimacy processes, ten adoptive women--all middle class, educated, heterosexual volunteers--responded to several questionnaires and were interviewed over several hours, shortly before receiving their child. Several husbands also participated. Turning points in their decision to adopt as well as the exploration of adoption alternatives--also referred to as marker processes--included infertility and accompanying reactions, such as humiliation, grief, and marital stress. Identity and timing issues are also examined, touching on women's biology and other issues. Impending adoptive motherhood and relationships with others is considered, focusing on the synchrony, or lack thereof, in the shift of how one sees oneself and how others view them. Marker processes of adoption are reviewed, further examining the shifts in perception. Case studies are used to illustrate the turning points. The author concludes that by the time that adoptive parents meet their child, they have already gone through several deeply felt marker experiences requiring vast energy, attention, emotion and adaptation. Resource information, 18 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    adoption;  parenting;  identity;  infertility;  adoption preparation

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.zerotothree.org

 

 

TITLE:    Tender Mercies: Inside the World of a Child Abuse Investigator.

 

AUTHOR:    Richards, K. N.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    New York State Dept. of Social Services, Albany. Child Protective Services.

 

SOURCE:    Revised. Child Welfare League of America, Inc., Washington, DC.

 

ABSTRACT:    This book presents the personal story of a child protection investigator in New York state. All facets of daily experiences are described, from interviewing parents and children to preparing petitions for court. The investigator describes the emotional aspects of his cases and his methods for coping.

 

KEY TERMS:    child protective services;  child welfare workers;  investigations;  interviews;  case management;  case studies;  new york

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.cwla.org

 

 

TITLE:    Children in Kinship Foster Care Speak Out: We Think We're Doing Fine.

 

AUTHOR:    Altshuler, S. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child and Adolescent Social Work

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Illinois Univ., Urbana. School of Social Work.

 

SOURCE:    16(3): pp. 215-235;  Kluwer Academic, New York, NY., June 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    Six African American children placed in kinship foster care were interviewed for this study to determine their perspectives of their experience. The children reported feeling loved and cared for by their relatives. They intended to stay with their current caregivers until their independence. The children's anecdotes demonstrated the importance of simple acts of kindness by the caregivers, who provided models of positive interaction. Implications for casework are explained. 30 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    foster children;  kinship care;  well being;  quality of care;  outcomes;  case management;  program evaluation

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.wkap.com

 

 

TITLE:    Victims as Victimizers: Physical Aggression by Persons With a History of Childhood Abuse.

 

AUTHOR:    Clarke, J.;  Stein, M. D.;  Sobota, M.;  Marisi, M.;  Hanna, L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Archives of Internal Medicine

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Brown Univ. School of Medicine, Providence, RI. Dept. of Medicine and Community Health.

 

SOURCE:    159: pp. 1920-1924;  American Medical Association, Chicago, IL., September 13, 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    More than 400 individuals with a history of intravenous drug use were interviewed to examine whether a history of childhood sexual or physical abuse is associated with becoming a victimizer (i.e., abusing or assaulting others) as an adult. Persons who had a history of victimizing others were compared with those who did not have such a history by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Variables included demographic factors as well as a history of sexual or physical abuse before the age of 16 years. Fifty-one percent of the women and 31 percent of the men had a history of physical abuse. Seventeen percent of the subjects reported being victimizers. Among persons who reported being victims of either physical or sexual childhood abuse, 28 percent victimized others; among those who denied a history of childhood abuse, 10 percent victimized others. Two- thirds of victimizers reported being intoxicated while assaulting others. Childhood abuse was significantly and independently associated with becoming a victimizer, after controlling for sex, having children, education, race, and history of incarceration. Large numbers of intravenous drug users, both men and women, have victimized family members or sexual partners. A high rate of childhood abuse among this population was confirmed, demonstrating that past abuse in drug users is associated with becoming a victimizer as an adult. Primary care providers should be alert to this cycle of violence. 25 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    adults abused as children;  sequelae;  generational cycle of family violence;  risk factors;  aggressive behavior;  child abuse research;  substance abuse;  incidence

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.ama-assn.org/public/journals/inte/intehome.htm

 

 

TITLE:    Response to Clare Dalton's When Paradigms Collide: Protecting Battered Parents and Their Children in the Family Court System.

 

AUTHOR:    Johnston, J. R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Family and Conciliation Courts Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    San Jose State Univ., CA. Administration of Justice Dept.

 

SOURCE:    37(4): pp. 422-428;  Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA., October 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    The methodology and findings of two research studies cited in Clare Dalton's article When Paradigms Collide published in a previous issue of the journal are defended in this article. The studies have been misunderstood by Dalton, as well as other researchers. Both studies examined the effects of domestic violence on children and the outcomes of counseling for parents. The first interviewed 80 families from 1982 to 1984 and the second interviewed 60 families from 1989 to 1991. Contrary to Dalton's assertion that couples were categorized into one of several predetermined types which were not assessed for accuracy, the typology was continually adjusted to reflect the data being collected. Dalton's second concern was that the researchers had no guidelines for finding the truth when parents gave conflicting reports of incidents. In fact, statistical analyses of discrepancies were performed and parents' reports were compared for comprehensiveness, specificity, plausibility, consistency, attitudes, and evidence. Dalton also claims that research about forms of domestic violence focus on conflict, rather than abuse. However, the two are linked especially in cases of male controlling violence. Limitations of typologies are outlined. 11 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    family courts;  battered women;  custody disputes;  family characteristics;  research methodology;  child witnesses of family violence;  sequelae;  reliability

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.sagepub.com/

 

 

TITLE:    Screening for Domestic Violence in the Community Pediatric Setting.

 

AUTHOR:    Siegel, R. M.;  Hill, T. D.;  Henderson, V. A.;  Ernst, H. M.;  Boat, B. W.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Pediatrics

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    St. Luke Hospitals, Bellevue, KY. Northern Kentucky Children's Advocacy Center.

 

SOURCE:    104(4): pp. 874-877;  American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village, IL., October 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    Women who accompanied their children for a well-child visit to a hospital-based suburban pediatrician were interviewed about violence in their home to examine how likely women are to disclose domestic violence in the pediatric office setting. Of the 154 women screened, 47 revealed domestic violence at some time in their lives. Twenty-five women reported domestic violence within the past 2 years and were reported to the mandated state agency. There were 5 episodes of child abuse reported of which two had not been previously reported. Interestingly, there were 5 women injured during their most recent pregnancy and who had separated from their abusive partner, but no legal action had been taken to protect them from their partner's return. There was no significant difference in the incidence of domestic violence reported in families with Medicaid versus private insurance. Before routine domestic violence screening in the office, only one previous domestic violence report had been made in 4 years. These preliminary results suggest that many women will reveal domestic violence when screened in the pediatric office setting. Also, there is a subgroup of women, those with young children who have recently separated from their partners, who may particularly benefit from domestic violence screening. 22 references and 2 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    assessment;  spouse abuse;  pediatricians role;  child witnesses of family violence;  disclosure;  battered women;  child abuse research;  interviews

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Aspects of Foster Fathering.

 

AUTHOR:    Inch, L. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal

 

SOURCE:    16(5): pp. 393-412;  Kluwer Academic-Human Sciences Press, Inc., New York, NY., October 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    Fifteen foster fathers were interviewed for this study about their experience as foster parents. The men provided information about their motivations for becoming foster fathers, their function as a foster parent, attachment and loss during their relationship, and personal connections between the child and the birth family. In general, the study found that the motivations of foster fathers focused on the emotional benefits and the strength of commitment the man feels to the child. The foster fathers reported involvement in all parts of the child's life, with the exception of contact with child welfare professionals which is usually handled by their wife. They parented their biological and foster children the same way, although they felt more cautious of their actions with their foster children. The fathers described the powerful attachments they developed with the foster children and how they coped with the loss when the child moved. They also respected the importance of the relationship between the foster child and his or her birth parents. Negative attitudes about the birth parents could be supported or changed, depending on the outcome of contact between the child and the parents. 35 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    foster parents;  fathers;  father child relationships;  parental attitudes;  parental role;  attachment;  interpersonal relationships;  child welfare research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.wkap.com

 

 

TITLE:    Prevalence and Effects of Child Sexual Abuse in a Poor, Rural Community in El Salvador: A Retrospective Study of Women After 12 Years of Civil War.

 

AUTHOR:    Barthauer, L. M.;  Leventhal, J. M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child Abuse and Neglect

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Rochester Univ. Medical Center, NY. Dept. of Pediatrics.

 

SOURCE:    23(11): pp. 1117-1126;  Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, NY., November 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine the epidemiology of child sexual abuse (CSA) among women in a poor, rural community in El Salvador, which was recovering from a 12- year civil war. A cross-sectional, door-to-door survey was administered to 83 women. The LA Times Sexual Abuse Survey and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HCL) were used to determine the prevalence of CSA and the long-term psychological sequelae of abuse (somatization, anxiety, depression, interpersonal sensitivity, and obsessive-compulsive traits). Information was also obtained about participation and number of relatives killed in the country's 12-year civil war. Of the 83 women interviewed, 14 (17 percent) reported a total of 21 experiences of CSA. The median age of abuse was 14 years. The majority of perpetrators (90.4 percent) were strangers, friends, or neighbors. None was a parent. The only significant difference between abused and non-abused women was on the depression measure, where abused women showed more pathology. After controlling for the number of relatives killed in the war, however, that difference failed to reach statistical significance. Differences in the epidemiology of CSA from that of other countries may be secondary to a different social structure in the rural Salvadoran community and non-disclosure by the women surveyed. The lack of difference in psychological symptoms between abused and non-abused women may be related to the different characteristics of the abuse and perpetrators. It also may be secondary to adverse social conditions such as poverty and war, which could obscure the long-term effects of CSA. 31 references and 3 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    prevalence;  sequelae;  sexual abuse;  south america;  poverty;  community violence;  child abuse research;  epidemiology

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Maternal Disciplinary Practices in an At-Risk Population.

 

AUTHOR:    Socolar, R. R. S.;  Winsor, J.;  Hunter, W. M.;  Catellier, D.;  Kotch, J. B.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill. Dept. of Pediatrics.

 

SOURCE:    North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill. Dept. of Pediatrics., 1999;  31 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:    A cross-sectional sample of 186 maternal caregivers were interviewed for this NCCAN-funded study about the maternal discipline of children in at-risk families. The longitudinal study included mothers of 7-9 year old children with characteristics at birth that placed them at risk. A measure, based on coding parental response, was used to assess disciplinary practices for 5 different misbehaviors. Limit- setting was the most commonly used disciplinary practice for 4 or 5 misbehaviors, and 63 percent of parents reported that this method of discipline generally worked best. Spanking was more likely for each misbehavior as a secondary response, when the primary one had not succeeded, than as a primary response. Conversely, teaching verbal assertion was always less likely as a secondary response. Each disciplinary practice was examined to find which misbehavior elicited this practice most often. teaching-verbal assertion was used more commonly for lying than for any other misbehavior, limit-setting for disobeying, spanking for stealing, and spanking with an object for being disrespectful. Regression modeling for the 4 most common disciplinary practice showed that black race, lack of AFDC receipt, more educated mothers, and female sex of child were associated with more teaching-verbal assertion; a biologic father in the home was associated with less limit-setting; and black race and report for child maltreatment was associated with more mild spanking. 51 references and 4 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    maternal behavior;  discipline;  punishment;  families at risk;  children at risk;  risk factors;  longitudinal studies;  child abuse research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Technical Report

 

 

TITLE:    Child Protective Service and Law Enforcement Program Training Packet.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    Child Abuse Prevention Center, Ogden, UT. National Information Support and Referral Service on Shaken Baby Syndrome.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

SOURCE:    Child Abuse Prevention Center, Ogden, UT. National Information Support and Referral Service on Shaken Baby Syndrome., 1999;  30 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:    This presentation packet contains materials for training programs for child protective service workers and law enforcement professionals about shaken baby syndrome. The manual includes background articles, handouts, pre- and post- tests, and overheads, as well as tips for effective presentations. Medical aspects of shaken baby syndrome, risk factors, anatomy of head injuries, diagnosis, evidence collection, interviewing strategies, and prosecution are addressed.

 

KEY TERMS:    child welfare workers;  police role;  police training;  professional training;  shaken baby syndrome;  investigations;  curricula;  resource materials

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Training Material

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.capcenter.org

 

 

TITLE:    The Impact of Dissociation, Trauma, and Stress Arousal on the Memory and Suggestibility of Physically and Sexually Abused, and Neglected Children.

 

AUTHOR:    Eisen, M.;  Qin, J.;  Goodman, G. S.;  Savis, S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    California State Univ., Los Angeles.

 

SOURCE:    California State Univ., Los Angeles, May 1999;  328 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:    This final report details the findings of two studies of the effects of age and stress on children's memory. The first study investigated the relationships between age, stress arousal, trauma-related pathology, intellectual performance, and event memory in a group of 328 suspected victims of child maltreatment. The study was unique in that all testing occurred in the context of actual forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory for an anogenital examination- venipuncture, neutral event, and psychological consultation was examined. Ratings of the detail and consistency of children's disclosures of abuse in forensic and clinical interviews were also analyzed. Typical age differences in memory were uncovered. Maltreated children's performance in response to abuse-related misleading questions was comparable to the performance of comparison, nonabused children. Findings were mixed regarding relations of dissociative tendencies and post- traumatic stress disorder to children's memory, in part because of measurement difficulties. Clinicians' ratings of psychopathology were significantly related to memory performance. Other predictors of children's event memory and abuse disclosure patterns were explored. The second study was designed to assess effects of age, abuse history, and stress arousal on children's memory and suggestibility. One hundred eighty-nine 3- to 17-year olds undergoing evaluations of alleged maltreatment were questioned about an anogenital examination and-or clinical interview. Results indicated that older compared to younger children exhibited more accurate memory performance and greater resistance to suggestions. Age was also significantly related to interviewers' ratings of the amount of detail in children's abuse reports. General psychopathology, dissociation, short-term memory, and intellectual ability were inconsistent predictors of children's memory and suggestibility, whereas stress arousal was consistently unrelated to children's memory performance. Implications for understanding children's eyewitness memory are discussed. Numerous references and 39 tables. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    memory;  child witnesses;  competency;  suggestibility;  trauma;  posttraumatic stress disorder;  dissociation;  sequelae

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Final Report

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.calstatela.edu

 

 

TITLE:    Foster Care: Effectiveness of Independent Living Services Unknown.

 

INST. AUTHOR:    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

SOURCE:    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC., November 1999;  33 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:    This General Accounting Office (GAO) report describes the extent of services provided under the federal Independent Living Program (ILP) and discusses what is known about the effect of these services on adolescents' ability to live on their own. ILP services are designed to help foster care youths make the transition from exiting foster care to living independently. GAO reviewed relevant literature and 1998 annual ILP reports, interviewed State and federal officials and independent living experts, visited independent living programs, and surveyed all 50 States. The GAO review found that States provide a wide range of services to better ensure that foster care adolescents are prepared to live on their own after they leave the foster care system. These services include assisting youths in attaining their educational goals and assisting youths in finding and maintaining employment. However, ILP services cannot always provide all of the assistance administrators and adolescents say is needed to help youths learn to live on their own. Few national or local studies have been completed to assess the effectiveness of independent living services in helping adolescents through this transition to living on their own after foster care. GAO is making recommendations to Health and Human Services (HHS) concerning the need to enhance HHS' and States accountability for preparing youths to live independently. Appendices provide information on scope and methodology, figures from the review of annual State reports, GAO contacts and staff acknowledgments, and related GAO products. 1 table, 4 figures, and numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:    independent living;  independent living skills;  foster care;  adolescents;  federal programs;  state programs;  program evaluation

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Technical Report

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.gao.gov/

 

 

TITLE:    State Efforts to Remake Child Welfare: Responses to New Challenges and Increased Scrutiny. Occasional Paper. //Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program to Assess Changing Social Policies//.

 

AUTHOR:    Geen, R.;  Tumlin, K. C.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Urban Institute, Washington, DC.

 

SOURCE:    Number 29. Urban Institute, Washington, DC., October 1999;  48 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:    To provide a baseline for assessing how welfare reform affects child welfare agencies, this paper reviews the challenges that State child welfare systems face and how States respond to these challenges. Information in this paper is based on studies of 13 States included in the Urban Institute's Assessing the New Federalism project. The 13 States are Alabama, California, Colorado, Florida, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, New Jersey, New York, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin. In each State, staff interviewed State and local child welfare administrators and front line staff, legislators, interest groups, and State-based researchers. Site visits were conducted between mid-1996 and mid-1997. The first section of this paper documents the challenges child welfare agencies were facing when the welfare reform legislation passed and the second section describes the intense scrutiny that child welfare systems have been under. The third section describes how States responded to both the challenges and the scrutiny. The fourth section assesses the potential implications of welfare reform for child welfare. The final section discusses implications of the report's findings, especially as they relate to welfare reform implementation. Numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:    child welfare reform;  devolution;  assessment;  child welfare agencies;  child welfare services;  welfare reform

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Technical Report

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.urban.org

 

 

TITLE:    The Tangible and Intangible Rewards of Fostering for Carers.

 

AUTHOR:    Butler, S.;  Charles, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Adoption and Fostering

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Nottingham Univ., (England).

 

SOURCE:    23(3): pp. 48-58;  British Agencies for Adoption and Fostering, London (England)., Autumn 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    Six foster parents and five youth were interviewed about their experience with placement disruption, placement preparation, perceptions during placement about communication and family dynamics, and coping strategies used after breakdown of the foster relationship. Emphasis is placed on the role of the tangible and intangible rewards expected by foster parents. The foster parents reported receiving satisfaction from tangible rewards such as payment, training and preparation, and support provided by social workers. They placed more importance on the intangible rewards that they believed they would experience as a foster parent. They were emotionally invested in their foster children and anticipated that with love and care, the youth would be grateful and appreciate them as parents. The foster parents also noted their belief that the foster youth would respond to their care by changing their behavior and becoming part of the family. Failure to meet expectations for intangible rewards led to a decrease in the foster parents' satisfaction with their role, blame attributed to social services agencies, perceptions of their inability to make a difference, negative attitudes toward birth parents, and negative effects on their own families. Implications of these findings for foster care agency practice are discussed. 35 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    foster parents;  foster parent retention;  recruitment;  child welfare research;  parental expectations;  parental attitudes;  placement disruption;  family preservation

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.baaf.org.uk

 

 

TITLE:    Adoptive Mothers' Attitudes to Contact: Highlights From an Australian Study.

 

AUTHOR:    Gair, S.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Adoption and Fostering

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    James Cook Univ., North Queensland (Australia). School of Social Work and Community Welfare.

 

SOURCE:    23(3): pp. 38-47;  British Agencies for Adoption and Fostering, London (England)., Autumn 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    Fifty adoptive mothers in Australia were interviewed about their attitudes and feelings about contact between their adopted child and the child's birth parents. The research findings suggest that adoptive mothers may be better understood by considering a number of factors which impact on the taking up of certain attitudes, and by recognizing the transitory rather than assuming the static qualities of such positions. Influencing factors include: presence of biological children in the adoptive family; distance; similar experiences; rewards of contact; environmental factors; heredity; and life events. 24 references and 1 figure. (Author abstract modified)

 

KEY TERMS:    adoptive parents;  birth parents;  maternal behavior;  visitation;  australia;  parental attitudes;  adoption research;  reunions

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.baaf.org.uk

 

 

TITLE:    Narratives of Adoptive Parents: Perspectives From Individual and Couple Interviews.

 

AUTHOR:    Grotevant, H. D.;  Fravel, D. L.;  Gorall, D.;  Piper, J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Institute of Child Development.

 

SOURCE:    64(2): pp. 69-83;  Blackwell Publishers, Inc., Malden, MA, 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    Narratives and interviews with adoptive parents in 27 families were analyzed to test six hypotheses: that openness in adoptions correspond to level of coherence in family narratives; that the coherence of narratives individually and jointly with spouses would be somewhat similar; that spousal correlations within the individual context and joint context would be moderately similar; that ratings obtained from the couple context and the narrative assessments would be statistically significant; that differences in coherence of one spouse's ratings in the individual and couple context would correlate to marital satisfaction; and that large differences in the coherence of spouses would be related to lower couple co- construction, lower confirmation between spouses, and more dissatisfaction in the relationship. All of the couples in the study had been married to each other before the adoption. One- third had confidential adoptions, one-third had mediated adoptions, and one-third had open adoptions. Each parent was interviewed individually, as well as with their spouse and assessments of marital satisfaction and parenting stress were completed. Analyses revealed that coherence positively correlated with openness of the adoption. The narratives of adoptive parents were more coherent than the narratives of parents in mediated adoptions, which were more coherent than the narratives of parents in closed adoptions. Coherence ratings of husbands and wives were similar in the individual and couple interviews. The hypothesis that lower coherence scores in the couple interview than the individual interview would be related to lower marital satisfaction was only true for wives. The final hypothesis that large differences in coherence would correlate to low co-construction, low confirmation between spouses, and higher marital dissatisfaction was also upheld. Implications of these findings for work with adoptive families are discussed. Numerous references and 5 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    adoptive parents;  adoption preparation;  adoption research;  assessment;  parental attitudes;  parental background;  parental reactions;  family characteristics

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Self and Alma Mater: A Study of Adopted College Students.

 

AUTHOR:    Kryder, S. L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal

 

SOURCE:    16(5): pp. 355-372;  Kluwer Academic-Human Sciences Press, Inc., New York, NY., October 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    Sixteen college students were interviewed for this study about the impact of adoption on their identity and emotional development. The students described the history of their adoption, their curiosity about their biological mothers, the influence of the college atmosphere on their thoughts about adoption, and the experience of transracial adoption. Study participants indicated various levels of disruption at the time their adoptive parents told them about the adoption, depending on their cognitive level and readiness to hear the information. All of the students expressed some interest in their biological mother, but some declined to search for her because it might hurt their adoptive parents. They were able to explore their feelings about adoption in the college environment and some attributed problems with emotional intimacy to their feelings about adoption. The students who were transracially adopted also had some confusions about their racial identity. 39 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    adoption outcomes;  lifelong impact;  self esteem;  search for birth parents;  parent child relationships;  emotional development;  psychological characteristics;  transracial adoption

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.wkap.com

 

 

TITLE:    Sexuality, Sexual Abuse and Children's Homes: Oppression or Protection?

 

AUTHOR:    Green, L.;  Parkin, W.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Huddersfield Univ. (England).

 

SOURCE:    Violence Against Children Study Group, Huddersfield (England). Children, Child Abuse and Child Protection: Placing Children Centrally. John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., New York, NY., 1999;  pp. 175-192

 

ABSTRACT:    This chapter reports the findings of qualitative research about the sexuality of children in residential care. The study examined the link between sexual abuse victimization and sexual behavior, the impact of the residential environment, and the responses of residential staff. More than 100 people were interviewed, including residential workers and managers, external managers, social workers, children currently in care, and former residents. The responses revealed that the children were vulnerable to sexual abuse or coercion into prostitution because of their need for affection, low self-esteem, and their limited social contacts. Staff often failed to recognize or respond to the residents' sexuality, or were punitive and blamed females. Male staff took no responsibility for addressing sexuality and avoided any discussion or situation related to sex out of fear of being accused of abuse. Few policies addressed sexuality and managers denied sexual behavior or covered-up abuse. When they did intervene, managers' responses were gender-oriented. The chapter recommends that children and staff be provided with an advocacy system and opportunity for complaint. Staff and managers should be trained on sexuality and gender issues. 43 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    residential care;  group homes;  great britain;  sexual behavior;  sexual abuse;  sex factors;  prostitution;  sequelae

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.wiley.com

 

 

TITLE:    State v. Michaels: A New Jersey Supreme Court Ruling With National Implications.

 

AUTHOR:    Ross, K. L.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Michigan Bar Journal

 

SOURCE:    78: pp. 32-35;  Michigan State Bar, Lansing., January 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This article analyzes the implications of the New Jersey Supreme Court decision in State v. Michaels, which held that a hearing should be held to determine the reliability of a child's testimony before trial. The taint hearing actually assesses the quality of the pretrial interview process to ensure that the questioning procedures were not suggestive. Focus is placed on the procedures used during the investigation, not the credibility of the child. The Court suggested that trial judges hold a taint hearing in any of the following situations: the lack of a tape of the initial interview; limited control over influence by family members; limited degree of spontaneous recollection; interviewer bias; leading questions; repeated questioning and interviews; vilification of the accused; bribes and threats; and other factors that would influence the child. Findings of the taint hearing will ensure that information obtained from the child's interview can be presented as evidence without violating the defendant's constitutional right to confrontation.

 

KEY TERMS:    state case law;  new jersey;  child witnesses;  testimony;  sexual abuse;  competency;  right to confrontation;  credibility

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    The New Wave in Children's Suggestibility Research: A Critique.

 

AUTHOR:    Lyon, T. D.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Cornell Law Review

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    University of Southern California, Los Angeles. Law School.

 

SOURCE:    84: pp. 1004-1087;  Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Law School., May 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    The new wave in children's suggestibility research consists of a prestigious group of researchers in developmental psychology who argue that children are highly vulnerable to suggestive interviewing techniques. Because of its scientific credentials, its moderate tone, and its impressive body of research, the new wave presents a serious challenge to those who have claimed that children are unlikely to allege sexual abuse falsely. Although we can learn much from the research, concerns over society's ability to detect abuse motivate three criticisms. First, the new wave researchers assume that highly suggestive interviewing techniques are the norm in abuse investigations, despite little empirical evidence to support this claim. Second, the research neglects the characteristics of child sexual abuse that both make false allegations less likely and increase the need to guard against a failure to detect abuse when it actually has occurred. Third, the researchers' apparent value-free scientific treatment of the suggestibility issue obscures, rather than avoids, value judgements regarding the tradeoff between false allegations and false denials of sexual abuse. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    research reviews;  suggestibility;  child development;  research methodology;  research needs;  developmental psychology;  child psychology;  sexual abuse

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

 

TITLE:    Sexual and Physical Abuse Among Adolescent Girls With Disruptive Behavior Problems.

 

AUTHOR:    Green, S. M.;  Russo, M.;  Navratil, J. L.;  Loeber, R.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of Child and Family Studies

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Pittsburgh Univ., PA. Institutional Review Board.

 

SOURCE:    8(2): pp. 151-168;  Kluwer Academic, New York, NY., June 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This study examined the prevalence and age at onset of physical and sexual abuse in a clinic-referred sample of adolescent girls, as well as differences in diagnoses and symptoms among abused and non-abused girls. Forty-nine girls aged 13 to 17 years with disruptive behavior were interviewed along with their primary caretaker. Data were gathered through both a structured interview with the girls and her parent, as well as self and parent-report questionnaires. Findings indicated that the prevalence of Conduct Disorder (CD) and Major Depression were higher for abused girls. Somatoform Pain Disorder was significantly less likely for physically abused girls, compared to girls who were both physically and sexually abused. Of CD symptoms, truancy was twice as high for the physically and sexually abused group, compared to the prevalence for non-abused girls. Internalizing symptoms were also highest for the dual abuse group. Onset graphs show that sexual abuse usually began at an earlier age than physical abuse. Abused girls showed an earlier age of onset of CD symptoms. Results indicated that the experience of combined types of abuse is associated with a poorer psychiatric prognosis. 46 references, 5 figures, and 1 table. (Author abstract)

 

KEY TERMS:    behavior problems;  adolescents;  sexual abuse;  physical abuse;  sequelae;  female victims;  depression;  child abuse research

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.wkap.com

 

 

TITLE:    Evaluating the Quality of Kinship Foster Care: Evaluation Package.

 

AUTHOR:    Agathen, J. M.;  O'Donnell, J.;  Wells, S. J.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Illinois Univ. School of Social Work, Urbana. Children and Family Research Center.

 

SOURCE:    Illinois Univ. School of Social Work, Urbana. Children and Family Research Center., December 1999;  315 pp.

 

ABSTRACT:    The instruments contained in this evaluation package were developed by the Children and Family Research Center at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign to assess the quality of care in kinship foster homes. Foster care providers are instructed to utilize the caseworker self-administered questionnaire, the caregiver interview, the case record review, and the child interview to assess the motivation of the kinship care provider, the provider's ability to meet the needs of the child, the caregiver's economic, social, and physical capacities, and family functioning. The instruments were reviewed and tested by experts in kinship care and survey research. The manual includes instructions for interviewing caregivers and children and for reviewing case records. Scoring instructions are also provided. 28 references.

 

KEY TERMS:    kinship care;  home study;  assessment;  parenting skills;  outcomes;  measures;  questionnaires;  rating scales

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Technical Report

 

 

TITLE:    Communication.

 

AUTHOR:    Westcott, H.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    Open Univ. (England).

 

SOURCE:    In: Parton, N. and Wattam, C. (Editors). Child Sexual Abuse: Responding to the Experiences of Children. Wiley and Son, New York, NY., 1999;  pp. 90-106

 

ABSTRACT:    This chapter attempts to answer what is it about child sexual abuse that makes it so difficult to hear and understand children. It acknowledges that it is possible to identify important communication issues which arise from personal, professional, and organizational factors. This chapter discusses these issues, drawing on research with children and on critiques of the current systems invoked in response to an allegation or suspicion of child sexual abuse. It focuses primarily on the initial stages of inquiries, and particularly investigative interviews conducted in a framework which stresses the wider communicative context within such inquiries occur. The chapter begins with a discussion of an ecological approach in setting the communicative context. Next, the ecological dimensions of investigative interviewing are reviewed followed by a description of children's perspectives on investigative interviews and interviewers. The chapter states that the key features of communication in an ideal system for responding to allegations or suspicions of child sexual abuse would include flexibility, empathy, honesty, respect, confidentiality if desired, and sensitive listening. The final sections of the chapter discuss child abuse and children with disabilities, child protection and criminal justice, and listening to children. 1 figure and numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:    sexual abuse;  communication;  communication techniques;  abuse allegations;  children with disabilities;  interviews;  investigations

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Chapter in Book

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.wiley.com

 

 

TITLE:    Prosecuting Attorneys in Dependency Proceedings in Juvenile Court: Defining and Assessing a Critical Role in Child Abuse and Neglect Cases.

 

AUTHOR:    Scahill, M.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Journal of the Center for Children and the Courts

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    National Center for Juvenile Justice.

 

SOURCE:    1: pp. 73-99;  Judicial Council of California, San Francisco., 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This article reviews the role of prosecuting attorneys in civil dependency proceedings and criminal child abuse cases. In some states, prosecutors are only involved in criminal proceedings against adults accused of child abuse. In other states, the prosecuting attorney is assigned a dual role of responsibility for presenting civil dependency proceedings as well as criminal cases. Some prosecutors represent the interests of the local social service agency, while others represent the state. Prosecutors with a dual role may face a conflict between their duty to settle cases with parents according to agency goals and their responsibility to prosecute crimes. Considerations related to prosecutorial structure include: fundamental differences in goals and philosophies of criminal justice and child welfare systems; fairness issues for parents and the right to refuse self-incrimination; procedural safeguards to protect parents rights, such as negative inference, counsel for parents, use immunity, and confidentiality; and the coercive power of the state. Issues for efficient and effective case processing when the same attorney handles both civil and criminal proceedings, when different attorneys in the same office handle civil and criminal proceedings, and when different attorneys in different offices handle civil and criminal proceedings are discussed. Multidisciplinary teams are recommended to coordinate proceedings, gather evidence, interview victims, plan treatment, train interviewers, and develop priorities. Special considerations for prosecuting attorneys who also represent the agency in civil dependency proceedings are also outlined. The article concludes by reporting findings from recent research about these issues. 2 tables.

 

KEY TERMS:    dependency;  juvenile court;  district attorneys;  lawyers role;  lawsuits;  trial courts;  legal processes;  prosecution

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.courtinfo.ca.gov

 

 

TITLE:    Improving the Health of Children and Young People Leaving Care.

 

AUTHOR:    Broad, B.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

JOURNAL TITLE:    Adoption and Fostering

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION:    De Montfort Univ., Leicester (England). Dept. of Social and Community Studies.

 

SOURCE:    23(1): pp. 40-48;  London, (England), British Agencies for Adoption and Fostering, Spring 1999

 

ABSTRACT:    This article discusses the health of children and adolescents who leave care services in England and Wales to live independently. The article summarizes recent health literature dealing with emancipating from care for independent living is provided. A research project about the health care of youth leaving care is described with four aims: to identify the met and unmet health needs of young people leaving care; to explore the health experiences, negative and positive, of those who leave care; to make recommendations to improve the delivery of health services; and to train young people to become members of the research team. Two main data gathering stages were identified: focused group interviews as the participants identified the health areas to be covered in the interviews; and training and support in how to become research interviewers. Forty-eight children and adolescents were interviewed. Findings suggest that both physical and mental health needs of children and adolescents leaving care are not being met, and that these needs must be met from a holistic standpoint by which the social, personal, and emotional elements combine and are inter-related. The author argues that youth emancipating from care need more flexible and accessible responses by professionals as well as fuller involvement in decision-making processes by youth themselves are central to improved evidence-based health outcomes. Conclusions suggest that a much higher priority for health assessments is necessary, as are preventive and supportive strategies as both the personal and interagency levels, to alleviate some of the underlying and unhealthy causes of stress. One figure, numerous references.

 

KEY TERMS:    child health;  health needs;  england;  wales;  independent living;  research;  stress

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Journal Article

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.baaf.org.uk

 

 

TITLE:    THE LINK BETWEEN CHILD ABUSE AND FAMILY VIOLENCE: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

SOURCE:    NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:    spouse abuse;  child welfare services;  welfare reform;  interagency collaboration;  interdisciplinary approach;  child protective services;  battered women;  multiproblem families;  interagency cooperation;  child welfare research;  systems reform;  child welfare workers;  prevalence;  intervention strategies;  assessment;  decision making;  massachusetts;  child abuse;  statewide planning;  child safety;  michigan;  family preservation;  service delivery;  model programs;  courts role;  juvenile courts;  child welfare reform;  policy formation;  social policies;  federal programs;  funding;  maternal behavior;  mental health;  personality disorders;  mental disorders;  interprofessional relationships;  child protection;  child welfare;  tanf;  poverty;  colorado;  primary prevention;  systems development;  indicators;  service integration;  feminism;  prevention;  family violence;  community based services;  protocols;  mandatory reporting;  child abuse reporting;  reporting procedures;  maine;  risk assessment;  male batterers;  parental responsibility;  oregon;  family group conferencing;  family counseling

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:    CPS RISK ASSESSMENT AND DECISION MAKING: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

SOURCE:    NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:    child neglect;  risk assessment;  child protective services;  evaluation;  community based services;  sexual abuse;  assessment;  credibility;  disclosure;  research methodology;  decision making;  child protection;  social work;  outcomes;  policy formation;  child welfare;  family centered services;  detection;  symptoms;  child welfare services;  NCCAN;  social workers attitudes;  interviews;  child welfare research;  washington;  physical abuse;  service delivery;  resource materials;  characteristics of abuser;  investigations;  child welfare workers;  risk factors;  computer based training;  social workers;  models;  protocols;  diagnoses;  probability;  evaluation methods;  predictor variables;  well being;  validity;  reliability;  measures;  family group conferencing;  family preservation;  mediation;  family role;  new zealand;  incest;  child welfare reform;  case assessment;  intervention strategies;  indicators;  managed care;  outcome based accountability;  child abuse research;  female sex offenders;  police attitudes;  sex roles;  spouse abuse;  interagency collaboration;  multiproblem families;  maine;  abuse allegations;  proof;  evidence;  standards;  child protection laws;  state surveys

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:    CHILD WELFARE REFORM SYSTEMS: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

SOURCE:    NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:    court reform;  juvenile courts;  court improvement projects;  program evaluation;  permanency planning;  expedited permanency planning;  multidisciplinary teams;  mediation;  judges;  connecticut;  termination of parental rights;  lawyers;  child protection;  state courts;  substance abusing parents;  family courts;  drug treatment programs;  child welfare services;  judicial responsibility;  adoption;  asfa;  judicial role;  legal processes;  hearings;  california;  courts role;  trial courts;  spouse abuse;  child witnesses of family violence;  program models;  interagency collaboration;  systems reform;  service delivery;  alternative dispute resolution;  oregon;  prosecution;  victims rights;  interagency cooperation;  failure to protect;  civil courts;  courts;  training;  child abuse reporting;  child witnesses;  suggestibility;  case management;  courts responsibility;  court jurisdiction;  program development;  state surveys;  childrens rights;  program planning;  criminal justice system;  investigations;  program descriptions;  federal programs;  grants;  professional training;  dependency;  court appointed special advocates;  family group conferencing;  community based services;  tennessee;  evaluation methods;  judicial decisions;  program coordination;  service coordination;  management information systems;  best practices;  historical perspective;  program improvement;  federal case law;  policy formation;  conferences;  nevada;  juvenile delinquency;  accountability;  pennsylvania;  state laws;  child welfare reform;  new york;  state statutory law;  public notification;  statute of limitations

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:    EVALUATION/RESEARCH OF PREVENTION PROGRAMS: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

SOURCE:    NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:    prevention programs;  community programs;  literature reviews;  program planning;  program evaluation;  delinquent behavior;  primary prevention;  sexual abuse;  schools role;  school linked services;  personal safety;  research reviews;  parenting skills;  parent education;  child welfare;  intervention strategies;  child abuse research;  research methodology;  research needs;  data analysis;  data collection;  program models;  family preservation;  outcomes;  public awareness;  public service announcements;  outreach;  motivation;  evaluation methods;  measures;  reliability;  self report inventories;  preschool children;  child witnesses of family violence;  aggressive behavior;  spouse abuse;  group therapy;  childrens therapy;  therapeutic effectiveness;  evaluation;  violence;  intervention;  prevention;  families at risk;  high risk groups;  interagency collaboration;  guidelines;  research;  child development;  home visitation programs;  shaken baby syndrome;  infants;  head injuries;  symptoms;  identification;  diagnoses;  sequelae;  medical aspects of child abuse

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:    HEALTH CARE OF CHILDREN IN FOSTER CARE: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

SOURCE:    NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:    foster care;  drug exposed infants;  addicted infants;  sequelae;  child development;  visitation;  health status;  kinship care;  foster children;  service delivery;  health services;  mental health services;  welfare reform;  managed care;  policy formation;  program planning;  early intervention programs;  child health;  outcomes;  multidisciplinary teams;  interagency collaboration;  model programs;  child health services;  child welfare services;  public agencies;  developmental disabilities;  children with disabilities;  special needs;  program models;  physicians role;  physical examination;  assessment;  emotionally disturbed children;  emotional development;  emotional problems;  risk factors;  intervention strategies;  psychological characteristics;  out of home care;  psychopathology;  state surveys;  behavior;  mental health;  california;  statewide planning;  systems reform;  demonstration programs;  infants;  therapeutic intervention;  child placement;  decision making;  case management;  child welfare workers;  professional training;  behavior problems;  intervention;  models;  family centered services;  quality of care;  medicaid;  massachusetts;  texas;  utah;  financial assistance;  social policies;  school children;  mental disorders;  interviews;  diagnoses;  perception;  caretakers;  medical services;  family characteristics;  children at risk

 

PUBLICATION TYPE:    Annotated Bibliography

 

INTRODUCTION:    This annotated bibliography is a product of the National Clearinghouse
on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. The references have been selected
from thousands of materials available in our database to provide you with
the most up-to-date information related to child victims, witnesses, and
perpetrators of violence.

This bibliography looks at prevention, intervention and treatment issues
in relation to the impacts of violence on children. It is presented in
three sections: children as victims of violence, children as witnesses of
violence, and children and adolescents as perpetrators of violence.
Although many references cover more than one subject area, each citation
is listed only once in this bibliography, primarily under its major
subject heading.

All documents in this bibliography are contained in the Clearinghouse
library and are referenced following the format of the American
Psychological Association (APA). Authors, titles, publication dates and
publishers are provided within this format for each reference. We are
not, however, able to provide photocopies of all materials due to
copyright restrictions. Copies of publications that are not copyrighted,
such as Government publications, grant reports, or unpublished papers,
are available from the Clearinghouse for a reproduction fee of $0.10 per
page. Journal articles and chapters in books are copyrighted and may be
found at research or university libraries.

Information Specialists can answer questions about copyright status and
ordering information, as well as guide you in selecting materials from
this bibliography or suggest other materials that may be useful to you.
In addition, Specialists are available to conduct customized searches
of Clearinghouse databases for a base fee of $5.00 plus $.20 per record.

For more information, please contact

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
330 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20447
Tel.:  (800)394-3366 or 703-385-7565
Fax:   703-385-3206
E-mail:   nccanch@calib.com

 

INTERNET URL:    http://www.calib.com/nccanch

 

 

TITLE:    CHILDREN WHO WITNESS VIOLENCE: Selected Articles.

 

PUBLICATION YEAR:    1999

 

SOURCE:    NCCAN Annotated Bibliographies;  1999

 

KEY TERMS:    child witnesses;  alcohol abuse;  child witnesses of family violence;  spouse abuse;  etiology;  battering relationships;  battered women;  batterers attitudes;  assessment;  bettered women;  multiproblem families;  psychological evaluation;  evaluation methods;  confidentiality;  child abuse reporting;